Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.

, 4 [3] 250–259 (2007)

Ceramic Product Development and Commercialization

Overview of MgB2 Superconductor Applications
Michael Tomsic,* Matthew Rindfleisch, Jinji Yue, Kevin McFadden, and John Phillips
Hyper Tech Research Inc., Columbus, Ohio 43212

Michael D. Sumption, Mohit Bhatia, Scot Bohnenstiehl, and Edward W. Collings
LASM, Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Since 2001, when magnesium diboride (MgB2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in coil form. Now that the wire is available commercially, work has started on demonstrating a MgB2 wire in superconducting devices. This article discusses the progress on MgB2 conductor and coil development, and the potential for MgB2 superconductors in a variety of commercial applications: magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and high-energy physics applications.

Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Wire Development at Hyper Tech Research Inc. (Hyper Tech)
Strand Design and Manufacturing Process

Hyper Tech currently offers a commercial MgB2 superconductor wire designated as an ‘‘1811 Nb/Cu/ Monel’’ multifilament strand. This designation, in the order as it is listed, corresponds to the number of monofilaments in the strand, followed by the chemical barrier, monofilament sheath, and multifilament sheath materials. Figure 1 shows a typical wire cross section of the commercial wire currently fabricated at Hyper Tech.

* r 2007 The American Ceramic Society

Hyper Tech uses a patented process for manufacturing MgB2 superconductors; this process is called the continuous tube filling and forming (CTFF) process. During the CTFF process, powder is dispensed onto a strip of metal as it is formed into a tube. The CTFF process results in an overlap-closed tube filled with powder in continuous lengths; fabrication of precursor wire billets continuously is the fundamental advantage of the CTFF process. Hyper Tech has used the ex situ technique (filling the tube with already formed MgB2 powder), but primarily uses the in situ technique for fabricating MgB2 superconductor wire. The in situ technique involves direct filling of a metallic tube with elemental magnesium and boron powder and subsequent drawing, followed by heat treatment, during which the elements react to form MgB2. The in situ process offers the advantages of simplicity of fabrication, lower

The strand design was a Nb/Cu/Monel.ceramics. For most of the wire made at Hyper Tech. MgB2 superconductor wire with up to 61 total filaments has been fabricated. the typical continuously fabricated piece length for NbTi superconductor wires.  Rectangular. the diameter and length of the restack tube will determine the final piece length of the wire. trade name Glidcopt (SCM Metal Products. The size of a MgB2 filament in the case of the 0. The use of copper as the outer sheath improves the ductility and stability of the strand. or sheaths. Fe.0 mm aspect ratio in various multifilament strand designs.  Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) copper. the barrier material is typically pure niobium but Ni. The strand fabricated by the CTFF process must not only contain the powder but must also be chemically compatible in the heat-treatment range where the powder is being reacted. In general. MgB2 superconductor wire has been fabricated in a rectangular shape with a 0. The monofilament strands are then restacked into another seamless tube. Hyper Tech has fabricated a variety of experimental strands for various application-related projects. Billets are presently being sized to produce continuous wire lengths of 5 km for a typical 0. The size of a MgB2 filament in the standard 1811 multifilament wire at 0. Experimental work will continue to take the 0. all-copper matrix. the Nb barrier is enclosed in an outer sheath. WV) but can also be copper-rich Cu–Ni alloys. Huntington. The Ohio State University (OSU) has characterized the majority of the MgB2 conductors manufactured by Hyper Tech. Work is continuing to develop a wire. Small-sized MgB2 superconductor strands have been fabricated.8 mm is 76 mm. including the following:  Nb barrier. reaction temperatures. NC).8 mm diameter wire. The number of filaments in the restack can vary and usually Cu stabilizer filaments are located in the center of the multifilament restacked wire.5 mm  1.07 mm round monofilament and a 0. amorphous) to form MgB2 in the strand.8 mm conductor piece length up to 30 km.  Very small diameter. with the outer tube being all Cu.117 mm seven filament-restack strand was 17 mm. or wound on coils is heat treated to react the elemental magnesium (99%) and boron (99. and a more manageable way for adding dopants or other additives into the MgB2 Superconductor Applications Superconductor powder 251 CuNi alloy Copper Niobium Fig. or multifilament outer sheath. The heat-treatment soak temperature is normally 7001C. The Monel outer restack sheath is replaced with ODS Cu in order to combine the benefits of lower resistivity without sacrificing the significant degree of strength needed for drawing.9%. The ‘‘1811’’ designation for the commercial wire therefore refers to 18 MgB2 monofilaments and one center copper filament.117 mm round seven filament Nb/Cu/Monel MgB2 conductor. held for 20–40 min. to aid the wire drawing and eventually to provide electrical stabilization. creating a monofilament MgB2 strand. Heat treatments are single step and are performed under an argon atmosphere. is typically a nickel–copper alloy such as Monelt (Huntington Alloys. The Monel outer restack sheath is replaced with pure 101 copper.1 The lower reaction temperature is particularly important as it helps to minimize the possibility of powder–barrier reactions. the overlap-closed niobium strand is inserted into a seamless copper (or copper alloy) tube and is drawn to a predetermined size.2–4 . such as a 0. and Ti can alternatively be used. The second seamless tube. Research Triangle Park. 1. Transport Current Properties A wire in short sample form. Cross section of a typical 1811 multifilament MgB2 wire. in long length on spools.  High filament count.www.

