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**PERGAMON International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208
**

9919Ð6572:88:, ! see front matter Þ0888 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved

PII] S9 9 1 9 Ð 6 5 7 2 " 8 7 # 9 9 0 9 7 Ð 4

Finite element analysis of the piezoelectric vibrations of

quartz plate resonators with higher!order plate theory

Ji Wang

a\

\ Yook!Kong Yong

b

\ Tsutomu Imai

c

a

Epson Palo Hlio 1aboraiory, 3145 Porier Drire, Suiie 104, Palo Hlio, CH 94304, U.S.H.

b

Deparineni of Ciril ana Enrironnenial Engineering, Tuigers Unirersiiy, Piscaiaway,

N1 08855, U.S.H.

c

Ouari: Crysial Derice 1aboraiory, Seiko Epson Corporaiion, 3-3-5 Owa, Suwa-shi,

Nagano-ken 392, 1apan

Received 18 September 0886^ in revised form 01 March 0887

Abstract

A _nite element formulation of the piezoelectric vibrations of quartz resonators based on Mindlin plate

theory is derived[ The higher!order plate theory is employed for the development of a collection of suc!

cessively higher!order plate elements which can be e}ective for a broad frequency range including the

fundamental and overtone modes of thickness!shear vibrations[ The presence of electrodes is also considered

for their mechanical e}ects[

The mechanical displacements and electric potential are combined into a generalized displacement _eld\

and the subsequent derivations are carried out with all the generalized equations[ Through the standard

_nite element procedure\ the vibration frequency\ the vibration mode shapes and the electric potential

distribution are obtained[ The frequency spectra are compared with some well!known experimental results

with good agreement[

Our previous experience with _nite element analysis of high!frequency quartz plate vibrations leads us to

believe that memory and computing time will always remain as key issues despite the advances in computers[

Hence\ the use of sparse matrix techniques\ e.cient eigenvalue solvers\ and other reduction procedures are

explored[ Þ0888 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved[

0[ Introduction

The application of _nite element method in the analysis of vibrations of quartz crystal plate

resonators has been studied by many authors in the last decades\ and practical results have been

obtained gradually through these e}orts[ Given the fact that the problem is greatly complicated

by the higher vibration frequency\ which means fundamental thickness!shear frequency here\ in

Corresponding author[ Tel[] 990 549 732 7225[ Fax] 990 549 732 8095[ E!mail] jiwangÝepal[com

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1293

comparison with the conventional structural vibration problem in ~exural modes and limited

interest in the _nite element analysis\ only a few of the programs developed so far have found

applications in the design process and analysis of new products\ but further interest have been

inspired by the increasingly active research projects and promising results which could have a big

impact on the design of quartz crystal resonators in the future[

Even though the analytical approach of plate resonators has been restricted to the two!dimen!

sional plate equations with straight!crested wave solutions "see e[g[ Mindlin and Gazis\ 0851^ Lee

and Wang\ 0883^ Wang and Momosaki\ 0886# for obvious reasons\ the _nite element formulations

have been drawn from three!dimensional piezoelectricity equations and various two!dimensional

plate theories[ Lee and Tang "0875# implemented the _nite element analysis of the _rst!order

Mindlin plate equations for the stress sensitivity and vibration analysis of circular crystal

resonators[ With the three!dimensional incremental theory for frequency!temperature relations of

quartz crystals\ Yong "0876# studied the frequency!temperature behavior of crystal bar\ plate\ and

tuning!fork type resonators[ Later\ the two!dimensional incremental theory were implemented for

the _nite element analysis of plate resonators "Yong\ 0877#[ Can_eld et al[ "0880\ 0881# studied

the same problem with the implementation of the three!dimensional piezoelectricity with thermal

e}ect considerations[ Mindlin _rst!order plate theory was implemented for the mechanical

vibrations of crystal resonators by Yong et al[ "0880\ 0881# and for the frequency shift due to

temperature variations by Antonova and Silvester "0883#[ In the _nite element implementation of

Lee plate theory\ Yong and Zhang "0882\ 0883# developed a perturbation technique to consider

the piezoelectric e}ect in the modeling of quartz plate resonators[ The same _nite element program

was also used for straight!crested wave solutions of thin _lm piezoelectric resonators by Zhang

and Yong "0884#[ To reduce the number of equations in the two!dimensional _nite element

implementation of the plate theory\ a creative one!dimensional _nite element formulation has been

crafted by Sekimoto and Watanabe "0889#[ Noting that the higher!order plate theory may actually

reduce the number of equations in the _nite element implementation in comparison with three!

dimensional approach "Zhang and Yong\ 0884#\ which is particularly important in the high

frequency vibration analysis\ Yong et al[ "0885# implemented Mindlin higher!order plate theory

for quartz resonator analysis with _nite strip formulation[ Of course\ the systematic study of the

accuracy of plate theories by Yong et al[ "0885# is the basis of the applications of higher!order

theories[ Mindlin third!order plate theory is also used for the _nite element study of the frequency!

temperature behavior of crystal resonators by Yong "0885#[ Lerch "0889# and Lerch and Bauere!

schmidt "0885# extended the application of the piezoelectric three! and two!dimensional _nite

element programinto the analysis of quartz resonators[ By approximating the electric _eld\ Stewart

and Stevens "0886# employed the three!dimensional _nite element method for the crystal resonator

analysis[ The computing techniques and resources available for _nite element analysis\ including

e.cient and reliable eigenvalue solvers\ sparse matrix handling techniques\ and parallel computing

have been explored and utilized "Jones and Plassmann\ 0881^ Yong and Cho\ 0885#[ Applications

of general purpose _nite element software such as ANSYS have also been reported by several

authors "see e[g[ Momosaki and Kogure\ 0871^ Beeby and Tudor\ 0884^ SoÃ derkvist\ 0886^ Gehin

et al[\ 0886#[

In this study\ we start with Mindlin higher!order plate theory for piezoelectric crystal plates[ In

the _nite element formulation\ we de_ne the components of the mechanical displacements and

electric potential as the generalized displacement\ and as a consequence the generalized stress and

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1294

Fig[ 0[ Plate coordinates and boundaries[

strain are also de_ned in a similar manner[ Eventually\ this results in a generalized implementation

which is very close to the conventional one for mechanical vibration analysis except the mass terms

corresponding to the electric potential are zeroes\ which leads to a more sparser mass matrix[ The

sparse matrix handling techniques are employed in the assembling and solving of the eigenvalue

problems[ Finally\ we compare the numerical results of the vibration spectrum of a crystal plate

to the well!known experimental measurements by Koga "0852#\ and excellent agreement has been

observed[

1[ Fundamentals of mindlin plate theory

The fundamental equations of Mindlin higher!order piezoelectric plate theory "Mindlin\ 0861\

0873# are based on the in_nite power series expansion of the mechanical displacements and electric

potential in thickness coordinate \

1

\ as shown in Fig[ 0\ to

u

j

"\

0

\ \

1

\ \

2

\ i# ¬ s

n¬9

u

"n#

j

"\

0

\ \

2

\ i#\

n

1

\

f"\

0

\ \

1

\ \

2

\ i# ¬ s

n¬9

f

"n#

"\

0

\ \

2

\ i#\

n

1

\ "0#

where u

"n#

j

and f

"n#

are nth!order two!dimensional components of the displacements and potential[

The strainÐmechanical displacement and electric _eldÐelectric potential relations of the higher!

order plate theory can be written as

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1295

S

"n#

ij

¬

0

1

ðu

"n#

i\ j

÷u

"n#

j\i

÷"n÷0#"d

i1

u

"n÷0#

j

÷d

j1

u

"n÷0#

i

#Ł\

E

"n#

i

¬−f

"n#

\i

−"n÷0#d

i1

f

"n÷0#

\ "1#

where d

i1

is the Kronecker delta[

The two!dimensional linear piezoelectric constitutive equations are

T

"n#

ij

¬ s

n¬9

B

nn

"c

ijkl

S

"n#

kl

−e

kij

E

"n#

k

#\

D

"n#

i

¬ s

n¬9

B

nn

"e

ijk

S

"n#

jk

÷o

ij

E

"n#

j

#\ "2#

where T

"n#

ij

\ D

"n#

i

\ S

"n#

kl

\ E

"n#

k

\ c

ijkl

\ e

kij

\ and o

ij

are stress components\ electric displacement components\

strain components\ electric _eld components\ elastic constants\ piezoelectric constants\ and dielec!

tric constants\ respectively[ The integral constant B

nn

is

B

nn

¬

8

1b

n÷n÷0

n÷n÷0

\ n÷n ¬even\

9\ n÷n ¬odd.

