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Abstract-- This paper shows an algorithm to control the DC


bus voltage of a Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF), based on the
performance of the Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The
power converter topology corresponds to a four-wire three-leg
Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) with split capacitor. The algorithm
is focused on the voltage control for each capacitor, such that the
dc-voltages follow a reference level in order to guarantee both the
active filter controllability and the balance in the distribution of
the DC bus voltage. The algorithm performance is evaluated
through some simulations in ATP. Finally, the algorithm
effectiveness is shown when it is used to control a SAPF that
compensates distorted and unbalanced currents.

Index Terms-- DC voltage control, harmonic and unbalance
compensation, power factor correction, Shunt Active Power
Filters (SAPF), Voltage Source Inverter (VSI).
I. INTRODUCTION
n recent years, the rapid development of power
semiconductor technology and the massive use of electronic
equipments, industrial machines and automation devices in
industries, commerce and households, have led to a significant
increase in disturbances, which affect power quality in
transmission and distribution systems. Customers as well as
power transmission and distribution companies are
increasingly interested in energy efficiency and power quality
problems. This interest is mainly due to the technical and
economic losses produced by a poor power quality, which
affect both supply-side and demand-side [1].

Therefore, there is the need to develop and implement
solutions to improve energy efficiency and provide an
adequate power quality in electrical power systems. A solution
for this need is the use of active compensation devices, better
known as "Active Power Filters" [2]. This paper is focused
specifically on active power filters of shunt connection, which
are usually used for harmonics mitigation, power factor
correction and load balancing [3].

Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) can be classified according
to its power converter topology and the number of the phases
and wires of the system. One of these topologies corresponds

M.A. Mantilla Villalobos and J.F. Petit Surez are with the Grupo de
Investigacin en Sistemas de Energa Elctrica (GISEL). Universidad
Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia (e-mail:
mmantilla@ieee.org, jfpetit@uis.edu.co).

to a four-wire three-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) with
split capacitor, which is the topology that is considered in this
paper [2]. This topology can be used in four-wire systems,
allowing the compensation of zero sequence currents.
Furthermore, it is a low cost topology and easy to control [4].
Despite these advantages, this topology can have some
problems, mainly when the neutral current has a dc level. The
injection of this kind of currents can unbalance the distribution
of the DC bus voltage (the voltages in the capacitors does not
have the same mean value), which can result in the loss of the
active filter controllability [5].

Accordingly, this paper presents an algorithm to control the
DC bus voltage for the above topology, such that each
capacitor follows a reference level in order to guarantee both
the active filter controllability and the balance in the
distribution of the DC bus voltage. The algorithm is based on a
Proportional Integral controller (PI) and its performance is
evaluated through some simulations in ATP for the following
cases:

- Power factor correction and harmonics mitigation.
- Load balancing, considering zero sequence currents.
- Load balancing, considering a DC level in the neutral
current.

The algorithm advantages and limitations are presented for
each case.

The organization of the paper is as follows. Section II
describes the main components of the SAPF, considering a
VSI with split capacitor. In section III, the DC-control
algorithm is introduced. Section IV presents a brief description
of the current reference algorithm and the current control
strategy used to achieve the compensation goals of the filter.
Section V shows the simulation results of the algorithm when
it is used to control a SAPF. Finally, the main conclusions of
the work are presented.
II. SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTERS
Shunt active power filters are devices based on power
electronics used to improve power quality in distribution
systems. SAPF are connected in shunt with the disturbing
loads in order to compensate the power factor and mitigate
disturbance and unbalance currents drawn by the load from the
source [6]. Fig. 1 presents the main blocks of a SAPF. Its
main components are: a power inverter, a DC energy storage
DC Bus Voltage Control in Four-Wire Shunt
Active Power Filters with Split Capacitor
Mara A. Mantilla Villalobos, Student Member, IEEE, and Johann F. Petit Surez, Member, IEEE
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I
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device and a control system. The power inverter is connected
to the PCC (Point of Common Coupling) via a filter which is
usually an inductive element. This filter attenuates the high
frequency ripple of the injected current which is generated by
the inverter switching [4], [6].


Fig. 1. Shunt active power filter general diagram.