000 4. Fig. Thus far. 2. 3) are typical values for the ‘‘standard’’ 1811 multifilament wire described previously. The ITER barrel-type samples have a gauge length of 50 cm and are made with a windand-react protocol.7 T and Birrs as high as 25. the corresponding exponential n values for Hyper Tech’s MgB2 superconductor wire have been determined.6 The University of Wollongong as well as Hyper Tech and OSU have shown that SiC nanoparticles can significantly improve the properties of wire made from the binary Mg1B compound.7.000 200. Hyper Tech is working to increase fill factor to 30%.000 6. Je(A/cm2) 100 80 4. No. two types of wire samples are used in transport current density measurements: short samples and 1-m ITER barrel coil samples.000 8.2K 6K 10K 15K 20K 25K Along with transport current density measurements.8 Short sample measurements by OSU have found enhancements in (m0Hirr) and the upper critical field (Bc2) with a SiC-doped wire made by Hyper Tech. Vol.252 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Tomsic.2 K and 2 Â 105 A/cm2 at 1 T. et al. 3. 1 T Ic to 400 A. Figure 2 shows the typical critical current and current density measurements versus applied field at various temperatures of the standard multifilament MgB2 conductor manufactured at Hyper Tech. The Ic at 1 T and 20 K is around 200 A. 4. Depending on the heat-treatment schedule.000 80. n-Value Nano-SiC Doping Work is ongoing to improve the in-field performance of MgB2 wires. Je. n value versus B for a multifilament MgB2 strand. and Jc properties of the standard Hyper Tech multifilament MgB2 strand.000 100.000 20 20. 4. experimental multifilament strands with a fill factor of 24% have been produced. Measure35 30 25 n-value 20 15 10 5 0 2 3 4 5 B (T) 6 7 8 4. 20 K. 2007 200 Jc(A/cm2) 60 40 60.000 10. The n values shown in the variable temperature graph (Fig. The average fill factor in the standard multifilament strand is 15%.5. The Jc criterion for both sample types is 1 mV/cm. Typical Ic.000 2. 3. SiC doping yielded Bc2s as high as 29. short sample. Data on the graph are limited to Jc4104 A/cm2.000 0 2 4 H (T) 6 8 10 Fig. variable temperature measurements performed by the Ohio State University.4 T.000 Ic (A) . Typical Jc values are 1 Â 105 A/cm2 at 5 T. Four-point Jc measurements are made with background fields of up to 15 T applied transversely to the strand.2 K in liquid helium. Short samples are 3 cm in length with a gauge length of 5 mm and are measured at elevated temperatures. which would increase the 20 K.000 20. Usually.000 40.2K 6K 10K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40. ITER barrel measurements are taken at 4.