"3#

The two!dimensional stress equations of motion and electrostatics derived from the three!

dimensional ones are

T

"n#

ij\i

−nT

"n−0#

1j

÷B

nn

T

"n#

j

¬r s

n¬9

B

nn

u

"n#

j

\

D

"n#

i\i

−nD

"n−0#

1

÷B

nn

D

"n#

¬9\ "4#

with

T

"n#

j

¬

0

B

nn

b

n

ðT

1j

"b#−"−0#

n

T

1j

"−b#Ł\

D

"n#

¬

0

B

nn

b

n

ðD

1

"b#−"−0#

n

D

1

"−b#Ł\ "5#

where r\ T

"n#

j

\ D

"n#

\ T

1j

"b#\ T

1j

"−b#\ D

1

"b#\ and D

1

"−b# are the density of the crystal\ face traction

di}erence\ face charge di}erence\ upper face traction\ lower face traction\ upper face charge\ and

lower face charge\ respectively[

The boundary conditions for the two!dimensional equations can be directly derived from the

three!dimensional ones with the known expansions of the displacements and potential in power

series[ By de_ning the nth!order surface traction and charge as

i

"n#

j

¬

0

B

nn

g

b

−b

i

j

\

n

1

d\

1

\ s

"n#

¬

0

B

nn

g

b

−b

s\

n

1

d\

1

\ "6#

where i

j

and s are prescribed surface traction and charge\ we have the following natural boundary

conditions

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1296

i

j

¬T

1j

\ s ¬D

1

on H\ j ¬0\ 1\ 2\

i

"n#

j

¬n

a

T

"n#

aj

\ s

"n#

¬n

a

D

"n#

a

on C\ a ¬0\ 2\ "7#

or their alternatives

u

j

¬u¯

j

\ f¬f

¯

on H\

u

"n#

j

¬u¯

"n#

j

\ f

"n#

¬f

¯

"n#

on C\ "8#

where the barred quantities represent the prescribed boundary values on H and C[ It should be

noted that the boundary conditions in eqn "7#

0

are already incorporated into eqn "4# by specifying

T

"n#

j

and D

"n#

according to eqn "5#[

These equations have been extensively used for the straight!crested wave solutions of crystal

resonators in conjunction with some approximate techniques such as truncation and one!dimen!

sional approximation "see e[g[ Lee and Wang\ 0883^ Wang and Momosaki\ 0886#[ By formulating

and implementing the higher!order equations in a systematic manner\ we hope that a _nite

element program can be developed for the vibration analysis of crystal resonators at not only the

fundamental thickness!shear but also the higher!order overtone frequencies[

2[ Modi_cations of the plate equations

The higher!order plate equations given in the previous section are complete for the vibration

analysis of quartz plates\ and their application is straightforward[ However\ given the fact that in

piezoelectric resonators the crystal plates are always electroded\ modi_cations are needed for both

the mechanical and piezoelectric vibration analyses[ Furthermore\ we need a proper procedure to

reduce the in_nite system and correct and compensate the _nite set of equations for practical and

accurate solutions[ These modi_cations\ as have been made before by many authors\ include the

consideration of the mechanical e}ects of the platings of the electrodes\ the corrections of the

truncated plate equations\ and the truncation procedure itself[ These procedures have been

developed and employed for many years\ and they can be treated as the standard procedures for

the applications of higher!order plate theories[ Through the modi_cations we present below\ the

plate theory introduced before will be tailored for the crystal resonator vibration analysis at the

fundamental thickness!shear and overtone frequencies[

3.1. The nechanical effecis of plaiinas

The thin layers of metal platings on crystal plates for thickness excitation purpose are usually

treated as mass loading on the crystal plates\ and it has been studied by Mindlin "0852#\ Tiersten

"0858# and Lee et al[ "0876#[

We assume the thickness of the platings on both sides of the crystal are identical and denoted

them as 1b?\ and the density of the platings is r?[ The tractions on the faces of the plated crystal

are

T

1j

"b# ¬T

1j

"B#−1bru

j

"b#\

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1297

T

1j

"−b# ¬T

1j

"−B#÷1bru

j

"−b#\ "09#

where Bb¦1b?\ and T

1j

"B# and T

1j

"−B# are the face tractions on the platings[

By substituting eqn "09# into eqn "5#

0

\ the di}erence of the crystal face tractions will be

T

"n#

j

¬

0

B

nn

ðb

n

T

1j

"b#−"−b#

n

T

1j

"−b#Ł

¬T

"n#

j

−

b

n

B

nn

1brðu

j

"b#÷"−0#

n

u

j

"−b#Ł\ "00#

where T

"n#

j

is the di}erence of the face tractions of the platings[

In each mode for long wavelengths\ we have

u

j

"b# ¬ s

n¬9

b

n

u

"n#

j

\ u

j

"−b# ¬ s

n¬9

"−b#

n

u

"n#

j

\ "01#

hence eqn "00# is further simpli_ed to

B

nn

T

"n#

j

¬B

nn

T

"n#

j

−1br1b

1n

u

"n#

j

¬B

nn

T

"n#

j

−r s

n¬9

"n÷n÷0#TB

nn

u

"n#

j

\ "02#

where

T¬

1br

br

\ "03#

is the mass ratio of the electrodes to the crystal[

Now the stress equations of motion in eqn "4# with platings will be modi_ed to

T

"n#

ij\i

−nT

"n−0#

1j

÷B

nn

T

"n#

j

¬r s

n¬9

B

nn

ð0÷"n÷n÷0#TŁu

"n#

j

. "04#

The mechanical e}ects in eqn "04# are consistent with similar equations by others "Mindlin\ 0852^

Tiersten\ 0854#[

3.2. Truncaiions of ihe equaiions

The two!dimensional in_nite system has to be truncated to a _nite set for their solutions\ and a

standard truncation procedure proposed by Mindlin "0844\ 0861\ 0873# has been widely employed

"Lee and Wang\ 0883#[ In this study we demonstrate the procedure for the truncation of the third!

order theory of HT!cut quartz plates by setting

u

"n#

0

¬u

"n#

2

¬f

"n#

¬T

"n#

p

¬D

"n#

i

¬9 for n ×2\

T

"2#

1

¬9\ u

"3#

1

Ä9\ u´

"3#

1

¬9\ u

"n#

1

¬9 for n ×3\

p ¬0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5\ i ¬0\ 1\ 2\ "05#

and from eqn "2#

0

we have

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1298

c

11

3u

"3#

1

¬−

6

4b

1

ðc

10

u

"0#

0\0

÷c

11

1u

"1#

1

÷c

12

u

"0#

2\2

÷c

13

"u

"0#

1\2

÷1u

"1#

2

#Ł÷c

10

u

"2#

0\0

÷c

12

u

"2#

2\2

÷c

13

u

"2#

1\2

÷

6

4b

1

"e

01

E

"0#

0

÷e

11

E

"0#

1

÷e

21

E

"0#

2

#÷e

01

E

"2#

0

÷e

11

E

"2#

1

÷e

21

E

"2#

2

. "06#

With the given u

"3#

1

in eqn "06#\ we can update all the equations containing S

"2#

1

\ which are stress

component T

"0#

p

and T

"2#

p

"p 0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5# and electric displacement component D

"0#

i

and D

"2#

i

"i 0\ 1\ 2#\ to

T

"0#

p

¬B

00

c`

pq

S

"0#

q

÷B

20

c¯pq

S

"2#

q

−B

00

e`

kp

E

"0#

k

−B

20

e

¯kp

E

"2#

k

\

T

"2#

p

¬B

02

c¯

pq

S

"0#

q

÷B

22

c¯

pq

S

"2#

q

−B

02

e¯

kp

E

"0#

k

−B

22

e¯

kp

E

"2#

k

\

D

"0#

i

¬B

00

e`

iq

S

"0#

q

÷B

20

e¯

iq

S

"2#

q

÷B

00

o`

ik

E

"0#

k

÷B

20

o¯

ik

E

"2#

k

\

D

"2#

i

¬B

02

e`

iq

S

"0#

q

÷B

22

e¯

iq

S

"2#

q

÷B

02

o`

ik

E

"0#

k

÷B

22

o¯

ik

E

"2#

k

\ "07#

with

c¯

pq

¬c

pq

−

c

p1

c

1q

c

11

\ c`

pq

¬c

pq

−

10

14

c

p1

c

1q

c

11

\

e¯

kp

¬c

kp

−

c

p1

e

k1

c

11

\ e`

kp

¬c

kp

−

10

14

c

p1

e

k1

c

11

\

o

¯ik

¬o

ik

÷

e

i1

e

k1

c

11

\ o`

ik

¬o

ik

÷

10

14

e

i1

e

k1

c

11

\

p\ q ¬0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5\ i\ k ¬0\ 1\ 2. "08#

Truncations for higher!order equations and other cuts can be carried out in a similar fashion[

In the _nite element implementation\ we have truncated the equations upto the _fth!order[ It has

also been observed from our computation that the truncations and the resulted modi_cations to

the material constants have signi_cant e}ect on certain branches of the frequency spectra[

3.3. Correciion faciors

The truncation of the _rst!order equations requires correction factors to warrant accurate

results\ and many correction factors have been suggested "see e[g[ Mindlin\ 0844\ 0852\ 0861^

Tiersten\ 0858# with various considerations including the presence of electrodes[ In this study\ the

correction factors proposed by Mindlin "0844# is used as

c¯

pq

¬k

p

k

q

c

pq

\ e¯

ip

¬k

p

e

ip

\ k

p

¬

8

p

1

01

\ p\ q ¬1\ 3\ 5\

0\ p\ q ¬0\ 2\ 4.