The SAPF must inject a current into the system in order to
achieve its compensation goals. This current should demand a
null active power from the filter, so the grid must supply the
active power consumed by the load [6]. By injecting this
current, an ideal compensation achieves:

- Mitigation of harmonics and unbalance of the load
current, so the resulting current supplied by the grid is
purely sinusoid of positive sequence at the fundamental
frequency.
- Power factor correction, so the source current must be
in phase with the voltage in the PCC.

To obtain these compensation options, the SAPF needs a
control system which is composed by three control loops, see
Fig. 1. On the one hand, the first loop must calculate the
current reference. On the other hand, the second loop must
keep the DC bus voltage in a reference level that guarantees
the active filter controllability. Finally, the third loop should
calculate the power inverter firing pulses such that the injected
current follows the current reference [4], [7]. Justly, this paper
is focused in the second control loop by using an algorithm
based on the performance of the PI controller, which is
described in section III.

Regarding the power inverter topology, it can be classified
according to the DC energy storage device and the number of
the phases and wires of the system. One of the most commonly
used topologies corresponds to a four-wire three-leg VSI with
split capacitor, see Fig. 2. This topology contains two DC
storage capacitors. The junction of the two capacitors is
connected to the neutral of the load which allows a path for the
zero sequence current. Therefore, this topology can be used in
four-wire three-phase systems where the injection of zero
sequence currents can be required [4], [5].



Fig. 2. Four-wire three-leg VSI with split capacitor.

The current control for this topology is simple because its
three legs work independently due to the connection between
the neutral of the load and the midpoint of the DC storage
capacitors. However, this connection is the reason of some
limitations. On the one hand, this topology does not take full
advantage of the total DC bus voltage. Also, the maximum
zero sequence current injected by this topology depends on the
positive and negative sequence which reduces the inverter
injection capacity. On the other hand, the injection of zero
sequence currents can unbalance the distribution of the total
DC bus voltage because this current has to return by the
midpoint of the DC storage capacitors. This unbalance can
generate a loss of the active filter controllability. The above
limitations imply that the topology can be used only in medium
and low power systems [5].

Based on the foregoing, this paper works with an algorithm to
control the DC bus voltage in order to maintain the DC
voltages in an adequate reference level that guarantees the
active filter controllability.
III. DC BUS VOLTAGE CONTROL
To compensate the inherent losses in the operation of the
inverter, and maintain the balance in the distribution of the
DC- bus voltage, a DC voltage control is required. The
algorithm used for this purpose is based on the calculation of a
current in phase with the supply voltage at the fundamental
frequency (voltage at PCC). This current must demand the
active power required to maintain the DC-bus voltage in a
reference value.

To calculate the amplitude of this sinusoidal current, a PI
controller is used. Therefore, the current that calculates this
control is given by the next equation:

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
_
0
1
2
t t
| |
= +
|
\ .

t
k
refdc k p i
rms
u t
i t K e t K e d
U


Where
_ refdc k
i is the current for the k-phase (k=a, b and c),
( )
k
u t is the supply voltage of phase k and
rms
U is the RMS
value of the supply voltage. The ( ) e t signal corresponds to
the error between the reference value of the DC-bus voltage
3
(
dcref
U ) and the value of this voltage at time t ( ( )
dc
u t ),
according to equation (2).

( ) ( ) - ( ) 2 =
dcref dc
e t U u t

The constants K
p
and K
i
correspond to the proportional and
integral gain of the PI controller, respectively. In this paper,
the constant K
p
is calculated so that the DC voltage reaches
the reference in a semi-cycle of the supply voltage. In this way,
the current and voltage of each DC-bus capacitor are related
by the equations (3) and (4), see Fig. 2.

( ) ( )
1
1 1
( )
3 =
dc
dc
du t
i t C
dt

( ) ( )
2
2 2
( )
4 =
dc
dc
du t
i t C
dt


Assuming that, ( )
1 dc
i t and ( )
2 dc
i t maintain a constant value
in each semi-cycle of the supply voltage ( / 2 AT ), the
amplitude of these currents should satisfy (5) and (6)
respectively, with the aim that the DC-bus voltage reaches the
reference value in almost one semi-cycle.

( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
, ( / 2) 5
/ 2
dc b b b
C
I t e t for t t t T
T
= < < + A
A

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
, ( / 2) 6
/ 2
dc b b b
C
I t e t for t t t T
T
= < < + A
A


Where
b
t is the beginning of each semi-cycle of the supply
voltage.