including Hyper Tech.www. The University of Twente studied the vnz of MgB2 superconductors from several manufacturers. the filamentation and reduction of filament size is trivial as compared with YBCO-coated conductors. the potential of MgB2 to become a good low AC loss superconductor operating in the 15–30 K range will be an important advantage for system integrators. 0.0 cm/s. Alternating Current (AC) Losses 1e+6 J . Nevertheless. Figure 6 shows the relationship between Jc and strain for a 37-filament wire. For the protection of superconducting devices. Hyper Tech is working on reducing the filament size further.9 NIST found that eirr increases with the number of filaments in the wire.30nm SiC-10% (HT 625/3hr) The most near-term application to generate wire volume to help drive the MgB2 wire price down is MRI applications.48% for 1e+6 626 -Undoped 18+1 Nb/Cu/Monel (HT 700/20) 1011 . is simple and straightforward for MgB2. The dominant factor in external field losses is the filament size. a high normal zone propagation velocity (vnz) is preferred. quench protection is becoming increasingly important in magnet design. and 0.8 T. Figures 4 and 5 compare the current density of a MgB2 SiC-doped strand with an undoped one at 4 and 15 K. (A/cm ) 1e+5 1e+4 1e+3 1e+2 0 2 4 6 8 H (T) 10 12 14 Fig. Strain Tolerance NIST has measured the irreversible strain limit eirr of several Hyper Tech-fabricated multifilament strands using a stress-free cooling apparatus. JC (A/cm2) . As wire price is driven down by high-volume requirements from the MRI 1e+7 MgB2 Superconductor Applications 253 869 . 5.40% for a 19-filament conductor. Comparison between SiC-doped and undoped MgB2 wires at 4 K.2 to 1. Twisting.10 For a standard Hyper Tech multifilament strand. and therefore reduction of filament size improves the strain tolerance of the conductor. the vnz of YBCO-coated conductors ranges from 0. As MgB2 superconductor wire development advances and more and more coils are fabricated. Most of these applications operate on AC. the vnz of NbTi and Nb3Sn ranges from 1 to 100 m/s.30nm SiC-10% (HT 675/40) 37-filament conductor.ceramics. Jc versus field. MgB2 has the traditional advantage of a wire as compared with a tape—the losses are proportional to the width or radius. and the few applications that are DC powered involve some AC ripple.Undoped 18+1 Nb/Cu/Monel (HT 700/20) 1011 . Fortunately. and therefore can be quite low for MgB2. the potential for MgB2 to be used in electrical power applications increases. Twente found that vnz will decrease with lower n values. Jc versus field. The strain tolerance limits reported are 0. Comparison between SiC-doped and undoped MgB2 wires at 15 K. Twente found a vnz of 15– 50 cm/s at 5 K. For comparison. the MgB2 strand is such that the barrier and sheath material can be easily interchanged for fabricating a conductor with a more resistive matrix than the standard multifilament wire to reduce external field-induced eddy current losses.37% for a 7-filament conductor. 4. ments showed that Hyper Tech wires with SiC-doped strands increase the current density in higher fields. Normal Zone Propagation 1e+5 1e+4 1e+3 1e+2 0 2 4 6 H (T) 8 10 12 Fig. or ramping up and down. which is reliably in the 50 mm range at present. AC losses are an issue in power system design. exceedingly difficult with YBCO conductors. With respect to transport current losses. 4.