"19#

These truncated and corrected equations with plating considerations will be the plate equations

for _nite element implementation[ In the computer program\ the plate theory upto the _fth!order

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1209

is implemented so the computation can be made in a wide frequency range[ The selection of the

order of the plate theory for the computation has been discussed by Yong et al[ "0884#\ but we

also _nd that the aspect ratios and the frequency are the important factors[

3[ Variational principles

The two!dimensional variational equations of higher!order plate theory\ which will be the basis

of the _nite element formulation\ for mechanical vibrations can be given as "see e[g[ Mindlin\ 0844\

0861\ 0873^ Tiersten\ 0858#

s

n

g

H

0

T

"n#

ij\i

−nT

"n−0#

1j

÷B

nn

T

"n#

j

−r s

n¬9

B

nn

u

"n#

j

1

du

"n#

j

dH¬9. "10#

By applying the divergence theorem\ we have

g

H

T

"n#

ij\i

du

"n#

j

dH¬

g

H

ð"T

"n#

ij

du

"n#

j

#

\i

−T

"n#

ij

du

"n#

j\i

Ł dH

¬

g

C

f

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

dS−

g

H

T

"n#

ij

du

"n#

j\i

dH\ "11#

where n

i

is the outward surface normal of the boundary\ and the surface traction f

"n#

j

is de_ned as

f

"n#

j

¬n

i

T

"n#

ij

. "12#

By de_nition we have

s

n

"T

"n#

ij

du

"n#

j\i

÷nT

"n−0#

1j

du

"n#

j

# ¬s

n

T

"n#

ij

dS

"n#

ij

. "13#

The substitution of eqns "11# and "13# into eqn "10# yields the variational equations of mechanical

vibrations as

s

n

g

H

0

T

"n#

ij

dS

"n#

ij

÷r s

n¬9

B

nn

u

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

1

dH¬s

n

0g

C

f

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

dS÷

g

H

F

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

dH

1

\ "14#

where

F

"n#

j

¬B

nn

T

"n#

j

. "15#

In a similar fashion\ we have variational equations of electrostatics as

s

n

g

H

D

"n#

i

dE

"n#

i

dH¬−s

n

0g

C

q

"n#

df

"n#

dS÷

g

H

O

"n#

df

"n#

dH

1

\ "16#

and the surface charges and face charges are de_ned as

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1200

q

"n#

¬n

i

D

"n#

i

\ O

"n#

¬B

nn

D

"n#

. "17#

For a piezoelectric solid we have the virtual electric enthalpy density de_nition "Mindlin\ 0861#

d1¬T

"n#

ij

dS

"n#

ij

−D

"n#

i

dE

"n#

i

\ "18#

thus the previous variational eqns "14# and "16# can be combined into

s

n

g

H

$

"T

"n#

ij

dS

"n#

ij

−D

"n#

i

dE

"n#

i

# dH÷r s

n¬9

B

nn

u

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

dH

%

¬s

n

g

C

" f

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

÷q

"n#

df

"n#

# dS

÷s

n

g

H

"F

"n#

j

du

"n#

j

÷O

"n#

df

"n#

# dH. "29#

Now we can use the variational eqn "29# for the _nite element formulation of the higher!order

plate theory[ Ostensibly\ the combination of the two variational equations\ as we shall show next\

is intended to aid the generalized formulation of the piezoelectric plate vibration problem[

4[ Generalized _nite element formulation

Traditionally\ piezoelectric problems have been formulated by separating the mechanical vari!

ables\ which are displacements\ and electric variables\ which are electric potentials in most cases\

in the formation of the linear equation systems "see e[g[ Allik and Hughes\ 0869^ Lerch\ 0889^

Yong and Zhang\ 0882\ 0883\ 0884#[ By taking this approach\ the two sets of equations will be

eventually reduced to the mechanical vibration problem through the elimination of the electric

one\ and many techniques have been proposed for the condensation of the sti}ness matrix "Allik

and Hughes\ 0869^ Lerch\ 0889#\ including a perturbation technique "Yong and Zhang\ 0882\ 0883\

0884#[ However\ it has also been noticed lately that the generalized approach\ which means the

mechanical displacement and electric potentials will be combined to form a generalized dis!

placement _eld\ may also be advantageous since the costly condensation of the sti}ness matrix can

be avoided to speed up the eigenvalue computation "Yong and Cho\ 0885#[

In this paper\ the higher!order piezoelectric plate theory is presented in a generalized matrix

form to facilitate the _nite element implementation[ The representative matrices are illustrated\

again\ with the third!order plate theory[

We start with the generalized nth!order displacement _eld u

"n#

j

"n 9\ 0\ 1\ 2#

u

"n#

¬ "u

"n#

0

\ u

"n#

1

\ u

"n#

2

\ f

"n#

#

3·0

\ "20#

and accordingly we have the generalized displacement vector from the third!order plate theory as

u ¬ "u

"9#

\ u

"0#

\ u

"1#

\ u

"2#

#

05·0

. "21#

We further de_ne the generalized nth!order strain and stress vectors as

S

"n#

¬ "S

"n#

0

\ S

"n#

1

\ S

"n#

2

\ S

"n#

3

\ S

"n#

4

\ S

"n#

5

\ E

"n#

0

\ E

"n#

1

\ E

"n#

2

#

8·0

\

T

"n#

¬ "T

"n#

0

\ T

"n#

1

\ T

"n#

2

\ T

"n#

3

\ T

"n#

4

\ T

"n#

5

\ D

"n#

0

\ D

"n#

1

\ D

"n#

2

#

8·0

. "22#

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1201

From the generalized strainÐdisplacement relations in eqn "1#\ by rearranging the terms\ we can

write

S

"n#

¬1

u

u

"n#

÷1

"n÷0#

u

u

"n÷0#

\ "23#

where the two strain operators are de_ned as

1

u

¬

K

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

k

1

1\

0

9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9

1

1\

2

9

9

1

1\

2

9 9

1

1\

2

9

1

1\

0

9

9

1

1\

0

9 9

9 9 9 −

1

1\

0

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 −

1

1\

2

L

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

l

8·3

\

1

"n÷0#

u

¬ "n÷0#

K

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

k

9 9 9 9

9 0 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 0 9

9 9 9 9

0 9 9 9

9 9 9 9

9 9 9 −0

9 9 9 9

L

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

l

8·3

\

"24#

and _nally\ eqn "23#\ we de_ne the generalized strain vector\ with

S¬

F

G

j

J

G

f

S

"9#

S

"0#

S

"1#

S

"2#

J

G

f

F

G

j

25·0

¬1

S

u

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1202

¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

1

u

1

"0#

u

9 9

9 1

u

1

"1#

u

9

9 9 1

u

1

"2#

u

9 9 9 1

u

L

H

H

H

H

l

25·05

F

G

j

J

G

f

u

"9#

u

"0#

u

"1#

u

"2#

J

G

f

F

G

j

05·0

. "25#

The linear piezoelectric constitutive relations given in eqn "2# can also be generalized and written

in matrix form as

T¬CS\ "26#

where

C¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

B

99

CÞ 9 B

91

CÞ 9

9 B

00

CÞ 9 B

02

CÞ

B

19

CÞ 9 B

11

CÞ 9

9 B

20

CÞ 9 B

22

CÞ

L

H

H

H

H

l

25·25

\

CÞ ¬

$

c −e

T

e o %

8·8

. "27#

It is interesting to note that the generalized material constant matrix is no longer symmetric[

