copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

BRAND`S IONGEVITY

ªExamining the ayareness and
aµµIication oI a IiIe CycIe conceµt to a
Brand among Iey lranding
µroIessionaIs¨


Sulmitted Ior comµIetion oI
Master oI Business Administration (MarIeting)
2uu9 Iu


Researched ly
RahuI Ayre
28uu233I

Under Suµervision oI
CaroIe StiII

i
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
DECIARATION

This vork has not previously leen accepteJ in sulstance lor any Jegree anJ is
not leing concurrently sulmitteJ in canJiJature lor any Jegree.

This vork is the results ol my ovn investigations. except vhere othervise
stateJ. Vhere correction services have leen useJ. the extent anJ nature ol the
correlation is clearly markeJ in a lootnote. il any.

Other sources are acknovleJgeJ ly giving explicit relerences. A lilliography
is appenJeJ.

I herely give consent lor my vork. il accepteJ. to le availalle lor photocopying
anJ lor interlilrary loan. anJ lor the title anJ alstract to le maJe availalle to
outsiJe organisations.

I herely conlirm that a legitimate copyright has leen oltaineJ lor this vork
leing protecteJ against any potential exploitation.

SigneJ RAHUL AYRF
Date I9 Ielruary. 2JIJ

ii
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Ac r o o wi : c : : m: o t s
I am gratelul to the research participants vho took time ol their lusy lives anJ
responJeJ to all the ouestions ly voluntarily participating into the survey. I
am leholJen ly intellectual supervision throughout the research process ly
Carole Still. lecturer at College ol Technology LonJon. in making this a
critically sounJ research project.

I am olligeJ to le velcomeJ ly TeJJy Ioster anJ Lipi Begum. loth lecturers
at College ol Technology LonJon. lor their crucial support given at the
leginning ol the research process. I am highly gratilying ol Dr. Jill Venus ol
University ol Vales. Lampeter to motivate me in pursuing this topic at the
inception stage anJ helping me iJentily key consiJerations that maJe this
research ensue.

I am also thanklul to the stalls at British Lilrary anJ particularly to Rajiv
UttamchanJani. Lilrarian lor College ol Technology LonJon. lor leing
supportive anJ sharing their exceptional knovleJge vith regarJs to the
lilrary catalogues searches.

The velsites useJ lor the research methoJology incluJeJ LinkeJIn.com.
SurveyMonkey.com anJ Logomaker.com.

iii
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CONTENTS



CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 2
I.I ProJuct Management anJ ProJuct Lile Cycle 8
I.2 ProJuct Lile Cycle. Hov relevant is it toJay` 9
I.3 BranJ Lile Cycle as a concept anJ its applicalility II
I.+ IocusseJ BranJing. Its groving neeJ anJ relevance I3
I.5 Research structure anJ relevance ol linJings to the existing literature I+
CHAPTER 2: IITERATURE REVIEV I6
2.I BranJing ¬ The ultimate key to sustainalility I¯
2.2 Issues in BranJing I9
2.3 BranJ Iailures. Vhy talk alout them` 2J
2.+ 'Dearth ol stuJies' locussing on Jeclining lranJs 22
2.5 Seeing BranJ through its lile 25
2.6 Does a Lile Cycle concept apply to a BranJ` 26
2.¯ Most uselul BranJ Lile Cycle MoJels anJ their relevance 28
2.8 Research Oljectives 3I
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOIOGY 33
3.I The Participants JelineJ 3+
3.2 Gaining access 35
3.3 Sampling MethoJ. SellSelection 38
3.+ The selection ol Jata collection methoJ +I
3.5 The Survey Design +2
3.6 ResearcheJ Jata preparation lor analysis +6
3.¯ Data analysis anJ presentation methoJs +¯

iv
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
3.8 Reviev ol Dissertation Progress +8
CHAPTER 4: PRIMARY IINDINGS 49
Key consiJerations +9
Question I. 5I
Question 2. 53
Optional Question. 5+
Question 3. 56
Question +. 5¯
Question 5. 58
Question 6. 6J
Question ¯. 6I
Optional Question. 62
Question 8. 6+
Question 9. 66
Optional Question. 68
Question IJ. 69
CHAPTER 5: ANAIYSIS and SECONDARY IINDINGS 7u
5.I Notes on Data Analysis ¯J
5.2 Notes on SeconJary linJings ¯I
5.3 BranJs. Iacts anJ Iailures ¯2
5.+ BranJ Challenges. Symptoms anJ Cure 8I
5.5 BranJ Lile Cycle Concept. Assessment ol the Avareness anJ Uselulness 92
5.6 Summary ol SeconJary IinJings IJ3
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION Iu5
6.I Research Oljectives versus Research IinJings IJ5
6.2 Research implications over existing literature anJ theories IIJ

v
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
6.3 Strengths ol the Research III
6.+ Limitations ol the stuJy II3
6.5 Interpretation ol main results II+
CHAPTER 7: CONCIUSIONS II6
¯.I BranJing Challenges II¯
¯.2 BranJing Iailures II8
¯.3 BranJing BuJgets I2J
¯.+ BranJ Lile Cycle concept I2J
¯.5 BranJ Lile Cycle MoJels I2I
¯.6 BranJ's Longevity I23
CHAPTER 8: RECOMMENDATIONS I24
RECORDS OI MEETING I27

REIERENCES I3u

BIBIIOGRAPHY I33
APPENDICES I34








vi
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
IIGURES AND APPENDICES PAGE

Iigure 2.I. A TraJitional BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel ly Fagan (2JJ¯) Page 29
Iigure +.I. IJris Mootees MoJel on BranJ Lile Cycle Page 3J
Iigure +.I. ResponJents BranJs ly age Page 52
Iigure +.2. ResponJents BranJ Lile PreJictalility Page 5+
Iigure +.3. ResponJents AttituJe tovarJs their lranJ lile Page 55
Iigure +.+. ResponJents assessment ol their lranJing luJget Page 5¯
Iigure +.5. ResponJent lranJs recent activities Page 58
Iigure +.6. ResponJents lranJ lailure types Page 59
Iigure +.¯. Avareness ol BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel amongst responJents Page 62
Iigure +.8. Applying a Lile Concept to a BranJ Page 63
Iigure +.9. ResponJents closeness vith lranJing activities Page 65
Iigure +.9.I. ResponJents association vith BranJing lielJ Page 6¯
Iigure +.9.2. ResponJents Highest Qualilication Page 68
Iigure 5.3.I. BranJ Jivision ly lailures Page ¯2
Iigure 5.3.2. BranJs Lile preJictalility against lailures Page¯3
Iigure 5.3.3. BranJs Lile preJictalility against no lailures Page ¯+
Iigure 5.3.+. Age ol BranJs vhich haJ some lailures Page ¯5
Iigure 5.3.5. Age ol BranJs vhich haJ no lailures Page ¯5
Iigure 5.3.6. Age ol BranJs vith lailure types Page ¯6
Iigure 5.3.¯. BranJs Lile preJictalility vith Jetails ol lranJ lailure types Page ¯¯
Iigure 5.3.8. BranJs Lile preJictalility vith Jetails ol lailure types Page ¯8
Iigure 5.3.9. BranJs Lile preJictalility against their luJgets Page ¯9
Iigure 5.+.I. All challenges laceJ ly lranJs Page 8I
Iigure 5.+.2. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. Core BranJing Strategy Page 82
Iigure 5.+.3. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. Marketing Integration Page 83
Iigure 5.+.+. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. BuJgeting Page 8+
Iigure 5.+.5. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. Marketing Communication Page 8+
Iigure 5.+.6. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. BranJ Restructuring Page 85
Iigure 5.+.¯. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. Others Page 86
Iigure 5.+.8. Challenges laceJ ly BranJs Page 8¯
Iigure 5.+.9. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs Jue to lack ol vision / locus Page 88
Iigure 5.+.IJ. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs Jue to poor skills employeJ Page 88
Iigure 5.+.II. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs Jue to lack ol acaJemic materials or moJels Page 89
Iigure 5.+.I2. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs Jue to a poor concept Page 89
Iigure 5.+.I3. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs Jue to poor planning anJ implementation Page 9J
Iigure 5.+.I+. Challenges laceJ ly lranJs. other reasons Page 9J
Iigure 5.5.I. Avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel ly responJents Page 9I
Iigure 5.5.2. Application ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel ly those vho stuJieJ it Page 92

vii
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Iigure 5.5.3. Application ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel ly responJents prolession Page 93
Iigure 5.5.+. ResponJents avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle compareJ to their
association vith lranJing lielJ
Page 9+
Iigure 5.5.5. ResponJents avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle compareJ to their
association vith lranJing activities
Page 95
Iigure 5.5.6. Application ol a BranJ Lile Cycle ly responJents association vith
lranJing lielJ
Page 96
Iigure 5.5.¯. Application ol a BranJ Lile Cycle ly responJents association vith
lranJing activities
Page 96
Iigure 5.5.8. Those vho JiJ not stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel Page 9¯
Iigure 5.5.9. Lack ol avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel ly responJents Page 9¯
Iigure 5.5.IJ. ResponJents villing to stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel Page 98
Iigure 5.5.II. ResponJents unvilling to stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel Page 99
Iigure 5.5.I2. ResponJents villing to stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle compareJ to their
association vith lranJing lielJ
Page IJJ
Iigure 5.5.I3. ResponJents villing to stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle compareJ to their
association vith lranJing activities
Page IJI
Iigure ¯.2.I. ConliJence over BranJs Longevity ly their lailure Page II8
Iigure ¯.2.2. Getting the BuJget right Page II8

APPFNDICFS. The survey Questionnaire Page I336


TITIE OI TABIE PAGE

Talle +.I. ResponJents' BranJs ly age Page 5I
Talle +.2. ResponJents' BranJ Lile PreJictalility Page 53
Talle +.3. ResponJents' attituJe tovarJs their lranJ's lile Page 5+
Talle +.+. ResponJents' assessment ol their lranJing luJget Page 56
Talle +.5. ResponJent lranJ's recent activity involvement Page 5¯
Talle +.6. ResponJents' lranJ lailure types Page 58
Talle +.¯. ResponJents' lranJing challenges (rovs) vith reasons (columns) Page 6J
Talle +.8. ResponJents' closeness vith lranJing activities Page 6+
Talle +.9.I. ResponJents' association vith lranJing lielJ Page 66
Talle +.9.2. ResponJents' Highest Qualilication Page 68
Talle +.IJ. ResponJents ly their Jesignation anJ vork experience Page 69



I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ABSTRACT


As the vorlJ is preparing lor sustaining in the nev climates. there is no
stopping to enormous lirths ol lranJs. As lranJs lecome lamiliar anJ vell
knovn they pass through Jillerent stages in their lile. Unlortunately Jeath
arrives to some sooner or later. The issue vith Jeclining lranJ is not simple
anJ straightlorvarJ. Longlile is Jesiralle ly all lranJs. alter all that's the
main purpose ol lranJing proJucts anJ services together.

Many involveJ in lranJing nov appreciate that lranJing has more to it
leyonJ a mere name or logo. thanks to the teachings ol lranJ experts. It is still
a challenge to linJ a tool extremely uselul anJ popular among lranJing texts.
To Jeal vith this central issue concerning the BranJ's Longevity. avareness
anJ applicalility ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel vas testeJ among key lranJing
prolessionals.

A survey encouraging responses lrom lranJing prolessionals vho share
knovleJge anJ expertise using LinkeJIn.com vas conJucteJ to test their
opinions against realities ol their lranJs.

The results clarilieJ that BranJ Lile Cycle moJels vere consiJereJ to le lairly
uselul yet unpopular among most Marketing anJ BranJ Managers alongsiJe
others responsille lor lranJing. The responJents' laith in lailing lranJ's lile
Jecreases vith their experiences anJ attituJes luilt tovarJs their lranJ.
Vhile lranJing luJgets are still prime concerns lor many key prolessionals.
they play a vital role in allecting lranJs' longevity among other core challenges
laceJ ly lranJs. The assumption that lranJ lailures Jo not mainly allect
lranJs' longevity can le conlirmeJ ly outcomes ol the survey on marketers'
take on their lranJ Jeath. SaJly not many lranJs vill see the next JecaJe. il
their marketers are to le lelieveJ. Due to these conlirming linJings. it's
appropriate to realise that there is much vork neeJeJ in this area nov than
any other point in history.

It can. thus le concluJeJ that ailing lranJs are in neeJ lor a curalle meJicine
than just regular health checkups in lorms ol lranJ eouity assessments. The
lurther ouestion arising lrom this is ¬ Jo ve alreaJy have such meJicines
availalle lut are unpopular or ve neeJ lurther researching in this regarJ to
meet the groving neeJs ol Jying lranJs. This report contrilutes many lirst
linJings essentially to Jeal vith lranJing lailures anJ perceptions ol lranJ's
longevity ly their marketers. Hovever laseJ on the results ol the survey
ouestionnaire. it serves as a lenchmark lor luture explorations in this lielJ.

2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

°Ve are entering a nev. socially responsille millennium¨. highlights Burk
(2JJ9) in her vhite paper lor Pivot Lal vhile Jiscussing sustainalility.
Sustainalility is the key to survival. But vhat is the key to sustainalility`
Fvery nov anJ then ve hear ol lusinesses going lust. Prolally many ol us are
still linJing the route to sustainalility. Fxperts aJvise that there is no success
in lolloving a onesitelitall approach anJ vhat vorks lor one organisation
may not vork lor another. There is no Joult that the secret to one's success is
their unioueness anJ consistency. Yet there is lierce competition in the
lusiness vorlJ toJay vhere consumers have an alternative lranJ choice lor
almost every proJuct.

It is very harJ to linJ a lusiness that is monopolising in a market. The
Jillerentiating keyvorJ here is 'BranJing'. Many authors anJ researchers have
contriluteJ vealth ol literatures surrounJing 'lranJing' anJ 'lranJ
management'. since then its value associateJ vith lusiness keeps groving. So
much so that lranJs toJay are one ol the most valualle assets to many
lusinesses. AnJ yet lranJ lailures are so common.

3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
BusinessPunJit (2JJ9) revealeJ 2J lranJs anJ proJucts that JieJ in lirst 6
months ol year 2JJ9. vhich vas hit ly one ol the vorstever recessions. Vell
knovn lranJs incluJing 'Hummer. Circuits City anJ Rocky Mountain Nevs'
no longer exist Jue to reasons vhich vere mainly linancerelateJ.

Vhat causeJ lranJing to le inlluential to lusinesses as a competitive tool is
vorth exploring. Not many lusinesses vere avare ol anJ taking aJvantage ol
their lranJ pover until past lev JecaJes. It is sale to say that 5J years ago
proJuct Jevelopment anJ generating sales vere major contriluting lactors in a
company's success anJ thus inJiviJual proJuct Jevelopment vas at the core ol
all activities. This still stanJs true. hovever companies have recogniseJ that is
not enough toJay anJ in some cases inappropriate. BranJing has Jelinitely
taken over as every lranJ is like a parent to some proJuct or the other.
Changing consumer lehaviour has maJe lranJing a poverlul veapon lor
successlul companies hence managing lranJ values anJ lranJ eouity are very
crucial lor an organisation.

Unlortunately lasic marketing text looks locus more on marketing mix.
proJucts. anJ proJuct mix vith a very little locus on lranJing. There are
exclusive texts vritten on lranJing that oller Jepth ol knovleJge on lranJing
concepts very relevant toJay.

+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Since lranJing has lecome important to lusinesses there are issues associateJ
vith it. vhich reouire aJJressing. Issues such as lack ol moJels on lranJing
that can help Jecisionmakers vith lranJing strategy. ProJuct Lile Cycle
MoJel is one ol the most lreouently appearing moJels in marketing texts as it
is very vell estallisheJ. The moJel is olten useJ anJ explains management ol a
proJuct through its entire lile span. Managing every proJuct through its lile
cycle has alvays leen important anJ most marketers are gooJ at it. possilly
lecause almost all marketing stuJies emphasise on the use ol ProJuct Lile
Cycle moJel anJ its relevance to marketing mix.

As marketing has moveJ leyonJ its conventional approach. the locus toJay is
more on other aspects ol marketing such as social marketing vith groving
locus on social netvorking or experiential marketing using social sites such as
Tvitter anJ Iacelook. Likevise. toJay's marketers neeJ to explore leyonJ the
conventional practises ol marketing. AnJ carelully managing a lranJ through
its lile cycle shoulJ help achieve this.

This Jissertation is an attempt to explore among toJay's marketers. the true
meaning ol their lranJ in terms ol its permanence anJ iJentily their lranJ
challenges anJ explore the neeJ. avareness anJ perceiveJ application ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel to attain lranJ longevity.

5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Fxisting moJels on proJuct Jevelopment have leen ol great help to enhance
sales through their knovleJge. usalility anJ application to manage the core ol
marketing activities. There vas a great contrilution ly acaJemics to the
vealth ol literature on ProJuct Jevelopment. such as a ProJuct Lile Cycle
MoJel. vhich guiJes every marketer through the Jevelopment stages to make
a proJuct sellalle. Hovever marketing has lecome very vulneralle vith issues
such as corporate lranJing. AnJ there is a groving neeJ ol a similar moJel
laseJ on its lile cycle to le JevelopeJ anJ maJe popular enough to help
marketers. lelore immense literature on lranJing starts to gather Just.

There are a lev authors vho have helpeJ shape a lranJ lile cycle moJel anJ
have attempteJ to Jillerentiate this concept lrom the proJuct lile cycle. in
their ovn vay. It is important to unJerstanJ this Jillerence letveen hanJling
a proJuct or a set ol proJucts versus hanJling a lranJ. A proJuct is like a
human leing. AnJ it can le stuJieJ laseJ on its lile cycle. like that ol a human
leing.

On contrary. a lranJ is a vehicle carrying a set ol proJucts. like a lamily ol
those inJiviJual proJucts. Vhenever a lranJ lile cycle concept is JiscusseJ in
a marketing look. it is immeJiately compareJ to a proJuct lile cycle anJ
mostly no Jillerences are highlighteJ.

6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Authors such as Kotler et al (I99J). Rietelos et al (2JJ3). Fgan (2JJ¯). Doyle
anJ Stern (2JJ6). Tivari (2JJ3). Mercer (I998) anJ Bosvorth (2JJ5) have
maJe comparisons letveen proJuct anJ lranJ lile cycles anJ there are various
conclusions to this. Some support the viev that a lranJ's lile cycle is similar to
a proJuct's lile cycle anJ shoulJ le hanJleJ in the similar vay. Others argue
that there is a Jistinct Jillerence letveen the tvo. AnJ a lev others mention it
is vorth looking at a lranJ through its lile cycle is important lut lounJ
exploring this area risky.

InJeeJ there has to le a Jillerence consiJering the varying nature ol the tvo
concepts at large. Il a lranJ is a lamily ol proJucts that are relateJ to each
others. then conclusively a lranJ shoulJ live longer or lorever as in case ol a
lamily name. values anJ generations. It is apparent that proJucts. as human
leings. vill Jie as they reach a certain age. vhile lranJs attain longevity.

ContraJicting to proJuct Jevelopment methoJs. lranJs must le createJ to
last generations at least. il not lorever. The core concept leing lookeJ at here is
not alout a lranJ's immortality. lut hov to achieve its longevity. HanJling a
lranJ carelully anJ strategically is very crucial lor its enJurance. Managing a
lranJ lrom it's since its inception too is crucial. making it sustainalle ly
testing through a thoughtlul process prior to its introJuction to the consumer.

¯
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Il marketers anJ strategic Jecision makers. such as CFOs anJ BranJ Managers
anJ ovners hanJle each stage ol lranJ lile cycle carelully. the strategic lranJ
Jecision making can le ellective. There is a vealth ol knovleJge availalle on
lranJing. Ior instance. lavs ol lranJing are very uselul lor learning lranJ
lailures. Hovever lack ol moJels on lranJing suggesting hov to apply these
lavs to luilJ sustainalle lranJs. is an area ol concern.

This Jissertation attempts to explore the creJille acknovleJgement ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel in marketing looks as vell as estallishing its practical
use. The moJel rarely has its mention in marketing texts. Iurthermore.
linJings shov that there is not much vork Jone on the BranJ Lile Cycle moJel
Jue to various reasons. These mainly incluJe.
I. Delate on vhether there is a neeJ to stuJy BranJ through Lile Cycle
2. Vhether BranJ Lile Cycle moJels exist
3. BranJ Lile Cycle is seen as similar to ProJuct Lile Cycle
+. BranJ Lile Cycle is seen Jillerent to ProJuct Lile Cycle
5. StuJying BranJ Lile Cycle is seen 'Jangerous' or 'risky'

Through conJucting a survey laseJ primary research as a result. the linJings
relateJ to this sulject shoulJ le alle to Jemonstrate the use anJ popularity ol
lranJ lile cycle moJel anJ any real or perceiveJ lenelicial use among toJay's

8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
marketers. Belov sections illustrate the neeJ to explore this area anJ vhy it is
vorth researching marketing prolessionals Jirectly.