No.2 0.37% Fig.6 7 filaments 0. This coil attained a field of 3. 2007 37 Filament Wire Critical Current Je (A/mm2) 150 B I' E' F' G' H' C' D' A' B' A C D E F G H I 37 filaments 0. 4. B = 6 T Initial n-value ~ 29 75 Sample loaded Sample unloaded K' J' 19 filaments 0.9 T at 30 K. Establishing excellent properties over length in early demonstration coils was followed by designing of more realistic coils using MgB2 superconductor wire for specific applications. Long-length characterization in coil form is equally important for the advancement of the MgB2 superconductor because most commercial applications will require many kilometers of wire. 3.48 % K 50 0 0. and the coil height was 7.6 cm.5 0. As coil fabrication techniques advanced. 2. Wind-and-React Solenoid Coils treated in flowing Argon in a stainless-steel retort in a furnace and was then impregnated with epoxy. 3.8 T at 25 K. The characterization of these coils allowed us to determine the superconductivity properties of MgB2 wire over a long length. 7. et al. Photograph of a 740 m wind-and-react coil.48% J 125 100 T = 4 K.40% ε irr ~ 0. 1.8 cm bore.1 cm in the largest coil.8 or 7.83 mm strand. 6. The magnet bore size was either 3. each successive coil was wound with increasing continuous lengths of wire. The development of long-length multifilamentary wire has enabled the design and fabrication of a series of MgB2-wound solenoid and racetrack coils. using the wind-and-react approach.9 and will decrease by a factor of 2–5 when transitioning from 25 K (vs 5 K). One of the larger wind-and-react coils fabricated by Hyper Tech was wound with 740 m of 0. Vol. .0 T at 15 K.1 0.3 0.4 Applied Strain (%) 0.254 175 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Tomsic.4 T at 20 K. MgB2 Coil Development Advancements in MgB2 wire manufacturing have led Hyper Tech into superconductor coil and magnet development. Each coil was heat Fig.9 T at 4 K. Critical current versus applied axial strain for a 37 filament MgB2 wire. totaling 3463 turns around a 3. The multifilament strands were insulated with an s-glass braid. Depicted in Figs 7 and 8 is a photograph of the coil and a graph showing Hyper Tech fabricated several solenoid coils wound with long lengths of Nb/Cu/Monel-type multifilament wire. and 0.

with each coil being fabricated from one 600 m continuous length of a MgB2 superconductor wire. T 3 2 1 Fig.12 T at 20 K. 11.2K Solenoid Coil Load Line 300 Hyper Tech fabricated over 12 single-layer racetrack coils for a cryogenic rotor in an LH2-cooled. a field distribution in the bore was calculated to find the peak field in the coil at the innermost winding. The superconducting generator demonstration will be a Ic. T 6 8 10 Fig. 8. 10. The best-performing coil reached 400 A at 4 K.96 T. The coils were epoxy impregnated after heat treatment. Over 820 m of an s-glass insulated Nb/Cu/Monel-type multifilament strand with a total of 482 turns were wound on a copper coil former. 9. the peak field in the coil was estimated to be 3. The load line in Fig.11 At an Ic of 84. Using the coil geometry and Ic measurements.2 K. B . kA/cm J . Coil load line and short sample (1 m barrel) Jc versus B curve for the 740 m wind-and-react solenoid coil.11 Fig. 40 Fig.ceramics. superconducting generator demonstration under a NASA contract. A 200 100 0 0 2 4 B. A picture of the 53 cm coil is shown in Fig. The reacted wire was wound on the coil bobbin from the stainless-steel spool. K 30 100 MgB2 Superconductor Applications 255 4 Bore Field. The racetrack coils were made using the windand-react approach. This rotor coil generator project will lead to the fabrication of four rotor coils. Je.11 the transport properties of the coil measured at various temperatures from 4.5 A at 4. The coil generated an axial field of 0. Wind-and-React Racetrack Coils Hyper Tech demonstrated a large solenoid coil fabricated with the react-and-wind approach. 25 120 Critical Current. The short sample was a 1 m ITER barrel that was heat treated with the coil. React-and-Wind Solenoid Coils in this coil was 53 cm. the bore size 400 Nb/Cu/monel short sample at 4.2 to 35 K. which was the expected result. 10. Fifty-three centimeters react and wind coil wound with 820 m of an 1811 multifilament MgB2 wire. A load line was generated for the 740 m solenoid coil to compare the test results of the coil with short sample measurements. The wire was insulated with either a single-layer s-glass braid or a ceramic sol–gel coating. kA/cm 80 60 40 20 0 5 0 20 15 10 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 Temperature. Ic. Figure 11 shows a picture of a racetrack coil. and Jc as a function of temperature for 740 m windand-react solenoid coil. Typical MgB2 racetrack-type ‘‘rotor’’ coils. the lower short sample value may be due to a variation in the properties in this particular strand. A 100 J . and the wire length varied between 30 and 80 m. The insulated wire was heat treated on a stainless-steel spool to react the wire to form MgB2. I . 9 shows that the coil performed better than the short sample. Epoxy was applied during coil winding to impregnate the coil using a wet-wind-compatible epoxy. .