In matrix form\ the variational eqn "29# can be written as

g

H

"dS

T

cS−dS

T

e

T

E−dE

T

eS−dE

T

oE÷rdu

T

muÃ# dH

¬

g

C

"du

T

f÷df

T

q# dS÷

g

H

"du

T

F÷df

T

Q# dH\ "28#

where m\ f\ q\ F\ and Q are the mass matrix\ the surface traction vector\ surface charge vector\ face

traction vector\ and face charge vector\ respectively\ are to be combined into the generalized

surface traction and face traction from now on[

In generalized notations we can write eqn "28# as

g

H

dS

T

DSdH÷

g

H

rdu

T

muÃ dH¬

g

C

du

T

f dS÷

g

H

du

T

FdH\ "39#

where

D¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

B

99

DÞ 9 B

91

DÞ 9

9 B

00

DÞ 9 B

02

DÞ

B

19

DÞ 9 B

11

DÞ 9

9 B

20

DÞ 9 B

22

DÞ

L

H

H

H

H

l

25·25

\

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1203

DÞ ¬

$

c −e

T

−e −o %

8·8

\

m¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

m

"9#

9

9 m

"1#

9

9

9 m

"0#

0

9 m

"2#

0

m

"9#

1

9 m

"1#

1

9

9 m

"0#

2

9 m

"2#

2

L

H

H

H

H

l

05·05

\

m

"n#

n

¬rB

nn

ð0÷"n÷n÷0#TŁ

K

H

H

H

H

k

0 9 9 9

9 0 9 9

9 9 0 9

9 9 9 9

L

H

H

H

H

l

3·3

. "30#

It should be emphasized that the mass matrix has zero terms corresponding to the electric potentials[

Following the conventional discretization procedure\ we start the _nite element implementation

with

u ¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

u

"9#

u

"0#

u

"1#

u

"2#

L

H

H

H

H

l

05·0

¬ ðN

0

N

1

\ . . . \ N

l

Ł

05·05l

K

H

H

H

H

k

U

0

U

1

*

U

l

L

H

H

H

H

l

05l·0

¬NU\

N

i

¬N

i

I

05·05

\ S¬1

S

NU¬BU\

B¬ ðB

0

B

1

\ . . . \ B

l

Ł\ i ¬0\ 1\ . . . \ l\ "31#

where l is the number of nodes of each element\ U is the discretized displacement vector\ N

i

are

the shape functions\ I is the identity matrix\ and the B

i

matrix is given as

B

i

¬

K

H

H

H

H

k

1

u

N

i

1

"0#

u

N

i

9 9

9 1

u

N

i

1

"1#

u

N

i

9

9 9 1

u

N

i

1

"2#

u

N

i

9 9 9 1

u

N

i

L

H

H

H

H

l

25·05

. "32#

The discretization of the variational eqn "39# gives

dU

T

0g

H

B

T

DBdHU÷

g

H

N

T

mNdHUÝ−

g

C

N

T

f dS−

g

H

N

T

FdH

1

¬9\ "33#

and the discretized and generalized equations of motion in matrix form as

KU÷MUÝ ¬F

C

÷F

H

\ "34#

where

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1204

K¬

g

H

B

T

DBdH\ M¬

g

H

N

T

mNdH\

F

C

¬

g

C

N

T

f dS\ F

H

¬

g

H

N

T

FdH\ "35#

are generalized sti}ness matrix\ mass matrix\ surface traction vector\ and face traction vector\

respectively[

Now we have the conventional _nite element equation given in eqn "34#\ which is the identical

one we already know in structural mechanics problems\ where the _nite element method has been

intensively studied for decades[ By adopting this formulation\ it is hoped that all the sophisticated

techniques can be utilized[

For free vibrations\ by setting the traction vectors to zero and assuming the solution is harmonic\

we have the generalized vibration eigenvalue problem from eqn "34#

KU−v

1

MU¬9\ "36#

where v is the vibration frequency[ Usually we normalized the frequency by the fundamental

thickness!shear frequency

v

9

¬

p

1b X

c

55

r

. "37#

It is clear from the matrix equations that the mass matrix is no longer diagonal due to the

coupling of modes\ and the o}!diagonal terms have to be included in the computations[ A

comparison with the conventional _nite element analysis will tell that this will add further di.culty

to the eigenvalue computation[ The high vibration frequency will also require a _ner mesh\ which

translates to a very large\ usually several millions\ linear equation system[ For this reason\ an

e.cient eigenvalue solver can handle sparse matrix computation\ which is standard in most _nite

element analysis programs today\ is essential to this program[ Also it should be realized that we

have a critical requirement for such eigenvalue solvers\ namely they should be able to extract all

the eigenvalues inside a given frequency interval\ usually in the vicinity of the resonance vibration

frequency[ Eigenvalue solvers capable of this kind of computation are di.cult to _nd\ and extra

e}orts have to be made to modify the existing ones in public domains such as the Netlib\ or locate

available commercial codes[

As an example\ we computed the frequency spectra of a crystal plate with third!order plate

theory and four!node element to make comparisons with the experimental data by Koga "0852#[

It is found that the frequency spectra from pure mechanical vibrations agree well with the measure!

ment in Fig[ 1\ and the frequency change due to piezoelectric e}ect is clearly displayed in Fig[ 2[

The frequency di}erence between mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations is shown in Fig[ 3[

5[ Conclusions

The higher!order Mindlin plate theory has been systematically modi_ed for applications in the

piezoelectric vibration analysis of crystal resonators for the resonance frequency spectrum[ By

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1205

Fig[ 1[ Normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[

The computed frequency spectra from the mechanical vibrations "Â# is compared with the experimental data "dark

square# from Koga "0852#[

adopting a generalized approach\ the modi_ed plate theory is successfully implemented for the

_nite element solutions for the vibration problems which have been extensively studied but never

been able to solve for the precise and accurate modeling of crystal resonators[ From the com!

parisons of the numerical results of the mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations\ we found that

this generalized formulation is straightforward and e}ective for the piezoelectric plate vibration

problems[ The results also con_rmed the long time view widely known to researchers that the

piezoelectric e}ects on the free vibrations of the crystal plates can be neglected in the frequency

spectrum analysis since the frequency shift is tiny and uniform[ For practical purposes\ the

frequency spectrum from the mechanical vibrations will provide a valuable and precise pattern for

better selection of plate geometry[ We also found that we have produced the frequency spectra

from both the mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations which match the experimental data well[

It is agreed that the modeling of piezoelectric devices with _nite element method continues to

be a challenge\ partially due to the extremely high frequency\ which requires the unusually larger

number of equations\ in comparison with conventional _nite element analysis applications[ This

challenge spreads further to strict requirement for e.cient mathematical subroutines essential to the

analysis\ namely the eigenvalue solvers and linear equation solvers[ Fortunately\ the mathematical

community has been inspired and encouraged by these rigorous attempts\ and tremendous progress

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1206

Fig[ 2[ Normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[

The computed frequency spectra from the piezoelectric vibrations "r# is compared with the experimental data "dark

square# from Koga "0852#[

has been made for the e.cient and fast solvers\ while such e}orts are continuing to meet the

demands for even larger problems[ Also the availability of powerful computers provides another

opportunity\ particularly with the proliferation of multiple processors systems which can be easily

programmed to solve the larger number of equations from the problem[

On the piezoelectricity theory\ tremendous e}orts have been made to make the approximate

theories to be able to solve the real problem easily and accurately[ These e}orts will also assist the

better _nite element implementation for less equations but accurate results[ Particularly\ the e}orts

in reducing the order of the plate theory and the elimination of the electric variable from the

equations will have great impact on the computing aspect[

With the combination of the e}orts in all directions\ it is expected that we shall be able to

provide e.cient and accurate numerical solutions to assist the crystal resonator development[

Acknowledgements

The _rst author thanks Mr Roger Grimes of Boeing for helpful discussions in the eigenvalue

computing and Dr Akio Ishizaki and Professor Yasuaki Watanabe of Tokyo Metropolitan Uni!

versity for the experimental data[

1. 1ana ei al. Iniernaiional 1ournal of Solias ana Siruciures 36 1999) 23032319 1207

Fig[ 3[ Comparison of the computed normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio from the piezoelectric vibrations

"r# and mechanical vibrations "Â# for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[