I.I Product Management and Product IiIe CycIe

Almost every marketing textlook has a creJille literature on the ProJuct Lile
Cycle moJel. Fvery marketer has learneJ anJ unJerstanJs anJ aJapts to the
ProJuct Lile Cycle moJel along vith their career. This inJicates the popularity
ol ProJuct Lile Cycle moJel anJ its importance in managing a proJuct lrom
launch to Jecline. This can possilly le the reason lor a lreouent use ol this
particular moJel in Jay to Jay proJuct management.

The moJel 'laseJ on the concept ol Dean in I95Js vas populariseJ ly Levitt in
I96Js'. as vell knovn authors such as Groucutt (2JJ5) notices anJ
recommenJs an essential unJerstanJing ol the proJuct lile so as to le alle to
overcome proJuct lailures. The author also give an extension ol the stages
involveJ anJ interestingly also Jescrile the Jelate on the existence ol this
concept. its use anJ llavs. AnJ lailure ol a proJuct is consiJereJ vhen it Joes
not generate enough sales anJ Jies premature to its expecteJ lile cycle.

Il the ProJuct Lile Cycle Concept is uselul. popular anJ is virtually stuJieJ ly
each anJ every marketer. then vhy some proJucts still lails` Vhat vas vrong

9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
vith a Heint Vinegar as a cleaning agent` Nothing. except lor issues relateJ to
its lranJing. The proJuct laileJ Jue to leing associateJ vith Heint. a lranJ ol
consumalle proJucts anJ the proJuct vas not seen as nonconsumalle.

AJJitionally. Groucutt (2JJ5) has given eoual importance in unJerstanJing
the concept ol BranJ's Longevity. His mention ol Cooper anJ KleinschmiJt's
research in I99I on BranJs inJicateJ that over ¯5 percent ol lranJs haJ leen in
market lor more than +J years. leaJing to the concept ol lranJ's longevity.
Hovever like most other authors he too Joes not Jevelop on the possilility ol
BranJ Lile Cycle concept.

I.2 Product IiIe CycIe: Hoy reIevant is it today:

As Haig (2JJ8) pointeJ out in his compilation ol BranJ Iailures 'the process ol
lranJing vas JevelopeJ to protect proJucts lrom lailure'. Going lack 5J years
ago. not many iJentilieJ vith BranJing as a concept. Much lelore authors
starteJ vriting on lranJing. InterlranJ. the vorlJ's most renovneJ lranJing
agency. realiseJ the importance ol this concept ol lranJing proJucts together.
As per Haig. the vorlJ toJay no more gets solJ proJucts lut luys the proJucts
as it has ample choices arounJ.

IJ
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Clearly. changes in the political anJ technological segments have maJe it
possille lor many inJustries to encourage competition. making the lusiness ol
lusinesses very Jillicult. Unlortunately some still Jon't get it right.

A long term locus is very essential anJ lranJing proJucts together than
vorking on inJiviJual proJuct has gaineJ more importance in recent years.
Fxperts lrom the marketing inJustry. such as Ries anJ Ries (2JJ5) Jictate the
22 Immutalle Lavs ol BranJing. In their ovn vorJs they say. 'BranJing is
simply a more ellicient vay ol selling things'. Similar proJucts on shelves have
Jriven competition so harJ that consumers neeJ an iJentilialle element that
stanJs out a proJuct lrom another one. Fllective lranJing ol proJucts hence
essentially put lranJing activities at the strategic lront.

ProJuct Lile Cycle has leen relevant in all marketing activities as lar as
proJuct management is concerneJ. Does a moJel on BranJ Lile Cycle have the
similar potential to ensure a sustainalle competitive aJvantage going lorvarJ`
The concept ol proJuct lile cycle is not irrelevant. hovever seems insullicient
to help lusinesses achieve a sustainalle competitive aJvantage. Does a lranJ
lile cycle concept exist` Il it Joes. have marketers stuJieJ it` AnJ Jo they linJ
it uselul lor their lranJing` Or there is more vork reouireJ on a BranJ Lile
Cycle MoJel`

II
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The primary aim ol this Jissertation is to examine the avareness anJ use ol the
BranJ Lile Cycle concept ly toJay's marketers. AnJ the linJings shoulJ le
uselul lor Jillerent set ol auJiences to lenelit lrom. AcaJemics voulJ le alle
to iJentily the neeJ anJ avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel or any other
moJel. BranJ ovners anJ managers. incluJing lranJing Jecisionmakers
voulJ lenelit lrom contemplating the perceiveJ use ol a moJel anJ contrilute
lurther into this area. vith their ovn personal experiences. AnJ lor stuJents
anJ entrepreneurs vho seek lor moJels that existing lut linJ it Jillicult to
explore them.

I.3 Brand IiIe CycIe as a conceµt and its aµµIicaliIity

BranJing neeJs no introJuction. Hovever the concept ol its lile cycle neeJs its
Jue recognition. There are many lranJ consultancies anJ agencies that have
expertise in this lielJ anJ some have helpeJ major names turn arounJ their
lusinesses. such as InterlranJ helping McDonalJs to reshape its locus vith a
nev caption 'I'm lovin it!' (Case StuJies. InterlranJ. 2JJ9). Almost all
inJustries are avare anJ practise lranJing their proJucts. This concept has
itsell leen so lenelicial lor lusinesses that it's a virtual asset to many
lusinesses anJ a part ol lranJing. knovn as lranJ eouity is a large stuJy area
itsell.

I2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Literature on linance olten speaks ol lranJ eouity anJ it appears lreouently in
Prolit anJ Loss accounts. MoJels on BranJ Fouity are viJely useJ ly
lusinesses lor health check ol their lranJ. This has much relevance to the
linancial aspect ol the lranJ. It may help get a snapshot ol a lranJ's creJilility
at a given time anJ stuJy the trenJ over time.

Hovever there is still a lack ol a moJel covering the lile span ol a lranJ. vhich
is inJicative ol a neeJ lor popular moJels like a ProJuct Lile Cycle moJel.

The concept ol BranJ Lile Cycle is not nev hovever is JetesteJ. since many
acaJemic looks hesitate to aJJress it as a separate concept anJ give a vorking
moJel ol BranJ Lile Cycle. Il marketers linJ using a lranJ lile cycle moJel
uselul. then it is unlair lor acaJemics to Jismiss its existence anJ potential use
in curling huge losses Jue to inellective lranJing. HanJling a lranJ ellectively
vhen it is in lormation stage lor its lounJations to le strong is one ol the major
issues toJay.

As lranJs grov. like nev memlers joining or extenJing the lamily. the lranJ
values anJ Jillerent lile stages voulJ guiJe the lranJing Jecision makers to
help achieve a sustainalle competitive aJvantage. Vithout seeing the lranJ
through its lile cycle. it voulJ le unachievalle.

I3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
I.4 Iocussed Branding: Its groying need and reIevance

As lusinesses toJay are in search lor a key to sustainalility. lranJing is no
Joult the ansver to this. Hovever there is no master key that lits all. So there
is no one concept ol lranJing that can lullil this neeJ. Fvery inJustrial sector
anJ a lusiness environment vithin vhich an organisation operates. the
consumers anJ suppliers are all key players that help lormulate a strategy that
is unioue to an organisation. Fssentially lusinesses toJay realise cutting Jovn
the 'overheaJ' costs the lusiness coulJ have avoiJeJ is very crucial.

One such cost is relateJ to all kinJs ol lailures associateJ vith marketing
activities. most ol vhich leaJ to lranJing lailures. Some ol these are not alvays
unJer the control ol the organisation. lor example ellects ol an economic
recession or lack ol lunJs. Hovever. most ol these are an internal issue ol the
organisation. specilically to Jo vith the skills employeJ vithin the
organisation at various levels.

Up to Jate case stuJies on top IJJ lranJ lailures compileJ ly Haig (2JJ8)
inJicate that most lranJing mistakes are ol the lranJ alone as it lails to
iJentily hov it is perceiveJ than hov it thinks it is leing perceiveJ. The 'seven
JeaJly sins ol lranJing' explaineJ in his look such as 'ego'. 'Jiseases' anJ
'halits' lecoming a larrier to the lonJ letveen the lranJ anJ the customers

I+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ol its proJucts. are uselul. His stuJy on lranJing mistakes is a gooJ reaJ alout
vhat not to Jo vhen making Jecisions vorth multi million pounJs.

Hovever this Joes not stop lrom lranJs lailing. The stuJy I JetermineJ to
carry voulJ inJicate the value helJ ly the BranJ Lile Cycle moJel anJ its
applicalility anJ hov many marketers use it. il they stuJieJ it. Haig keeps
relerring to Al Ries 22 Immutalle Lavs that every marketer must knov to
Jeleat lranJing Jisasters.

The step alove managing proJuct lile cycle is managing a lranJ anJ this coulJ
le simplilieJ ly looking at it through its lile cycle. Al Ries Jo not give us any
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. hovever as one reaJs through the 22 lavs in the given
orJer. one voulJ realise hov they go hanJ in hanJ to a lranJ's lile cycle ¬ lrom
inception till Jeath anJ relirth. The ouestion Jeriving lrom this iJea is
vhether marketers look at a lranJ through its lile cycle` AnJ il they Jo. is it
time to luilJ a strong BranJ Lile Cycle moJel to comlat lranJing lailures`

I.5 Research structure and reIevance oI Iindings to the existing Iiterature

The approach ol the research is a laseJ on a JeJuctive methoJ (SaunJers et al.
2JJ9) to assess the knovleJge ol the saiJ moJel among prolessionals vho are
responsille lor lranJing activities anJ linJ their vievs on longevity ol their

I5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lranJ. It also locuses on challenges laceJ ly lranJs as vell hov post recession
lranJing luJgets are perceiveJ. The structure ol the research is to gather
ouantitative anJ oualitative responses lrom marketers across various lielJs
incluJing CFO. Directors. Business Ovners. Marketing Managers. BranJ
Managers anJ Fxecutives. to participate in a short survey anJ share their
anonymous response to an online ouestionnaire. The responses collecteJ are
loth ouantitative anJ oualitative anJ the analysis thus has aJopteJ similar
approach to Jerive the conclusions. The analyseJ results ol the survey are
illustrateJ using simple charts vith only relevant Jata giving maximum locus
on vritten notes vith JetaileJ conclusions.

The next chapter locuses on the literature vritten arounJ the BranJ Lile Cycle
concepts anJ lranJ lailures in Jetail. proviJing the vievs ol acaJemic experts
alout these concepts. The chapter also Jetails the main oljectives lehinJ this
research anJ their relevance to the literature revieveJ. The sulseouent topics
cover the Jetails ol the methoJology. linJings. analysis. conclusions anJ
possille recommenJations ly this stuJy.









I6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAPTER 2: IITERATURE REVIEV

Post miJ 2J
th
century. most lusinesses realiseJ the value ol creating a
sustainalle lranJ. BranJing vas naturally the next lig thing in the lielJ ol
marketing. AnJ as it continues to remain relevant toJay. it is interesting to linJ
multiconcepts surrounJing lranJing. ToJay. il a consumer has purchaseJ a
particular piece ol clothing. their peers voulJ most certainly ask the lirst
ouestion. Vhich lranJ is it` Or. is it lranJeJ or lake` BranJing has its ovn
place in the marketing lielJ. hovever as MiJJleton. a BranJ Strategy Guru
(2JJ9) eJucates. 'most people think ol lranJing as a sulset ol marketing. in
reality it's exactly opposite'. It voulJ le very Jillicult to linJ a proJuct toJay
that Joes not lelong to a particular lranJ. Fven small lusinesses make a
conscious ellort ol Jesigning their lranJ in the lorm ol a logo. name or some
other iJentity. Though lranJing has more meaning to it than just these
commoJities. Hence as MiJJleton explains lranJing is the core strategy
lunction anJ marketing is a sulsection ol it.

Recent glolal economic recession Jeepening (Sky NFVS. 2JJ9) has exposeJ
hov Jillicult it is lor almost any site ol lusiness to thrive anJ in some cases
even survive in the long run. Only the strongest. vho are competitive enough
to light all external lorces. can enJure such tough external lorces. As the light
continues against cutting costs anJ increasing revenue. lrom my point ol viev.


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
a lranJing Jisaster must le least expecteJ outcome ly lranJing prolessionals
as a result ol heavy investments. leaJing lusinesses to make it lurther Jillicult
to take riskier steps in luture. It is thus very essential lor luilJing lranJs that
represent true meaning ol the lusiness. organisational culture anJ pull oll
reputation that is necessary lor a long lile ol a lusiness. My search ol relevant
literature arounJ this area legan vith linJing clues to the prollems anJ il any
solutions that can harvest lranJing activities lor any kinJ ol lusiness.

2.I Branding ¬ The uItimate Iey to sustainaliIity

Sister (2JJ+) Jescriles °lranJ as the ultimate lusiness Jriver¨ vhile
explaining the groving importance ol strategies such as multilranJing. The
ultimate ol any lusiness is to remain in lusiness lorever anJ not just 'lor as
long as possille'. In orJer to achieve this. many authors (reler |art|:r r:ecio: iist
|rom oioiio:reo|v) recommenJ shilting locus on lranJing activities ol that
company. The primary literature stuJieJ arounJ this key concept suggests that
through there are a lev lramevorks availalle lor unJerstanJing lranJ position
anJ its value at any given time. there is still opportunity to lurther research in
the lranJ Jecline stage. Jue to lack ol acaJemic material vritten arounJ it.

The literature also suggesteJ that there is no one particular moJel. mainly in
context to core marketing or lranJing texts that is useJ lor lranJing strategy

I8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lormulation. It vas hence essential to test il there is a lack ol a moJel lrom the
acaJemic source or lranJing prolessionals are simply Jon't linJ any practical
use ol it.

In either case. the linJings voulJ suggest il a moJel. vhich has leen JesigneJ
to unJerstanJ lranJs lrom lirth to Jeath anJ govern them at every step. has
any practical applicalility or not. Il there is a neeJ lor a supermoJel in
lranJing to help the lranJing prolessionals then it neeJs to le lounJ vhich
elements ol the lranJing it neeJs to consiJer. This testing can le primarily
achieveJ il existing lramevorks or moJels on are JevelopeJ anJ are maJe
popular as a ProJuct Lile Cycle moJel. Then the sustainalility issue can le
letter Jealt vith.

Hovever many lusinesses still think ol lranJing as just another lunction that
looks alter the name. logo. Jesign anJ the asset value ol lranJ they are
responsille lor. Il a consumer toJay has ample choices to JeciJe upon. anJ
lranJing is useJ as the most signilicant anJ poverlul veapon as a
Jillerentiator. then voulJn't it le vorth to explore into hov it can le more
than just a logo. name or a Jesign`

Most marketing text looks highlight the general concepts ol lranJing vith its
practical use to help amateur marketers vith their stuJies on marketing. A lot

I9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ol lranJing experts make an inJelteJ ellort in skillully creating an image in
the consumers minJ anJ lollov their perceptions to luilJ strong. sustainalle
lranJs. Ultimately lranJing has leen the key lor lusinesses such as Google.
Apple. Virgin. Coca Cola. Pepsi. BMV. McDonalJ's anJ many others to leaJ
the sustainalle vay.

2.2 Issues in Branding

Change is inevitalle. BranJs come anJ go. AnJ consumers Jo not care alout it.
Or Jo they` The more value a lranJ ollers the more valualle it is perceiveJ in
its consumer's minJ. AnJ in simple economic terms. value is alvays associateJ
vith the Jillerence in cost anJ price. Ior a lusiness its prolit. il the Jillerence
is more. AnJ lor a consumer its value. il the Jillerence is less. Vith
technological aJvancements. luilJing lranJs no longer take years. hovever
luilJing sustainalle lranJs still takes JecaJes. There are some Jillicult yet
valualle lessons learnt ly lranJs in the past that give rise to many emerging
issues in lranJing toJay. such as. ethical lranJing (Ian. 2JJ5).

Hovever. one such major issue in lranJing. vhich has not leen Jealt vith to
the lullest anJ has leen there lor as long as lranJs itsell. is concerning a
lranJ's longevity leaJing to the company's sustainalility. as recently
aJJresseJ ly Gunelius (2JJ9). The main issues concerning the longevity ol a

2J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lranJ is various pitlalls in the roaJ to sustainalility. No author (reler lurther
reaJing lilliography) completely JelenJs or supports the longlile concept ol
any lranJ. essentially vithout talking alout its lile cycle.

A lev authors inJicate that lranJs can live longer proviJeJ they unJerstanJ
hov not to Jamage the reputation. In other vorJs 'Reputation Management' is
another issue vithin lranJing that reouires a lot support lrom acaJemic
moJels. Theorists have vritten alout hov a lranJ can attain anJ retain
reputation anJ hov it can le uselul to its existence. BranJing is essentially a
part ol syllalus lor marketing lounJations. Hov lar Joes it go. is an area ol
concern. The search lor literature on lailing lranJs suggests there is a groving
neeJ to eouip marketers vith moJels that not only have the pover to
Jemonstrate their lranJ's current health lut also a path goinglorvarJ. a
moJel that shoulJ le very helplul in creating strong anJ sustainalle lranJs.

2.3 Brand IaiIures: Vhy taII alout them:

BranJs are strongest assets that not only have linancial value attacheJ
(Clayton anJ Turner. I998). lut also have a signilicant anJ irreplacealle value
helJ ly consumers in their minJs. BranJs are very poverlul tools lor
lusinesses to light against the cutthroat competition. a vay in vhich one can
clearly Jillerentiate their proJuct on the shelves lrom another. Similarly vhen

2I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lranJs lail or reach Jecline stage. the conseouences coulJ le severe. Successlul
relranJing JepenJs on connecting vith the core consumers in an acceptalle
vay. The amount ol investment Jone in relranJing may le helplul to give re
lirth to lranJs in highly ellective vay. Hovever that investment coulJ
othervise le useJ lor expanJing the lusiness or the lranJ itsell. AnJ lor some
the costs involveJ may not le learalle. such as small siteJ lusinesses. AnJ lor
this core reasoning. lranJ lailures are vorth locusing onto.

Vhen lusinesses lail. the liggest impact. apart lrom the lusiness itsell. is lelt
on to are the strategic customers. BranJs may live lorever in minJs ol
consumers even alter their real Jeath. hovever their true longevity remains in
attracting that consumer group over the competitors vhile it is alive. AnJ
vhen lusinesses lail Jue to internal incapacities arising lrom laJly manageJ
operations or tasks. it may take a long time lor many to recover. Unlortunately
some lail to recover at all.

BranJing lailures across the glole cost lusinesses millions ol pounJs every
month. AnJ an important learning lrom the literature is that. 'BranJing lailures
are not alvays avoiJalle anJ are not essentially the roaJ to lereavement'
(Haig. 2JJ8). Coca Cola is an excellent example ol this. Despite ol a million
Jollar lailure. in lorm ol 'Nev Coke'. topping the list ol classic lranJing
lailures. the company stanJs lirm on the numler one position in the Most

22
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ValueJ BranJs list vorlJviJe (InterlranJ. 2JJ9). Hovever in the ellorts to
rise lrom a JeepeneJ recession. a lailure only makes it vorst to survive. AnJ
the case vith all types ol lusinesses. especially the small scale organisations. is
that they may not allorJ to cope vith the repercussions ol lranJing Jisasters.
The cost ol a lranJing lailure can easily le seen as investment lor another
lranJing activity lor a small lusiness. hovever recuperating lrom the ellects ol
a lranJing lailure voulJ le tvice as Jillicult as initial investment.

2.4 Dearth oI studies` Iocussing on decIining lrands

A stuJy ly Thomas anJ Kohli (2JJ8) on reviving veak anJ JeaJ lranJs
highlighteJ the Jearth ol stuJies locusing alone on Jeclining lranJs. They
recognite the lranJ Jeath leing a 'controversial anJ complex issue'. In their
paper they concluJe saying lranJ Jeaths can le preventeJ anJ 'managers neeJ
to constantly vatch signs' ol lranJ Jecline such as lranJ knovleJge. lranJ
Jillerentiation anJ customer response. They have recommenJeJ a lranJ eouity
lramevork to Jo a health check ol the lranJ through its lilespan. A uselul anJ
common moJel in lranJing is the 'BranJ Fouity MoJel' vhich has a signilicant
importance in the linancial looks ol a lusiness. It vas here vhen lurther neeJ
to explore in this area vas JeemeJ irrelevant to this research.

23
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The IJJ Case stuJies ly Haig (2JJ3) on lranJing mistakes give a uselul insight
into vhy lranJs laileJ in the past. This has much relevance to vhat Al Ries
(reler lurther reaJing list lrom Billiography) is saying in '22 Immutalle Lavs
ol BranJing' anJ il marketers. particularly in the lranJing lielJ. locus on all ol
these in Jetail. voulJ realise this to le a lruitlul investment Jone in this area.
As Shaun Smith. a Senior Vice PresiJent ol Iorum. recommenJs reaJing ol the
look 'BranJ Iailures' ly Haig (2JJ8) saying. 'The history ol consumer
marketing is littereJ vith laileJ lranJs anJ ve can learn lrom them. Il you are
responsille lor your lranJ reaJ this look. It might just le the lest investment
you vill ever make'.