Potential Applications for MgB2 Superconducting Wire MRI Currently. Not only are the basic materials Mg and B less costly than Nb and Ti. No. especially at high fields. Experimental work with MgB2 thin films13. The first MRI-type applications will most likely be for systems operating in the 10–27 K range in background fields on the wire from 0. If the engineering current density of the MgB2 wire can be increased to exceed the NbTi or Nb3Sn wire performance at 4 K in field. the MgB2 conductor can be constructed with less copper (which is needed for stability).5 T MRI system might experience up to 3 T on the wire.14 has indicated that an order of magnitude improvement in current density at a given magnetic field should be possible.256 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Tomsic. the largest commercial market for superconducting wire is MRI systems. and open full-body MRI systems. The rotor coil is shown installed on a test plate.0 T. An MgB2 wire operating at 4 K has the potential to exceed the performance of NbTi wire in high fields and become equal to or greater than Nb3Sn wire performance at 4 K. 12. The selling price for MgB2 wire on a per-meter basis should be less than NbTi wire based on manufacturing and material costs. as shown in Fig.0 T) and ultra-highfield (7 T plus) MRI and NMR. Thus. there are potential savings in the construction of a vacuum cryostat. dopants like nano-SiC are being added to increase Bc2 and work is being conducted worldwide to increase both pinning and connectivity in MgB2.8 mm sells for around $1/m. By operating at temperatures higher than 4 K (liquid He. meaning that the $/ m selling price of MgB2 wire should become much less than NbTi wire. we obtain three times the wire length. Their . manufacturing processes are similar to that used for NbTi and Nb3Sn. Vol. then the combination of high superconductivity performance and low wire price should generate a much lower $/kA m than the present NbTi or Nb3Sn wire at a given magnetic field. and Nb3Sn sells for $4–6/m. 2 MW generator operating at 20 K in liquid H2. An increase in MgB2 wire usage beyond these initial 10–27 K MRI system markets will depend on how low the price performance can be driven for a MgB2 wire operating at 4 K.5 to 3. the mostly likely systems to be initially marketed using a MgB2 superconducting wire will be smaller bore extremity (arm and leg) MRI systems. 12. these systems could be either an open or enclosed MRI system. The first full size MgB2 rotor coil fabricated for a 2 MW generator demonstration. operating temperature of present MRI devices). o100 cm bore). Therefore. A typical NbTi superconductor wire at 0. however. The field of an MRI system is typically described by the center bore field. 3. As discussed previously. 4. The first rotor coil has been fabricated. For example. for full-body MRI systems (1. An MgB2 superconducting wire has the potential to impact this industry. featuring a step profile. potentially increasing the overall coil engineering current density. the wire can potentially see up to twice that of the center. for the same kilogram of raw material. especially with the open MRI systems that typically require two separate cryostats.12 The degree of impact depends on the price performance ($/kA m) of the wire at a given temperature and background field. With regard to the $/m price of MgB2 wire. For MgB2 to compete on a price performance basis with NbTi and Nb3Sn at 4 K. Fault Current Limiters Superconducting fault current limiters have been investigated and developed over the past 15 years. less costly cryocoolers can potentially be used. et al. the density of MgB2 is one-third that of NbTi and Nb3Sn.5 and 3. a 1. for smaller bore magnets (sizes smaller than fullbody MRI. Also. Because MgB2 superconductors have a higher temperature margin compared with NbTi and Nb3Sn superconductor wires. 2007 Fig. Therefore. increases in field performance and lower manufacturing costs need to be demonstrated. MgB2 wire could become the wire of choice based on basic wire economics.