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Zhang\ Z[ and Yong\ Y[!K[ "0884# Numerical analysis of thickness shear thin _lm piezoelectric resonators using a

laminated plate theory[ IEEE Trans. Ulirason.\ Ferroelec.\ Freq. Conir. 31"3#\ 623Ð635[

cient and reliable eigenvalue solvers\ sparse matrix handling techniques\ and parallel computing have been explored and utilized "Jones and Plassmann\ 0881^ Yong and Cho\ 0885#[ Applications of general purpose _nite element software such as ANSYS have also been reported by several authors "see e[g[ Momosaki and Kogure\ 0871^ Beeby and Tudor\ 0884^ Soderkvist\ 0886^ Gehin Ã et al[\ 0886#[ In this study\ we start with Mindlin higher!order plate theory for piezoelectric crystal plates[ In the _nite element formulation\ we de_ne the components of the mechanical displacements and electric potential as the generalized displacement\ and as a consequence the generalized stress and .1293 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 comparison with the conventional structural vibration problem in ~exural modes and limited interest in the _nite element analysis\ only a few of the programs developed so far have found applications in the design process and analysis of new products\ but further interest have been inspired by the increasingly active research projects and promising results which could have a big impact on the design of quartz crystal resonators in the future[ Even though the analytical approach of plate resonators has been restricted to the two!dimen! sional plate equations with straight!crested wave solutions "see e[g[ Mindlin and Gazis\ 0851^ Lee and Wang\ 0883^ Wang and Momosaki\ 0886# for obvious reasons\ the _nite element formulations have been drawn from three!dimensional piezoelectricity equations and various two!dimensional plate theories[ Lee and Tang "0875# implemented the _nite element analysis of the _rst!order Mindlin plate equations for the stress sensitivity and vibration analysis of circular crystal resonators[ With the three!dimensional incremental theory for frequency!temperature relations of quartz crystals\ Yong "0876# studied the frequency!temperature behavior of crystal bar\ plate\ and tuning!fork type resonators[ Later\ the two!dimensional incremental theory were implemented for the _nite element analysis of plate resonators "Yong\ 0877#[ Can_eld et al[ "0880\ 0881# studied the same problem with the implementation of the three!dimensional piezoelectricity with thermal e}ect considerations[ Mindlin _rst!order plate theory was implemented for the mechanical vibrations of crystal resonators by Yong et al[ "0880\ 0881# and for the frequency shift due to temperature variations by Antonova and Silvester "0883#[ In the _nite element implementation of Lee plate theory\ Yong and Zhang "0882\ 0883# developed a perturbation technique to consider the piezoelectric e}ect in the modeling of quartz plate resonators[ The same _nite element program was also used for straight!crested wave solutions of thin _lm piezoelectric resonators by Zhang and Yong "0884#[ To reduce the number of equations in the two!dimensional _nite element implementation of the plate theory\ a creative one!dimensional _nite element formulation has been crafted by Sekimoto and Watanabe "0889#[ Noting that the higher!order plate theory may actually reduce the number of equations in the _nite element implementation in comparison with three! dimensional approach "Zhang and Yong\ 0884#\ which is particularly important in the high frequency vibration analysis\ Yong et al[ "0885# implemented Mindlin higher!order plate theory for quartz resonator analysis with _nite strip formulation[ Of course\ the systematic study of the accuracy of plate theories by Yong et al[ "0885# is the basis of the applications of higher!order theories[ Mindlin third!order plate theory is also used for the _nite element study of the frequency! temperature behavior of crystal resonators by Yong "0885#[ Lerch "0889# and Lerch and Bauere! schmidt "0885# extended the application of the piezoelectric three! and two!dimensional _nite element program into the analysis of quartz resonators[ By approximating the electric _eld\ Stewart and Stevens "0886# employed the three!dimensional _nite element method for the crystal resonator analysis[ The computing techniques and resources available for _nite element analysis\ including e.

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1294 Fig[ 0[ Plate coordinates and boundaries[ strain are also de_ned in a similar manner[ Eventually\ this results in a generalized implementation which is very close to the conventional one for mechanical vibration analysis except the mass terms corresponding to the electric potential are zeroes\ which leads to a more sparser mass matrix[ The sparse matrix handling techniques are employed in the assembling and solving of the eigenvalue problems[ Finally\ we compare the numerical results of the vibration spectrum of a crystal plate to the well!known experimental measurements by Koga "0852#\ and excellent agreement has been observed[ 1[ Fundamentals of mindlin plate theory The fundamental equations of Mindlin higher!order piezoelectric plate theory "Mindlin\ 0861\ 0873# are based on the in_nite power series expansion of the mechanical displacements and electric potential in thickness coordinate x1\ as shown in Fig[ 0\ to u j "x0 \ x1 \ x2 \ t# f"x0 \ x1 \ x2 \ t# s u"n# "x0 \ x2 \ t#xn \ j 1 n 9 s f"n# "x0 \ x2 \ t#xn \ 1 n 9 "0# where u"n# and f"n# are nth!order two!dimensional components of the displacements and potential[ j The strainÐmechanical displacement and electric _eldÐelectric potential relations of the higher! order plate theory can be written as .

1295 "n# S ij 0 1 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 "n# ðui\ j ¦u"n# ¦"n¦0#"di1 u"n¦0# ¦d j1 ui"n¦0# #Ł\ j\i j E i"n# "n# −f\i −"n¦0#di1 f"n¦0# \ "1# where di1 is the Kronecker delta[ The two!dimensional linear piezoelectric constitutive equations are "n# T ij "m# "m# s Bmn "cijkl S kl −ekij E k #\ m 9 D i"n# s Bmn "eijk S "m# ¦oij E "m# #\ jk j m 9 "2# "n# "m# "m# where T ij \ D i"n# \ S kl \ E k \ cijkl\ ekij\ and oij are stress components\ electric displacement components\ strain components\ electric _eld components\ elastic constants\ piezoelectric constants\ and dielec! tric constants\ respectively[ The integral constant Bmn is Bmn 8 1bm¦n¦0 \ m¦n m¦n¦0 m¦n even\ odd[ "3# 9\ The two!dimensional stress equations of motion and electrostatics derived from the three! dimensional ones are "n# "n−0# T ij\i −nT 1j ¦Bnn T "n# j r s Bmn u"m# \ Ãj m 9 "n# "n−0# D i\i −nD 1 ¦Bnn D "n# 9\ "4# with T "n# j D "n# 0 n b ðT1j "b#−"−0# n T1j "−b#Ł\ Bnn 0 n b ðD1 "b#−"−0# n D1 "−b#Ł\ Bnn "5# where r\ T "n# \ D"n#\ T1j "b#\ T1j "−b#\ D1 "b#\ and D1 "−b# are the density of the crystal\ face traction j di}erence\ face charge di}erence\ upper face traction\ lower face traction\ upper face charge\ and lower face charge\ respectively[ The boundary conditions for the two!dimensional equations can be directly derived from the three!dimensional ones with the known expansions of the displacements and potential in power series[ By de_ning the nth!order surface traction and charge as t"n# j 0 Bnn g b t j xn dx1 \ s"n# 1 −b 0 Bnn g b sxn dx1 \ 1 "6# −b where tj and s are prescribed surface traction and charge\ we have the following natural boundary conditions .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1296 tj t"n# j T1j \ s D1 on A\ j "n# na D a 0\ 1\ 2\ on C\ a 0\ 2\ "7# "n# na T aj \ s"n# or their alternatives uj u"n# j uj\ f ¹ ¹ f on A\ ¹ f"n# on C\ "8# u"n# \ f"n# ¹j where the barred quantities represent the prescribed boundary values on A and C[ It should be noted that the boundary conditions in eqn "7# 0 are already incorporated into eqn "4# by specifying T "n# and D"n# according to eqn "5#[ j These equations have been extensively used for the straight!crested wave solutions of crystal resonators in conjunction with some approximate techniques such as truncation and one!dimen! sional approximation "see e[g[ Lee and Wang\ 0883^ Wang and Momosaki\ 0886#[ By formulating and implementing the higher!order equations in a systematic manner\ we hope that a _nite element program can be developed for the vibration analysis of crystal resonators at not only the fundamental thickness!shear but also the higher!order overtone frequencies[ 2[ Modi_cations of the plate equations The higher!order plate equations given in the previous section are complete for the vibration analysis of quartz plates\ and their application is straightforward[ However\ given the fact that in piezoelectric resonators the crystal plates are always electroded\ modi_cations are needed for both the mechanical and piezoelectric vibration analyses[ Furthermore\ we need a proper procedure to reduce the in_nite system and correct and compensate the _nite set of equations for practical and accurate solutions[ These modi_cations\ as have been made before by many authors\ include the consideration of the mechanical e}ects of the platings of the electrodes\ the corrections of the truncated plate equations\ and the truncation procedure itself[ These procedures have been developed and employed for many years\ and they can be treated as the standard procedures for the applications of higher!order plate theories[ Through the modi_cations we present below\ the plate theory introduced before will be tailored for the crystal resonator vibration analysis at the fundamental thickness!shear and overtone frequencies[ 2[0[ The mechanical effects of platin`s The thin layers of metal platings on crystal plates for thickness excitation purpose are usually treated as mass loading on the crystal plates\ and it has been studied by Mindlin "0852#\ Tiersten "0858# and Lee et al[ "0876#[ We assume the thickness of the platings on both sides of the crystal are identical and denoted them as 1b?\ and the density of the platings is r?[ The tractions on the faces of the plated crystal are T1j "b# T1j "B#−1b?r?u j "b#\ Ã .