A set ol acaJemic literature on lranJing emphasises the groving neeJ to
acknovleJge the reouirement ol stuJying lranJing. Thus many lranJing
examples are common throughout marketing texts. This ouest resulteJ in a
hunt lor a moJel laseJ on lranJing. that coulJ Jirect every Business Ovner.
CFO. Marketing Manager or prolessionals vho closely vork vithin the
lranJing lielJ. throughout all the lranJing activities through a lranJs
existence. hovever enJeJ in immense Jisappointment as no moJel vas lounJ
to le illustrating the application ol the vealth ol knovleJge. It vas noticealle
that lranJ lilespan or lranJ lile cycle vas rare anJ less vritten alout.

2+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
My search lor literature came to a stanJstill. as enough literature vas not to le
lounJ on Jetails ol lranJ lailures occurrences. To linJ out hov vell the
marketing literature eJucates anJ eouips a marketer in orJer to carelully make
Jecisions alout their lranJ. I legan searching lor a lranJing moJel straight
lrom marketing texts. A lev. vell illustrateJ case examples ol liggest llunJers
as vell as most successlul lranJing iJeas incluJing lranJing lavs vere
interesting to le lounJ.

At this stage ol literature linJings. one particular moJel kept coming lorvarJ
anJ moving lackvarJs anJ vith the exasperating alsence ol a BranJ Lile
Cycle MoJel lrom vell estallisheJ marketing texts suggest a neeJ lor
iJentilying its importance in toJay's lusiness vorlJ. There is immense
literature arounJ other lranJing activities inJicating enough leing vritten
alout lranJ management. lranJ avareness. lranJ eouity. lranJ elasticity anJ
extensions. relranJing anJ lranJ values. Hovever much investment neeJs to
le Jone to unJerstanJ vhy lranJs actually lail` AnJ some moJels vere lounJ
to le uselul in theoretical sense ¬ such as a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. It vas this
reason. that this moJel vas selecteJ to test its presence anJ popularity among
marketers.

The concept ol lranJ longevity is olten relerreJ to ly noteJ authors like
Groucutt (2JJ5). anJ a lot ol examples pop out as one reaJs more anJ more

25
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
alout lranJ successes anJ lranJ lailures. The material vritten on it may not
le vast. lut is gooJ enough to help a marketer to get an unJerstanJing ol vhat
'not to' Jo to their lranJ. I realiseJ the neeJ lor iJentilying a more specilic anJ
relevant piece ol literature that has contriluteJ heavily to this area. One ol the
most Jillicult tasks ol literature search vas linJing material vritten on the
concept ol lranJ lile cycle. Though the concept is vell knovn. it Joes not have
much vritten alout it in core marketing texts. One ol the reasons lor this
coulJ le the lack ol exploration in this area.

2.5 Seeing Brand through its IiIe

There are a hanJlul authors vho have taken keen interest in Jescriling their
vievs on a lranJ through its lile cycle. Hovever a majority ol them lail to
recommenJ a moJel lor hanJling a lranJ. anJ very lev speak ol its lile cycle.
Many authors concluJe their vievs either ly suggesting that a lranJ lile cycle
moJel is much similar to a proJuct lile cycle moJel or ly insisting it's neeJless
to locus on a lranJ's lile cycle. IJentilying this as a potential gap letveen the
neeJ lor a moJel anJ the availalility ol it to explore in this area. I investigateJ
through vorks ol authors vho have lookeJ at a lranJ lile cycle concept as a
separate issue anJ vho. vith their ovn experience ol the sulject. have JeviseJ
a moJel that Jescriles vhat a lranJ lile moJel shoulJ look like. Tvo such

26
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
moJels are JiscusseJ in the section 2.¯. since they are most relevant to this
stuJy.

2.6 Does a IiIe CycIe conceµt aµµIy to a Brand:

Ar:am:ot w|:t|:r t|: Freoc Li|: Cvci: cooc:ot :xists`
Kaplerer (2JJ8) ouestions the neeJ lor stuJying the BranJ Lile Cycle as a
concept over anJ alove ProJuct Lile Cycle anJ simply JisregarJ that it is a
vaste ol time. He argues vhether the concept ol Lile Cycle applies to a BranJ
anJ lrings to light that the ouestion is °pervasive to a numler ol legal
Jisputes¨ using the example ol Louis Vuitton suing Morgan Stanley
Consulting Group lor calling their lranJ 'mature' in 2JJ2. He Jismisses the
concept as an 'Operational' one. aJJing that it is °rather than a historic
explanation¨. Hovever there are lev other authors vho approve anJ
Jisapprove the iJea leing applieJ to a BranJ. The stuJy ol a lranJ through its
lile cycle is inJeeJ a Jisputalle topic anJ very limiteJ scope is lounJ lor
acaJemic moJels to le present that support the viev that a lranJ's lile cycle is
Jillerent lrom that ol a proJuct.

Aat|ors e:r::io: /cise:r::io: oo t|: two cooc:ots o:io: oo ci||:r:ot |rom :ec| ot|:r
Some authors simply put the concept ol BranJ Lile Cycle to le ouite similar to
ProJuct Lile Cycle (Kotler et al. I99J. Rietelos et al. 2JJ3. Fgan. 2JJ¯). This


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
has potentially leaJ no lurther research leing Jone on this sulject. BranJ Lile
Cycle is seen as a larger version ol a proJuct lile cycle anJ lev authors suggest
that il a proJuct lile cycle is hanJleJ vell then the lranJ lile cycle is
automatically taken care ol.

Hovever there are a lev others (Doyle anJ Stern. 2JJ6. Tivari. 2JJ3. Mercer.
I998. Bosvorth. 2JJ5) Jisagree to them anJ support the vievs on BranJ Lile
Cycle leing Jillerent lrom ProJuct Lile Cycle. highlighting a neeJ to
unJerstanJ BranJ Lile Cycle leyonJ its concept. Most literature arounJ BranJ
Lile Cycle anJ ProJuct Lile Cycle concepts reveal that there has leen much
emphasis on the use anJ unJerstanJing ol ProJuct Lile Cycle vhile stuJying
marketing. There are various arguments in lavour anJ against the missmatch
ol the tvo concepts. Jones (I999) haJ JescrileJ the BranJ Lile Cycle to le a
°more Jangerous Jescription¨ Jue to risks involveJ in stuJying lranJs as there
is asset value attacheJ to them.

The most unexpecteJ vievs are JiscovereJ alter stuJying the viJeliterature
on BranJ Lile Cycle's practical applications. extenJing the vievs leyonJ the
support lor the existence ol the concept itsell. NaJeau (2JJ6) gives a Jillerent
angle ly Jiscussing the 'Immortal BranJ'. vhile Davies anJ Lam (2JJI) explain
the relation letveen Flasticity anJ BranJ Lile Cycle. Brovn (I993) illustrates a
greater use ol BranJ Lile Cycle in positioning as a continuous process. vhereas

28
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Dalrymple et al (2JJ2) teach hov to exploit BranJ Lile Cycle anJ Marketing
Mix to one's aJvantage.

A very convincing viev is that a lranJ can attain longevity il it knovs hov to
light lack its Jeclining stage. vhich inJeeJ is a part ol the lile cycle anJ
importantly not the enJ ol the cycle. as lranJs rejuvenate through out their
lilespan. Though many theorists suggest lringing lack a lranJ to lile. just as
relaunching a proJuct. is appropriate. The value attacheJ to the lranJ lelore
anJ alter this stage. in some cases. is certainly very costly to regain.

As sustainalility is seeing a longterm lile ol an organisation. or lor that matter
a lranJ itsell. many authors Jo suggest carelul hanJling ol lranJ at the Jecline
stage can retrack the lranJ to the 'mature' or 'estallishment' stage. Vhether
they compare or contrast the tvo concepts. there is no particular relerence to a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. Since the vievs on a lilecycle Jiller among marketing
acaJemics. a lev have contriluteJ anJ executeJ their ovn experiences into
creation ol BranJ Lile Cycle moJels.

2.7 Most useIuI Brand IiIe CycIe ModeIs and their reIevance

It is clear that many authors linJ it harJ to explore this area Jue to its
vulneralility anJ risks attacheJ. One ol the main purposes ol this research is to

29
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
linJ out vhether this concept is lelt untoucheJ lor gooJ or it has some
relevance in the practice.


A BranJ Lile Cycle is explaineJ ly a traJitional moJel in Iigure 2.I (Fgan.
2JJ¯) suggesting that lranJs have Jillerent lile stages through vhich they
pass. very similar to a proJuct lile cycle concept. The lilth stage. vhich is the
only Jillerentiating lactor in a BranJ's case. appearing in the moJel is
'rejuvenation' ol the lranJ again. treateJ as the relirth ol the lranJ. This leaJs
to major literature availalle on relranJing activities. something that helps
Jirects a lev organisations to reenter the market.

Mootee (2JJI). createJ a MoJel on BranJ Lile Cycle (Iigure 2.2) in miJ I99Js.
His moJel looks at a lranJ lrom a nonconventional viev. unlike in case ol a
IntroJuction
Grovth
Maturity
Decline
Rejuvenation
Time
B
r
a
n
d

P
e
r
I
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

Iigure 2.I: A TraditionaI Brand IiIe CycIe ModeI ly Eagan (2uu7)

3J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
proJuct lile cycle moJel. On his llog he vrites hov the moJel °enalles
companies to look at their corporate strategies. portlolio ol lranJs anJ
proJucts in a meaninglul vay¨. explaining the lour Jillerent stages ol lranJ
evolution.

Iigure 2.2: Idris Mootee`s ModeI on BRAND IIIE CYCIE
Similarly Vaage's vork (2JJ6) on BranJ Lile Cycle Trajectories to °preJict the
turning point on BranJ Lile Cycle curves simultaneously lor all lranJs that
compete in a given market¨ is very uselul to lorecast anJ plan aheaJ on
lranJing. In the miJst ol these literature linJings. the ouestions arose on
vhether these moJels are uselul anJ il the marketers have stuJieJ any sort ol
it` Vhether they have or not. many ol these moJels are missing lrom core
marketing text looks. The primary ouestion that leaJs to many other is.
vhether lranJs are seen as 'maJe lorever'` AnJ vhether acaJemics are leing

3I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
unlair to ignore anJ accept literature vhich is reaJy anJ uselul lor lranJing
activities`

2.8 Research Oljectives

The research oljectives. thus leaJ ly these primary linJings. attempt to linJ
most valualle vievs ol those vho shoulJ le solely responsille to JeciJe
vhether there is a neeJ lor a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel. The research oljectives
hence vere to iJentily.
Marketers' take on their lranJ's longevity
The challenges leing laceJ ly lranJs toJay
The main reasons lor these challenges
The most common lranJ lailures encountereJ ly lranJs
Any correlation letveen lranJ lailures anJ lranJ's longevity
The current lranJing luJgets
The lranJing activities mostly leen carrieJ out recently
Avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel
Uselulness ol seeing a lranJ through its lile cycle
Any issues relateJ to the skill anJ knovleJge ol those Jealing lranJing

The purpose ol this Jissertation is essentially not to explore vhy lranJs lail.
lut to linJ out il a moJel on BranJ Lile Cycle has any creJilility over anJ

32
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
alove other moJels leing availalle to the marketers. By linJing ansvers to the
alove oljectives. it shoulJ le clear vhether it is lair to leave this sulject
untoucheJ or it neeJs to le taken to a lurther level ol exploration. vhich
voulJ neeJ extensive research in this lielJ. The research linJings (chapter 5
anJ 6) Jiscuss the vievs ol participating marketers anJ others relateJ to
lranJing lielJ. anJ give an exploratory insight into hov the practical vorlJ
perceives the use ol a theoretical moJel. The linJings also suggest vhether the
literature is supportive ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel or not anJ vhether
acaJemics are vise in Jitching moJels on BranJ Lile Cycle.

A survey ly InterlranJ. as mentioneJ earlier in section 2.3. attempteJ to
explore in to the luture trenJs in lranJing ly ouerying experts closely
vorking vithin lranJing lielJ. Apart lrom that. no other prior research has
leen lounJ that examines the intensity ol an unsung moJel such as BranJ Lile
Cycle. anJ this research shoulJ mark the lirst ol its kinJ in its regarJ.













33
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOIOGY


The most appreciative linJing lrom the seconJary Jata collection through the
reviev ol literature arounJ lailing lranJs. it vas eviJent that most lranJ
lailures are alone the lranJs' ovn mistakes. There is no stopping to lranJ
success. not even a past lailure. Hovever. as the issue ol sustaineJ success
arises. it lrings alout the consiJeration alout a lranJ's long lile or longevity.
In vhich case. a lailure can Jetermine an untimely Jeath ol the lranJ. il not
manageJ vell.

In most cases. the llame is easily pusheJ onto the lranJ ovners or Jecision
makers. There are case stuJies that highlight mistakes that lranJs coulJ have
avoiJeJ. hovever vhat coulJ have avoiJeJ a lranJing Jisaster has not leen
vritten much alout. Case stuJies on past lranJing mistakes cannot alone
guiJe Jecisionmakers to iJentily or lorecast a long term strategy lor their
lranJ. consiJering vhat 'JiJ not vork' lor one organisation. may not Jelinitely
le applicalle to another. Vhen key lranJing prolessionals make Jecisions
vorth multi million pounJs. they Jo not start exploring the most relevant or
appropriate case stuJy. They insteaJ legin use ol their tools. such as lranJing
moJels.

3+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Any relevant tool or a moJel's applicalility vith regarJs to the key issue ol
sustainalility through lranJ's longevity leaJs to testing the avareness anJ
uselulness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel. as an existing piece ol theory that has
leen maJe availalle to lranJing literature ly a lev authors. This moJel helps
looking over a lranJ's lile span anJ it vas important to this stuJy to estallish
its popularity anJ uselulness. il any. lor lranJing Jecision making anJ il it has
the capalility to guiJe a lranJing Jecisionmaker throughout the lranJ's lile.

The principal aim ol conJucting this research vas to linJ the prollem lieJ
vith lranJ lile cycle moJel's unpopularity among acaJemic looks or its
applicalility in practise. AnJ thus the characteristics ol the possille users ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel vere iJentilieJ. It vas therelore very essential to
Jeline the target participants in this stuJy anJ gaining access to them to
contrilute to the research outcomes.

3.I The Particiµants deIined

The most valualle contrilutions to the research coulJ have leen lrom the
users ol any sort ol lranJing moJels incluJing a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel.
incluJing those vho vork closely vithin the lielJ anJ / or are responsille lor
the lranJing activities in some lorm.

35
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Thus marketing prolessionals. as mentioneJ in the research context. such as
Business Ovner. CFO/Chiel Marketing Ollicer. Director/Managing Director.
Vice PresiJent. BranJ Manager. Marketing Manager. Assistant Manager.
Senior Fxecutive or Fxecutive vere thought to le relevant participants lor this
stuJy. Another criterion consiJereJ important vas their relation vith the
lranJing lielJ anJ their vorkexperience in the current position.

3.2 Gaining access

As learnt ly searching literature vritten arounJ lranJ lailures. one ol the main
motivational reasons lehinJ researching in this area vas to linJ out a solution
or a possille cause to lranJing lailures. The linJings must conlirm il the
availalle literature on BranJ's Longevity incluJing a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel is
sullicient lor marketers to make sustainalle Jecisions. Ior this important
reason. it vas essential to knov ansvers lrom that sector ol marketers vho are
more likely to le responsille lor lranJing activities or have leen associateJ
vith lranJing lielJ lor consiJerally longer perioJ. These coulJ incluJe
Business Ovners. Directors. Managing Directors. Chiel Fxecutive Ollicers.
Chiel Marketing Ollicers. BranJ Manager. Marketing Managers. Assistant
Managers. Senior Fxecutives anJ Fxecutives in Marketing or BranJing lielJ.

36
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
There vere tvo major concerns vith regarJs to gaining access to the JelineJ
participants. The issues vere hov to gain the access anJ essentially at vhich
stage ol the research` In the past lev years there has leen a tremenJous rise in
use ol social netvorking ly prolessionals across every lielJ. thus this prompteJ
the use ol a social netvork site as a means ol gaining access to the research
participants. Hovever the relialility ol participants' claim alout their
prolessional Jesignation anJ experience through a social netvorking site vere
major criteria associateJ vith selection ol a social netvorking site.

The involvement ol the participants in the research voulJ le voluntary as no
consent vas oltaineJ to participate in the research anJ they voulJ have a
right to reluse to participate at any stage ol the research. At the same time.
privacy ol the participant vas another major lactor vhile choosing a social
netvork.

As prior to the research commencement there vas no conlirmeJ access granteJ
ly any ol the targeteJ population. anJ as SaunJers et al (2JJ9) mentioneJ.
Jeveloping contacts at the initial stage ol a research is as essential as it leing a
continuous process throughout the Jata collection activity. BaseJ on this
iJeology anJ consiJering the issues involveJ in shortlisting a social netvork.
LinkeJIn.com vas chosen as a Prolessional Netvorking site. This is a relatively
nev prolessional netvorking site lounJeJ in 2JJ3. hovever is one ol the most


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
trusteJ anJ viJely useJ Prolessional netvork 'open to over 6J million
memlers in over 2JJ countries anJ territories arounJ the vorlJ' (Alout Us.
LinkeJIn.com. 2JIJ) vith alout hall ol the memlers are outsiJe the U.S. as ol
II Ielruary 2JIJ.

This prolessional netvork site is luilt mainly on trust anJ knovleJge ol each
other letveen memlers. The proliles ol LinkeJIn users are availalle lor a viev
ly everyone. vhere the users have control over vho can viev vhich
inlormation lrom their prolile. There is a strict coJe lor 'connecting' either
through a prolessional relationship letveen memlers or il they are lrienJs or a
memler ol one ol the groups on LinkeJIn. The users. knovn as 'Connections'.
can le contacteJ vithout the neeJ to Jisclose their ovn contact Jetails.

The connections that lreouently use the prolessional netvork are usually
happy to share knovleJge anJ expertise in their ovn lielJ. As their proliles
can le vieveJ prior to their involvement in the survey. this enalleJ short
listing the participants laseJ on their association vith lranJing. their vork
experience anJ the role in the chosen lielJ. This increaseJ the relialility lactor
ol the responses leing genuine anJ unliaseJ. increasing the chances ol getting
most relevant anJ uselul inlormation lrom the participant.

38
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As a researcher ol this project anJ alreaJy having a minimum ol 25
'connections' on LinkeJIn. I haJ to consiJer any ethical issues relateJ to
connecting or contacting the intenJeJ participants. As the research involveJ
raising as many responses as possille to the stuJy to enalle the valiJity ol the
responses to le higher. connecting to more then 25 users on LinkeJIn vas
essential.

Vithout having prolessionally knovn the participants. connecting vith them
through LinkeJIn voulJ have not only leen unethical lut also leen restricteJ
ly the terms ol use ol the service. Hovever. though a message lrom the
LinkeJIn prolile. I coulJ access to potentially 23.JJJ.JJJ- connections
vithout having to connect vith them. Hovever most ol these connections
neeJeJ to le liltereJ through shortlisting criterion ol their prolessional
experience anJ association vith the lranJing lielJ. The 'Search' tool vithin
LinkeJIn enalleJ this.

3.3 SamµIing Method: SeIISeIection

SaunJers et al (2JJ9). Jescrile the process ol 'alloving each inJiviJual to
iJentily their Jesire to take part in the research' as a non prolalility sampling
methoJ. Othervise knovn as a sellselection methoJ. this sampling criterion
has helpeJ selectively chosen participants to responJ to the research ly their

39
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ovn interest in this research sulject. As LinkeJIn.com vas JeemeJ to le the
source to gain access to the participants. generating constant access to the
participant throughout the Jata collection vas crucial. This voulJ have
helpeJ encourage more responses extracting maximum inlormation as possille
vas more Jesiralle. Also as there vas no consent gaineJ prior to the research
commencement. one ol the main limitations vas the participants' involvement
leing voluntary.

This inJicateJ that participants' may contrilute as little time ol their LinkeJIn
activity to accept an invitation to participate. The participants may treat the
invitation as 'spam'. Jelete it vithout reaJing or may never check it vithin the
research perioJ. il they have not leen actively using the prolessional netvork.
Hovever as a leature ol the service ollereJ on LinkeJIn. the active users ol the
netvorking site the participant haJ an extra opportunity ol checking the
invitation message on their alternative email aJJress. shoulJ they have
activateJ the use ol this lacility anJ responJ to it Jirectly vithout even
accessing their LinkeJIn prolile.

As the responses collecteJ vere laseJ on anonymity. it voulJ not le possille
to iJentily the participants il they participateJ unless they responJ to the
invitation vith their intention ol opting in or opting out ol the research. The
intenJeJ participants vere encourageJ to participate voluntarily. the research

+J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
strategy to increase response count vas to contact the responJents on tvo
occasions.

The lirst invitation voulJ le sent upon iJentilying a potential participant
through LinkeJIn search anJ post the shortlisting criteria. The seconJ
contact voulJ le maJe prior to the research Jata collection process concluJes.
excluJing those participants vho have conlirmeJ opting in or out ol the
research. thus encouraging the remaining ones to participate vho may not
have attempteJ to responJ to the research.

