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Preliminary Version

Paul Yiu Department of Mathematics Florida Atlantic University Fall 1998

Table of Contents

1 Pythagoras Theorem and its applications 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. Pythagoras Theorem and its Converse 1 Euclid’s proof of Pythagoras Theorem 5 Construction of regular polygons 8 The regular pentagon 10 The cosine formula and its applications 12 Synthetic proofs of Steiner - Lehmus Theorem

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2 The circumcircle and the incircle 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. The circumcircle 18 The incircle 21 The excircles 27 Heron’s formula for the area of a triangle

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3 The Euler line and the nine-point circle 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 4 Circles 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. Tests for concyclic points Tangents to circles 46 Tangent circles 50 Mixtilinear incircles 56 Mixtilinear excircles 60 45 The orthocenter 34 The Euler line 36 The nine-point circle 38 The power of a point with respect to a circle Distance between O and I 43

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5 The Shoemaker’s knife 5.1. The shoemaker’s knife 61 5.2. Archimedean circles in the shoemaker’s knife 5.3. The Schoch line 69 6 The use of comple numbers 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. Review on complex numbers 73 Coordinatization 74 Feuerbach Theorem 75 The shape of a triangle 78 Concyclic points 82 Construction of the regular 17-gon 66

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7 The Menelaus and Ceva Theorems 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7. 7.8. 7.9. Harmonic conjugates 87 Appolonius circles 89 Menelaus Theorem 91 Ceva Theorem 93 Examples 94 Trigonometric version of Ceva Theorem Mixtilinear incircles 98 Duality 100 Triangles in perspective 101

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4.2. 10. 8. 10. 9.5.7.4. 8.2. 9. 9.8 Homogeneous coordinates 8.5.4. 10.3. 8.3. Congruent . 8.1.3. 8.5. 8.incircle problem 127 A construction problem 135 Circles with a common point 136 Malfatti circles 139 Chains of circles tangent to a given circle 141 10 Quadrilaterals 10. 9. Area formula 146 Ptolemy’s Theorem 148 Circumscriptible quadrilaterals 156 Orthodiagonal quadrilaterals 158 Bicentric quadrilaterals 159 . Coordinates of points on a line 104 Coordinates with respect to a triangle 104 The centers of similitude of two circles 108 Mixtilinear incircles 98 Isotomic conjugates 112 Isogonal conjugates 114 Point with equal parallel intercepts 121 9 Chains of circles 9. 10.6.1.1.2.

2 Converse Theorem If the lengths of the sides of a triangles satisfy the relation a2 + b2 = c2 .1 Pythagoras Theorem and its converse Pythagoras Theorem The lengths a ≤ b < c of the sides of a right triangle satisfy the relation a2 + b2 = c2 . 1 .1.1.Chapter 1 Pythagoras Theorem and Its Applications 1. a c b c c a b c a a b c b b a a c b a a b b 1. then the triangle contains a right angle.1 1.

2. and AB = c satisfying a2 + b2 = c2 . (b) 4AP B + 4ADQ = 4CP Q. XY 2 = a2 + b2 = c2 . XZ = b. This means that 6 ACB = 6 XZY is a right angle. Consider another triangle XY Z with Y Z = a. Show that (a) AP Q is an equilateral triangle. 6 XZY = 90◦ . Thus the triangles 4ABC ≡ 4XY Z by the SSS test. Let ABC be a triangle with BC = a. Dissect two given squares into triangles and quadrilaterals and rearrange the pieces into a square. CA = b. D Q C X P Y A B . Exercise 1. By the Pythagorean theorem. BCX and CDY are equilateral triangles inside a rectangle ABCD. The lines AX and AY are extended to intersect BC and CD respectively at P and Q. so that XY = c.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A X 2 c b b C a B Z a Y Proof.

4. If the median on the side a is the geometric mean of the sides b and c. and a : b : c = 1 − k2 : 2k : 1 + k 2 . (a) Suppose c = a+kb for a right triangle with legs a. h2 + k2 > 1. ABC is a triangle with a right angle at C. 6. b. Y on the sides. ABC is a triangle with a right angle at C. there is. 1 . show that one of the acute angles is 15◦ . show that c = 3b. a : b : c = 12 : 35 : 37 or 12 : 5 : 13. and X. h2 + k 2 = 1. for h ≤ k. a unique right triangle satisfying c = ha + kb provided (i) h√ 1 ≤ k. Show that 0 < k < 1. k > 0. Show that the length t of a side of this square is given by 1 1 1 = + . up to similarity. Let CXP Y be a square with P on the hypotenuse. There are two such right triangles if 0 < h < k < 1. t a b a b t t a 1/a + 1/b = 1/t. If the median on the side c is the geometric mean of the sides a and b. and hypotenuse c. 5. or < (ii) 22 ≤ h = k < 1. d b 1/a^2 + 1/b^2 = 1/d^2. More generally. or (iii) h.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 3 3. Let ABC be a right triangle with a right angle at vertex C. each satisfying c = 3 4 1 4 a + 5 b. (b) Find two right triangles which are not similar.

show that 1 1 1 + 2 = 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) (xvi) 65 72 97 . (a) Verify that a2 + b2 = c2 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 4 7. c = m2 + n 2 . b and hypotenuse c. one odd. If d is the height of on the hypotenuse. one even. (Construction of integer right triangles) It is known that every right triangle of integer sides (without common divisor) can be obtained by choosing two relatively prime positive integers m and n. and setting a = m2 − n2 . 2 a b d 8. (b) Complete the following table to ﬁnd all such right triangles with sides < 100: m 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 n 1 2 1 3 2 4 1 5 2 4 6 1 3 5 2 4 a = m2 − n2 3 b = 2mn 4 c = m2 + n2 5 b = 2mn. Let ABC be a right triangle with sides a.

PB = b. A. P B = b. Q Q x P A PA = a.2. B a b P A B . B on a line such that P A = a. and let the perpendicular through A intersect the semicircle at Q. and A. so that the length of P Q is the geometric mean of a and b. Then P Q2 = P A · P B.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 5 1. Describe a semicircle with P B as diameter.2 Application: construction of geometric mean Construction 1 Given two segments of length a < b. mark three points P . PQ^2 = ab.2 1. B are on the same side of P .2.1 Euclid’s Proof of Pythagoras Theorem Euclid’s proof C C C C B A B A B A B A 1.