Benefits come from reducing the short-circuit current in the system and lower transformer impedance. MgB2 offers the potential of higher power densities. MgB2 is known to have a very sharp transition from a superconducting to a normal MgB2 Superconductor Applications 257 main advantages are a negligible influence on an electrical network under normal operating conditions. it appears that the targeted conductor cost can be met in a few years. The lower transformer Superconducting motors and generators have several potential advantages. the superconducting transformer may significantly benefit the entire electrical system. For all-electric aircraft motors. Several of the proposed transformer designs suggest that the field on the wire can be as low as 0. multifilamentary. and lighter weight coils for these superconducting homopolar motors. the normal zone heat propagation of MgB2 is rapid compared with ceramic superconductors. MgB2 can offer advantages in several of the motor and generator systems being demonstrated. the present design uses NbTi superconductors operating at 4 K. for NASA. With its potential low cost and ability to operate at moderate temperatures (20–30 K). and the conductor can be designed with a variety of highly resistive sheath materials. A stabilized twisted multifilament wire is also a low AC loss superconductor.2–1. MgB2 superconducting coils have generated magnetic fields in the 0. highly efficient. With a stabilized. The targeted power utility transformer for commercialization has been identified at 30 MVA or larger.0 T. MgB2 wires showed good limiting properties characterized by a fast transition to the normal state during the first half of the first cycle and a limiting effect during the subsequent six cycles without damage to the wire samples. MgB2 fault current limiters will be in competition from inductive FCL coils using YBCO-coated conductors. Moreover. the fuel of choice is liquid H2. If the other issues for superconducting transformers such as cryogenic insulation. There are basically two types of fault current limiters: resistive and inductive. low AC loss MgB2 wire at 20–30 K in fields of around 0. Presently. The superconducting wire has current-limiting capability. an important factor for fault current limiters that operate on AC during the normal (no fault) condition. permit the use of mesh networks for a tightly coupled power system. lightweight. which minimizes hot spots. This can reduce the interrupting ratings of circuit breakers and in some cases. This sharp transition makes MgB2 ideal for the resistive-type fault current limiter. resistive matrix. As MgB2 current densities start to exceed those of NbTi at 4 K.www. and automatic response without an external trigger. The other type of fault current limiters is inductive in nature. There are many challenges in building and demonstrating a superconducting transformer. but some designs could go up to 1. and cryocooler refrigeration optimization can be addressed. high voltage terminations. One design is the superconducting homopolar motor being developed for the Navy. this was more evident for Custabilized multifilament MgB2 wires.ceramics. In addition to these attributes. Work has been reported15–17 on the current limiting properties of different kinds of MgB2 wires at 50 Hz in the temperature range of 20– 30 K. Transformers impedance will improve voltage regulation and stability and increase real and reactive power availability to the power system. The competition to a MgB2 wire will be a YBCO-coated conductor operating in the 65–77 K range in liquid N2.0 T. and reliable. which involve superconductor coils fabricated with considerably longer lengths of superconductor.15–0. . high temperature margins. They can be power-dense. small volume. MgB2 is very attractive as a cost-effective FCL element. but with regard to the wire the primary factor is producing a superconductor wire with a price performance in the $1–3/kA m range at the targeted field and temperature. Hyper Tech is building MgB2 superconducting rotor coils for a cryogenic 2 MW generator demonstration that will be cooled with liquid hydrogen at 20 K. based on low-cost MgB2 superconductor wire. MgB2 is also suitable for potential low-cost coils in the 20–30 K operating range.20 T. twisted. liquid H2 will be available for the turbine engine on an aircraft. practically instantaneous limitation. Other superconducting motor systems have been demonstrated using liquid neon and helium gas operating in the 20–30 K range. Motors and Generators Superconducting transformers will have reduced size and weight and lower losses compared with transformers fabricated with conventional wire. there is the potential of commercializing a high-MVA transformer that is of a lower cost than a conventional transformer.5–2.0 T field range at these temperatures. The temperature differences at the beginning of the transition in the first cycle smoothed out during subsequent cycles.