The seconJ communication also incluJeJ those vho responJeJ in the research
hovever as a result ol inalility to le iJentilieJ Jue to the response anonymity.
Hence the seconJ communication containeJ a 'thank you' message to those
vho have alreaJy contriluteJ to the research. Using this approach all the
participants vere communicateJ tvice. unless othervise essential.

This potentially increaseJ the chances ol reaching the population ly tvo times
more. vhere they coulJ have leen sent an alert ol the message via LinkeJIn on
their alternate email aJJress.

3.4 The seIection oI data coIIection method

+I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As the research attempteJ to examine the perceptions ol participants tovarJs
their lranJ anJ the acaJemic knovleJge anJ use ol a lranJ lile cycle moJel. it
involveJ collecting Jata to the maximum extent vith consuming as little time
ol the participants as possille. consiJering the nature ol their prolession anJ
their availalility to participate anJ yet proviJe uselul anJ meaninglul
inlormation at the same time.

This vas an essential consiJeration as no Jirect access vas availalle to the
participants vith virtually nil consent oltaineJ ol their potential participation
in the research. Vhile maintaining anonymity ol the participants' responses
vas a priority. the Jata collecteJ neeJeJ to le a comlination ol ouantitative as
vell as oualitative. hence a survey ouestionnaire vas the lest suitalle methoJ
ol Jata collection. To speeJing up the process ol senJing invitations anJ
collecting responses. an online survey ouestionnaire vas the most appropriate
anJ suitalle Jata collection methoJ laseJ on these tvo consiJerations.

The total survey invitation mails sent to the LinkeJIn users vere 6JI. incluJing
existing 'connections' lrom marketing lielJ. Out ol these. only tvo participants
opteJ out Jue to unavailalility ol time. The relusal to participate vas Jealt ly
a reply message vith an acknovleJgement ol their opting out ol the research.
The selection ol an online survey ouestionnaire enalleJ multiple choices lor
Jata analysis methoJ to estallish the research oljectives. The online survey

+2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
vas JesigneJ using a survey creation tool lrom SurveyMonkey.com as it
ollereJ multiple choices lor ouantitative as vell as oualitative Jata collection.
Through use ol vellaseJ survey. the participants vere enalleJ viev ol only
one ouestion at a time. thus gathering their vievs vith maximum locus on the
ouestion leing vieveJ as opposeJ to vieving all ouestions at once. increasing
chances ol manipulative responses anJ increasing the chances ol participation
than rejection Jue to lack ol interest in the sulject. The tool helpeJ retaining
anonymity ol the participant as vell as collect loth type ol Jata responses to
all ouestions.

3.5 The Survey Design

The survey JesigneJ (reler appenJices I) vas locuseJ on gathering maximum
inlormation lrom the participant vith consuming as little time as possille. At
the initial stage. a I5 ouestion survey ouestionnaire vas JesigneJ. Hovever
vith the help ol the online survey tool. the same ouestions vere spreaJ over a
set ol IJ ouestions. Thus the amount ol inlormation neeJeJ to le gathereJ vas
conJenseJ anJ the time spent to complete the ouestionnaire vas reJuceJ.

Fach survey ouestion haJ minimum ol one manJatory ouestion vith some
having aJJitional optional sulouestions. lelore proceeJing to the next
ouestion. The sulouestions vhich vere optional lor the participants to

+3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
ansver mainly collecteJ oualitative Jata vhich vas lurther coJeJ prior to the
process ol analysis. The survey Jesign vas enhanceJ vith a logo especially
createJ vith originality anJ representative ol the topic overviev to the
participants. The logo has leen useJ as a part ol the project Jesign to maintain
unilormity.

The survey intenJeJ to gather inlormation alout the current lranJ the
participants vere vorking on. their knovleJge ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel
anJ alout themselves. Thus the survey vas JiviJeJ in tvo main sections
namely. I) Alout your lranJ ¬ containing ouestions I6 anJ 2) Alout yoursell
containing ouestions ¯IJ.

Section I) Alout you lrand: The literature arounJ lranJ lailures suggests
that lranJ lailures Jo not necessarily harm the lranJ's longevity. hovever in
certain cases they can. As Haig's (2JJ8) case stuJies shov. that many lailures
are lranJ's ovn mistakes. there are virtually no stuJieJ carrieJ out alout
numler ol lranJ lailures taking place in the lusiness vorlJ. One ol the reasons
associateJ vith this is the association ol linancial anJ nonlinancial value
though very crucial aspect tovarJs lranJing. Thus the lirst section ol the
ouestionnaire locuseJ on gathering important inlormation alout the
populations' lranJs lrom generic inlormation to sensitive inlormation vhich
some participants may le vary ol sharing.

++
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

This is also one ol the main reasons associateJ vith applying a BranJ Lile
Cycle concept to lranJs anJ is seen as 'Jangerous'. Ior this purpose. the
survey vas JesigneJ vith maintaining high anonymity anJ the participants
vho optin to participate vere clearly maJe avare ol their anonymity to the
response.

An aspect ol lranJing is to Jo vith luilJing lranJs that sustain anJ keep true
to their primary consumers. BranJs that lail are highly criticiseJ. lut lranJ
that lail signily challenges laceJ ly them vhich may give an inJication to the
cause lehinJ lranJ lailures.

My literature reviev signilieJ an analysis ol trenJs amongst lranJs testeJ ly a
survey carrieJ ly InterlranJ in 2JJ6. They useJ their 2JJ6 survey as a
lenchmark lor luture surveys. Their survey locuseJ more on aJherence to
lranJing stanJarJs. guiJelines anJ lranJ measures. lunJing status anJ re
lranJing activities. In this section ol the research ouestionnaire. one ol the
ouestions Jirects to all the challenges laceJ laseJ ly participants' lranJs anJ
reasons associateJ vith them. A lev challenges vere associateJ vith
positioning this ouestion into the survey. as lor gathering responses on lranJ
lailures.

+5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Section 2) Alout yourseII: This section containeJ inlormation alout the
participants anJ it legan vith ouestions alout their avareness ol a BranJ Lile
Cycle MoJel. one ol the most important ouestions in the survey. The other
ouestions vere alout iJentilying their prolessional prolile anJ association
vith lranJing lielJ. These ouestions neeJeJ to le a part ol the survey Jue to
the inalility ol iJentilying the responJent othervise. to maintain their
anonymity.

The survey vas releaseJ at I¯.25 hrs GMT on 3 Decemler 2JJ9 anJ invitations
to participants legan simultaneously. By the enJ ol I¯ Decemler 2JJ9 GMT
the numler ol complete survey responses reacheJ 3J vith 2J incomplete
responses. At this point in time. the responses to the optional sulouestion no.
¯ in section 2 neeJeJ more clarity. The section legan vith the main ouestion.
Have you ever stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel` This ouestion reouireJ an
ansver in orJer to proceeJ to another ouestion. The responses vere a result ol
participants' ovn perception as a result ol the initial vorJing ol the ouestion.
Hence the ouestion anJ the ansver options vere eJiteJ.

The responses vith nev ansvers vere collecteJ lrom I9 January 2JIJ. The
survey vas concluJeJ on miJnight 25 January 2JIJ GMT. leaving a longer
vinJov lor Jata collection to receive many responses. as the research vas
carrieJ out in the miJst ol the Christmas anJ Nev Year. By the enJ ol the

+6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
survey. total responses collecteJ vere I62. incluJing 5¯ incomplete responses.
leaving a total ol complete response count to IJ5 lor the Jata analysis.

3.6 Researched data µreµaration Ior anaIysis

The Jata collecteJ lrom all the responses vas a comlination ol ouantitative
anJ oualitative category. To all the ouantitative Jata. precoJing vas Jone as
opposeJ to the oualitative Jata. The oualitative Jata vas sorteJ. checkeJ lor
errors such as spelling mistakes. clarilications vere acouireJ lor clearly
uniJentilieJ terms such as HND lor 'Ei:|:r Xetiooei Dioiome'. POMF activities
lor 'Poiot o| Verr:t Fotrv'. The coJeJ Jata along vith precoJeJ Jata vas then
useJ lor Jata analysis. The Jata vas pregroupeJ anJ precategoriseJ lor use
anJ vherever Jata vas missing. the Jata vas coJeJ as 'oot m:otioo:c'.

The Jata vas lurther checkeJ lor illogical coJes. il any anJ a sample excel
analytical test vas run to iJentily the Jata category. All Jata vas 'c:scriotiv:' in
category anJ reaJy lor analysis.

3.7 Data anaIysis and µresentation methods

As vith most ouantitative Jata ol Jescriptive category. there vere a lev
statistical test options availalle alongsiJe simple correlation tests using excel


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
tool. The prepareJ Jata neeJeJ only to shov one varialle or lreouency ol
occurrences letveen categories anJ / or values. hence no statistical tests coulJ
le applieJ as a result ol the Jata analysis. All the prepareJ Jata vas analyseJ
using excel laseJ tools. namely GroupeJ Talles anJ Fxcel Pivot Talles.

Once the Jata analysis methoJ vas linaliseJ. there vere tvo sorts ol linJings
estimateJ. The orimerv |iocio:s. vhich voulJ have only groupeJ talles anJ / or
column (vertical lar charts) as Jata presentation tools. JeriveJ straight lrom
the survey ouestions. The linJings ol these tests vere lasic anJ useJ simple
graphical presentation to the rav verJicts ol the responJents' vievs.

The orimerv |iocio:s vere not sullicient to Jrav concrete conclusions on the
achievement ol the research oljectives. A set ol comparative tests. incluJing
excel pivotal tests vere reouireJ to assess the initial linJings. The Jata analysis
vas thus reaJy vith a seconJary set ol results that aJJeJ more meaning to the
initial linJings. Hence these linJings vere termeJ as 's:coocerv |iocio:s`.
Together vith the orimerv anJ s:coocerv |iocio:s. a summary ol linJings vas
gathereJ vhich Jirectly checkeJ the valiJity ol the conclusions Jravn lrom
the Jata. These conclusions are JetaileJ in chapter ¯ vith any possille
recommenJations in chapter 8.

+8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre


3.8 Reviey oI Dissertation Progress

The lelov Gantt chart shov the progress ol this project justilication ol time.
DISSERTATION PROGRESS
I
2

O
c
t
2
2

O
c
t
I

N
o
v
I
I

N
o
v
2
I

N
o
v
I

D
e
c
I
I

D
e
c
2
I

D
e
c
3
I

D
e
c
I
J

J
a
n
2
J

J
a
n
3
J

J
a
n
9

I
e
l
I
9

I
e
l
Dissertation Proposal Acceptance anJ IeeJlack
Literature Reviev
Research Strategy Iormulation
Fxecuting literature linJings into research ouestions
Iinalising Research Data collection methoJ
Designing ol Survey Questionnaire
Releasing the Survey Questionnaire
Inviting Participants to responJ to the survey
Collecting the survey responses
SeconJary communication to encourage responses
ConcluJing the Survey
Preparing Jata lor analysis
Iinalising Research Data analysis & Presentation methoJs
Analysing the Jata
Summarising linJings
Deriving Conclusions anJ RecommenJations
Preparing linal report
Sulmitting the report lor examination

+9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre


CHAPTER 4: PRIMARY IINDINGS


Key considerations
+.I This chapter only Jemonstrates the linJings to all the completeJ
responses. These are treateJ as 'orimerv |iocio:s` presenteJ using a talular anJ
graphical lorm. CoJing has leen Jone to Jata gathereJ vherever necessary.
The lull analysis ol these linJings is separately presenteJ in chapter 6 anJ
termeJ as 's:coocerv |iocio:s`. The conclusions Jravn lrom the analyseJ Jata are
a part ol the chapter ¯.
+.2 As most participants vho responJeJ to this research are Jirectly
associateJ vith lranJing lielJ lor more than 5 yr anJ consiJer their
responsililities tovarJs the lranJing activities ol their or their clients lranJ is
ol higher importance. it vas essential to iJentily anJ all the participants.
+.3 Their iJentilication along vith their vork experience vas oltaineJ ly
the last ouestion in the survey. Due to this reason only the completeJ surveys
coulJ le consiJereJ lor Jraving analytical juJgements on the linJings.

This chapter mainly locuses on highlighting the Jata vithout any application
ol analytical methoJs. The purpose ol separating the linJings lrom the actual

5J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
analysis is to highlight the Jillerence letveen the olservations lelore anJ
alter the analysis is linisheJ. Another reason associateJ vith this is to Jrav
attention to those elements ol the linJing vhich are crucial to the stuJy anJ
locus on prioritising the use ol most relevant linJings lor achieving the
research oljectives. The linJings ol each survey ouestion in the same orJer ol
the appearance in the actual survey have leen presenteJ here.

The Jetails lelov relate all the participants vho coulJ have contriluteJ ly
participating in the research.
Total survey invitations sent. 6JI
Total numler ol participants' relusal (Optout). 2
Maximum expecteJ responses. 599
Total starteJ surveys. I62
CompleteJ responses. IJ5







5I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre


Question I:

Hov olJ is the lranJ
you are currently
vorking lor (since its
inception)`
Total
Less than a year 6
I yr ¯
23 yr I2
+5 yr IJ
5IJ yr I¯
IJ2J yr I3
2J3J yr 8
3J5J yr IJ
5J yr anJ more 22
TalIe 4.I: Resµondents` Brands ly age

The responses to this ouestion vere encouraging as the Jistrilution ol the
lranJ age shoveJ ly the responses vas satislactory. Vhile shortlisting the
responJents to the participate in the survey it vas possille to iJentily their
current lranJ age. hovever there voulJ have leen no control over vhich
responJents voulJ participate in the survey.

52
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Hov olJ is the lranJ you are currently vorking lor (since its inception)`
¯`
II`
IJ`
I6`
I2`
8`
IJ`
2I`
6`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
Less than
a year
I yr 23 yr +5 yr 5IJ yr IJ2J yr 2J3J yr 3J5J yr 5J yr anJ
more
Total
IIGURE 4.I: RESPONDENTS` BRANDS BY AGE

Ior instance. il 5J ` participating lranJs vere more than 5J yr anJ more in
age. then lurther analysis Jravn in comparison to the lranJ age voulJ have
leen liaseJ. On the other hanJ. lranJs stuJieJ Jo not have even Jistrilution
across their age lactor. namely the varialle in lranJ age is not constant.
making it Jillicult to make more accurate generaliseJ conclusions. This vas a
potential JisaJvantage iJentilieJ at the start ol the research project. relateJ to
gaining the access anJ consent lrom participants prior to the research
commencement. Iigure +.I shovs the graphical Jistrilution ol the lranJ age.


53
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Question 2:

Do you lelieve your lranJ
vill last.`
Total
Next year 5
Next 5 years 2+
Next JecaJe +5
Next century I9
Iorever I2
TalIe 4.2: Resµondents` Brand IiIe PredictaliIity

This vas the key ouestion useJ to Jerive the responJents' laith in their ovn
lranJ's lile. The prime intention lehinJ gathering responses to this ouestion
vas to assess the application ol lranJ longevity concept in the real lile
scenario. As this stuJy is lirst in its kinJ anJ at the same time it vas carrieJ
out vith responJents vorlJviJe. vhere many countries have not lully
recovereJ out ol the glolal economic crisis. the responses to this ouestion may
le useJ as a lenchmark to assess luture stuJies.

5+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Brand's IiIe µredictiliIity
23`
+3`
I8`
II`
5`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Hoy Iong your Brand youId Iast:

IIGURE 4.2: RESPONDENTS` BRAND IIIE PREDICTABIIITY

This ouestion vas accompanieJ ly an optional ouestion alout vhy they leel so
alout their lranJ's lile.

Optional Question.
Do you lelieve your lranJ vill
last.`
Positive Neutral Negative
Not
MentioneJ
Next year 2 2 I
Next 5 years 2 + 5 I3
Next JecaJe I9 ¯ + I5
Next century IJ 2 ¯
Iorever 9 3
TalIe 4.3: Resµondents` attitude toyards their lrand`s IiIe
The responJents vere askeJ to supplement their vievs on vhy Jo they leel
alout the vay they leel alout their lranJ's lile. The responses to this ouestion

55
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
vere oualitative in nature Jue to the responJents' reouirement ol entering
their opinion in lorm ol text. The responses vere coJeJ using vorJs. positive.
neutral. negative anJ not mentioneJ.
And yhy do you thinI so alout your lrand's IiIe:
8`
+2`
53`
¯5`
+J`
I¯`
I6`
II`
+J`
2I`
9`
2J`
5+`
33`
3¯`
25`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
8J`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Do you leIieve your lrand yiII Iast.:
Positive Neutral Negative Not MentioneJ

IIGURE 4.3: RESPONDENTS` ATTITUDE TOVARDS THEIR BRAND IIIE

The linJings vere interesting anJ it vas pleasing to linJ out that as lranJ's
longevity is JesireJ or perceiveJ ly the lranJ marketers their negativity shilts
to positivism. one ol the major components ol motivation inJicateJ tovarJs
the lranJing activities carrieJ out ly the marketers. Some ol the positive
ouotes incluJeJ. 'I wiii mer: it icooic`. 'it`s r:voiatiooerv` anJ 'w: er: iooovetiv: :ooa:|
to r::o it |r:s|'.

Question 3:

56
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Hov voulJ you Jescrile
your current lranJing
luJget`
Total
UnJer luJgeteJ 69
AJeouately luJgeteJ 33
Over luJgeteJ 3
TalIe 4.4: Resµondents` assessment oI their lranding ludget

As previously JiscusseJ in chapter 3. InterlranJ carrieJ their lirst survey
assessing luture trenJs in lranJing. One ol the ouestions in that survey vas
similar to this ouestion. The linJings ol this survey ouestion can le compareJ
to those ol the InterlranJ survey ouestion.

Hovever the main purpose ol incluJing this ouestion vas to iJentily the
relationship letveen the lranJing luJgets tovarJs certain other activities
carrieJ out ly the lranJ.


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Hov voulJ you Jescrile your current lranJing luJget`
3I`
3`
66`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
UnJer luJgeteJ AJeouately luJgeteJ Over luJgeteJ
UnJer luJgeteJ AJeouately luJgeteJ Over luJgeteJ

IIGURE 4.4: RESPONDENTS` ASSESSMENT OI THEIR
BRANDING BUDGET
Question 4:

Vhich ol these lranJing
activities have leen
carrieJ out recently lor
your lranJ`
Total
ProJuct launch 63
PR 89
AJvertising ¯3
BranJ Fxtension 3+
RelranJing 3+
MultiBranJing I5
Other 8
TalIe 4.5: Resµondent lrand`s recent activity invoIvement

58
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Out ol the total IJ5 complete responses. ligure +.5 shovs the Jistrilution anJ
importance ol lranJing activities across all the participating lranJs.
Vhich ol these lranJing activities have leen carrieJ out recently lor your
lranJ`
85`
¯J`
32` 32`
I+`
8`
6J`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
8J`
9J`
ProJuct
launch
PR AJvertising BranJ
Fxtension
RelranJing Multi
BranJing
Other

IIGURE 4.5: RESPONDENT BRAND`S RECENT ACTIVITIES
Question 5:

Vhich ol these lranJ lailures have
ever leen encountereJ ly your
lranJ`
Total
Launch Iailure I9
PR Iailure 23
AJvertising Iailure 28
Fxtension Iailure 2J
RelranJing Iailure IJ
Multi BranJing Iailure 5
Any Other Iailure IJ
None so ever 3¯
TalIe 4.6: Resµondents` lrand IaiIure tyµes

59
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The major linJings ol this ouestion vere in relation to exploration into the
area ol lranJing lailures. As most ol the responJents vho starteJ the survey
lut JiJ not complete it. lelt the survey ouestions unansvereJ lrom this point
in the survey. There coulJ have leen various reasons associateJ vith this. The
reasons may incluJe. place ol this ouestion into the survey. the unavailalility
ol time. access to the inlormation on this ouestion or simply hesitant to share
the Jetails Jue to sensitivity issue.
Vhich ol these lranJ lailures have ever leen encountereJ ly your lranJ`
22`
2¯`
I9`
IJ`
5`
IJ`
35`
I8`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
Launch
Iailure
PR Iailure AJvertising
Iailure
Fxtension
Iailure
Re
lranJing
Iailure
Multi
BranJing
Iailure
Any Other
Iailure
None so
ever

IIGURE 4.6: RESPONDENTS` BRAND IAIIURE TYPES






6J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Question 6:

Descrile any challenges anJ reasons associateJ vith your BranJ lrom the
lelov matrix.
ChaIIenges Vs
Reasons
IacI
oI
visio
n /
Iocus
SIiIIs
associa
ted
yith
handIi
ng the
issue
IacI oI
academi
c
materiaI
or
modeIs
The
conceµ
t itseII
PIannin
g
and
ImµIeme
ntation
InsuIIi
cient
Iundin
g
Resµons
e count
Core Branding
Strategy
3u I6 6 IJ 23 33 74
MarIeting
Integration
23 I6 5 9 3I 26 67
Budgeting I9 IJ 2 2 I8 45 73
MarIeting
Communicatio
n
22 I8 + ¯ 2I 34 7I
Brand
Restructuring
22 I+ + 9 II I5 52
Anything eIse 3 2 I + 2 3 Iu
TalIe 4.7: Resµondents` lranding chaIIenges (roys) yith reasons
(coIumns)

6I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As lor most ol the key ouestions ol this research. this ouestion attempteJ to
gather inlormation lor the lirst time alout lranJing challenges. A matrixtype
ouestion vas askeJ enalling comlination ol tvo ouestions together so as to
gather as much relevant inlormation as possille through multiple ansvering
choices. Out ol the IJ5 responJents. 2 responJents JiJ not attempt this
ouestion. One ol them saiJ '1|is ca:stioo is oooriv coostract:c' anJ the other
mentioneJ 'Xot r:eiiv sar: I aoc:rsteoc t|is' in the comments lox.