1297 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 T1j "−b# T1j "−B#¦1b?r?u j "−b#\ Ã "09# where B b¦1b?\ and T1j "B# and T1j "−B# are the face tractions on the platings[ By substituting eqn "09# into eqn "5# 0\ the di}erence of the crystal face tractions will be T "n# j 0 n ðb T1j "b#−"−b# n T1j "−b#Ł Bnn T"n# − j bn 1b?r?ðu j "b#¦"−0# n u j "−b#Ł\ Ã Ã Bnn "00# where T"n# is the di}erence of the face tractions of the platings[ j In each mode for long wavelengths\ we have u j "b# s bn u"n# \ u j "−b# j n 9 s "−b# n u"n# \ j n 9 "01# hence eqn "00# is further simpli_ed to Bnn T "n# j Bnn T"n# −1b?r?1b1n u"n# Ãj j Bnn T"n# −r s "m¦n¦0#RBmn u"n# \ Ãj j m 9 "02# where R 1b?r? \ br "03# is the mass ratio of the electrodes to the crystal[ Now the stress equations of motion in eqn "4# with platings will be modi_ed to "n# "n−0# T ij\i −nT 1j ¦Bnn T"n# j r s Bmn ð0¦"m¦n¦0#RŁu"m# [ Ãj m 9 "04# The mechanical e}ects in eqn "04# are consistent with similar equations by others "Mindlin\ 0852^ Tiersten\ 0854#[ 2[1[ Truncations of the equations The two!dimensional in_nite system has to be truncated to a _nite set for their solutions\ and a standard truncation procedure proposed by Mindlin "0844\ 0861\ 0873# has been widely employed "Lee and Wang\ 0883#[ In this study we demonstrate the procedure for the truncation of the third! order theory of AT!cut quartz plates by setting "n# u0 "2# T1 "n# u2 f"n# "n# Tp D i"n# 9 for n × 2\ 9 for n × 3\ "05# "3# 9\ u1 Ä 9\ u1 ¾ "3# "n# 9\ u1 p 0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5\ i 0\ 1\ 2\ and from eqn "2# 0 we have .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 "3# c11 3u1 1298 − 6 4b1 "0# "1# "0# "0# "1# "2# "2# "2# ðc10 u0\0 ¦c11 1u1 ¦c12 u2\2 ¦c13 "u1\2 ¦1u2 #Ł¦c10 u0\0 ¦c12 u2\2 ¦c13 u1\2 ¦ 6 4b1 "0# "0# "0# "2# "2# "2# "e01 E 0 ¦e11 E 1 ¦e21 E 2 #¦e01 E 0 ¦e11 E 1 ¦e21 E 2 [ "06# "3# "2# With the given u1 in eqn "06#\ we can update all the equations containing S 1 \ which are stress "0# "2# component T p and T p "p 0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5# and electric displacement component D i"0# and D i"2# "i 0\ 1\ 2#\ to "0# Tp "2# Tp "0# "2# B00 cpq S q ¦B20 cpq S q −B00 ekp E k −B20 ekp E k \ ½ "0# ½ ¹ "2# ¹ "0# "2# B02 cpq S q ¦B22 cpq S q −B02 ekp E k −B22 ekp E k \ ¹ "0# ¹ "2# ¹ ¹ D i"0# D i"2# with cpq ¹ ekp ¹ oik ¹ p\ q B00 eiq S q ¦B20 eiq S q ¦B00 oik E k ¦B20 oik E k \ ½ "0# ½ "0# ¹ "2# ¹ "2# B02 eiq S q ¦B22 eiq S q ¦B02 oik E k ¦B22 oik E k \ ½ "0# ½ "0# ¹ "2# ¹ "2# "07# cpq − ckp − oik ¦ cp1 c1q \ cpq ½ c11 cp1 ek1 \ ekp ½ c11 cpq − ckp − oik ¦ 10 cp1 c1q \ 14 c11 10 cp1 ek1 \ 14 c11 ei1 ek1 \ oik ½ c11 10 ei1 ek1 \ 14 c11 "08# 0\ 1\ 2\ 3\ 4\ 5\ i\ k 0\ 1\ 2[ Truncations for higher!order equations and other cuts can be carried out in a similar fashion[ In the _nite element implementation\ we have truncated the equations upto the _fth!order[ It has also been observed from our computation that the truncations and the resulted modi_cations to the material constants have signi_cant e}ect on certain branches of the frequency spectra[ 2[2[ Correction factors The truncation of the _rst!order equations requires correction factors to warrant accurate results\ and many correction factors have been suggested "see e[g[ Mindlin\ 0844\ 0852\ 0861^ Tiersten\ 0858# with various considerations including the presence of electrodes[ In this study\ the correction factors proposed by Mindlin "0844# is used as cpq ¹ kp kq cpq \ eip ¹ kp eip \ kp 8 p1 \ p\ q 01 p\ q 1\ 3\ 5\ 0\ 2\ 4[ "19# 0\ These truncated and corrected equations with plating considerations will be the plate equations for _nite element implementation[ In the computer program\ the plate theory upto the _fth!order .

1209 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 is implemented so the computation can be made in a wide frequency range[ The selection of the order of the plate theory for the computation has been discussed by Yong et al[ "0884#\ but we also _nd that the aspect ratios and the frequency are the important factors[ 3[ Variational principles The two!dimensional variational equations of higher!order plate theory\ which will be the basis of the _nite element formulation\ for mechanical vibrations can be given as "see e[g[ Mindlin\ 0844\ 0861\ 0873^ Tiersten\ 0858# s n g0 A "n# "n−0# T ij\i −nT 1j ¦Bnn T "n# −r s Bmn u"m# du"n# dA Ãj j j m 9 1 9[ "10# By applying the divergence theorem\ we have g "n# T ij\i du"n# dA j A g g "n# "n# ð"T ij du"n# # \i −T ij du"n# Ł dA j j\i A f "n# du"n# dS− j j C g "n# T ij du"n# dA\ j\i "11# A where ni is the outward surface normal of the boundary\ and the surface traction f "n# is de_ned as j f "n# j "n# ni T ij [ "12# By de_nition we have "n# "n−0# s "T ij du"n# ¦nT 1j du"n# # j\i j n "n# "n# s T ij dS ij [ n "13# The substitution of eqns "11# and "13# into eqn "10# yields the variational equations of mechanical vibrations as s n g0 A "n# "n# T ij dS ij ¦r s Bmn u"m# du"n# dA Ãj j m 9 1 s n 0g f "n# du"n# dS¦ j j C g F "n# du"n# dA \ j j A 1 "14# where F "n# j Bnn T "n# [ j "15# In a similar fashion\ we have variational equations of electrostatics as s n g D i"n# dE i"n# dA −s n A 0g q"n# df"n# dS¦ C g Q "n# df"n# dA \ A 1 "16# and the surface charges and face charges are de_ned as .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1200 q"n# ni D i"n# \ Q "n# Bnn D "n# [ "17# For a piezoelectric solid we have the virtual electric enthalpy density de_nition "Mindlin\ 0861# dW "n# "n# T ij dS ij −D i"n# dE i"n# \ "18# thus the previous variational eqns "14# and "16# can be combined into s n g$ A "n# "n# "T ij dS ij −D i"n# dE i"n# # dA¦r s Bmn u"m# du"n# dA Ãj j m 9 % g g s n " f "n# du"n# ¦q"n# df"n# # dS j j "29# C ¦s n "F "n# du"n# ¦Q "n# df"n# # dA[ j j A Now we can use the variational eqn "29# for the _nite element formulation of the higher!order plate theory[ Ostensibly\ the combination of the two variational equations\ as we shall show next\ is intended to aid the generalized formulation of the piezoelectric plate vibration problem[ 4[ Generalized _nite element formulation Traditionally\ piezoelectric problems have been formulated by separating the mechanical vari! ables\ which are displacements\ and electric variables\ which are electric potentials in most cases\ in the formation of the linear equation systems "see e[g[ Allik and Hughes\ 0869^ Lerch\ 0889^ Yong and Zhang\ 0882\ 0883\ 0884#[ By taking this approach\ the two sets of equations will be eventually reduced to the mechanical vibration problem through the elimination of the electric one\ and many techniques have been proposed for the condensation of the sti}ness matrix "Allik and Hughes\ 0869^ Lerch\ 0889#\ including a perturbation technique "Yong and Zhang\ 0882\ 0883\ 0884#[ However\ it has also been noticed lately that the generalized approach\ which means the mechanical displacement and electric potentials will be combined to form a generalized dis! placement _eld\ may also be advantageous since the costly condensation of the sti}ness matrix can be avoided to speed up the eigenvalue computation "Yong and Cho\ 0885#[ In this paper\ the higher!order piezoelectric plate theory is presented in a generalized matrix form to facilitate the _nite element implementation[ The representative matrices are illustrated\ again\ with the third!order plate theory[ We start with the generalized nth!order displacement _eld u"n# "n 9\ 0\ 1\ 2# j u"n# "n# "n# "n# "u0 \ u1 \ u2 \ f"n# # 3×0 \ "20# and accordingly we have the generalized displacement vector from the third!order plate theory as u "u"9# \ u"0# \ u"1# \ u"2# # 05×0 [ "21# We further de_ne the generalized nth!order strain and stress vectors as S"n# T"n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "S 0 \ S 1 \ S 2 \ S 3 \ S 4 \ S 5 \ E 0 \ E 1 \ E 2 # 8×0 \ "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "n# "T 0 \ T 1 \ T 2 \ T 3 \ T 4 \ T 5 \ D 0 \ D 1 \ D 2 # 8×0 [ "22# .