Describe a semicircle with AB as diameter. 2 == || 2 This construction is valid as long as a ≥ 1 b. Q x y x A a P b B a a b y ^2 = a(a+b) = a^2 + ab. P . P B = b.465. Then P Q2 = P A · P B. so that the length of P Q is the geometric mean of a and b. B on a line (P between A and B) such that P A = a. ab = x^2. . p. y ^2 = a^2 + x^2.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Construction 2 6 Given two segments of length a. b. mark three points A. and let the perpendicular through P intersect the semicircle at Q. 4 Phillips and Fisher. Theref ore. Example To cut a given rectangle of sides a < b into three pieces that can be rearranged into a square.

More generally. and are at a distance 64 apart. 3 Answer: The distance from the center to the longer chord is 13. and the distance between them is d. A crescent is formed by intersecting two circular arcs of qual radius. The midpoint of a chord of length 2a is at a distance d from the midpoint of the minor arc it cuts out from the circle. 3 3. 4d2 . the radius r of the circle is given by r2 = [d2 + (a − b)2 ][d2 + (a + b)2 ] . From this. ABP Q is a rectangle constructed on the hypotenuse of a right triangle ABC. The distance between the two endpoints A and B is a. d d a a a b d b a P d Q a A B 2. Find the radius of the circle. The central line intersects the arcs at two points P and Q at a distance d apart. if these chords has lengths 2a and 2b.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 7 1. X and Y are the intersections of AB with CP and CQ respectively. the radius of the circle is 85. 4. Show that the 2 2 diameter of the circle is a +d . Find the radius of the circles. Two parallel chords of a circle has lengths 168 and 72.

Z6 = 2√ 3a. √ (b) If AB = 2 · AQ.3 1. and square || == || == || == == Given a circle of radius a.1 Construction of regular polygons Equilateral triangle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 8 C C A Y X B A Y B X Q P Q P (a) If ABP Q is a square. we denote by an inscribed zn the length of a side of regular n−gon. 3 . show that XY 2 = BX · AY .3. z4 = √ 2a. show that AX 2 + BY 2 = AB 2 . z6 = 1. √ Z3 = 2 3a. Zn a circumscribed z3 = √ 3a. regular hexagon. 1. Z4 = 2a.

1 √ √ sin 15◦ = ( 6− 2).YIU: Euclidean Geometry 9 Exercise 1. AB is a chord of length 2 in a circle O(2). cos 15◦ = 1 √ √ ( 6+ 2). C is the midpoint of the minor arc AB and M the midpoint of the chord AB. (ii) BC = √ √ 6 − 2. 4 . 4 √ tan 15◦ = 2− 3. C B A M O Deduce that Show that (i) CM = 2 − √ 3.

It follows that AX 2 = AB · XB. From this. 1.4 1. AB CB and AC · CB = AB · CX. (3) Mark a point X on the segment AB such that AX = AQ. . Then X divides AB into the golden ratio. AX : AB = XB : AX.4. AC CX = . (2) Mark a point Q on the hypotenuse AP such that P Q = P B. (1) Draw a right triangle ABP with BP perpendicular to AB and half in length.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 10 1.1 The regular pentagon and its construction The regular pentagon C Y A X B Q P Z P Q D E A X B Since XB = XC by symmetry. and can be constructed as follows. namely. the isosceles triangles CAB and XCB are similar.4.2 Division of a segment into the golden ratio Such a point X is said to divide the segment AB in the golden ratio.

Show that q √ 1 XE = 10 + 2 5. If X divides AB into the golden ratio. ABC is an isosceles triangle with a point X on AB such that AX = CX = BC. show that the altitude divides the hypotenuse into the golden ratio.618 · · · . 3. . Show that (i) 6 BAC = 36◦ . cos 18 = sin 18 = 4 4 5 . . Suppose XB = 1. ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC = 4. If the legs and the altitude of a right triangle form the sides of another right triangle. Let D be the midpoint of BC. 2 √ 1 Show also that AX = 1 ( 5 − 1) = φ − 1 = φ . 4 Deduce that √ q q √ √ 5+1 1 ◦ ◦ ◦ cos 36 = 10 − 2 5. sin 36 = 4 2 B B X X D A E C A C 4. tan 18 = 25 − 10 5. (ii) AX : XB = φ : 1. X is a point on AB such that AX = CX = BC. tan 36 = 5 − 2 5.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 11 1. Let E be the midpoint of the side AC. and deduce that √ q q √ √ 5−1 1 1 ◦ ◦ ◦ 10 + 2 5. AB 2 2. Calculate the length of AD. where 1 √ φ = ( 5 + 1) ≈ 1. then AX : XB = φ : 1.

5.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 12 1. B C 3 2 O 5 6 1 A 7 4 D E 1. to meet the two circles A(X) and B(AX) at D and E respectively. Divide a segment AB into the golden ratio at X. 2.5 1. Construct the circles A(X) and X(B) to intersect at C. Justify the following construction of an inscribed regular pentagon. Then.4.3 Construction of a regular pentagon 1. 3. Construct a circle center C. Exercise 1.1 The cosine formula and its applications The cosine formula c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos γ. ACBED is a regular pentagon. radius AB. .

A.5. and that of the squares T1 . Piz´. and cos α = 4 7 38 . T2 . S3 .6) triangle has one angle equal to twice of another. . T3 . and c = 9 + 5. Show that the (4. ABC is a triangle with a = 12. 2. show that c2 = (a + b)b. 4 AMM E688. S2 . b = 9 − a √ √ 5. If γ = 2β. Here. Find a simple relation between the sum of the areas of the three squares S1 . T3 S2 S3 S1 T1 T2 4.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 13 B B c a a Ñ' C E A E C c b A Exercise 1. b + c = 18. P. 3. Show that a3 = b3 + c3 .

5. and note that cos ABC = − cos AXB. Show that mc = 23 c. Exercise 1.3 Apollonius Theorem The length ma of the median AD is given by m2 = a Proof. 131. A A A c b c b C b B X C B D C B H C 1. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 136. a c b 4 3. Calculate the lengths of its medians. 127. 5 4. − AX 2 = λ+µ (λ + µ)2 Proof. and 174.2 Stewart’s Theorem If X is a point on the side BC (or its extension) such that BX : XC = λ : µ. 5 2 2 √ Answers: 158. Use the cosine formula to compute the cosines of the angles AXB and AXC. Give a euclidean construc2 tion of triangles satisfying this condition. then λb2 + µc2 λµa2 . . 170. m2 + m2 + m2 = 3 (a2 + b2 + c2 ). mb = mc if and only if b = c. 1 2 (2b + 2c2 − a2 ).5. 4 Apply Stewart’s Theorem with λ = µ = 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 14 1. 2. Suppose c2 = a +b .