Tvo other responJents. vho haJ to contrilute to the challenges laceJ ly their
lranJ. suggesteJ aJJitional categories that coulJ have enricheJ the Jata
gathereJ. The suggestions vere I) Iot:roei sc:oticism / iecr o| e:r::m:ot iJentilying
the neeJ lor Faiicio: e oreoc t:em cario: e cowo :cooomv is |erc to co. 2) w:r: oot
|iocio: it e c|eii:o:: to meoe:: XXX.

Question 7:

Another key ouestion in the survey vas alout iJentilying the popularity ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel amongst prolessionals close to lranJing lielJ. This
ouestion vas JesigneJ to gather this primary inlormation as vell as use it
against its relevance to lev other ouestions in the survey.

62
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Have you ever studied a Brand IiIe CycIe ModeI:
26`
28`
II`
6`
3J`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
35`
I have stuJieJ a
BranJ Lile Cycle
MoJel
acaJemically anJ
use it lor
BranJing
Decision
Making
I have stuJieJ a
BranJ Lile Cycle
MoJel
acaJemically
hovever Jo
NOT use it lor
BranJing
Decision
I have NOT
stuJieJ a BranJ
Lile Cycle
MoJel
acaJemically
I have NOT
stuJieJ a BranJ
Lile Cycle
MoJel lut
voulJ like to
stuJy it
I have NOT
stuJieJ a BranJ
Lile Cycle
MoJel anJ
voulJ not like to
stuJy it

IIGURE 4.7: AVARENESS OI BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI AMONGST
REPONDENTS

Ansvers to this ouestion vere essential lelore progressing to the other
ouestions. This maJe it easier to gather important anJ very uselul inlormation
contriluting to the main oljectives ol the stuJy. In the next chapter. this
ouestion is useJ to analyse anJ Jrav major conclusions ly comparing against
the responJents' prolessional inlormation.

Optional Question.
In this sulouestion the Jecision to attempt the ouestion or skip vas lelt on to
the participants. One ol the reasons lor this vas the limitation ol incluJing a

63
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
sulouestion in the survey ly the tool (surveymonkey.com) useJ. The tool
ollers option to gather responses laseJ on a Likertscaling (rating scale) anJ
using that option this ouestion coulJ have leen manJatory anJ as a separate.
hovever there vas little error projecteJ as an outcome ol the responses. hence
this ouestion vas lelt as optional.
Do you thinI IooIing at a lrand Irom its IiIeCycIe youId le useIuI
Ior lranding decision maIing:
2¯`
5`
2`
56`
IJ`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No Comments

IIGURE 4.8: AµµIying a IiIe Conceµt to a Brand

This ouestion vas lormerly JesigneJ as. Il you have a moJel on lranJ lile cycle
availalle to you. Jo you think it voulJ le uselul lor Jecisionmaking` As
JiscusseJ in previous chapter. there vas an anticipateJ neeJ lor lurther
clarilication reouireJ to the responses to this ouestion in orJer to analyse the
Jata collecteJ ly the enJ ol the survey. This neeJ vas to Jo vith the coJing
process ol the response. Since the response vas oualitative anJ neeJeJ the

6+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
responJents to enter Jata in lorm ol text. The previous ouestion as mentioneJ
lelore vas thus eJiteJ to the ouestion on I8 Decemler 2JJ9. The ligure uses
the coJeJ responses.

Question 8:

Hov closely are you
responsille lor the lranJing
activities ol your or your
client's company`
Total
Not at all 2
Somevhat close 5
Relative I¯
Important I3
Fxtremely close 5J
Im solely responsille I8
TalIe: 4.8: Resµondents` cIoseness yith lranding activities

This ouestion helpeJ to assess the relialility ol the source (LinkeJIn.com)
vhich vas useJ as a shortlisting criterion lor inviting the responJents to
participate in this research. As over 9J` responJents vere not Jirectly
connecteJ vith me on the Prolessional Netvorking site. anJ to aJJress the
issue ol their anonymity. this section ol the survey containing the ouestions
along vith the next ouestions vere important. Positioning ol these ouestions

65
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
vas JeemeJ to le important as vithout unJerstanJing vho has participateJ
in the survey Jraving conclusions voulJ have leen lutile.

At the same time. it vas important to keep the responJents' locus tovarJs the
topic ol the research anJ not Jistract them lrom contriluting tovarJs the
research. Asking Jetails alout their ovn prolession at the leginning ol the
survey may have JistracteJ the responJents avay lrom the core topic causing
the response rate to le impeJingly lover.
Hoy cIoseIy are you resµonsilIe Ior the lranding activities oI your or
your cIient`s comµany:
5`
I6`
I2`
+8`
I¯`
2`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
Not at all Somevhat
close
Relative Important Fxtremely
close
Im solely
responsille

IIGURE 4.9: RESPONDENTS` CIOSENESS VITH
BRANDING ACTIVITIES



66
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Question 9:

Ior hov many years
have you leen
associateJ vith
lranJing lielJ`
Total
Never I
Less than 6 months J
6 months ¬ I year J
I2 yr 2
23 yr2 8
35 yr I8
5IJ yr2 26
More than IJ yr 5J
TalIe 4.9.I: Resµondents` association yith lranding IieId

Contrary to the previous ouestion. this ouestion attempteJ to linJ
responJents' overall association vith lranJing lielJ. Most researches involving
experts voulJ locus on those vith higher level ol association vithin their
lielJ. The opinions ol all participants. incluJing those ol the experts in the
lranJing lielJ. my stuJy involveJ potentially anyone vith the knovleJge anJ
use ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. As the literature reviev suggesteJ that not
many moJels on BranJ Lile Cycle are JevelopeJ. anJ moJels vhich have leen
JevelopeJ anJ pullisheJ in acaJemic looks vere not maJe availalle leyonJ


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
2J years ago. Thus more locus vas emphasiseJ on linJing hov many
participants have recently leen associateJ vith lranJing.
Ior hoy many years have you leen associated yith lranding IieId:
J`
2`
8`
I¯`
25`
+8`
I`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
Never Less than I
year
I2 yr 23 yr2 35 yr 5IJ yr2 More than
IJ yr

IIGURE 4.9.I: RESPONDENTS` ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING IIEID










68
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Optional Question.
Vhat is your highest
oualilication Total
BSc I
Higher National Diploma I
Prolessor I
Degree 3
Post GraJuate +
Bachelor 5
CIM Qualilication 5
BA 6
Masters I3
MBA I3
Not MentioneJ 53
TalIe 4.9.2: Resµondents` Highest QuaIiIication

Vhat is your highest educationaI/µroIessionaI quaIiIication:
I` I`
3`
+`
5` 5`
6`
I2` I2`
5J`
I`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
B
S
c
H
i
g
h
e
r
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
P
r
o
l
e
s
s
o
r
D
e
g
r
e
e
P
o
s
t

G
r
a
J
u
a
t
e
B
a
c
h
e
l
o
r
C
I
M
Q
u
a
l
i
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
A
M
a
s
t
e
r
s
M
B
A
N
o
t
M
e
n
t
i
o
n
e
J

IIGURE 4.9.2: RESPONDENTS` HIGHEST QUAIIIICATION
Question Iu:

69
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

Particiµants yith
VorI Exµerience
Iess
than 6
mth
6 mth
¬ I yr
I2
yr
23
yr
35
yr
5Iu
yr
More
than
Iu yr
Resµonse
Count
Business Ovner I I I 3 I6 22
CFO/Chiel Marketing
Ollicer I 3 ¯ II
Director/Managing
Director I I 2 I5 I9
Vice PresiJent I I 2
BranJ Manager I ¯ ¯ + I9
Marketing Manager I I 3 6 ¯ I8
Assistant Manager I I 2
Senior Fxecutive 2 I 2 5
Fxecutive 2 I 3 6
StuJent I I
TalIe 4.Iu: The resµondents ly their designation yith yorI exµerience







CHAPTER 5: ANAIYSIS and SECONDARY IINDINGS

¯J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre


5.I Notes on Data AnaIysis:

5.I.I The primary linJings lrom chapter 5 have leen lurther analyseJ using
Fxcel tool lor comparison letveen Jillerent varialles ol the Jata. These
linJings are JisplayeJ as 's:coocerv |iocio:s` ol this chapter.
5.I.2 Most ol the Jata collecteJ vas ouantitative anJ vherever the Jata vas
oualitative. the Jata vas coJeJ in orJer to analyse the linJings. The most
appropriate methoJ ol Jata analysis vas neeJeJ to le useJ. The linal Jata
prepareJ lor analysis vas Jescriptive (nominal) in nature (SaunJers et al.
2JJ9). As the Jata speaks lor itsell leing in the lorm ol Jescriptive category.
most statistical Jata analysis methoJs vere automatically eliminateJ.
5.I.3 The analysis neeJeJ to check relationship ol tvo or more groups ol
Jata. virtually no statistical tests coulJ le applieJ to the Jata analysis.
5.I.+ The Jata. thus has leen analyseJ using simple methoJs ol correlation
letveen Jillerent sets ol Jata. as oltaineJ lrom orimerv |iocio:s. a set ol
comparative conclusions have leen Jravn lrom the s:coocerv |iocio:s.
5.I.5 The Jata presentation is in the lorm ol charts. vhich uses colours to
highlight the scrutiniteJ linJings vhich are most important to this stuJy. The
chart type useJ here is columncharts using a trenJline vherever eviJent to
highlight a particular trenJ in the olservations.

¯I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

5.2 Notes on Secondary Iindings:

5.2.I The linJings listeJ in this chapter Jiller lrom those ol the previous
chapter. in many vays. As opposeJ to the orimerv |iocio:s. the s:coocerv |iocio:s
have leen groupeJ unJer three sulchapters. I) BranJs. Iacts anJ Iailures. 2)
BranJ Challenges. Symptoms anJ Cures 3) BranJ Lile Cycle Concept.
Assessment ol the Avareness anJ Uselulness.
5.2.2 The lirst sulchapter on lacts anJ lailures locuses on inlormation.
trenJs among the participating lranJs in relation to their current activities
anJ past lailures.
5.2.3 The next sulchapter pays attention on various challenges laceJ ly
lranJs. This research leing one ol the lirst ol its kinJ. the linJings help a lot in
orJer to Jrav important conclusions that are uselul lor lurther investment in
exploring into this area.
5.2.+ AnJ the linal sulchapter concentrates linJings on all alout a BranJ
Lile Cycle moJel that voulJ le alle to verily the literature revieveJ in chapter
2. This section locusseJ only on the linJings lrom the primary ouestion laseJ
on this topic. The linJings lrom the optional ouestion. as listeJ in chapter 5
neeJeJ to le ignoreJ as not many responses haJ leen acouireJ to the optional
survey ouestion no. ¯.

¯2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
5.3 Brands: Iacts and IaiIures

AccorJing to the literature arounJ lranJ lailures it vas eviJent that lranJ
lailures vere common letveen all types ol organisations. vhether lig or small.
Hovever linJing material on hov common the lranJ lailure rate vas Jillicult
Jue to Jearth ol stuJies in this lielJ. It vas thus uselul to procure this lasic
lact on the lailure rate. A total ol 68 lranJs have haJ some kinJ ol lailure in the
past as opposeJ to 3¯ lranJs that never haJ any lailures in their entire lile
span. inJicating close to 2 lranJs in 3 vill encounter a lailure lelore they Jie.
Has your lranJ ever haJ a lailure`
35`
65`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
Yes None so ever

IIGURE 5.3.I: BRAND DIVISION BY IAIIURES

This vas one ol the major linJings that leaJ to sulseouent analysis to gather
olservations on hov these lailures allecteJ or vill allect lranJ lile overall. The
immeJiate anJ next most olvious linJing vas to iJentily hov the responJents

¯3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lelt alout their lranJ's lile preJictalility. leaJing to the concerns alout
lranJ's longevity.

Upon Jivision ol responJents' lranJs ly vhether they have haJ any lailure or
not. helpeJ iJentily a signilicant opinion in their perspective tovarJs their
lranJ's longevity.
Brand's IiIe µredictiliIity yhere lrands had some IaiIures in
µast
I9`
+3`
2I`
II`
¯`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Hoy Iong your Brand youId Iast:

IIGURE 5.3.2: BRAND`S IIIE PREDICTABIIITY AGAINST IAIIURES

Iigures 5.3.2 anJ 5.3.3 shov their opinions on hov long their lranJ voulJ last.
A clear inJication vas olserveJ that lev ol those vho have haJ a lranJ lailure
in the past sav their not lasting more than a year. vhereas those vho never
haJ a lailure vere conliJent ol surviving at least 5 years lrom nov.

¯+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Brand's IiIe µredictiliIity yhere lrands had no IaiIures in
µast
32`
+6`
5`
I6`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Hoy Iong your Brand youId Iast:

IIGURE 5.3.3: BRAND`S IIIE PREDICTABIIITY AGAINST NO IAIIURES

There vas also a live percent increase in the responJents' leliel on their lranJs
surviving lorever. Over hall ol the responJents' lranJs. vhich never haJ a
lailure. vere less than IJ years olJ in age (reler ligure 5.3.5) going up against
those vhich haJ a lailure (reler ligure 5.3.+). vhere little over a thirJ ol the
lranJs vere more than 5J yr olJ. Another olservation vith regarJs to the
lailureprone nature ol the responJents' lranJs is shoveJ ly a trenJline in
loth the ligures. BranJs vhich have haJ some lailures inJicate that they are
more prone to lailures in the initial stage anJ once have reacheJ a signilicant
time in the market. This coulJ involve various reasons lehinJ the vay the
responJents leel so alout their lranJs.

¯5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
IaiIures ly lrands over their age
IJ`
9`
I5`
26`
+I`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
5J yr anJ
more
3J5J yr 2J3J yr IJ2J yr Less than IJ
yrs
Brand Age

IIGURE 5.3.4: AGE OI BRAND`S VHICH HAD SOME IAIIURES
There vas another olservation interpreteJ lrom ligure 5.3.5. vhich shovs that
lranJs start loosing locus once they estallish themselves in the lirst JecaJe
anJ start experiencing lailures as they grov.
Brands yith no IaiIures over their age
2`
+`
6`
5¯`
9`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
5J yr anJ
more
3J5J yr 2J3J yr IJ2J yr Less than IJ
yrs
Brand Age

IIGURE 5.3.5: AGE OI BRAND`S VHICH HAD NO IAIIURES

¯6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As it lecame eviJent that lailures have some impact on lranJs' age. the next
analytical test vas carrieJ letveen the groups ol opinions laseJ on types on
lailures over their age anJ iJentilying vhich lailure inlluences the responJents'
conliJence level tovarJs their lranJ's longevity. Iigure 5.3.6 shovs the
contrilution ol Jillerent types ol lailures ly lranJs as they grov.
IaiIure tyµes ly lrands over their age
IJ`
II`
6`
I5`
2I`
2J`
33`
25`
I9`
5J`
33`
I9`
I6`
IJ`
22`
25`
22`
9`
¯` ¯` ¯`
2` 2`
28`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
5J yr anJ more 3J5J yr 2J3J yr IJ2J yr Less than IJ yrs
BranJ Age
Launch Iailure PR Iailure AJvertising Iailure
Fxtension Iailure ReBranJing Iailure Multi BranJing Iailure

IIGURE 5.3.6: AGE OI BRAND`S VITH DETAIIS OI IAIIURE TYPES

AJvertising lailures alongsiJe PR lailures haJ a signilicant contrilution to
overall lranJing lailures irrespective ol their age. as can le seen ly the ligure
alove. It is also olservatory that introJucing lranJ extensions early in the lile
ol a lranJ are prone to more lailures than in later stage ol the lranJ lile.

¯¯
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Similarly. aJvertising anJ PR lailures aJJ up lor a reJuceJ lranJ lile
expectancy. Launch lailures as vell as extension lailures Jo not seem to have a
major impact on responJents' leliel in their lranJ's longevity.
Brand's IiIe µredictiliIity ly their µast IaiIures
I6` I6`
33`
I8`
I+`
26`
23` 2+`
5¯`
32`
2I`
2+`
I+`
2I`
26`
IJ`
I8`
I+`
5`
I+`
5`
9`
5`
I8`
36`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Hoy Iong your Brand youId Iast:
Launch Iailure PR Iailure AJvertising Iailure
Fxtension Iailure ReBranJing Iailure Multi BranJing Iailure

IIGURE 5.3.7: BRANDS` IIIE PREDICTABIIITY VITH DETAIIS OI BRAND
IAIIURE TYPES

A lurther analysis ol comparison letveen the lranJing activities along vith
their responJents' perception ol their lranJing luJgets proviJes an insight
into hov the activities are lunJeJ. MultilranJing vas the only activity vhere
6J` lranJs haJ leen either aJeouately or over lunJeJ. All other activities
incluJing social netvork marketing or othervise knovn as experiential
marketing vere mainly unJer luJgeteJ. as more than 55` lranJs carrying out
these activities lelt they vere unJer luJgeteJ. Iigure 5.3.8 shovs the Jetails.

¯8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Vhich oI these lranding activities are currentIy leing carried out ly your
lrand comµared to your current ludget:
62`
58`
62`
56`
+J`
¯5`
32`
35`
+J`
32`
+I`
53`
25`
3` 3` 3`
6`
3`
¯`
65`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
ProJuct
launch
PR AJvertising BranJ
Fxtension
RelranJing Multi
BranJing
Other
BranJing is unJer luJgeteJ BranJing is aJeouetely luJgeteJ BranJing is over luJgeteJ

IIGURE 5.3.8: BRANDS` IIIE PREDICTABIIITY VITH DETAIIS OI IAIIURE TYPES

Thus alter olserving luJgeting impact on the current lranJing activities. it
vas necessary to analyse hov marketers anJ others associateJ vith lranJing
activities ol their ovn or their client's lranJ perceive their lranJs' enJ ol lile
span.
Brand's death µredictaliIity
Comµarison ly their current lranding ludget
¯I`
62`
68`
5J`
25`
38`
26`
+2`
+`
5`
8`
IJJ`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
Next year Next 5 years Next JecaJe Next century Iorever
Hoy Iong your Brand youId Iast:
UnJer BuJgeteJ AJeouately BuJgeteJ Over BuJgeteJ

¯9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
IIGURE 5.3.9: BRANDS` IIIE PREDICTABIIITY AGAINST THEIR BUDGETS

It vas very reassuring to iJentily that. in general. marketers leel their lranJ
voulJ live longer leaJing to longevity il their lranJs are luJgeteJ
appropriately. Another important olservation vas that lranJs that lelt vill no
longer le alive the next year are in a vay a result ol leing unJer luJgeteJ.
Close to I in 3 lranJ vill see llashing itsell in the next 5 years time. vhereas I
in 2 lranJs shoulJ sustain longevity irrespectively ol them leing aJeouately
lunJeJ.

This sulchapter has proviJeJ enough linJings to cross examine the reasons
lor lranJing lailures associateJ vith linancial reasons. something that has
alreaJy leen a major concern lor most lusinesses Juring anJ post the
economic recession in Octoler 2JJ8.

The next sulchapter. BranJ challenges. Symptoms anJ Cure. locuses on
reasons lor lranJ lailures anJ challenges associateJ vith them. incluJing those
reasons ol luJgeting.

5.4 Brand ChaIIenges: Symµtoms and Cure

8J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
One ol the most important aspects ol an ellective prollem solving process is to
not only iJentily the prollem. hovever also iJentily vhat causeJ the prollem.
As lranJ lailures are a major prollem in lranJing. the latter part ol the lirst
section in the survey ouestionnaire Jealt vith aJJressing this issue. In the
viev ol the responJents. ligure 5.+.I shovs areas that are unJer major risk in
lranJing anJ keep lacing constant challenges. Directly Jravn lrom literature
revieveJ. these challenges vere part ol the main ouestion anJ out ol IJ5
lranJing prolessionals responJeJ highlighting several issue relateJ vith most
ol these challenges. A summary presenteJ in the lelov ligure lrings to light
that there is no one particular challenge that lranJing neeJs aJJressing in the
realvorlJ. These challenges are JiscusseJ inJiviJually in Jetail.
Descrile the chaIIenges Iaced ly your lrand
6+`
¯J`
68`
5J`
IJ`
¯J`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
8J`
Core BranJing
Strategy
Marketing
Integration
BuJgeting Marketing
Communication
BranJ
Restructuring
Anything else
ChaIIenges

IIGURE 5.4.I: AII CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS

It vas certainly clear that lranJ restructuring. along vith a lev others. are less
ol a concern in comparison vith major challenges such as the core lranJing

8I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
strategy lor most ol the lranJs. More than hall ol the responJents lelt that the
core lranJing strategy lackeJ locus or vision along vith insullicient lunJing as
one ol the major reasons (see ligure 5.+.2). Ior olvious reasons relateJ to
insullicient lunJing. there vas a crucial neeJ lor recogniting vhy I in +
responJents lelt their core lranJing strategy vas an issue. This gave potential
rise to lurther investigation into the reasons associateJ.
Core BranJing Strategy Challenges
I+`
5`
8`
I9`
28`
25`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons

IIGURE 5.4.2: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: CORE BRANDING STRATEGY

A small hovever noticeally signilicant 5` ol the responJents lelt that they
neeJeJ more help vith regarJs to their core lranJing strategy lrom an
acaJemic point ol viev as they acknovleJgeJ the neeJ lor a moJel or acaJemic
material on lranJ strategies.