In this way, a sinusoidal equivalent signal which transfers to
the capacitors the same electric charge, in each semi-cycle,
leads to a K
p
value given in (7).

( ) 7
3
p
C
K
T
t
=
A


The above equation is considering a three phase signal and the
same capacity (C
1
=C
2=
C) for the capacitors.

On the other hand, the constant K
i
represents the number of
times that the proportional action is repeated. This constant is
set by the help of simulations, taking into account the system
to be controlled.

Then, the algorithm proposed in (1) aims to maintain the DC-
bus voltage in a reference value. However, if the SAPF has to
supply zero sequence currents, this algorithm does not
consider the voltage unbalance in the DC-bus. For this
situation, an independently voltage control for each capacitor
is proposed. Equation (8) shows the resulting algorithm for
calculating the reference current.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
0
_
2 2
0
para >0
2
8
para 0
2
t
k
p i k
rms
refdc k
t
k
p i k
rms
u t
K e t K e d u t
U
i t
u t
K e t K e d u t
U
t t
t t
+
=
+ <
| |
|

\ .

| |

\ .


Where,
( ) ( )
1 1 1
- ( ) 9
dcref dc
e t U u t =
( ) ( )
2 2 2
- ( ) 10
dcref dc
e t U u t =

1 dcref
U y
2 dcref
U are the dc-voltage references in the capacitor
C
1
y C
2
, respectively. In the algorithm, the voltage in the
capacitor C
1
is controlled when the voltage supply has positive
values (positive semi-cycle) and the voltage in the capacitor C
2

is controlled when the voltage supply has negative values
(negative semi-cycle).

In (11), the RMS value of the supply voltage is calculated
considering that it is balanced and undistorted. If the voltage
have harmonic components or unbalance, it is necessary a
previous filtering or the use of an additional algorithm to
calculate the RMS.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2 11
3
rms a b c
U u t u t u t = + +

IV. REFERENCE CALCULATION AND CURRENT CONTROLLER
As was mentioned in section II, the control system in the
SAPF is composed by three control loops, these are: the
current reference control, DC-voltage control and current
control. The second one was explained in the above section.
Following, it is presented a short description for the remaining
loops.

A. Current reference calculation
The current reference control is realized using the Fryze
Theory [8]. This theory is based on the natural reference
frame (abc) and it has as goal that the grid current after
compensation is in phase with the supply voltage. Moreover,
this current must deliver the active power that needs the load
[4], [6], [8]. This current is given by:

( ) ( ) ( )
_
2
12
p k k
rms
P
i t u t
U
=

where ( )
k
u t is the phase-to-ground voltage (for the phase k),
rms
U is the RMS value of the supply voltage and P is the active
power demanded by the load.

In this way, the non-active current, which is the current to
compensate, it is given by (13).

( ) ( ) ( )
_ _
2
13
ref k L k k
rms
P
i t i u t
U
=
4
When the supply voltage does not have distortion and
unbalances, the compensation based on (13) can be used to
compensate: harmonic currents, power factor and unbalance
currents in the grid currents [4]. Finally, the total current
reference that must generate the SAPF is given by the sum of
the current reference for compensating the load, and the
current reference for controlling the DC-voltage. The
expression for the total current reference is given by (14)

( ) ( )
_ _ _
14
cref k ref k dcref k
i t i i = +

B. Current controller
The current control is based on the hysteresis controller.
The aim of the control is to obtain the switching signals from
the comparison between the current error and a fixed tolerance
band (normally this band is close to 0). If the mismatch
between the actual and reference current is positive, the
inverter voltage output must be positive and if the mismatch is
negative, the inverter voltage output must be negative [4], [9].
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
To evaluate the performance of the DC-bus voltage
controller, for both the algorithm based on (1) and for the
modified algorithm based on (8), some simulations in ATP are
presented. These simulations were done for three different
disturbing loads in order to evaluate the algorithms
performance in the following compensation cases:

- Power factor correction and harmonics mitigation.
- Load balancing, considering zero sequence currents.
- Load balancing, considering a DC level in the neutral
current.

The system and the SAPF parameters used for the simulation
are presented in Table I.