.4 Length of angle bisector a 2 ) ]. 26208 . Show that the triangle is equilateral if both (i) and (ii) hold. Apply Stewart’s Theorem with λ = c and µ = b. Suppose wa : wb = b : a. or (ii) the quadrilateral AEGF is cyclic. b+c The length wa of the (internal) bisector of angle A is given by 2 wa = bc[1 − ( Proof. √ median ma is the geometric mean of b and c if and only if a = The 2|b − c|. 8 Answers: 975 . The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 84. 10 6 7 Crux 383. 8 3. (Steiner . 6. 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 5. b2 m2 − c2 m2 = 1 (c − b)(c + b)(b2 + c2 − 2a2 ). Show that the median ma can never be equal to the arithmetic mean of b and c. c b 4 Complete the triangle ABC to a parallelogram ABA0 C. 7 8. Show that either (i) b = c. or γ = 60◦ . Show that the triangle is either isosceles. 2 2 (b + c) (c + a) (b + c)2 (c + a)2 10 2 2 2 a wa − b2 wb = abc(b−a)(a+b+c)2 [a2 (a+c)2 (b+c)2 − ab + b2 − c2 ]. then a = b. 12600 . Exercise 2 1. Suppose mb : mc = c : b. Calculate the lengths of its internal bisectors. show that the triangle is equilateral. 6 15 7. 9 4. 2. 125. If ma : mb : mc = a : b : c.5.Lehmus Theorem) If wa = wb . 169. 7 253 209 9 Hint: Show that (a − b)[(a + b + c)2 − ab] a b − = . In fact. wa = 4bcs(s−a) (b+c)2 .

McDonnell. N . vol.Lehmus Theorem First proof. Note that 6 1 N BC = β < (β + γ) = 6 LCB.MacKay (AMM E312): if the external angle bisectors of B and C of a scalene triangle ABC are equal.6. ) − 1] = b−c (b − c)2 6. See Crux Math. we have CN < BL. Answer: 1:1. and β = 36◦ . American Mathematical Monthly. 12 Suppose β < γ in triangle ABC. 2 and both are acute angles. then s−a is the geometric mean a of s−b and s−c . D. C are 2 concyclic since 6 N BL = 6 N CL. In triangle ABC. It follows that CN < BM . Show that the length of the external angle bisector is given by wa2 = bc[( 0 16 a 2 4bc(s − b)(s − c) . 70 (1963) 79 — 80. L. 12 Gilbert . See also Crux 1607 for examples of triangles with one internal bisector b c equal to one external bisector. The counterpart of the Steiner . A N L M LO B LO C Choose a point L on BM such that 6 N CL = 1 β. 2 (1976) pp.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 5.6 1. We show that the bisector BM is longer than the bisector CN . 11 . Since smaller chords of a circle subtend smaller acute angles. Then B.Lehmus theorem does not hold. Calculate the ratio of the 0 0 lengths of the external angle bisectors wa and wb . 11 1. α = 12◦ . 22 — 24.L.1 Appendix: Synthetic proofs of Steiner .

and consider the triangle CN G. This contradicts the relation CM < BN obtained above. The bisectors of angles B and C of triangle ABC intersect the median AD at E and F respectively. CM > GM = BN . We shall show that β = γ. Suppose the bisectors BM and CN in triangle ABC are equal. both of which are acute. Their opposite sides therefore satisfy the relation CM < BN . If not. A G N M B C Complete the parallelogram BM GN . . Suppose BE = CF . Note that 6 6 CGN GCN = = 1 β + 6 CGM. Crux 1897. Show that triangle ABC is isosceles. Exercise 1. Descube. Compare the triangles CBM and BCN . also CMJ 629. From this. assume β < γ.2 Second proof. 2 Since β < γ. This is isosceles since CN = BM = N G. These have two pairs of equal sides with included angles 6 CBM = 1 1 6 2 β < 2 γ = BCN . 2 1 γ + 6 GCM.6. 14 13 14 M. 1880. we conclude that 6 CGM > 6 GCM .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 17 13 1.

γ respectively.1 The circumcircle The circumcenter The perpendicular bisectors of the three sides of a triangle are concurrent at the circumcenter of the triangle. A A ~ F O D C B E c O ~ D b R a/ 2 C B 2.1.2 The sine formula Let R denote the circumradius of a triangle ABC with sides a.Chapter 2 The circumcircle and the incircle 2. β.1 2. This is the center of the circumcircle. 18 . the circle passing through the three vertices of the triangle.1. c opposite to the angles α. b.

then the triangles HAB. sin φ (b) In triangle ABZ. (a) Show that AZ = sin(60◦ + ψ) . The internal bisectors of angles B and C intersect the circumcircle of 4ABC at B 0 and C 0 . 6 AZY = 60◦ + φ such that 6 ◦ + θ. γ such that θ + φ + ψ = 60◦ . If H is the orthocenter of triangle ABC. sin θ and BZ = sin(60◦ + ψ) .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 19 a b c = = = 2R. then BB 0 = CC 0 . HBC. A C' B' (ii) If BB 0 = CC 0 . 3. sin α sin β sin γ Exercise 1. Suppose the sides BZX = 60 of XY Z have unit length. show that 6 ZAB = θ and 6 ZBA = φ. 1 (ii) No. Given three angles α. 3 . β. (i) Show that if β = γ. BB 0 = CC 0 if and only if β = γ or α = 2π . and an equilateral triangle XY Z. construct outwardly triangles AY Z and BZX 6 AY Z = 60◦ + ψ. does it follow that β = γ? 1 B C 2. 6 BXZ = 60◦ + ψ . HCA and ABC have the same circumradius.

B(r). Show that the triangles P XZ and P Y Z are congruent.3 Johnson’s Theorem Suppose three circles A(r). AZ 6 CY X = 60◦ + θ and 6 CXY = 60◦ + φ. Y . (A) (B) Z Z also has radius r. (d) Show that AY · BZ · CX = AZ · BX · CY . 2. If the (B) (C) X circles (C) and (A) intersect again at Y . then the circle through X. BZ are that CX.YIU: Euclidean Geometry C C 20 P Y X Y X Z A A Z B B (c) Suppose a third triangle XY C is constructed outside XY Z such AY.1. (e) Suppose the extensions of BX and AY intersect at P . C Y P A Z B A Z B X Y P C X Y A Z B C P X . and C(r) have a common point P . Show that BX. CY the trisectors of the angles of triangle ABC.