82
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Moving onto another core aspect ol lranJing. the challenges associateJ vith
integration ol all marketing activities vere primarily llameJ on the planning
anJ implementation.
MarIeting Integration ChaIIenges
I5`
5`
8`
28`
2+`
2I`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons

IIGURE 5.4.3: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: MARKETING INTEGRATION

As lounJ out ly previous analysis. luJgeting vas one ol the key reasons lor
responJents to lelieve that their lranJs voulJ not last a year later. A reason
lor this vas lack ol lunJs. Hovever. this analysis ol comparing the responses
vithin the lranJ challenges anJ its reasons associateJ revealeJ. vhat else vas
causing luJgeting to lail lranJs. Close to hall ol the reasons associateJ
highlighteJ the lack ol vision. planning anJ skills associateJ vith the lranJing
luJgeting. This gives inJication that Jespite ol aJeouately leing luJgeteJ
vhere it can go vrong vith lranJing luJgets.

83
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Budgeting ChaIIenges
IJ`
2` 2`
I9`
+¯`
2J`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons
IIGURE 5.4.4: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: BUDGETING

These analytical tests helpeJ iJentily possille cures to all lranJing challenges.
MarIeting Communication ChaIIenges
I¯`
+`
¯`
2J`
32`
2I`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
35`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons

IIGURE 5.4.5: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: MARKETING COMMUNICATION

8+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Most marketing activities incluJe some lorm ol communication vith their
clients or consumers in all aspects. Thus this leing an important jol ol a
marketer. the lranJ challenges associateJ vith marketing communication
revealeJ that luJgeting is the at the top ol the list lor most lranJs. This coulJ
mean lack ol lunJs resulting in poor communication channels vith the clients.
As ligure 5.+.5 lists the Jetails. a peculiar ¯` ol the responJents leel the
concept itsell is the reason lehinJ marketing communications to le the
challenge.
Brand Restructuring ChaIIenges
I9`
5`
I2`
I5`
2J`
29`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
35`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons

IIGURE 5.4.6: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: BRAND RESTRUCTURING

Iigure 5.+.6 shovs vhy 5J` ol the responJents leel their lranJs vill lace
challenges vile relranJing activities. Vhile it is learnt that lranJs keep their
locus vhen they arrive at the stage ol restructuring the lranJ again. the

85
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
reasons alove suggest that most lranJ restructuring may lail as a lack ol
vision or locus. vhich is similar in case ol a corelranJing strategy. It is also
uselul to note lrom here that I in 5 lranJs may not le alle to successlully
restructure their lranJ again as a result ol insullicient lunJing.
Other ChaIIenges
I+`
J`
29`
I+`
2I` 2I`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l

a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g
Reasons

IIGURE 5.4.7: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: OTHERS

Among other challenges relateJ to lranJing activities. vhere the concept vas
a major concern to the responJents as they unJerline inconsistency. amliguity.
lack ol Jirection. eJucating customers among other reasons.

Having unJerstooJ the reasons lehinJ the challenges. it vas necessary to
unJerstanJ in Jepth vhat these reasons constituteJ overall to each challenge.

86
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
TotaI Reasons associated yith chaIIenges
I5`
+`
8`
2J`
3J`
23`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
L
a
c
k

o
l
v
i
s
i
o
n
/
l
o
c
u
s
S
k
i
l
l
s

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
J
v
i
t
h

h
a
n
J
l
i
n
g
t
h
e

i
s
s
u
e
L
a
c
k

o
l
a
c
a
J
e
m
i
c
m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

o
r
m
o
J
e
l
s
T
h
e

c
o
n
c
e
p
t
i
t
s
e
l
l
P
l
a
n
n
i
n
g

a
n
J
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
s
u
l
l
i
c
i
e
n
t
l
u
n
J
i
n
g

IIGURE 5.4.8: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS

Hence a lurther analysis vas Jone vith all reasons in Jetail. The ligure 5.+.8
shovs close to a thirJ ol the responJents leel luJgeting is the prime reason
lehinJ their challenges. Iigures 5.+.9 ¬ 5.+.I+ give a clue to vhat can le the
possille cure to all these challenges. As the results letveen the reasons anJ
challenges are compareJ. they signily vhat are the main issues that lranJing
anJ acaJemics neeJ aJJressing.

Ior instance. clearly I in + lranJs laces challenges Jue to core lranJing
strategy lacking ol locus or vision anJ acaJemic moJels or material anJ the
concept itsell neeJs revising. Similarly. a ouarter ol the responJents lelt that
the marketing communication vas a poor result ol skills associateJ vith it.


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
marketing integration laceJ issues Jue to poor planning anJ implementation
anJ lack ol lunJing vas a major result lor inaJeouate lranJing luJgets.
Reason: IacI oI vision/Iocus
I9`
I6`
I8` I8`
3`
25`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.9: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS DUE TO IACK OI VISION / IOCUS

Reason: SIiIIs associated yith handIing the issue
2I`
I3`
2+`
I8`
3`
2I`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.Iu: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS DUE TO POOR SKIIIS EMPIOYED

88
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Reason: IacI oI academic materiaI or modeIs
23`
9`
I8` I8`
5`
2¯`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.II: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS DUE TO IACK OI ACADEMIC
MATERIAIS OR MODEIS




Reason: The conceµt itseII
22`
5`
I¯`
22`
IJ`
2+`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.I2: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS DUE TO A POOR CONCEPT

89
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Reason: PIanning and ImµIementation
29`
I¯`
2J`
IJ`
2`
22`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.I3: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS DUE TO POOR PIANNING AND
IMPIEMENTATION



Reason: InsuIIicient Iunding
I¯`
29`
22`
IJ`
2`
2I`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
C
o
r
e

B
r
a
n
J
i
n
g
S
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
B
u
J
g
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
J
R
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
i
n
g
O
t
h
e
r

IIGURE 5.4.I4: CHAIIENGES IACED BY BRANDS: OTHER REASONS

9J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
5.5 Brand IiIe CycIe Conceµt: Assessment oI the Ayareness and
UseIuIness

The constraineJ literature arounJ a BranJ Lile Cycle concept haJ leen a major
stimulus lehinJ linJing the avareness anJ use ol a moJel in this sulject area.
Though there are a hanJlul moJels on lranJ lile cycle (reler chapter 2). most ol
these Jo not appear in marketing texts. Hovever. irrespective ol vhich moJel
a marketer has stuJieJ. Jue to the lack ol acaJemic presence ol a BranJ Lile
Cycle moJel. it vas important to iJentily a general popularity ol it. The ¯
th

ouestion in the ouestionnaire attempteJ to linJ out the popularity ol a BranJ
Lile Cycle MoJel. vhich has leen reproJuceJ in chapter 5.
Have you ever studied a BIC ModeI:
6`
+`
I`
¯`
II`
2`
6`
IJ`
9`
I` I` I`
IJ`
¯`
5`
8`
I2`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
S
t
u
J
e
n
t
F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
S
e
n
i
o
r

F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
A
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
n
a
g
e
r
B
r
a
n
J

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
V
i
c
e

P
r
e
s
i
J
e
n
t
C
F
O
/
C
h
i
e
l
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

O
l
l
i
c
e
r
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
/
M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

O
v
n
e
r
Particiµant's Designation
StuJieJ a BLC MoJel DiJ not stuJy

IIGURE 5.5.I: AVARENESS OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY RESPONDENTS

9I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

Iigure 5.5.I lurther illustrates the acaJemic avareness ol any BranJ Lile Cycle
moJel ly responJents' Jesignation. Though it vas Jissatislactory to learn that
only a small percentage ol the population is avare ol a moJel. most ol them are
avare ol the concept anJ linJ it uselul to look at a lranJ lrom its lile cycle. It
vas also encouraging to linJ out the most vellinlormeJ group ol the
population vas also the key people in lranJing. vith the exception ol lusiness
ovners vho vere. in most aspects. responsille lor their ovn lranJ.
Do you use a Brand IiIe CycIe ModeI
Ior lranding Decision maIing:
53`
+¯`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
Yes No

IIGURE 5.5.2: APPIICATION OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY THOSE VHO STUDIED
IT

Despite ol lov popularity. it vas very surprising to linJ out that I in 2 ol all
responJents vho vere avare ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel actually use it lor
lranJing Jecisionmaking. Out ol the 3I responJents vho saiJ they use the
moJel I8 saiJ it is uselul vhereas 2 saiJ it 'is c:o:oc:ot o| iot o| ot|:r |ectors' anJ

92
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
't|: eooiicetioo o| oreoc ii|: cvci: moc:is io t|:ir oar: ecec:mic s:os: io most ces:s is
ooioti:ss'. The ligure 5.5.3 shovs comparison ol all responses ly responJents'
prolessional Jesignation. It voulJ harJ to generalise that the popularity ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel vas higher in a set ol responJents over another. Jue to
the numler ol responses in each category JiJ not exceeJ more than 8 in any
category.
Particiµants yho studied a BIC ModeI and use it Ior lranding decision
maIing
6J`
II`
+2`
IJJ`
2¯`
+2`
23`
IJJ`
2J`
5J`
28`
2I`
2¯`
I6`
I8`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
S
e
n
i
o
r

F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
A
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
n
a
g
e
r
B
r
a
n
J

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
V
i
c
e

P
r
e
s
i
J
e
n
t
C
F
O
/
C
h
i
e
l
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

O
l
l
i
c
e
r
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
/
M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

O
v
n
e
r
StuJieJ anJ use StuJieJ lut Jont use

IIGURE 5.5.3: APPIICATION OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY RESPONDENTS
PROIESSION

Due to the limiteJ numler ol responses in each category another approach vas
useJ to iJentily any sort ol correlation among the responJents anJ the
avareness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel. Perlorming a set ol tvo Jillerent

93
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
analytical tests gave more eviJence to aJJ to the research linJings. in orJer to
generalise the outcomes to a larger population.
Iigures 5.5.+ ¬ ¯ shov the Jistrilution ol avareness anJ application ol a lranJ
lile cycle moJel in the real sense.
Ayareness oI BIC ModeI ly Particiµants' association yith Branding IieId
5J` 5J`
56`
58`
56`
IJJ`
5J` 5J`
++`
+2`
++`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
Never I2 yr 23 yr2 35 yr 5IJ yr2 More than IJ
yr
Ior hovmany years have you leen associateJ vith lranJing lielJ`
StuJieJ the BLC MoJel DiJ not stuJy

IIGURE 5.5.4: RESPONDENTS AVARENESS OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI
COMPARED TO THEIR ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING IIEID

9+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Avareness ol a BLC MoJel as per participants closeness vith lranJing
activities
59`
+J`
62`
52`
6I`
5J`
+I`
6J`
38`
+8`
39`
5J`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
Not at all Relative Somevhat
close
Important Fxtremely
close
Im solely
responsille
Hovclose are you vith lranJing activities ol your or your clients lranJ`
StuJieJ a BLC MoJel DiJ not stuJy a BLC MoJel

IIGURE 5.5.5: RESPONDENTS AVARENESS OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI
COMPARED TO THEIR ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING ACTIVITIES

It is visille lrom the lirst tvo graphs that the more a marketer has leen
associateJ vith lranJing or the more responsille they voulJ le in this lielJ.
they are more likely to le avare ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel.

Conversely. the use ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel is seen increasing in
proportion vith the marketers' responsilility tovarJs the lranJing activities
(reler ligure 5.5.6). On the other hanJ. a similar trenJ is olserveJ vhen the use
ol a moJel is compareJ against the marketers' association vith the lranJing
lielJ vith a reJuceJ use. as inJicateJ in ligure 5.5.¯ vhere every one marketer
in three stops using the moJel alter gaining experience over IJ yr in lranJing.

95
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
In either case. it vas agreealle to Jiscover the possille uselulness ol a moJel to
young marketers.
Use ol BLC MoJel ly Participants vho have stuJieJ the MoJel
3J`
5J` 5J`
58`
¯3`
IJJ`
¯J`
5J` 5J`
+2`
2¯`
J`
2J`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
Not at all Relative Somevhat
close
Important Fxtremely
close
Im solely
responsille
Hovclose are you vith your or your clients lranJing activities
Use the BLC MoJel Dont use the BLC MoJel
IIGURE 5.5.6: APPIICATION OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY RESPONDENTS
ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING ACTIVITIES
Particiµants'use oI BIC ModeI ly association yith Branding IieId
25`
5J`
¯3`
5J`
IJJ`
¯5`
5J`
2¯`
5J`
2J`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
I2 yr 23 yr2 35 yr 5IJ yr2 More than IJ yr
Ior hovmany years have you leen associateJ vith lranJing lielJ`
Use the BLC MoJel Dont use the BLC MoJel

IIGURE 5.5.7: APPIICATION OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY RESPONDENTS
ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING IIEID

96
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Among those vho JiJ not stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel too. the linJings
vere encouraging.
Have you studied a BIC ModeI:
62`
26`
I3`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
DiJ not stuJy DiJ not stuJy lut
interesteJ
DiJ not stuJy anJ
not interesteJ

IIGURE 5.5.8: THOSE VHO DID NOT STUDY A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI
Particiµants yho have not studied a BIC ModeI
5J`
33`
I6`
36`
32`
+I`
IJJ`
2J`
I¯`
II` II`
I+`
II` II` 9`
5`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
S
t
u
J
e
n
t
S
e
n
i
o
r

F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
A
s
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
B
r
a
n
J

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
V
i
c
e

P
r
e
s
i
J
e
n
t
C
F
O
/
C
h
i
e
l

M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g

O
l
l
i
c
e
r
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
/
M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g

D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

O
v
n
e
r
DiJ not stuJy DiJ not stuJy lut interesteJ DiJ not stuJy anJ not interesteJ
IIGURE 5.5.9: IACK OI AVARENESS OI A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI BY
RESPONDENTS
Nearly one in lour responJents vas interesteJ in stuJying a lranJ lile cycle
moJel. Again the Jistrilution ol the responses among those vho are more
interesteJ in stuJying a moJel (reler ligures 5.5.9 anJ 5.5.IJ) vere more


copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
assuring as those vho are at lront level ol marketing activities or those vho are
lusiness ovners vere keen to stuJy it.
8`
25`
I¯` I¯`
25`
8`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
S
t
u
J
e
n
t
S
e
n
i
o
r

F
x
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
M
a
r
k
e
t
i
n
g
M
a
n
a
g
e
r
B
r
a
n
J

M
a
n
a
g
e
r
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
/
M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
D
i
r
e
c
t
o
r
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

O
v
n
e
r
Particiµants yho are interested in studying a BIC modeI
IIGURE 5.5.Iu: RESPONDENTS VIIIING TO STUDY A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI

Yet again. responJents vho vere not interesteJ in stuJying a moJel on BranJ
Lile Cycle are some key people (reler ligure 5.5.II) in BranJing Jecision
making. There coulJ le various reasons associateJ vith this. hovever the
research laileJ to gather Jata on this as this ouestion vas optional in the
survey.

98
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
33`
I¯` I¯`
33`
J`
5`
IJ`
I5`
2J`
25`
3J`
35`
Marketing Manager BranJ Manager CFO/ Chiel
Marketing Ollicer
Business Ovner
Particiµants yho are not interested in studying a BIC modeI
IIGURE 5.5.II: RESPONDENTS UNVIIIING TO STUDY A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI

Supporting the linJings ol lrom the responJents vho have stuJieJ anJ use a
particular moJel on BranJ Lile Cycle. those vho JiJ not stuJy a moJel also
lelong to the similar category (reler ligure 5.5.I2 anJ 5.5.I3). This particularly
conlirms the perceive uselulness ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel among
responJents anJ proviJes uselul eviJence in lorming conclusions to this
analysis.

99
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Particiµants yho did not study BIC ModeI
25`
5J`
6+`
¯3`
IJJ`
5J`
38`
2¯`
I+`
25`
I3` 9` I+`
IJJ`
2J`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
Never I2 yr 23 yr2 35 yr 5IJ yr2 More than IJ
yr
Ior hovmany years have you leen associateJ vith lranJing lielJ`
DiJ not stuJy BLC MoJel
DiJ not stuJy. lut interesteJ in stuJying BLC MoJel
DiJ not stuJy anJ not interesteJ in stuJying BLC MoJel

IIGURE 5.5.I2: RESPONDENTS VIIIING TO STUDY A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI
COMPARED TO THEIR ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING IIEID

The outcomes ol these linJings inJicate a possille JemanJ lor a neeJ ol a
BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel in lranJing Jecisionmaking. Hovever Jue to a
limiteJ numler ol responses anJ the locus ol this research restricting to a
BranJ Lile Cycle moJel only. it voulJ le unlair to concluJe at this stage that
there is an actual neeJ lor any other moJel to le JevelopeJ apart lrom the
existing ones on laseJ on a BranJ's Lile Cycle.

IJJ
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Participants vho have not stuJieJ the BLC MoJel
86`
33`
8J`
63`
+3`
I+`
33`
29`
+3`
IJJ`
2J`
8`
I+`
33`
2J`
J`
2J`
+J`
6J`
8J`
IJJ`
Not at all Relative Somevhat
close
Important Fxtremely
close
Im solely
responsille
Hovclose are you vith lranJing activities ol your or your clients lranJ`
Not stuJieJ BLC MoJel
Not stuJieJ. lut InteresteJ in stuJying BLC MoJel
Not stuJieJ anJ Not interesteJ in stuJying BLC MoJel

IIGURE 5.5.I3: RESPONDENTS VIIIING TO STUDY A BRAND IIIE CYCIE MODEI
COMPARED TO THEIR ASSOCIATION VITH BRANDING ACTIVITIES










IJI
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
5.6 Summary oI Secondary Iindings

5.6.I There is a trenJ in vhich lranJ lailures occur Juring the lile span ol a
lranJ. hovever there is no signilicant or Jistinct trenJ in lranJ Jeaths as
compareJ to their past lailures.

5.6.2 BranJing prolessionals leel more conliJent alout their lranJ's longevity
il they experience no lailures in past.

5.6.3 BuJgeting plays a key role in a lranJ's grovth as vell as lailure. leaJing
to a lranJ's longevity.

5.6.+ BranJs lace multiple challenges simultaneously as a result ol JiscorJant
anJ incongruent. yet interconnecteJ reasons mainly presiJeJ over ly lack ol
locus anJ vision imleJJeJ in the core lranJing strategy anJ its
implementation.

5.6.5 BranJ Lile Cycle MoJels are lesspopular as estimateJ. hovever it vas
unexpecteJly pleasant to learn that those vho knov it lounJ it uselul in their
Jecisionmaking process.

IJ2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
5.6.6 A set ol participants seek moJels laseJ on lranJ lile cycle more than
the entire population itsell.
The orimerv |iocio:s along vith the summary JeriveJ lrom the s:coocerv |iocio:s
are the main ingreJients lor representing any conclusions to the initial
hypothesis ol this research. The conclusions Jravn lrom loth these linJings
keep in minJ the use ol these linJings to the auJience ol this research. as vell
as aJJing value to the existing literature. as some ol the linJings are
unexpecteJly appealing on this sulject.

A conscious ellort has leen maJe to consiJer interesting yet most appropriate
elements ol the Jata. The next chapter emphases on most uselul pieces ol
linJings that may lenelit the lielJ ol lranJing. locusing entirely on achieving
longevity to a lranJ as opposeJ to untimely anJ Jisheartening lranJing
lailures. Any inJicative anJ potentially inlluential conclusions have leen
eliminateJ anJ reassesseJ as recommenJation. il any. lor luture researches.






IJ3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION

One ol the core tasks post analysis ol the linJings. vas to Jrav conclusions
lrom the linJings to meet the oljectives. In this chapter. the main concerns
surrounJing those consiJerations have leen JiscusseJ lelore arriving to any
particular conclusions. Belov the oljectives have leen Jirectly compareJ to
the research linJings. so as to eraJicate possilility ol high errors lelore the
conclusions are Jravn.