1201 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 From the generalized strainÐdisplacement relations in eqn "1#\ by rearranging the terms\ we can write S"n# "n¦0# "n¦0# 1u u"n# ¦1u u \ "23# where the two strain operators are de_ned as 1 K H1x0 H H 9 H H 9 H H H H 9 H H 1 H H1x2 H H 9 H H H H 9 H H 9 H H k 9 9 9 9 1 1x2 9 1 1x0 9 9 9 9 9 1 1x2 9 1 1x0 9 9 9 9 1u L H 9 H H H 9 H H H H 9 H H H 9 H \ H H 9 H H H 1 H − 1x0 H H 9 H H 1 H − l8×3 9 1x2 "n¦0# 1u K9 H9 H H9 H H9 H "n¦0# H9 H H0 H H9 H H9 k9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 L 9 H H 9 H H H \ 9 H 9 H H 9 H H 9 H −0H H 9 l8×3 "24# and _nally\ eqn "23#\ we de_ne the generalized strain vector\ with F S"9# J G "0# G jS f J S"1# F G "2# G f S j25×0 S 1S u .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 "0# K1u 1u F u"9# J 9 9 L H H G "0# G "1# 9 H H 9 1u 1u ju f [ "2# H H9 J u"1# F 9 1u 1u H H G G 9 9 1u l25×05 f u"2# j05×0 k9 1202 "25# The linear piezoelectric constitutive relations given in eqn "2# can also be generalized and written in matrix form as T where K B99 C Þ Þ 9 B91 C 9 L H H Þ Þ B00 C 9 B02 CH H 9 \ H B19 C Þ Þ 9 B11 C 9 H H H Þ Þ B20 C 9 B22 Cl25×25 k 9 CS\ "26# C Þ C $ c −eT e o % [ "27# 8×8 It is interesting to note that the generalized material constant matrix is no longer symmetric[ In matrix form\ the variational eqn "29# can be written as g "dST cS−dST eT E−dET eS−dET oE¦rduT mu# dA Ã A g g where K B99 D 9 B91 D 9 L Þ Þ H H B00 D 9 B02 DH Þ Þ H 9 \ H B19 D 9 B11 D 9 H Þ Þ H H B20 D 9 B22 Dl25×25 Þ Þ k 9 "duT f¦dfT q# dS¦ C g "duT F¦dfT Q# dA\ "28# A where m\ f\ q\ F\ and Q are the mass matrix\ the surface traction vector\ surface charge vector\ face traction vector\ and face charge vector\ respectively\ are to be combined into the generalized surface traction and face traction from now on[ In generalized notations we can write eqn "28# as dST DS dA¦ A g rduT mu dA Ã A g duT f dS¦ C g duT F dA\ "39# A D .

1203 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 Þ D $ c −eT −o −e % \ 8×8 m "9# "1# K m9 9 m9 9 L H H "0# "2# m0 9 m0 H H 9 \ "9# "1# H m1 9 m1 9 H H H "0# "2# m2 9 m2 l05×05 k 9 "n# mm K0 H 9 rBmn ð0¦"m¦n¦0#RŁ H H9 H k9 9 9 9L H 0 9 9H [ 9 0 9H H 9 9 9l3×3 "30# It should be emphasized that the mass matrix has zero terms corresponding to the electric potentials[ Following the conventional discretization procedure\ we start the _nite element implementation with Ku"9# L H "0# H Hu H Hu"1# H H "2# H ku l05×0 Ni I05×05 \ S K U0 L H H U1 ðN0 N1 \ [ [ [ \ Nl Ł 05×05l H H H * H H H k Ul l05l×0 1S NU BU\ "31# 0\ 1\ [ [ [ \ l\ u NU\ Ni B ðB0 B1 \ [ [ [ \ Bl Ł\ i where l is the number of nodes of each element\ U is the discretized displacement vector\ Ni are the shape functions\ I is the identity matrix\ and the Bi matrix is given as "0# K 1u Ni 1u Ni 9 9 L H H "1# 1u Ni 1u Ni 9 H H 9 [ "2# H 9 9 1u Ni 1u Ni H H H 9 9 1u Ni l25×05 k 9 Bi "32# The discretization of the variational eqn "39# gives dUT 0g BT DB dAU¦ A g Ý NT mN dAU− A g NT f dS− C g NT F dA A 1 9\ "33# and the discretized and generalized equations of motion in matrix form as KU¦MU Ý where FC ¦FA \ "34# .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1204 K FC g g BT DB dA\ M NT f dS\ FA A g g A NT mN dA\ NT F dA\ "35# A C are generalized sti}ness matrix\ mass matrix\ surface traction vector\ and face traction vector\ respectively[ Now we have the conventional _nite element equation given in eqn "34#\ which is the identical one we already know in structural mechanics problems\ where the _nite element method has been intensively studied for decades[ By adopting this formulation\ it is hoped that all the sophisticated techniques can be utilized[ For free vibrations\ by setting the traction vectors to zero and assuming the solution is harmonic\ we have the generalized vibration eigenvalue problem from eqn "34# KU−v1 MU 9\ "36# where v is the vibration frequency[ Usually we normalized the frequency by the fundamental thickness!shear frequency v9 p 1b X c55 [ r "37# It is clear from the matrix equations that the mass matrix is no longer diagonal due to the coupling of modes\ and the o}!diagonal terms have to be included in the computations[ A comparison with the conventional _nite element analysis will tell that this will add further di.culty to the eigenvalue computation[ The high vibration frequency will also require a _ner mesh\ which translates to a very large\ usually several millions\ linear equation system[ For this reason\ an e.cient eigenvalue solver can handle sparse matrix computation\ which is standard in most _nite element analysis programs today\ is essential to this program[ Also it should be realized that we have a critical requirement for such eigenvalue solvers\ namely they should be able to extract all the eigenvalues inside a given frequency interval\ usually in the vicinity of the resonance vibration frequency[ Eigenvalue solvers capable of this kind of computation are di.cult to _nd\ and extra e}orts have to be made to modify the existing ones in public domains such as the Netlib\ or locate available commercial codes[ As an example\ we computed the frequency spectra of a crystal plate with third!order plate theory and four!node element to make comparisons with the experimental data by Koga "0852#[ It is found that the frequency spectra from pure mechanical vibrations agree well with the measure! ment in Fig[ 1\ and the frequency change due to piezoelectric e}ect is clearly displayed in Fig[ 2[ The frequency di}erence between mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations is shown in Fig[ 3[ 5[ Conclusions The higher!order Mindlin plate theory has been systematically modi_ed for applications in the piezoelectric vibration analysis of crystal resonators for the resonance frequency spectrum[ By .

1205 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 Fig[ 1[ Normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[ The computed frequency spectra from the mechanical vibrations "Â# is compared with the experimental data "dark square# from Koga "0852#[ adopting a generalized approach\ the modi_ed plate theory is successfully implemented for the _nite element solutions for the vibration problems which have been extensively studied but never been able to solve for the precise and accurate modeling of crystal resonators[ From the com! parisons of the numerical results of the mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations\ we found that this generalized formulation is straightforward and e}ective for the piezoelectric plate vibration problems[ The results also con_rmed the long time view widely known to researchers that the piezoelectric e}ects on the free vibrations of the crystal plates can be neglected in the frequency spectrum analysis since the frequency shift is tiny and uniform[ For practical purposes\ the frequency spectrum from the mechanical vibrations will provide a valuable and precise pattern for better selection of plate geometry[ We also found that we have produced the frequency spectra from both the mechanical and piezoelectric vibrations which match the experimental data well[ It is agreed that the modeling of piezoelectric devices with _nite element method continues to be a challenge\ partially due to the extremely high frequency\ which requires the unusually larger number of equations\ in comparison with conventional _nite element analysis applications[ This challenge spreads further to strict requirement for e.cient mathematical subroutines essential to the analysis\ namely the eigenvalue solvers and linear equation solvers[ Fortunately\ the mathematical community has been inspired and encouraged by these rigorous attempts\ and tremendous progress .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1206 Fig[ 2[ Normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[ The computed frequency spectra from the piezoelectric vibrations "r# is compared with the experimental data "dark square# from Koga "0852#[ has been made for the e.cient and fast solvers\ while such e}orts are continuing to meet the demands for even larger problems[ Also the availability of powerful computers provides another opportunity\ particularly with the proliferation of multiple processors systems which can be easily programmed to solve the larger number of equations from the problem[ On the piezoelectricity theory\ tremendous e}orts have been made to make the approximate theories to be able to solve the real problem easily and accurately[ These e}orts will also assist the better _nite element implementation for less equations but accurate results[ Particularly\ the e}orts in reducing the order of the plate theory and the elimination of the electric variable from the equations will have great impact on the computing aspect[ With the combination of the e}orts in all directions\ it is expected that we shall be able to provide e.cient and accurate numerical solutions to assist the crystal resonator development[ Acknowledgements The _rst author thanks Mr Roger Grimes of Boeing for helpful discussions in the eigenvalue computing and Dr Akio Ishizaki and Professor Yasuaki Watanabe of Tokyo Metropolitan Uni! versity for the experimental data[ .