(2) Similarly. Y .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 21 Proof. _ BX = BZ = s − b. This is the center of the incircle.1 The incircle The incenter The internal angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent at the incenter of the triangle. AY and BX are parallel. and Z. Y Z = BC and ZX = CA.2 Denote by r the inradius of the triangle ABC. Exercise 1. CX = CY = s − c. Show that AX. and XY = AB. AP CY and AP BZ are all rhombi. It follows that the triangles XY Z and ABC are congruent. B s -b Z s -b X I r s -a A s -a r Y s -c C r f s -c ^ C 2.2 2. CA and AB respectively at X. the circumcenter being P . (1) BP CX. AY = AZ = s − a.2. 2. each being parallel to P C. If the incircle touches the sides BC. Since AY = BX.2. BY and CZ have a common midpoint. ABXY is a parallelogram. (3) Since triangle ABC has circumradius r. the circumradius of XY Z is also r. r= a+b+c s . 4 24 = . Thus. the circle tangent to the three sides of the triangle.

I 3. . Show that XY Z is an acute angle triangle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 1. Mark the point Q on the side AB such that BQ = BP . The incenter of a right triangle is equidistant from the midpoint of the hypotenuse and the vertex of the right angle. 4. Show that the triangle contains a 30◦ angle. 22 2. Show that IP = IQ. Let P be a point on the side BC of triangle ABC with incenter I. Show that the three small circles are equal.

P 0 . Q0 . Show that the triangle is isosceles. The incircle of triangle ABC touches the sides AC and AB at Y and Z respectively. 6. Q. center I. Z is a point on a segment AB such that AZ = u and ZB = v. 2 2 Solution.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A R 23 Q R' Q' I B P' P C Continue to mark R on AC such that AR = AQ. Suppose the incircle of a right triangle with AB as hypotenuse touches AB at Z. Suppose BY = CZ. and that the six points P . 5. 7. A line parallel to hypotenuse AB of a right triangle ABC passes through the incenter I. Make use of this to give a euclidean construction of the triangle. Q0 on AB such that BQ0 = BP 0 . P 0 on BC such that CP 0 = CR. Show that the area of the triangle is equal to uv. R0 lie on a circle. Since r = s − c for a right triangle. C 3 I 4 r u v B A Z 8. The segments included between I and the sides AC and BC have lengths 3 and 4. a = r + u and . The inradius of a right triangle is r = s − c. R. Let r be the inradius. R0 on AC such that AR0 = AQ0 . Show that CP = CR0 .

AB is an arc of a circle O(r). X and Y are points dividing the semicircle into three equal parts. P XY Q is a square inscribed in the semicircle. Show that the lines AX and AY divide the side BC into three equal parts. If h is the height on the hypotenuse. B X Y A C 11. Suppose each side of equilateral triangle has length 2a. Let C a point on the semicircle such that BC = 2a. Find the radius of the circle tangent to the arc and the radii through A and B. with 6 AOB = α. √ 41 3)a. AB is a diameter of a circle O( 5a). Calculate the radius of the circle tangent to the semicircle and the sides AB and AC. 3 Hint: The circle is tangent to the arc at its midpoint. From (r + u)2 + (r + v)2 = (u + v)2 . 4 √ 12. 3 A ~ O B 10. b = r + v. 2 2 This leads to a simple construction of the triangle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 24 9. then 1 (u + v)h = uv. we obtain (r + u)(r + v) = 2uv so that the area is 1 (r + u)(r + v) = uv. 3 (1 + . A semicircle with diameter BC is constructed outside an equilateral triangle ABC.

and two other congruent triangles. 5 r = (3 − √ 5)a. (b) Find the inradius of the triangle ABC. an isosceles triangle. A square of side a is partitioned into 4 congruent right triangles and a small square. all with equal inradii r. Y X C I A Q O P B 13. . 5 (c) Show that the incenter of 4ABC is the intersection of P X and BY . 14. If the inradii of the quadrilateral and the isosceles triangle are equal. An equilateral triangle of side 2a is partitioned symmetrically into a quadrilateral. Calculate r.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 25 (a) Show that the right triangle ABC has the same area as the square P XY Q.

Show that (i) XN = Y M = r. and BCR is (s−c) . The bisectors AI and BI intersect the circle Z(I) at the points M and N . C X Y I M N A R Z B 16. Let the incircle I(r) of a right triangle 4ABC (with hypotenuse AB) touch its sides BC. then sin θ = 1 . What is the inradius of each of the remaining two triangles? 6 15. (ii) M and N are the incenters of the right triangles ABR and BCR respectively. CR is the altitude on the hypotenuse AB of a right triangle ABC. The inradius of the triangle 2 is 2R sin θ cos θ = 2R sin θ(1 − sin θ). From 1+sin θ 2 4 this.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 26 ﬁnd this radius. 8 6 . 7 Make use of similarity of triangles. Show that the area of the triangle determined by the incenters of 3 triangles ABC. the inradius is 3 R. If this is equal to R (1 − sin θ). 8 Let θ be the semi-vertical angle of the isosceles triangle. AB at X. Y . The triangle is isosceles and the three small circles have equal radii. ACR. Z respectively. Find the radius of the small circles. 7 c 17. Suppose the large circle has radius R. 8 √ √ ( 3 − 2)a. CA. Let CR be the altitude on the hypotenuse AB.

If this is equal to R (1 − sin θ). From this. tangent to the lines containing the three sides of the triangle. An excircle can be constructed with this as center. θ 2 5 4 sin θ = 13 . Z' ra B IA X ra ra A C Y' 9 Let θ be the smaller acute angle of one of the right triangles. The large circle has radius R. and the inradius is 13 R.3 2.1 The excircles The excenter The internal bisector of each angle and the external bisectors of the remaining two angles are concurrent at an excenter of the triangle.3. .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 27 18. then 5 sin θ − cos θ = 1. Find this common radius. The inradius of the right 2R cos θ sin triangle is 1+sin θ+cosθ . 9 2. The four small circles have equal radii.

H are concyclic with the vertices B and C. I. The areas of the triangles IA BC. s−c The exradii of a triangle with sides a. Since 2 4 = −4IA BC + 4IA CA + 4IA AB. Show that for triangle ABC. c are given by ra = rb = rc = Proof.2 The exradii 4 . s−b 4 . In this case. 2 4 s−a . then IE = IF .3. 6. If the bisectors of angles B and C meet their opposite sides at E and F . If the incenter is equidistant from the three excenters.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 28 2. α = 60◦ . 2 2 C C P A B A B . Suppose α = 60◦ . IA CA. then the ﬁve points are concyclic. 3. 2. Show that IO = IH. show that the triangle is equilateral. and the area is abc 2r . b. 1 bra . 5. 2 2 and 1 cra respectively. and IA AB are 1 ara . from which ra = Exercise 1. if any two of the points O. s−a 4 . Suppose α = 60◦ . we have 1 4 = ra (−a + b + c) = ra (s − a). 4. Show that r ra = tan β tan γ . Show that the circumradius of 4IA IB IC is 2R.