6.I Research Oljectives versus Research Iindings

Due to the project level reouirements anJ time allocateJ to research. the
project locuseJ on a testing only the application a theoretical moJel against
the current lranJing issues. It thus vas very crucial to hypothesise the
oljectives ol the research anJ conlirm il the hypothesis vas true or lalse. A
Jirect comparison ol linJings vith the oljectives helpeJ achieve this.

6.I.I Brand MarIeters` taIe on their lrand`s Iongevity
BranJs are those Jistinct characteristics ol an organisation vhich are useJ to
iJentily. classily anJ Jillerentiate lrom others. As lranJing evolves vith
changes occurring in the surrounJings. nev phenomenon give Jillerent
meanings to lranJing. Hovever in their true sense. lranJs must le maJe to

IJ+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
last lorever. even il the creators ol the lranJ may not last. the lranJ
lounJations must le alle to help them survive long enough.

Though it is unJerstanJalle. that lor most ol the population seeing their lranJ
lasting lorever vas unrealistic. It vas noticeally Jissatislactory to Jiscover
that ¯¯.¯` ol the population Joes not see their lranJ lasting over a JecaJe.
making the estimateJ over 3 out ol + lranJs vill Jie in IJ yr. A marginally
small amount ol population. I in 5 saiJ their lranJ vill last at least lor a
century. The overall supposition is that most lranJs vill not achieve longevity.
inJicating a lack ol long term locus.

6.I.2 The chaIIenges leing Iaced ly lrands today
The responses to all types ol challenges appear mixeJ anJ most lranJs have
most challenges commonly appearing. A clear inJication letveen most
challenges laceJ ly lranJ age signilieJ that lranJs vhich are still younger
than 5 years as vell as those vhich have leen in lusiness over 5J years
encounter maximum challenges. A concerning ligure ol 39` ol lranJs lelov
the 5 year age group highlight the neeJ lor lurther exploration vith regarJs to
their challenges.

6.I.3 The main reasons Ior these chaIIenges

IJ5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As lor all the challenges their reasons too are interrelateJ. leaJing to the
unJerstanJing that lranJs are not lully eouippeJ vith creating sustainalle
aJvantage anJ simply getting in the llov ol competition leaves some harsh
implications on lranJs.

6.I.4 The most common lrand IaiIures encountered ly lrands
AJvertising tops the list ol ultimate lranJing lailure type vith I out +
aJvertising activities Jo not meet their oljectives. Pullic relations. lranJing
extensions anJ proJuct launches are all seconJ to aJvertising.

6.I.5 Any correIation letyeen lrand IaiIures and lrand`s Iongevity
The issue iJentilieJ through the research vas vith lranJ's perceiveJ longevity
ly the population. The ouestion ol actual longevity ol the lranJs JepenJs
upon the present actions ol the marketers anJ as a result ol eraJicating the
challenges associateJ vith the lranJs. Hovever. lranJs' longevity vas
estimateJ using their past lailures. it vas clear that lailures may have a short
term ellect on the minJs ol the consumer hovever it has a long term ellect on
the lranJ's lile. Marketers leel more conliJent ol their lranJ's longevity vhen
they JiJ not encounter any lailure. One ol the reassuring linJings ol this
research vas to iJentily this Jillerence ol opinion vhich conlirms it is vorth
investing time to stuJy anJ minimise lranJing lailures.

IJ6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
6.I.6 The current lranding ludgets
The research also trieJ to estimate the perception ol the lranJ's longevity
compareJ to its current lunJing capalility. Similar to the correlation letveen
lailures anJ longevity. there vas a clear rise in conliJence level ol the
population as their lranJs vere aJeouately lunJeJ.

Hovever. the interesting linJing ol the stuJy vas alout the lasic perception
ol the lunJing itsell. As compareJ to 'The 2JJ¯ BranJ marketer's report'
(InterlranJ. 2JJ¯). 3` ol aJeouately lunJeJ lranJs lelt unJer lunJeJ vhile
I` lelt over lunJeJ post recession. This is a clear inJication vhere some
lranJs have the strengths to grov Jespite ol the economic climate. most
others vill le allecteJ Jue to the Jepression ellects ol the glolal economy.

6.I.7 The lranding activities mostIy leen carried out recentIy
As most lranJs leel this shilt lrom aJeouate luJgeting to unJer luJgeting anJ
aJvertising toppeJ the list ol lailures. it vas no surprise to see pullic relations
activities taking across most lranJs. Vhile aJvertising vas still a priority lor
many lranJs. relranJing activities JroppeJ to more than 5J` compareJ vith
the lranJ marketer's report (InterlranJ. 2JJ¯). Il the tvo reports can le
compareJ closely. the liggest lactor to reason this Jrop in relranJing
activities coulJ le a result ol lranJs going out ol market. i.e. lranJ Jeaths or

IJ¯
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Jue to insullicient lunJing as a result ol recession may have causeJ lranJs to
postpone or cancel their relranJing activities.

6.I.8 Ayareness oI a Brand IiIe CycIe modeI
The tvo key linJings alout a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel vere exceptional to this
stuJy. Iirstly. there is very little avareness ol the moJels among lranJ leaJers.
inJicating the neeJ lor popularity ol the moJels. SeconJly. this viev is
supporteJ ly the linJings itsell. vhere Jespite lov popularity the moJel is
generally uselul among the knovleJgealle class. as hall ol those vho vere
avare ol a lranJ lile cycle moJel. actually use it. This lecame the prime
eviJence to the main conclusions ol this research.

6.I.9 UseIuIness oI seeing a lrand through its IiIe cycIe
Despite ol lack ol knovleJge ol a particular moJel laseJ on the lile cycle ol a
lranJ. most lranJing prolessionals. interestingly the amateur lusinessmen
anJ lront line lranJ marketers lounJ uselulness ol the concept leing applieJ
to a lranJ. So to iJentily the potential ol an existing moJel is relevant anJ
vorth investigating. BranJ lile cycle concepts uselulness vas perceiveJ lov
vith marketing managers as compareJ to lranJ managers. Jirectors anJ lranJ
or lusiness ovners.

IJ8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
6.I.Iu Any issues reIated to the sIiII and InoyIedge oI those deaIing
lranding
There vas no other signilicant olservation vith regarJs to the skills employeJ
apart lrom ellectively managing the various challenges associateJ to lranJing
activities. The population inJicateJ that the use ol a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel
vas appropriate in 5J` cases. thus supporting the lact that there is a neeJ lor
increasing their avareness alout the availalle moJels. This meant lor
eouipping marketers vith some tools or moJels to estallish the core lranJing
strategy. its implementation vith the use ol integration anJ communication.

6.2 Research imµIications over existing Iiterature and theories

An assessment ol any possille implications JeriveJ lrom the research linJings
have leen listeJ Jovn in this section. These highlight major actions that may
le neeJeJ as a result ol any conclusions lrom these linJings.

6.2.I The issue oI generaI µerceµtions oI Brand IiIe CycIe ModeIs
Most responJents. vho have stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. haJ liaseJ
opinions alout their uselulness. It cannot le generaliseJ anJ conlirmeJ that
the lranJ lile cycle moJels availalle are uselul or not. As eoual numler ol
participants vho have stuJieJ it saiJ either it is very uselul or it JepenJs in
some cases or it is pointless to use these moJels.

IJ9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
6.2.2 UseIuIness oI a Brand IiIe CycIe ModeIs versus the conceµt oI
studying a lrand Irom its IiIe cycIe
Though a small set ol responJents vho JiJ not stuJy a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel
shov interest in stuJying one. the majority ol the participants are not sure.
Hovever. a signilicant numler ol responJents agree that looking at a lranJ
lrom its lile cycle is uselul anJ as some say 'eovt|io: woaic co io t|is :oviroom:ot' or
't|: mor: t|: o:tt:r' or I voulJ use a moJel. il I '|ioc t|: ri:|t oo:'. BranJ marketers
are villing to try il they perceive a uselulness ol a moJel.

6.3 Strengths oI the Research

There vere tvo major strengths employeJ ly this research vith contrilutes to
the unliaseJ research outcomes.

6.3.I The µoµuIation shortIisting
Most researches lail Jue to preJisposition ol their population Jue to
inaJeouate sampling. The type ol sampling methoJ useJ (reler chapter +.
section +.3) in this research has vell justilieJ the results lounJ. As the
participants vere lelt to JeciJe their interest in responJing to the research. as
eo iosic:r or :mic memler ol the population. the positional ellect on the
population vas only to Jrive the chosen population tovarJ participation.
There vas no positional ellect once the participant chooses to responJ. as

IIJ
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
most ol the Jata collecteJ vas lactually JepenJent ol their ovn lranJ. This
strength along vith the overall research strategy helpeJ increasing the
responses. overcoming hurJles such as long holiJay perioJ post the
commencement ol Jata gathering. as it vas estimateJ that this perioJ voulJ
have aJverse ellect on the numler ol responses collecteJ.

6.3.2 Research Strategy and Execution
The major strength ol this research vas the strategy implementeJ to gain
access anJ encouraging responses lrom the participants. Being avare ol the
possille risks involveJ in leaving the Jecision to participate vith the
population vithout prior consent gaineJ. the execution ol the strategy (reler
chapter +. section +.3) helpeJ reaching the total response count to I62
(incluJing incomplete responses) out ol 599 memlers ol the population.
achieving a response rate ol I out ol + invitations. Il there are any areas vhere
the research coulJ have leen improveJ upon lurther. even then the strategy
aJopteJ may have leen the last element ol the research to le reviseJ.

The research may have a couple ol areas lor improvement. Having seen the
results. il this project vas to le reexecuteJ. then signilicant changes voulJ
have leen maJe to reorganise the oljectives to use the Jata gathereJ lor in
Jepth stuJy over challenges ly lranJ in Jillerent age group. This voulJ have

III
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
reouireJ potential changes to the survey ouestionnaire anJ the seouence ol the
ouestions.

6.4 Iimitations oI the study

The possille limitations to this stuJy vere all uncontrollalle Jue to their
extrinsic nature. yet coulJ le overcome ly aJjusting the research oljectives
anJ the strategy employeJ.

6.4.I IacI oI Iiterature to le revieyed
There vas a Jelay in the commencement ol the research process Jue to lack ol
literature arounJ the sulject. The research oljectives lrom the research
proposal neeJeJ to le revorkeJ as the research aim anJ Jirection vas locuseJ
tovarJs a theoretical moJel testing. Hovever this JiJ not have a major impact
on the research progress as the research Jata collection legan at the projecteJ
Jate.

6.4.2 Time aIIocation Ior µrimary data coIIection
As aJJress in section 6.3.I. the year enJing perioJ vas one ol the major
olstacles to Jata gathering. ShoulJ the research voulJ have leen carrieJ out
keeping the timelines anJ Jata collection perioJ the same. I reckon the
response rate voulJ have leen at least I5` higher. resulting in lar less chances

II2
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
errors in generalisation ol linJings. Hovever unJerstanJing that this vas an
external lactor leyonJ control. the primary Jata collection time vas kept over
5J Jays. alloving time lor participants to responJ. vith senJing them a linal
reminJer. in the lorm ol a seconJ communication. lelore the research
concluJes.

6.5 Interµretation oI main resuIts

The key lactor lor interpreting the main linJings lor conclusion vas to remain
locuseJ tovarJs attaining the research oljectives. One ol the consiJerations
lor this vas to iJentily vhether the research itsell ansvereJ the research
oljectives. Any aJJitional linJings that JiJ not lorm a part ol the research
oljectives yet vere ol great importance to luture research. have leen recorJeJ
anJ storeJ than ignoring completing.

The linJings that JiJ not relate to this research incluJeJ a) comparison ol
current lranJing challenges as a result ol their past lailures anJ l) InJepth
stuJy on the impact ol BranJ's longevity Jue to challenges laceJ. These
linJings are inJicative ol luture research. hovever these vere eliminateJ lrom
the overall linJings to keep the central issue surrounJing the popularity ol
BranJ Lile Cycle MoJels.

II3
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The research has three major linJings. as JiscusseJ in the previous chapter
that are relateJ to the oljectives ol this stuJy. The summary lrom the previous
chapter has leen useJ to Jrav the important conclusions to this stuJy. This
chapter only highlights on vhat lasic linJings the conclusions are laseJ upon
anJ acknovleJges exclusions. il any. lrom the linJings.
















II+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAP1LR 7: CONCLUSIONS

Alter the immense Jetails gathereJ lrom the research linJings. it is inJucing to
concluJe that researching in this neglecteJ yet most important area ol
lranJing vas aJvantageous in more than one vay. The learning ol this
research linJings aJJ another Jimension to the literature availalle on lranJ
Jeclines. Jeaths anJ lailures. anJ I am hopelul that it encourages the lranJ
experts to come lorth anJ contrilute tovarJs the vealth ol knovleJge into
the lranJing lielJ. lut enriching literature on lranJ longevity vith lessons
learnt ly lereaveJ lranJs vith lest anJ ellective practices shareJ ly
invincille lranJs.

There is no Joult that existing acaJemic literature as vell as inJiviJual case
stuJies on lranJs have a lot to le learnt lrom. Jespite ol inlinitesimal amount
ol creative vriting on the issues concerning Jying lranJs. Conversely. authors
anJ lranJ experts vho have exceptional knovleJge anJ expertise in this lielJ
might note lrom the research linJings that there is an area ol lranJing vhich
neeJs more attention glolally toJay than any other time in history.

II5
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The conclusive arguments lrom the upcoming sections ol this chapter
highlight the urgency ol lixing the issues revolving lranJ longevity emlarking
a sulstantial Jelate on vhether to look at a lranJ lrom its lile cycle or not.

7.I Branding ChaIIenges

Vhether it is the core lranJing strategy or luJgeting. marketing
communication or integration. lranJs create more challenges lor themselves
Jue to lack ol long term locus. Rolust lranJs keep on their locus intact to
attain longevity. A mere set ol challenges may not shake the amlitions ol
strongest lranJs. hovever it may Jestroy those vho cannot vithstanJ the
inescapalle tornaJo. There is no one litarre challenge that results into
lranJing Jisasters. Fach lranJ may have a signilicant set ol challenges. anJ
may eventually neeJ separate treatments. hovever it is important that they
neeJ a treatment.

The linJings are suggestive that most lranJs lace common challenges. leaJing
to a viev that all ol those vho lace a challenge neeJ a ouick lix lelore they
start to Jecline. Though this research JiJ not carry an inJepth analysis ol
lranJ challenges. it acknovleJges the issue is most common letveen lranJs
that have leen nevly lormeJ anJ lranJs that have liveJ their lile anJ soon
approach the Jeceasing stage ol their lile cycle. Various analyses carrieJ

II6
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
arounJ the linJings highlight the lact that lranJs spot opportunities ol
grovth. at every step ol the vay. hovever lail to cashin the aJvantage Jue to
associateJ challenges.

7.2 Branding IaiIures

It is vise to learn lrom mistakes anJ learning lrom ovn mistakes is the harJer
vay. Fvery lranJ marketers knov the conseouences ol lailures on lranJs anJ
Jespite ol their ellorts. some Jon't get it right. The lamine ol contrilution on
vhat can le Jone to stop lranJs lrom lailing inJuceJ the neeJ to stuJy this
aspect ol lranJ's longevity.

The linJings conlirm that lailures Jo not conlirm the Jeath or longevity ol a
lranJ. as Haig (2JJ8) helps iJentily this relation. FviJence lrom ligure ¯.2.I
supports this lasic phenomenon. as lailure haJ no impact on alout 85` ol the
lranJs vho lelt they are JeemeJ to le living lorever. BranJ lailures. most
certainly veaken the attituJe ol lranJ marketers tovarJ their ovn lranJ's
longevity.

II¯
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
BranJs that lelieve vill last lorever..
8+`
I6`
J`
IJ`
2J`
3J`
+J`
5J`
6J`
¯J`
8J`
9J`
Never experienceJ a lailure FxperienceJ a lailure
Has your lranJ ever haJ a lailure`

IIGURE 7.2.I: CONIIDENCE OVER BRAND`S IONGEVITY BY THEIR IAIIURE

FstallisheJ lranJs that JiJ not taste lailures. set examples lor others vith
regarJs to their attituJe tovarJs longevity ol the lranJ as vell as are more
unlikely to le unJer luJgeteJ (reler ligure ¯.2.2).
Brands yith no IaiIures and
conIident oI their
Iongevity
33`
I¯`
5J`
UnJer luJgeteJ
AJeouately luJgeteJ
Over luJgeteJ

IIGURE 7.2.2: GETTING THE BUDGETS RIGHT

II8
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
7.3 Branding Budgets

The impact ol improper or inaJeouate luJgeting is alvays an issue vith most
lusinesses is the same ¬ slover grovth. It vas remarkalle to see that at large
lranJ marketers leel the same alout their lranJing luJget as they JiJ 3 years
ago (reler chapter +. ouestion 3 anJ talle +.3). As ligure ¯.2.2 shovs that
lranJs can le more conliJent ol their longevity il they are aJeouately luJgeteJ
or vice versa. this correlation is inJepenJent ol the actual perlormance ol the
lranJ. A lranJ may still leel restricteJ to act on the market opportunities Jue
to lack ol lunJs vhether it lelt strong alout its longevity or not. The important
thing to Jrav lrom these conclusions is. there is little proven as vhat can Jrive
the Jecisionmaking lor a lranJ ly only stuJying their luJgets or take on their
longevity.

7.4 Brand IiIe CycIe conceµt

The research linJings inJicateJ that lranJ lile cycle concept is uselul lut
neeJs moJels that are relevant anJ uselul. The Jearth ol stuJies in this area is
to le llameJ lor this anJ any lailures causeJ to lranJs. This also allirms that it
is not alvays the lranJ leaJers vho are to le llameJ lor a lranJing Jisaster. It
JepenJs a lot on hov vell eouippeJ they have leen. It is time that acaJemics
share the llame vith marketers to not leen alle to proviJe a moJel that gives

II9
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
lranJ marketers to hanJle their lranJ carelully at every stage vithout
vorrying alout the lorthcoming Jeath or Jecline.

The locus must alvays le avoiJing a lailure anJ keeping connecteJ to the
strategic customers. ly governing the lranJing activities to supply the
market's JemanJs. BranJ eouity moJels are very uselul anJ viJely useJ ly
lranJing prolessionals as compareJ to BranJ Lile Cycles. This research JiJ not
locus on linJing the gap letveen the uses ol these moJels. hovever entirely
locusseJ on a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel's uselulness.

7.5 Brand IiIe CycIe ModeIs

As lrom the results. it is eviJent that like lor acaJemics. most lranJ
prolessionals Jo not seem to agree over the concepts ol lile cycle leing applieJ
to a lranJ. The acaJemics vho have trieJ to apply this concept in practise
through BranJ Lile Cycle moJels. Jo not entirely Jemonstrate the ellectiveness
ol a moJel. The reasons associateJ vith this give lirth to tvo possililities.
Fither the existing moJels on lranJ lile cycle neeJ to le populariseJ or neeJ
revisiting. Jeveloping anJ relerenceJ vhile lranJing is stuJieJ ly lranJ
marketers.

I2J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
As the research population Joes not extraorJinarily anJ lully solicit a neeJ lor
a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel. lut strongly inJicate their lranJs voulJ cease to
exist Jue to expanJeJ challenges. here is the eviJence lor a neeJ ol a tool that
acts as a guiJing veapon lor them in the lusiness lattlelielJ. As the main
research ouestion. vhether a BranJ Lile Cycle moJel that has this pover or
not remains partially convincingly ansvereJ.

The lack ol avareness ol BranJ Lile Cycle moJels results in their
inellectiveness as vell as leing perceiveJ as useless. At the same time. a moJel
locusing on every kinJ ol lranJ lrom a 36J viev has never leen JevelopeJ.
Treating lranJing activities as similar to proJuct Jeveloping activities. anJ
applying the same moJels such as a ProJuct Lile Cycle MoJels to a lranJ may
potentially harm lranJs lorever. It is essential to Jillerentiate a lranJ lrom the
concept ol a proJuct Jue to their longterm or lile span nature.

Thus il any nev moJel neeJs Jeveloping to aJJress all the issues surrounJing
the Jying lranJs. it still certainly neeJs to look at a lranJ lrom its lilecycle.
Thus. it is sale to concluJe at this point. that a more relevant. largely applicalle
anJ popular BranJ Lile Cycle moJel is A Possioi: Car: to the ailing Breoc`s
Svmotoms. Yet another ouestion rising lrom this conclusion is vhat shoulJ le
the central issue vhile Jeveloping such a moJel`

I2I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
7.6 Brand`s Iongevity

As vith all the lusinesses. vhether small or multinational giants. the key to
sustainalility ¬ 'BranJing' neeJs to le longterm orienteJ. Fxperts in this area
constantly repeat that lranJing is not alone a name. logo or pictures useJ to
Jescrile your organisation. These are larely leatures ol a lranJ. Vhat
constitutes a creation ol a lranJ is a strategic veapon that is useJ against all
the competitors. hence lranJing shoulJ le competition orienteJ. Competition
that is. vas anJ vill le in the luture at attack on your strategic customers'
luying interests anJ take the share avay lrom you insteaJ.