1207 J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 Fig[ 3[ Comparison of the computed normalized frequency vs length to thickness ratio from the piezoelectric vibrations "r# and mechanical vibrations "Â# for a crystal plate with width to thickness ratio c:b 05[2559[ References Allik\ H[ and Hughes\ T[ J[ R[ "0869# Finite element method for piezoelectric vibration[ Int[ J[ Numer[ Methods En`[ 1\ 040Ð046[ Antonova\ E[ E[ and Silvester\ P[ P[ "0883# Finite element analysis of resonance shift in piezoelectric crystals[ The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic En`ineerin` 02 "Supplement A#\ 166Ð171[ Beeby\ S[ P[ and Tudor\ M[ J[ "0884# Modeling and optimization of micromachined silicon resonators[ J[ Micromech[ Microen`[ 4\ 092Ð094[ Can_eld\ T[ R[\ Jones\ M[ T[\ Plassmann\ P[ E[ and Tang\ M[ S[ H[ "0881# Thermal e}ects on the frequency response of piezoelectric crystals[ Proceedin`s of the 0881 Pressure Vessels and Pipin` Conference 135\ 092Ð096[ Can_eld\ T[ R[\ Tang\ M[ S[ H[ and Foster\ J[ E[ "0880# Non!linear Geometric and Thermal Effects in Three Dimensional Galerkin Finite!element Formulations for Piezoelectric Crystals[ Technical Report\ Computing and Tele! communication Division\ Argonne National Laboratory\ Argonne\ IL 59328[ Gehin\ C[\ Samper\ S[ and Teisseyre\ Y[ "0886# Mounting characterization of piezoelectric resonator using FEM[ Proceedin`s of 0886 International IEEE Frequency Control Symposium\ pp[ 529Ð522[ Jones\ M[ T[ and Plassmann\ P[ E[ "0881# Solution of large\ sparse systems of linear equations in massively parallel applications[ Proceedin`s of Supercomputin` |81\ pp[ 440Ð459[ IEEE Computer Society Press[ Koga\ I[ "0852# Radio!frequency vibrations of rectangular AT!cut quartz plates[ Journal of Applied Physics 23"7#\ 1246Ð 1254[ Lee\ P[ C[ Y[\ Syngellakis\ S[ and Hou\ J[ P[ "0876# A two!dimensional theory for high!frequency vibrations of piezoelectric crystal plates with or without electrodes[ Journal of Applied Physics 50"3#\ 0138Ð0151[ .

J[ Wan` et al[ : International Journal of Solids and Structures 25 "0888# 1292Ð1208 1208 Lee\ P[ C[ Y[ and Tang\ M[ S[ H[ "0875# Initial stress _eld and resonance frequencies of incremental vibrations in crystal resonators by _nite element method[ Proceedin`s of the 39th Annual Frequency Control Symposium\ pp[ 041Ð059[ Lee\ P[ C[ Y[ and Wang\ J[ "0883# Vibrations of AT!cut quartz strips of narrow width and _nite length[ Journal of Applied Physics 64"01#\ 6570Ð6584[ Lerch\ R[ "0889# Simulation of piezoelectric devices by two! and three!dimensional _nite elements[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[\ 26"1#\ 122Ð136[ Lerch\ R[ and Bauerschmidt\ P[ "0885# Optical voltage sensor based on a quartz resonator[ Proceedin`s of the 0885 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium\ pp[ 272Ð276[ Mindlin\ R[ D[ "0844# An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Vibrations of Elastic Plates[ U[S[ Army Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories\ Fort Monmouth\ NJ[ Mindlin\ R[ D[ "0852# High frequency vibrations of plated\ crystal plates[ Pro`ress in Applied Mechanics\ pp[ 62Ð73[ Macmillan\ New York[ Mindlin\ R[ D[ "0861# High frequency vibrations of piezoelectric crystal plates[ International Journal of Solids and Structures 7\ 784Ð895[ Mindlin\ R[ D[ "0873# Frequencies of piezoelectrically forced vibrations of electroded\ doubly rotated\ quartz plates[ International Journal of Solids and Structures 19"1#\ 030Ð046[ Mindlin\ R[ D[ and Gazis\ D[ C[ "0851# Strong resonance of rectangular AT!cut quartz plates[ Proceedin`s of the 3th U[S[ National Con`ress in Applied Mechanics\ pp[ 294Ð209[ Momosaki\ E[ and Kogure\ S[ "0871# The application of piezoelectricity to watches[ Ferroelectrics 39\ 192Ð105[ Sekimoto\ H[ and Watanabe\ Y[ "0889# Two!dimensional analysis of thickness!shear and ~exural vibrations in rec! tangular AT!cut quartz plates using a one!dimensional _nite element method[ Proceedin`s of the 33th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control\ pp[ 247Ð251[ Soderkvist\ J[ "0886# Using FEA to treat piezoelectric low!frequency resonators[ Proceedin`s of 0886 IEEE International Ã Frequency Control Symposium\ pp[ 523Ð531[ Stewart\ J[ T[ and Stevens\ D[ S[ "0886# Three dimensional _nite element modeling of quartz crystal strip resonators[ Proceedin`s of 0886 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium\ pp[ 532Ð538[ Tiersten\ H[ F[ "0858# Linear Piezoelectric Plate Vibrations[ Plenum Press\ New York[ Wang\ J[ and Momosaki\ E[ "0886# The piezoelectrically forced vibrations of AT!cut quartz strip resonators[ Journal of Applied Physics 70"3#\ 0757Ð0765[ Yong\ Y[!K[ "0876# Three!dimensional _nite!element solution of the Lagrangian equations for the frequency!tem! perature behavior of Y!cut and NT!cut bars[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 23"4#\ 380Ð388[ Yong\ Y[!K[ "0877# Characteristics of a Lagrangian\ high!frequency plate element for the static temperature behavior of low!frequency quartz resonator[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 24"5#\ 677Ð688[ Yong\ Y[!K[ "0885# Third!order Mindlin plate theory predictions for the frequency!temperature behavior of straightened crested wave modes in AT! and SC!cut quartz plates[ Proceedin`s of the 0885 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium\ pp[ 537Ð545[ Yong\ Y[!K[ and Cho\ Y[ "0885# Numerical algorithms for solutions of large eigenvalue problems in piezoelectric resonators[ Int[ J[ Numer[ Methods En`[ 28\ 898Ð811[ Yong\ Y[!K[ and Stewart\ J[ T[ "0880# Mass!frequency in~uence surface mode shapes\ and frequency spectrum of a rectangular AT!cut quartz plate[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 27"0#\ 56Ð62[ Yong\ Y[!K[\ Stewart\ J[ T[\ Detaint\ J[\ Zarka\ A[\ Capelle\ B[ and Zheng\ Y[ "0882# Thickness!shear mode shapes and mass!frequency in~uence surface of a circular and electroded AT!cut quartz resonators[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 28"4#\ 598Ð506[ Yong\ Y[!K[\ Wang\ J[\ Imai\ T[\ Kanna\ S[ and Momosaki\ E[ "0885# A set of hierarchical _nite elements for quartz plate resonators[ Proceedin`s of the 0885 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium\ pp[ 870Ð874[ Yong\ Y[!K[ and Zhang\ Z[ "0882# A perturbation method for _nite element modeling of piezoelectric vibrations in quartz plate resonators[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 39"4#\ 440Ð451[ Yong\ Y[!K[ and Zhang\ Z[ "0883# Numerical algorithms and results for SC!cut quartz plates vibrating at the third harmonic overtone of thickness shear[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 30"4#\ 574Ð582[ Yong\ Y[!K[ and Zhang\ Z[ and Hou\ J[ "0885# On the accuracy of plate theories for the prediction of unwanted modes near the fundamental thickness!shear mode[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 32"4#\ 777Ð781[ Zhang\ Z[ and Yong\ Y[!K[ "0884# Numerical analysis of thickness shear thin _lm piezoelectric resonators using a laminated plate theory[ IEEE Trans[ Ultrason[\ Ferroelec[\ Freq[ Contr[ 31"3#\ 623Ð635[ .

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