10 10 Hint: Show that IF bisects angle AF E. . 10. ρ00 is independent of the 7. Let P be a point on the side BC. ρ0 the inradius r00 . Show that AP C r0 r00 ρ0 ρ00 8. Deduce that M 0 is indeed the midpoint of the segment IB IC . Show that each of M 0 BIC and M 0 CIB is an isosceles triangle. AB at E and F respectively. Denote by and exradius of triangle position of P . Let M be the midpoint of the arc BC of the circumcircle not containing the vertex A. The circle BIC intersects the sides AC.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 29 r 0 . Show that M is also the midpoint of the segment IIA . _ IA A M' I IC O C Z' B I C O Y' IB ^ 9. Show that EF is tangent to the incircle of 4ABC. Let M 0 be the midpoint of the arc BAC of the circumcircle of triangle ABC. ABP .

and ra the radius of the excircle on the side BC of triangle ABC. It is convenient to introduce the semiperimeter s = 1 (a + b + c). The line AX intersects the perpendicular bisector of BC at K. 2. If D is the midpoint of BC.4 Heron’s formula for the area of a triangle Consider a triangle ABC with area 4. show that DK = rC . Denote by r the inradius. The incircle of triangle ABC touches the side BC at X.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 30 I E B C F X 11. . 2 Z' s -c B s -b Z r s -a I r Y s -c r X s -c ra s -b I' ra A s -a C s -b Y' • 4 = rs.

Exercise 1. The lengths of the sides are 25. The altitudes a triangle are 12. This latter is the famous Heron formula. r = 4 = s q (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) . Find the inradius and the exradii of the (13.14. 3. . The length of each side of the square is 6a. r · ra = (s − b)(s − c). ra s 31 • From the similarity of triangles CIY and I 0 CY 0 .15) triangle. 11 4 = 150. 15 and 20.YIU: Euclidean Geometry • From the similarity of triangles AIZ and AI 0 Z 0 . Calculate the radii of the other two circles. 20 and 15. and the radius of each of the top and bottom circles is a. What is the area of the triangle ? 11 2. • From these. s s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). r s−a = .

r 6.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 32 4. 5. If one of the ex-radii of a triangle is equal to its semiperimeter. 4 2. −s3 +(ab+bc+ca)s . then the triangle contains a right angle. 1 ra + 1 rb + 1 rc = 1. ra + rb + rc = 4R + r. Show that (i) ra + rb + rc = Deduce that (ii) (s − a)(s − b)(s − c) = −s3 + (ab + bc + ca)s.4.1 Appendix: A synthetic proof of ra + rb + rc = 4R + r IB M' A IC I O D Z' B X X' C Y' M Q IA . 7. ra rb rc = r2 s.

M D = 1 (ra − r). (2) The midpoint M 0 of IB IC is also on the circumcircle. Thus. . then DM 0 = 1 (rb + rc ). (3) M M 0 is indeed a diameter of the circumcircle. QX 0 = IX = r.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 33 Proof. (4) If D is the midpoint of BC. 2 (5) Since D is the midpoint of XX 0 . so that M M 0 = 2R. M D is parallel to IA Q and is half in length. (6) Since M is the midpoint of IIA . (1) The midpoint M of the segment IIA is on the circumcircle. 2 (7) It now follows from M M 0 = 2R that ra + rb + rc − r = 4R. and IA Q = ra − r.

The intersection is the orthocenter of the triangle.1. 34 .Chapter 3 The Euler line and the nine-point circle 3. 3.1 The three altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. A C' H A B C C B' H The orthocenter B A' The orthocenter is a triangle is the circumcenter of the triangle bounded by the lines through the vertices parallel to their opposite sides.2 The orthocenter of a right triangle is the vertex of the right angle.1 3.1.

with γ > 90◦ . A Y Z H Z A C B B X C Y X H If ABC is an obtuse triangle. we call ABCD an orthocentric quadrangle. D are four points one of which is the orthocenter of the triangle formed by the other three. 3. In this case. 2α.1. α > 90◦ . then the orthocenter H is outside the triangle. then Y Z = a cos α. then the angles of the orthic triangle are 180◦ − 2α. The triangles ABC and ABH have the same orthic triangle. then each of these points is the orthocenter of the triangle whose vertices are the remaining three points. say.4 Orthic triangle The orthic triangle of ABC has as vertices the traces of the orthocenter H on the sides. 3. and 180◦ − 2γ. Exercise 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 35 If the triangle is obtuse.1. C is the orthocenter of the acute triangle ABH.3 Orthocentric quadrangle More generally. If an acute triangle is similar to its orthic triangle. and 180◦ − γ. with angles 90◦ − β. and 2γ − 180◦ . if A. C. In this case. then ABH is acute. 180◦ − 2β. whose angles are then 2β. If ABC is an acute triangle. If ABC is an acute triangle. 90◦ − α. then the triangle must be equilateral. How should this be modiﬁed if α > 90◦ ? 2. . B.

and AG0 = 2G0 D. where R is the circumradius. ﬁnd the angles of the triangle. 4. 2. G0 = G. AH = 2R · cos α.2 3. AH = AY / sin γ = c cos α/ sin γ = 2R cos α. OD = R cos α. If an obtuse triangle is similar to its orthic triangle. 1 3. A Y H G' O B C The Euler line 1. Let H be the orthocenter of an acute triangle. the orthocenter H and the median point M of a nonequilateral triangle are always collinear. 3. 1 180◦ 360◦ 7 . then 4AG0 H ' 4DG0 O. If OH and AD intersect at G0 . Furthermore. Proof. and HX = 2R · cos β cos γ. OG : GH = 1 : 2. 7 . the centroid of 4ABC. 4. Let Y be the projection of the orthocenter H on the side AC.2.1 The Euler line Theorem The circumcenter O. and 720◦ 7 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 36 3. . Consequently. The line OGH is called the Euler line of the triangle.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 37 1. Let O be the circumcenter of 4ABC. BF D and CDE form an equilateral triangle symmetrically congruent to ABC. orthocenter. Show that the incenter I of a non-equilateral triangle lies on the Euler line if and only if the triangle is isosceles. 4. (b) Show that the centroid of DEF is the centroid of 4ABC. DEF is called the medial triangle of ABC. E and F respectively. Th´bault. Denote by D. incenter. Let H be the orthocenter of triangle ABC. 3 2 3 Hint: ﬁnd a point common to them all. (a) Show that the orthocenter of DEF is the circumcenter O of 4ABC. Furthermore. A diameter d of the circumcircle of an equilateral triangle ABC intersects the sidesBC. CA and AB at D. Show that the Euler lines of the triangles AEF . CA. 2 5. 3 3 6. AMM E547. Show that the Euler lines of 4ABC. (c) Show that the circumcenter N of DEF also lies on the Euler line of 4ABC. 2. AB respectively. the center of symmetry lying on the diameter d. 3. Show that a triangle is equilateral if and only if any two of the points coincide. 4HBC. circumcenter. 4HCA and 4HAB are concurrent. centroid. OG : GN : N H = 2 : 1 : 3. F the projections of O on the sides BC. e . Show that the Euler line is parallel (respectively perpendicular) to the internal bisector of angle C if and only if γ = 2π (respectively π ). E.