Vhether an existing BranJ Lile Cycle moJel is reJevelopeJ or any lresh iJeas
are instigateJ in a lranJ nev moJel creation. il the moJels lack the centrality
ol sustainalility. in case ol a lranJ. its longevity. then it too is likely to lail anJ
the linJings ol this stuJy voulJ gather Just along siJe the Jearth ol stuJies
that have gone into this sulject.





I22
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CHAPTER 8: RECOMMENDATIONS

This stuJy locuseJ entirely on moJels on BranJ Lile Cycle anJ presumeJ the
reaJers ol the resulting linJings shoulJ lenelit lor more one reason. Hovever
as the concept ol BranJ's Longevity anJ BranJ Lile Cycle are common to all
types ol lranJs. the possille recommenJations are classilieJ laseJ upon their
relevance anJ perceiveJ aJvantages to Jillerent sets ol lranJing prolessionals.
The lelov recommenJations are inJicative anJ assume they voulJ have most
relevance to the classes they lelong to. hovever these may apply to all the
population in general.

These recommenJations are purely maJe laseJ on a prime assumption that the
reaJer is in search ol materials on BranJ Lile or Longevity anJ linJ some or no
Jegree ol uselulness in an existing BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel at the time ol
relerence to this Jocument.

Ior avoiJing galles. the reaJers are recommenJeJ to search lor an up to Jate
literature anJ not to make liaseJ or linancially implicating Jecisions laseJ
purely on these linJings. as this report is primarily sulmitteJ lor acaJemic
purpose as a partial reouirement lor the completion ol an MBA Jegree in
Marketing.

I23
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Area oI interest to Academics and Researching lodies`: As the research
clearly iJentilieJ a neeJ lor Jevelopment ol moJels laseJ on lranJ lile cycles
anJ lring to light the inept anJ unexploreJ areas ol lranJing. it is highly
recommenJeJ that there is lurther research carrieJ out in this regarJs. The
linJings ol this research may le valualle to those vho vork closely vith
lranJs or possess expertise in this lielJ. The linJings anJ conclusions together
shoulJ le enough lor iJentilying key areas ol concern in luture ol lranJs.

Area oI interest to Students, Branding µroIessionaIs and Brand oyners`:
BranJ Lile Cycle moJels anJ concepts at this point in time are less recogniseJ
in most marketing anJ lranJing texts. The concepts anJ applications ol these
are usually valualle to all sorts ol lranJs. The orimerv as vell as s:coocerv
|iocio:s oltaineJ lrom this research are a uselul guiJe in general to gain
avareness anJ uselulness ol these moJels. It is essential to note that the
popularity ol these moJels has not leen testeJ against any other lranJing
moJels in the primary research. RecommenJeJ. BranJ Lile Cycle moJel ly
IJris Mootee (2JJI).

Area oI interest to Students`: The sulject ol lranJ's longevity as a vhole is a
uselul reaJ lrom seconJary Jata anJ the lilliography voulJ le uselul lor
lurther research in this area. Il stuJying the research methoJology against any

I2+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
planneJ researches vith similar methoJology. you may Jevote special
attention to execution anJ limitation consiJerations.

Area oI interest to Students, Brand Executives, Brand Managers,
MarIeting Managers, Directors, MD, CEO, CIO, Business oyners`:
IinJings shoving the impact ol lranJing lailures on various elements ol
lranJing incluJing luJgets anJ longevity can le relerreJ to as a lenchmark
lor luture trenJs or sulseouent lurther research in this area. Similarly. linJings
laseJ on lranJ challenges may le relerreJ to lor lorecasting lranJing
activities execution.

Area oI interest to Brand Managers, Brand Oyners or Business Oyners`:
To successlully manage your lranJ in Jillerent markets ly preJicting the
turning point on BranJ Lile Cycle curves simultaneously lor all lranJs
competing against yours'. recommenJeJ reaJing. Vaage's vork on BranJ Lile
Cycle Trajectories (2JJ6).









I25
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
RECORDS OI MEETING



Meeting I

Date.
I9 Octoler 2JJ9

Summary ol Discussion.
IeeJlack receiveJ on Dissertation proposal. Dissertation topic is PHD level. neeJs lurther relining ly
revieving relevant Literature
A TimeTalle receiveJ lor 8 veeks perioJ starting lrom toJay lor Novemler ¬ Decemler 2JJ9

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
The research oljectives anJ context neeJs lurther relining anJ revrite oljectives.

Date ol next meeting.
+ Novemler 2JJ9



Meeting 2

Date.
+ Novemler 2JJ9

Summary ol Discussion.
PresenteJ the revieveJ ol Literature anJ JiscusseJ possille relinement ol the topic

A Joalle topic is iJentilieJ anJ lurther literature reviev is neeJeJ to iJentily key issues anJ research
oljectives

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
An introJuction to research topic anJ key points ol literature reviev in Jralt stage

Date ol next meeting.
I8 Novemler 2JJ9




Meeting 3

Date.
I8 Novemler 2JJ9

Summary ol Discussion.
Research introJuction is revieveJ along vith revieveJ literature is assesseJ
DiscusseJ research methoJology incluJing applicalle Jata collection methoJs

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
Completion ol Literature Reviev (linal Jralt) anJ Sample Questionnaire

Date ol next meeting.
2 Decemler 2JJ9
Meeting 4

I26
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

Date.
2 Decemler 2JJ9

Summary ol Discussion.
Literature Reviev Jralt is assesseJ anJ leeJlack receiveJ to improve
Survey Questionnaire is examineJ anJ approval gaineJ lor releasing the survey ouestionnaire to the
participants

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
Literature reviev to le linisheJ vriting. UpJates on survey ouestionnaire ly encouraging
participation through LinkeJIn.com

Date ol next meeting.
I6 Decemler 2JJ9





Meeting 5

Date.
I6 Decemler 2JJ9

Summary ol Discussion.
Progress check. IntroJuction anJ Literature Reviev vriting linisheJ (linal Jralt) ¬ No improvements
are reouireJ lurther. Possililities ol responses JiscusseJ. IJentilieJ area lor improving ouality ol
response to Survey SulQuestion no. ¯. Changes agreeJ to the survey ouestion anJ ansver

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
Completion ol Research Context vriting. Jiscussion anJ methoJology to le linaliseJ. FJiting survey
sulouestion no. ¯. Avaiting lor lurther meeting scheJule

Date ol next meeting.
To le communicateJ via email in January 2JIJ.




Meeting 6

Date.
I2 January 2JIJ

Summary ol Discussion.
Progress check. Numler ol survey responses. response evaluation lor sulouestion no. ¯
Prereviev meeting Jiscussion on overall progress ol the Dissertation

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
MethoJology (Jata analysis) to le relineJ anJ encouraging survey responses to concluJe survey on 25
January 2JIJ


Date ol next meeting.
I8 January 2JIJ





I2¯
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Meeting 7

Date.
I8 January 2JIJ

Summary ol Discussion.
Dissertation Reviev Meeting vith Dr Jill Venus. MIT. University ol Vales. Lampeter
Research progress check. IntroJuction. Literature reviev. Survey responses anJ Jata analysis methoJs

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
ConcluJe the survey ly 25 January 2JIJ ly encouraging as many responses as possille
Assess methoJs ol analysis anJ commence Jata analysis
Analyse Jata lor oltaining research linJings anJ Jralt research methoJology anJ

Date ol next meeting.
2 Ielruary 2JIJ




Meeting 8

Date.
2 January 2JIJ

Summary ol Discussion.
Meeting cancelleJ. corresponJence through emails vas agreeJ. il neeJeJ

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
Research Analysis completion vith linJings

Date ol next meeting.
I5 Ielruary 2JIJ




Meeting 9

Date.
I5 January 2JIJ

Summary ol Discussion.
Fmail corresponJence on clarilications on compiling the report vith particular relerence to linJings
anJ Jata presentation. Jata protection. anJ overall guiJelines

Vork reouireJ ly next meeting.
Report sulmission ly JeaJline

Date anJ time ol sulmission JeaJline.
I9 Ielruary 2JIJ. I6JJhrs GMT

I28
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
REIERENCES

Bosvorth. D. (2JJ5). D:t:rmioeots o| :ot:roris: o:r|ormeoc:`
Manchester University Press. pp 3325¯. ISBN J¯I9J6¯¯+X

Brovn. C. (I993). 'The sales promotion hanJlook'
Kogan Page Pullishers. pp +J5J. ISBN J¯+9+J9983

Burk. S. (2JJ9). 'Vhite Paper Sustainalility'
Pivot Lal

BusinessPunJit (2JJ9). '2J BranJs anJ ProJucts that JieJ in 2JJ9'
íAccesseJ Online] Availalle at. http.//vvv.lusinesspunJit.com/2JlranJs
proJuctsthatJieJin2JJ9. AccesseJ on. 23 Septemler 2JJ9

Dalrymple. D. anJ Parsons. L. (2JJ2). 'Basic marketing management'
Viley Pullications. eJ. 2. pp I+I+2. ISBN J+¯I353922

Davies. H anJ Lam. P. (2JJI). 'Managerial economics. an analysis ol lusiness issues'
Pearson FJucation. eJ. 3. pp 3J93IJ. ISBN J2¯36+628I

Davis. R. anJ Chang. S. (I986). 'Principles ol managerial economics'
Prentice Hall. pp I8I83. ISBN JI3¯JI368X

Dean. J. (I95J). 'Pricing policies lor nev proJucts'
HarvarJ Business Reviev 28. pp +553

Doyle. P. anJ Stern. P. (2JJ6). 'Marketing management anJ strategy'
Pearson FJucation. eJ. +. pp I3++J. ISBN J2¯369398J

Fgan. J. (2JJ¯). 'Marketing Communications'
Cengage Learning FMFA. pp 9I. ISBN I8++8JI2I¯

Ian. Y. (2JJ5). 'Fthical BranJing anJ Corporate Reputation'
Corporate Communications. An International Journal. Vol IJ. Numler +. pp. 3+I5J

Iisher. C.. Buglear. J.. Lovry. D.. Mutch. A. anJ Tansley. C. (2JJ+). 'Researching anJ
Vriting a Dissertation lir Business StuJents'
IT Prentice Hall. ISBN J2¯36833+9

Gunelius. S. (2JJ9). 'BranJ Longevity ¬ The Message Consumers NeeJ to Hear'
íAccesseJ Online]. Availalle at. http.//vvv.corporateeye.com/llog/2JJ9/J2/this
justincustomerexperienceim. AccesseJ on. 2+ Septemler 2JJ9

Groucutt. J. (2JJ5). 'IounJations ol marketing'
Palgrave IounJations. pp I+252. I982J5. ISBN 9¯8 I +J39 J32¯ I




I29
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Haig. M. (2JJ8). 'lranJ IAILURFS. The truth alout the IJJ liggest lranJing
mistakes ol all time'
Kogan Pare LimiteJ. LonJon. ISBN 9¯8J¯+9+++33+

InterlranJ Case stuJies ¬ McDonalJs (2JJ9). 'InterlranJ Case stuJies'
íAccesseJ Online]. Availalle at.
http.//vvv.interlranJ.com/casestuJy.aspx`caseiJIJ66&langiJIJJJ. AccesseJ on.
29 Septemler 2JJ9

Jones. J. P. (I999). 'Hov to use aJvertising to luilJ strong lranJs'
SAGF Pullications. pp I9¯. ISBN J¯6I9I2+36

Kaplerer. J. (2JJ8). 'The Nev Strategic BranJ Management. Creating anJ Sustaining
BranJ Fouity'
Kogan Page Pullishers. eJ. +. pp 238. ISBN J¯+9+5J85I

Kotler. P. (I99I). 'Principles ol marketing'
Prentice Hall. ISBN 8I3I¯I5+¯¯

Kotler. P. (I988). 'Marketing management. analysis. planning. implementation. anJ
control' The PrenticeHall series in marketing Prentice Hall International FJitions'
PrenticeHall. ISBN JI355626¯8. 6
th
eJn

Kotler. P.. Armstrong. G.. Iranke. G. anJ Bunn. M. D. (I99J). 'Marketing. an
introJuction'
Prentice Hall. eJ. 2. vol. I. pp 2¯J. ISBN JI3556+328

Lavrence. K. D. (2JJ6). 'AJvances in lusiness anJ management lorecasting'
FmeralJ Group Pullishing. vol. +. pp 2+¯6J. ISBN J¯623I28I5

Levitt. T. (I965). 'Fxploit the proJuct lile cycle'
HarvarJ Business Reviev +3. (Novemler ¬ Decemler). pp 8I9+

LinkeJIn.com (2JIJ). 'Alout Us'
íAccesseJ Online]. Availalle at. http.//press.linkeJin.com/alout. AccesseJ on. I+
Ielruary 2JIJ

Mercer. D. (I992). 'Marketing'
VileyBlackvell. pp 2¯. I¯5. ISBN J63II96382. 2
nJ
eJn

Mercer. D. (I998). 'Marketing strategy. the challenge ol the external environment'
SAGF Pullications. pp 2956. ISBN J¯6I958¯62

Miller. K. anJ Layton. R. (I999). 'IunJamentals ol marketing'
McGravHill. pp 288. ISBN JJ¯+¯J¯6+¯. +
th
eJn

MiJJleton. S. (2JJ9). 'BranJ Strategy Guru'
íAccesseJ Online]. Availalle at. http.//lranJstrategyguru.com/inJex.php/site/meJia.

I3J
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
AccesseJ on. 3J Septemler 2JJ9
Mootee. I. (2JJI). 'High Intensity Marketing'
CanaJian Catalogue Pullishing. CanaJa. ISBN J9¯3I3J822. 2
nJ
eJn

NaJeau. R. (2JJ6). 'Living lranJs. collaloration - innovation'
McGravHill Prolessional. ISBN JJ¯I+66I+2

Clayton. T. anJ Turner. G. (I998). 'FviJence on the contrilution ol lranJeJ
consumer lusiness to economic grovth ¬ Key linJings'
PIMS (Prolit Impact ol Marketing Strategy) Report. PIMS Furope. LonJon

Post. K. anJ Tchong. M. (2JJ5). 'Brain tattoos. creating unioue lranJs that stick in
your customers minJs'
AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. ISBN J8I++¯23+6

Rietelos. R.. Rietelos. H. J.. Kist. B. anJ Kootstra. G. (2JJ3). 'BranJ management. a
theoretical anJ practical approach'
Pearson FJucation. pp 8J. IJJIJ2. I+5. 2J5. 225. 23J. ISBN J2¯3655J5I

SaunJers. M.. Levis. P. anJ Thornhill. A. (2JJ9). 'Research methoJs lor lusiness
stuJents'
IT Prentice Hall. eJ. 5. ISBN 9¯8J2¯3¯I686J

SaunJers. M.. Levis. P. anJ Thornhill. A. (I99¯). 'Research methoJs lor lusiness
stuJents'
Pitman Pullishing. ISBN J2¯326JI¯¯

Schultt. D. anJ Rolinson. V. (I982). 'Sales promotion management'
NTC Business Books

Semenik. R. anJ Bamossy. G. (I995). 'Principles ol marketing. a glolal perspective'
SouthVestern College Pullishing. ISBN J538839I39. 2
nJ
eJn

Sky NFVS. (2JJ9). 'UK Recession Is Deeper Than Iirst IeareJ'
íAccesseJ Online]. Availalle at.
http.//nevs.sky.com/skynevs/Home/Business/RecessionDeeperThanIirstIeareJ
AsGDPIorLastQuarterOl2JJ8IallsByI6/Article/2JJ9J3+I525J2¯9.
AccesseJ on. 2J January 2JIJ

Tivari. S. (2JJ3). 'The (un)common sense ol aJvertising. getting the lasics right'
SAGF Pullications. pp 92. ISBN J¯6I99¯369

Vaage. I. (2JJ6). 'AJvances in Business anJ Management Iorecasting'
Vol +. pp 2+¯63



BIBIIOGRAPHY




I3I
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

Brand VarIares: Iu RuIes Ior BuiIding the KiIIer Brand
ov Devic Ai:sseocro (2JJ2) Vc(rew Eiii. ISBN 9¯8JJ¯I3985J3

Brand You: MarIeting: ReaI PeoµIe ReaI Choices
ov Vic|e:i Soiomoo eoc Liz Eerris1acr (2JJ8) P:ersoo Pr:otic: Eeii. Nev Jersey.
ISBN 9¯8JI32299398

Brand Sense: Sensory Secrets Behind the StuII Ve Buy
ov Vertio Liocstrom eoc P|iiio Koti:r (2JIJ) Iree Press. ISBN 9¯8I+39I¯2JI8. Ist
eJn

BuiIding Strong Brands
ov Devic A Aer:r (I995) Iree Press. ISBN 9¯8JJ29JJI5I6

Brand PortIoIio Strategy: Creating ReIevance, DiIIerentiation, Energy,
Ieverage, and CIarity
ov Devic A Aer:r (2JJ+) Iree Press. ISBN 9¯8J¯+32+9386

Managing Brand Equity
ov Devic A Aer:r (I99I) Iree Press. ISBN 9¯8JJ29JJIJII

Married to the Brand: Vhy Consumers Bond yith Some Brands Ior IiIe
ov wiiiiem j VcFw:o (2JJ5) Gallup Press. ISBN 9¯8I59562JJ5¯

Brands and Branding (The Economist Series)
ov Pite Cii|too eoc jo|o Simmoos (I98J) Bloomlerg Press. ISBN 9¯8I5¯66JI+¯I. Ist
eJn

The Origin oI Brands: Hoy Product EvoIution Creates EndIess
PossiliIities Ior Ney Brands
ov Ai Pi:s eoc Leare Pi:s (2JJ5) Harper Paperlacks. ISBN 9¯8JJ6J5¯JI56

United Ve Brand
ov Vir: Vos:r (2JJ3) HarvarJ Business Press. ISBN 9¯8I5¯85I¯985


APPENDICES

I32
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
The survey Questionnaire



Alout Your Brand

Question I:
Hov olJ is the lranJ you are currently vorking lor (since its inception)`

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
Less than a year
I yr
23 yr
+5 yr
5IJ yr
IJ2J yr
2J3J yr
3J5J yr
5J yr anJ more

Question 2:
Do you lelieve your lranJ vill last.`

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
Next year
Next 5 years
Next JecaJe
Next century
Iorever

AnJ vhy Jo you think so`



Question 3:
Hov voulJ you Jescrile your current lranJing luJget`

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):




I33
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
UnJer luJgeteJ
AJeouately luJgeteJ
Over luJgeteJ

Question 4:
Vhich ol these lranJing activities have leen carrieJ out recently lor your
lranJ`

Ansyer (MuItiµIe Choices):
ProJuct launch
PR
AJvertising
BranJ Fxtension
RelranJing
MultiBranJing
Other (Please mention )

Question 5:
Vhich ol these lranJ lailures have ever leen encountereJ ly your lranJ`

Ansyer (MuItiµIe Choices):
Launch Iailure
PR Iailure
AJvertising Iailure
Fxtension Iailure
RelranJing Iailure
Multi BranJing Iailure
None so ever
Any other lailure (please specily).

Question 6:
6. Descrile any challenges (Rovs) anJ reasons (Columns) associateJ vith
your BranJ lrom the lelov matrix.
(You may choose more than one reason lor a single challenge)

Roy Ansyers (MuItiµIe Choices):
Core BranJing Strategy
Marketing Integration
BuJgeting
Lack ol BranJing MoJels
Marketing Communication
BranJ Restructuring
Anything else (please use the text lox lor Jetails)

I3+
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
CoIumn Ansyers (SingIe Choice):
Lack ol vision/locus
Skills associateJ vith hanJling the issue
Lack ol acaJemic material or moJels
The concept itsell
Planning anJ Implementation
Insullicient lunJing

Any other comments.


Alout YourseII

Question 7:
Have you ever stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel`

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
I have stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel acaJemically anJ use it lor
BranJing DecisionMaking
I have stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel acaJemically hovever Jo NOT
use it lor BranJing DecisionMaking
I have NOT stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel acaJemically
I have NOT stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel lut voulJ like to stuJy it
I have NOT stuJieJ a BranJ Lile Cycle MoJel anJ voulJ not like to
stuJy it

Do you think looking at a lranJ lrom its LileCycle voulJ le uselul lor
lranJing Jecision making`


Question 8:
Hov closely are you responsille lor the lranJing activities ol your or your
client's company`

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
Not at all
Somevhat close
Relative
Important
Fxtremely close

Question 9:
Ior hov many years have you leen associateJ vith lranJing`





I35
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre
Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
Never
Less than 6 months
6 months ¬ I year
I2 yr
23 yr
35 yr
5IJ yr
More than IJ yr

Question Iu:
You are a..

Ansyer (SingIe Choice):
Choose onIy one
oµtion
Iess
than 6
mth
6 mth
¬ I yr
I2
yr
23
yr
35
yr
5Iu
yr
More
than
Iu yr
Business Ovner
CFO/Chiel Marketing
Ollicer
Director/Managing
Director
Vice PresiJent
BranJ Manager
Marketing Manager
Assistant Manager
Senior Fxecutive
Fxecutive
StuJent



I36
copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre





copyright 2JIJ Rahul Ayre

(All Rights ReserveJ)

End oI Document

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.