TABLE I
SYSTEM PARAMETERS

PARAMETER VALUE
Line system voltage Ul 208 Vrms
System frequency fs 60 Hz
Hysteresis tolerance band h 0.001 A
Filter inductance Lf 20 mH
Filter resistance Rf 1
Capacitance C1 2200 F
Capacitance C2 2200 F
C1 reference voltage Udcref1 270 Vdc
C2 reference voltage Udcref2 270 Vdc
Simulation step 1s
Integral constant Ki 0.003
Proportional constant Kp 0.138

The initial condition for each capacitor voltage is considered
null in t=0 s and the compensation action of the filter starts at
t=0.2s.
A. Case 1: Power factor correction and harmonics mitigation
In this case, the algorithm performance was evaluated with
an inductive load connected in shunt with a nonlinear load.
Regarding to the inductive load, this has a pf=0.7 and it
demands 1KW. On the other hand, the nonlinear load is
comprised of a 3-phase diode bridge rectifier with a resistive
load of 1kW. The total load is connected to the system through
a 15 mH inductor and a resistance of 0.1.

1) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (1)
Fig. 3 shows the total DC-bus voltage (U
dc
), the voltage in
capacitor C
1
(U
dc1
) and the voltage in capacitor C
2
(U
dc2
). The
required time to achieve the 99% of the reference value is
0.097s for U
dc
, 0.098s for U
dc1
and 0.095s for U
dc2
, which
corresponds to almost six cycles of the supply voltage. Notice
that, using equation (1) appears a little unbalance in the mean
value of the voltages in the capacitors after compensation.
However, this unbalance does not affect the compensation
goals.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 3. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (1). Case 1.

The currents supplied by the grid are shown in Fig. 4. Notice
that, before compensation, the currents supplied by the grid are
distorted and lagged with respect to the voltage in the PCC.
After t=0.2s the filter mitigates the current distortion and
corrects the power factor. These results show the outstanding
performance of the controllers. On the other hand, Fig. 5
shows a zoom of Fig 4. In this figure, it can be observed that
the grid current, for phase a, is a pure sinusoid and it is in
phase with the voltage in the PCC after t=0.2s. In addition, the
RMS value of the grid current is the lowest.

0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 4. Source currents using the algorithm based on (1). Case 1.


0.2655 0.266 0.2665 0.267 0.2675 0.268 0.2685 0.269 0.2695 0.27 269
269.2
269.4
269.6
269.8
270
270.2
Time [s]
D
C
b u s v o l t a g e s [ V ]


5
0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]

a
n
d

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

i
n

t
h
e

P
C
C
[
V
]


i
sa
u
a
/10

Fig. 5. Source current for phase a and voltage in the PCC scaled by 10, using
the algorithm based on (1). Case 1.

2) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (8)
Fig. 6 shows the DC-bus voltages U
dc
, U
dc1
and U
dc2
. In this
case, the required time to achieve the 99% of the reference
value is 0.137s for the three voltages, which corresponds to
almost eight cycles of the supply voltage. Notice that in this
case, after compensation the voltages in the capacitors have
the same mean value.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 6. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (8). Case 1.

The grid currents are shown in Fig. 7. Notice that, these results
are the same that those obtained using the algorithm based on
(1), see Fig 4. After t=0.2s the filter mitigates the current
distortion and corrects the power factor.

0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 7. Source currents using the algorithm based on (8). Case 1.

B. Case 2: Load balancing, considering zero sequence
currents
In this case, the algorithm performance was evaluated with
an unbalance resistive load connected in a wye (Y)
configuration with the system. The values of the resistance for
each phase are: R
a
=12, R
b
=R
c
=22. The total load is
connected to the system through a 15 mH inductor and a
resistance of 0.1.

1) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (1)
Fig. 8 shows the DC-bus voltages U
dc
, U
dc1
and U
dc2
. Notice
that, there is an unbalance in the mean value of the voltages in
the capacitors, due to the injection of zero sequence currents.
These currents have to return by the midpoint of the
capacitors.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 8. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (1). Case 2.

The grid currents are shown in Fig. 9. Notice that, before
compensation, the currents supplied by the grid are unbalance
and lagged with respect to the voltage in the PCC. After
t=0.2s, the filter mitigates the current unbalance and corrects
the power factor. In this way, the grid current is a pure
sinusoid of positive sequence and it is in phase with the
voltage in the PCC. These results show the outstanding
performance of the controllers.