IAB are concurrent. . The nine points D. (iii) X. 4 Crux 1018. BQ. with (i) D. CA. E. The center of this circle is the nine-point center F . BH. Y . Z are concyclic. The Euler lines of triangles IBC. P . Schliﬀer-Veldkamp. It is indeed the circumcircle of the medial triangle DEF . and is the midway between the circumcenter O and the orthocenter H.3 The nine-point circle Let ABC be a given triangle. (ii) P . This is called the nine-point circle of 4ABC. F the midpoints of the sides BC. ICA. Z the midpoints of the segments AH. F . Q. Q. CH. X.YIU: Euclidean Geometry E 38 A F O B D C 7. the altitudes AP . AB. Y . R. CR concurring at the orthocenter H. B. R the projections of the vertices A. The center F of the nine-point circle lies on the Euler line. 4 3. E. C on their opposite sides.

and the tangents at P and Q intersect at X. AP and BQ intersect at C. Let P be a point on the circumcircle of triangle ABC. C X P Q A B 2. 5 5 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 39 Q R H F N E O B P D C The nine-point circle of a triangle Exercise 1. P and Q are two points on a semicircle with diameter AB. The midpoint of P H lies on the nine-point circle of the triangle. Show that CX is perpendicular to AB. with orthocenter H.

The power of a point P with respect to a circle O(r) is deﬁned as This number is positive.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 40 3. 3. O O O P T A M P B A M B P If P is outside the circle. on. Show that the triangle is equilateral.4. Show that the triangle is equilateral. 3. (b) Suppose there is a circle with center I tangent externally to each of the excircles. (O)P is the square of the tangent from P to (O). or negative according as P is outside. or inside the circle. zero. (c) Suppose there is a circle with center I tangent internally to each of the excircles. the power of P with respect to the circle (O). (a) Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with a = 2 and b = c = 9. the signed product P A · P B is equal to (O)P . Prove that the nine-point circle of a triangle trisects a median if and only if the side lengths are proportional to its medians lengths in some order. .1 For any line ` through P intersecting a circle (O) at A and B.4 Power of a point with respect to a circle O(r)P := OP 2 − r2 . 4. Show that there is a circle with center I tangent to each of the excircles of triangle ABC.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 41 3. and F Q is parallel to AE. Exercise 1. the signed products P A · P B and P C · P D are equal. the common chord. when extended. 2. E and F are the midpoints of two opposite sides of a square ABCD. A D B P B D P A C C Proof. If two circles intersect.2 Theorem on intersecting chords If two lines containing two chords AB and CD of a circle (O) intersect at P . . P is a point on CE. Show that P Q is tangent to the incircle of the square. Each of these products is equal to the power (O)P = OP 2 − r 2 . bisects the common tangents.4.

P Y and QX are two chords through M . (i) Use the sine formula to show that KY · KQ HX · HP = . K(T ) is the circle tangent to the semicircle and the perpendiculars to AB at P and Q.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Q D C 42 P F E A B 3. 2 HM KM 2 (ii) Use the intersecting chords theorem to deduce that HM = KM . Show that the distance from K to AB is the geometric mean of the lengths of AP and BQ. Y X O a-x A H P x M y a-y K B Q 4. . P X and QY intersect the chord AB at H and K respectively. P and Q are two points on the diameter AB of a semicircle. (The butterﬂy theorem) Let M be the midpoint of a chord AB of a circle (O).

3. Note that X is the midpoint of the arc BC. A r I B X O C Proof. and 2 3.5. Join AI to cut the circumcircle at X. Furthermore.YIU: Euclidean Geometry X T Y 43 K A P O Q B 3.1 Distance between O and I Theorem The distance d between the circumcenter O and the incenter I of 4ABC is given by R2 − d2 = 2Rr. 2 2. IX = XB = XC = 2R sin α . IA = r/ sin α . 2 2 2 .5.5 3. R2 −d2 = power of I with respect to the circumcircle = IA·IX = 2Rr.2 Corollary r = 4R sin α sin β sin γ . 1.

Make use of the relation a = r(cot β γ + cot ) 2 2 to give an alternative proof of the formula r = 4R sin α sin β sin γ . 6 Johnson. This means IC = 2XC · sin β = 4R sin α sin β . 2. Given a point I inside a circle O(R). AIO ≤ 90◦ if and only if 2a ≤ b + c. r R. The power of I with respect to the circumcircle is 7. 2s . Given the circumcenter.3 Distance between O and excenters 2 OIA = R2 + 2Rra . 6. This power is OI 2 − R2 = 2Rr = abc 24 · 4 s = abc .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 44 Proof. construct a circle O(R) so that O(R) and I(r) are the circumcircle and incircle of a triangle? 5.5. It follows that 2 2 2 r = IC · sin α β γ γ = 4R sin sin sin . Exercise 1. the incenter. 2 2 2 9. (a) One of the angles has cosine (b) s2 = (2R−r)2 (R+r) . to construct the triangle. construct a point I inside O(R) so 2 that O(R) and I(r) are the circumcircle and incircle of a triangle? 3. 8. 2 2 2 2 3. and a vertex of a triangle. Show that XIA = XI. Given a circle I(r) and a point O. Note that triangle XIC is isosceles with 6 IXC = β. R−r abc 6 a+b+c . Given a circle O(R) and r < 1 R. §298(i). construct a circle I(r) so that O(R) and I(r) are the circumcircle and incircle of a triangle? 4. Show that the line joining the circumcenter and the incenter is parallel to a side of the triangle if and only if one of the following condition holds.

Chapter 4

Circles

4.1

4.1.1

Let A, B, C, D be four points such that the lines AB and CD intersect (extended if necessary) at P . If AP · BP = CP · DP , then the points A, B, C, D are concyclic.