et al. For such a modest field in a high-radiation application. In synchrotron light sources.200 mm range with an Ic in the 3–30 A range. and Nb3Sn is being considered at 10 K. MgB2 could be considered for coils operating anywhere from 4 to 15 K or higher. lower field special applications include replacement light source bending magnets and solenoids for a muon collider. and 15 K. This process involves ramping up and down the magnetic field seen by the pill while opening and closing a thermal switch between the pill and a heat sink. that is. Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) available since the early 1980s. The cost of the superconductor is important because a considerable amount of superconductor wire is required for these large coils. While presently NbTi is being used at 4 K. the future is positive Superconducting magnetic separators using NbTi operating at 4 K in liquid He have been commercially . At operating temperatures from 4 to 30 K. 4. Some near-term. 10. The typical magnetic fields generated are in the 2–5 T range.2 Â 105 A/cm2 at 4 K in fields of 12–16 T. No.258 International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology—Tomsic. Experimental systems have been built for various wastewater treatment demonstration projects. Magnetic Separation Both of these applications require the storage of energy in fairly large coils. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Magnetic Levitated (MagLev) Trains Future NASA instruments operating in space will feature detectors operating well below 1 K. each stage requiring a superconducting magnet. 10. 2007 High Energy Physics (HEP) Applications The long-term goal of MgB2 in HEP applications is the production of a wire that will produce engineering current densities at least 1. Higher field systems in the 2–5 T range have been suggested for some magnetic separation systems. they require considerable superconductor wire. Continually improving the properties should enable MgB2 to be used in the windings of undulator magnet installations and replacement wiggler magnets in accelerator applications. BSCCO. the MgB2 wire price performance can potentially enable several commercial applications. MgB2 superconductor with its large thermal margin seems to be an ideal candidate superconducting material. the main question is whether BSCCO and YBCO will eventually be as cost effective as MgB2 for superconducting devices operating in this temperature range. This superconducting application is unique because a very small diameter wire is required. Vol. MgB2 is being considered for a 15 K operating temperature by NASA. Presently. If the desire is to operate at temperatures above 4 K with these large coils. Summary Significant progress has been made since 2001 on the development of long-length MgB2 superconductor wires. These systems typically operate in the 2 T range. 1–2 m. 3. MgB2 superconductors offer the potential of a low-cost wire with a high temperature margin that can enable large conduction-cooled magnets operating in the 10–25 K range. MgB2 superconductor wire performance is expected to increase rapidly over the coming years through improved pinning and connectivity.075–0. and YBCO tape. The price performance at 4 K operation could exceed both NbTi and Nb3Sn superconductor wire. Targeted temperatures are 4. The desired superconductor wire size needs to be in the 0. commonly referred to as a salt pill. There is also the potential for hybrid coils operating in the 10–25 K range using MgB2 as the outer coil and a YBCO-coated conductor as the inner coil in the higher field region. Therefore. The heat is then pumped up a chain of stages each at successively higher temperatures. operating at the appropriate temperature (4. MgB2 superconductors have the potential to become a low-cost wire with a high temperature margin. As MgB2 performance exceeds that of NbTi at 4 K and Nb3Sn at 10 K. The cooling system of choice is ADR. The primary competition to MgB2 in the 4–30 K temperature range will be the ceramic superconductors. the benefit of increased brilliance of the photon beam at higher harmonics follows the replacement of permanent-magnet undulator magnets with superconducting ones for fields o5 T.18 While MgB2 has the potential to reach this performance. Because these systems are typically large diameter bore magnets. MgB2 should be able to satisfy several nearterm accelerator-related requirements. The primary application of superconducting magnetic separators is removing iron from kaolin clay. MgB2 superconductors will be a good fit.19 These devices produce cooling by manipulating the entropy of a paramagnetic material. 15 K) in 3–4 T magnetic fields. a low-cost superconductor wire is needed.

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