0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 9. Source currents using the algorithm based on (1). Case 2.

On the other hand, Fig. 10 shows the neutral current. After
t=0.2s, the zero sequence component of the grid current is null,
so the filter supplies this current to achieve the compensation
goals.


0.2655 0.266 0.2665 0.267 0.2675 0.268 0.2685 0.269 0.2695 0.27 268.6
268.7
268.8
268.9
269
269.1
269.2
269.3
269.4
Time [s]
D
C
b u s v o l t a g e s [ V ]



0.265 0.27 0.275 0.28 0.285 265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
Time [s]
D
C
b u s v o l t a g e s [ V ]


6
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time [s]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

b
y

t
h
e

n
e
u
t
r
a
l

o
f

t
h
e

g
r
i
d

[
A
]


iN

Fig. 10. Neutral current using the algorithm based on (1). Case 2.

2) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (8)
Fig. 11 shows the DC-bus voltages U
dc
, U
dc1
y U
dc2
. In this
case, the voltages in the capacitors have the same mean value.

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 11. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (8). Case 2.

The grid currents are shown in Fig. 12. Notice that, after
t=0.2s the filter corrects the power factor and reduces the
current unbalance. However, the grid currents are not
completely balance after compensation. On the other hand,
Fig. 13 shows the neutral current. In this figure, it can be
observed that the zero sequence component of the grid current
is not null after t=0.2s. Accordingly, it is required a zero
sequence component in the grid current to guarantee that the
voltages in the capacitors have the same mean value.
Therefore, in this case the compensation is not perfect.

0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 12. Source currents using the algorithm based on (8). Case 2.

0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time [s]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

b
y

t
h
e

n
e
u
t
r
a
l

o
f

t
h
e

g
r
i
d

[
A
]


iN

Fig. 13. Neutral currents using the algorithm based on (8). Case 2.

C. Case 3: Load balancing, considering a DC level in the
neutral current
In this case, the algorithm performance was evaluated with a
balance resistive load (R
a
= R
b
=R
c
=20) connected in a wye
(Y) configuration with the system and a mono-phase diode
rectifier connected to the phase a with a resistor of 21 in the
DC-side. The total load is connected to the system through a
15 mH inductor and a resistance of 0.1.

1) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (1)
Fig. 14 shows the DC-bus voltages U
dc
, U
dc1
y U
dc2
. Notice
that, the total DC-bus voltage follows its reference value.
However, after t=0.2s there is an unbalance in the mean value
of the voltages in the capacitors and the filter loses the
controllability, when U
dc2
< 270 V, approximately. The
algorithm based on (1) controls the total DC-bus voltage, but it
does not have an independent voltage control for each
capacitor.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 14. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (1). Case 3.

Fig. 15 presents the grid currents. Notice that, the
compensation goals are not achieved and the grid current is
still unbalance due to the loss of the filter controllability. On
the other hand, Fig. 16 shows the neutral current. In this figure,
it can be observed that there is still a zero sequence component
in the grid current after compensation.


0.265 0.27 0.275 0.28 0.285 265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
Time [s]
D
C
b u s v o l t a g e s [ V ]


7
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 15. Source currents using the algorithm based on (1). Case 3.

0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time [s]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

b
y

t
h
e

n
e
u
t
r
a
l

o
f

t
h
e

g
r
i
d

[
A
]


iN

Fig. 16. Neutral current using the algorithm based on (1). Case 3.

2) Simulation results using the algorithm based on (8)
Fig. 17 shows the DC-bus voltages U
dc
, U
dc1
y U
dc2
. Notice
that, there is a little unbalance in the mean value of the
voltages in the capacitors. However, this unbalance does not
affect the compensation goals. In this case, the algorithm based
on (8) controls the total DC-bus voltage, and it has an
independent voltage control for each capacitor.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Time [s]
D
C

b
u
s

v
o
l
t
a
g
e
s

[
V
]


u
dc
u
dc1
u
dc2

Fig. 17. DC bus voltages using the algorithm based on (8). Case 3.