D C C D P C B B P

Tests for concyclic points

A

A

P

A

B

4.1.2

Let P be a point on the line containing the side AB of triangle ABC such that AP · BP = CP 2 . Then the line CP touches the circumcircle of triangle ABC at the point C. Exercise 1. Let ABC be a triangle satisfying γ = 90◦ + 1 β. If Z is the point on 2 the side AB such that BZ = BC = a, then the circumcircle of triangle 45

YIU: Euclidean Geometry BCZ touches the side AC at C.

46

Z

A == C B M C

A == E D b A

B

B

a

C

D

2. Let ABC be a triangle satisfying γ = 90◦ + 1 β. Suppose that M is 2 the midpoint of BC, and that the circle with center A and radius AM meets BC again at D. Prove that M D = AB. 3. Suppose that ABC is a triangle satisfying γ = 90◦ + 1 β, that the 2 exterior bisector of angle A intersects BC at D, and that the side AB touches the incircle of triangle ABC at F . Prove that CD = 2AF .

4.2

Tangents to circles

The centers of the two circles A(a) and A(b) are at a distance d apart. Suppose d > a + b so that the two circles do not intersect. The internal common tangent P Q has length

q

d2 − (a + b)2 .

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

47

X P Y

A

B Q

A

B

Suppose d > |a − b| so that none of the circle contains the other. The external common tangent XY has length

q

d2 − (a − b)2 .

**Exercise 1. In each of the following cases, ﬁnd the ratio AB : BC.
**

A B A

1

B

D

C

D

C

2. Two circles A(a) and B(b) are tangent externally at a point P . The common tangent at P intersects the two external common tangents XY , X 0 Y 0 at K, K 0 respectively. (a) Show that 6 AKB is a right angle. (b) What is the length P K? (c) Find the lengths of the common tangents XY and KK 0 .

√ √ 3 : 3 + 2 in the case of 4 circles.

1

2ab . Calculate the radius of the circle tangent internally to A(a) and to these tangent lines. A(a) and B(b) are two circles with their centers at a distance d apart. a. A(a) and B(b) are two circles with their centers at a distance d apart. Calculate the length of HK in terms of d.YIU: Euclidean Geometry X 48 K Y A P B Y' K' X' 3. and b. Tangents are drawn from the center of two given circles to the other circles. d+a+b . Show that the chords HK and H 0 K 0 intercepted by the tangents are equal. These tangents intersect the circle A(a) at H and K. 3 2 3 Answer: Answer: 2ab d . 5. From the extremity A0 of the diameter of A(a) on the line AB. AP and AQ are the tangents from A to circle B(b). tangents are constructed to the circle B(b). 2 P e A h Q B H A K K' H' B 4.

1 − 2x2 Deduce that x is the root of y= √ x+ √ y = 1. 4x3 − 12x2 + 8x − 1 = 0. CD touch each other at a point on AQ. 7. P is a point on BC so that the incircle of triangle ABP and the circle tangent to the lines AP . . Q is a point on BC so that the incircle of triangle ABQ and the circle tangent to AQ.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 49 b è A' a A d B A B 6. QC. P C and CD have equal radii. Show that the two incircles have equal radii. D C D C P y Q x A B A B 8. ABCD is a square of unit side. Show that the length of BP satisﬁes the equation 2x3 − 2x2 + 2x − 1 = 0. ABCD is a square of unit side. Show that the radii x and y of the circles satisfy the equations x(3 − 6x + 2x2 ) .

rh + r B A h O K r P r' K' B A M H K P B C Q Proof. from which r= R2 − OP 2 AP · P B R2 − x2 − h2 = = . AP · P B 2(R + h) and r 0 = AP · P B 2(R − h) r A x M h O P R . The radii of the circles 0 0 tangent to AB at P and K (r ) minor also to the arc AB are major r= respectively. 2(R + h) 2(R + h) 2(R + h) The case for the major arc is similar.2 Construction Let C be the midpoint of arc AB. Let K(r) be the circle tangent to AB at P and to the minor arc AB. 2 from this the center K can be located easily. . Then r = 1 P H. Mark a point Q on the circle so that P Q = CM . Extend QP to meet the circle again at H.3 4. We have (R − r)2 = x2 + (h + r)2 .3.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 50 4. 4.3. Let M be the midpoint of AB and M P = x. and K(r) P a point on AB.1 Tangent circles A basic formula Let AB be a chord of a circle O(R) at a distance h from the center O.

1− r0 − r = sin θ = 0 r +r 1+ r r0 r r0 = 1− 1+ R−h R+h R−h R+h = h . This means that A is the midpoint of the minor arc cut out by an external common tangent of the circles (K) and (K 0 ).4 Let P and Q be points on a chord AB such that the circles (KP ) and (KQ ). 4. Clearly.3. 2R 51 (2) Note that the ratio r : r0 = R − h : R + h is independent of the position of P on the chord AB. Since the center line KK 0 is perpendicular to the chord AB. é D r KP B r' A O T P KQ B K é A P h O K' Q C 4. these two circles both have radius AP · P B . minor each being tangent to the chord and the arc AB. are also tangent to major . the common tangent is perpendicular to the radius OA. R This is the same angle between the radius OA and the chord AB.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Remarks (1) If the chord AB is a diameter.3. K 0 (r0 ) and the center line KK 0 .3 Let θ be the angle between an external common tangent of the circles K(r).

CT and AB to intersect (2) Construct the bisector of the angle between CT 0 K K T the ray P 0 at Q . and to the arc AB containing KP . minor Proof. Given a circle (KP ) tangent to (O) and a chord AB. AB. and CD the chord of (O) which is the internal common tangent of the circles K(P ) and K(Q). Then the internal common tangent of the two circles major passes through the midpoint of the arc AB. to the chord AB. each tangent to (KP ).YIU: Euclidean Geometry 52 each other externally. 4. Let T be the point of contact.5 This leads to a simple construction of the two neighbors of (KP ). T' K Q' A KP T P KQ B C . and to the arc AB containing KP . Regarding these two circles are tangent to the chord CD. let C be the midpoint of the arc not containing KP . we conclude that C is the midpoint of the arc AB. (1) Construct the tangents from CT and CT 0 to the circle (KP ). and AB as an external common tangent.3. KQ and KQ0 are the centers of the two neighbors of (KP ). KQ0 KP T Then.

Given a chord AB of a circle (O) which is not a diameter. Let C be the midpoint of the major arc AB. . C P h r A a b Q B 3. A Q M T P O B C 2. locate the 0 points P on AB such that the radius of (KP ) is equal to 1 (R − h). and is at a distance b. Denote the length of AB by a. 4 2 4 Answer: x = ± p 2h(R − h). then they touch each other at a point T on the diameter CM such that CT = CA. calculate the radii of the two small circles. CD is parallel to AB. If two neighbor circles (KP ) and (KQ ) are congruent.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 53 1. 4. The curvilinear triangle is bounded by two circular arcs A(B) and B(A). and a common radius AB. Calculate the radius of the inscribed circle. If each side of the square has length a.