The grid currents are shown in Fig. 18. Notice that, after
t=0.2s the filter corrects the power factor and reduces the
current unbalance. However, the grid currents are not
completely balance. . On the other hand, Fig. 19 shows the
neutral current. In this figure, it can be observed that there is
still zero sequence component in the grid current after t=0.2s.
Accordingly, it is required a zero sequence component in the
grid current to guarantee the filter controllability. Therefore, in
this case the compensation is not perfect.
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Time [s]
S
o
u
r
c
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
s

[
A
]


i
sa
i
sb
i
sc

Fig. 18. Source currents using the algorithm based on (8). Case 3.

0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time [s]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

b
y

t
h
e

n
e
u
t
r
a
l

o
f

t
h
e

g
r
i
d

[
A
]


iN

Fig. 19. Neutral current using the algorithm based on (8). Case 3.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, an algorithm to control the DC bus voltage of a
SAPF, based on the performance of the PI controller was
presented. The topology of four-wire three-leg VSI with split
capacitor is considered. The algorithm is based on the
calculation of a current in phase with the supply voltage at the
fundamental frequency, in a way that this current demands the
active power required to maintain the DC-bus voltage in a
reference value.

The results presented above show that the controllers based in
one and two PI have an outstanding performance when the
SAPF does not inject currents with zero sequence components
and with DC level. On the other hand, when the filter has to
inject zero sequence currents without DC level, the algorithm
based on one PI has an outstanding performance. However, the
algorithm based on two PI does not mitigate completely the
current unbalance, but it guarantees that the voltages in the
capacitors have the same mean value. Finally, when there is a
DC level in the neutral current, the algorithm based on one PI
produces the loss of the filter controllability. On the other
hand, the algorithm based on two PI guarantees the filter
controllability, but it does not compensate completely the
unbalance in the grid currents.
VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance
given by the Universidad Industrial de Santander through the
Facultad de Ingenieras Fisicomecnicas and the project DIEF-
5538 VIE.
8
VIII. REFERENCES
[1] A. Baggini, Handbook of Power Quality, John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
England, 2008.
[2] B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, "A review of active filters for
power quality improvement," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions
on, vol. 46, pp. 960-971, 1999.
[3] M. El-Habrouk, M.K. Darwish, and P. Mehta, "Active power filters: a
review," Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings -, vol. 147, pp.
403-413, 2000.
[4] J.F. Petit, "Control de filtros activos de potencia para la mitigacin de
armnicos y mejora del factor de potencia en sistemas desequilibrados,"
Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Oct 2007.
[5] P. Rodrguez, Aportaciones a los acondicionadores activos de corriente
en derivacin para redes trifsicas de cuatro hilos, Ph.D. dissertation,
Universidad Politcnica de Catalua, Barcelona, 2005.
[6] J.F. Petit, G. Robles, and H. Amaris, "Current Reference Control for
Shunt Active Power Filters Under Nonsinusoidal Voltage Conditions,"
Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, pp. 2254-2261, 2007.
[7] A. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, Power quality enhancement using custom
power devices, 1st ed.: Kluwer's power electronics and power systems
series, 2002
[8] M. Depenbrock, The fbd-method, a generally applicable tool for
analyzing power relations, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,vol. 8,no.2,pp.
381387, May 1993.
[9] S. Buso, L. Malesani, and P. Mattavelli, "Comparison of current control
techniques for active filter applications," Industrial Electronics, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. 45, pp. 722-729, 1998.
IX. BIOGRAPHIES


Mara A. Mantilla Villalobos was born in
Bucaramanga (Santander), Colombia, 1985. She
received the B.Sc degree in electronical engineering
from the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS),
Bucaramanga, Colombia, in 2008 and she is
currently pursuing the M.Sc. degrees in electronics
engineering in the UIS. She works with the Grupo
de Investigacin en Sistemas de Energa Elctrica
(GISEL-UIS). Her research interests include: power
quality, power electronics, active power filters, custom power devices and
rational and efficient use of the energy.


Johann F. Petit Surez was born in Villanueva (La
Guajira), Colombia. He received the B.Sc. and
M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the
Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS),
Bucaramanga, Colombia, in 1997 and 2000,
respectively. He received his PhD in Electrical
Engineering from the Universidad Carlos III de
Madrid (UC3M), Spain, in 2007. Currently, he is a
Professor at the Universidad Industrial de Santander
(UIS-Colombia) and his areas of interest include power quality, power
electronics and signal processing algorithm for electrical power systems.