A(a) and B(b) are two semicircles tangent internally to each other at O. A circle K(r) is constructed tangent externally to A(a). the circle KP (rP ) tangent to AB at P and to the minor arc AB has radius R2 − h2 − x2 . (a + b)2 K r a O A Bx b -r X r 4. and the line AB. rP = 2(R + h) 5 √ 3 r. A(B) and B(A) are two circles each with center on the circumference of the other. Show that BX = b(3a − b) .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 54 5. At the point P on AB with M P = x. Let M be the midpoint of the chord AB. at a distance h from the center O. . internally to B(b).3. a+b and r = 4ab(b − a) . Find the radius of the circle tangent to one of the circles internally.6 Here is an alternative for the construction of the neighbors of a circle (KP ) tangent to a chord AB at P . and to the line AB at a point X. 5 O A M A P B B K 6. and to the circle (O). the other externally. 4 r = radius of A(B).

P2 . we proceed as follows. and mark on the line AB points A0 . the chord AB. If their points of contact have coordinates x and y on AB (with midpoint M as origin). we have y−x= √ R2 − h2 − x2 . Let (KP ) and (KQ ) be two circles each tangent to the minor arc and the chord AB. 2R2 + 2Rh ± x .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 55 To construct the two circles tangent to the minor arc. and the circle (KP ). and 0 intersect the chord B Q AB at 0 . B 0 such that A0 M = M B 0 = M D. Complete the rectangle BM CD. then (R2 − h2 − x2 )(R2 − h2 − y 2 ) . Q P1 A' A Q' M P Q B B' O C P2 D Then the circles tangent to the minor arc and to the chord AB at Q and Q0 are also tangent to the circle (KP ). A0 (3) Let the circle passing through P1 . Proof. (x − y)2 = 4rP rQ = (R + h)2 Solving this equation for y in terms of x. and are tangent to each other externally. (1) Let C be the midpoint of the major arc AB. (2) Let the perpendicular to AB through P intersect the circle (O) at P1 and P2 .

and AE = 1 b = R sin β. ρ = 2R tan 2 2 2 α − R sin β)2 . and the circumcircle at X3 . we have 2 2 2 ρ = 4R tan2 6 α β β cos α cos β 2 2 − sin sin 2 2 sin α 2 2 · ¸ A mixtilinear adventure. then Then KX2 = ρ and OE = R cos β. Also. R2 −h2 −x2 = AM 2 −M P 2 = AP ·P B = P1 P ·P P2 . and A0 respectively. X2 . . Let K(ρ) be the circle tangent to the sides AB. and 1 − cos β = 2 sin2 β .2 — 7. we obtain α α cot sin β − 1 + cos β . AX2 = ρ cot α . This justiﬁes the above construction.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 56 Now. and 2R2 +2Rh = (R + h)2 + (R2 − h2 ) = M C 2 + M B 2 = M D2 . 4. Crux Math. 2 2 A A X3 O K B A' E X2 X3 O I K C B C X2 Since OK = R − ρ. If E is the midpoint of AC. 9 (1983) pp. AC.4 Mixtilinear incircles L.Bankoﬀ 6 has coined the term mixtilinear incircle of a triangle for a circle tangent to two sides and the circumcircle internally. it follows that (R − ρ)2 = (ρ − R cos β)2 + (ρ cot Solving this equation. 2 ¸ · By writing sin β = 2 sin β cos β .

Note that the segment X2 X3 contains the incenter I as its midpoint. and the other circle touches two sides of the triangle and the circumcircle.4. cos2 α 2 We summarize this with a slight change of notation. and the mixtilinear incenter K1 is the intersection of the perpendiculars to AB and AC at X3 and X2 respectively. Exercise 1. the largest circle is the circumcircle of the triangle (respectively equilateral and right). 2 This formula enables one to locate the mixtilinear incenter K1 very easily. The smallest circle is the incircle of the triangle. Compute the ratio of the radii of the two smaller circles. In each of the following cases. 4. .YIU: Euclidean Geometry sin α sin β α β α β 2 2 = 4R cos cos − sin sin 2 α cos 2 2 2 2 2 = 4R = 4R = sin α sin β α+β 2 2 cos 2 α cos 2 2 · ¸ 57 sin α sin β sin γ 2 2 2 cos2 α 2 r .1 The radius of the mixtilinear incircle in the angle A is given by α ρ1 = r · sec2 .

7 P B K C A 3. β 2 = q k .2 Consider also the mixtilinear incircles in the angles B and C. Find this common radius. Suppose the mixtilinear incircle in angle B touch the sides BC and AB at the points Y1 7 8 9 3:4:5. If ρ1 = kρ2 . The large circle has radius R. 4. 4−k so that cos β = k 1− 4−k k 1+ 4−k = 2−k . ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. 8 5. ABC is a right triangle for which the mixtilinear incircle (K) of the right angle touches the circumcircle at a point P such that KP is parallel to a leg of the triangle. Find the ratio of the sides of the triangle.4. Show that the ρ1 = 2ρ2 . show that k < 2. and the sides are in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2 − k. 2 . ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC = 2 and BC = 3. 9 4. then tan Answer: √ 3− 5 2 R. If ρ2 = kρ1 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 58 2. The three small circles have equal radii.

Proposition If tangents to the incircles of a triangle are drawn parallel to the sides. and that in angle C touch the sides BC and AC at Z1 and Z2 respectively. and Z1 Z2 has the incenter I as midpoint. cutting out three triangles each similar to the given one.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 59 and Y3 respectively. From this. the sum of the inradii of the three triangles is equal to the inradius of the given triangle. Therefore. the triangles AY3 Z2 and ABC are similar. From this. the inradii of the triangles BZ1 X3 s and CX2 BY1 are rb = s−b · r and rc = s−c · r respectively. . Similarly. the altitude of triangle ABC on the side BC. It follows that the triangles IY1 Z1 and IY3 Z2 are congruent. and is tangent to the incircle. = a ha with ha = 24 = 2rs . the inradius of the triangle s AY3 Z2 is given by ra = s−a · r. the ratio of similarity being Y3 Z2 ha − 2r . and the segment Y3 Z2 is parallel to the side BC containing the segment Y1 Z1 . C' A A Y3 B' X3 I I X2 Y3 Z2 Z2 B Z1 Y1 C B Z1 Y1 C Each of the segments X2 X3 . We summarize this in the following proposition. Y3 Y1 . we s s have ra + rb + rc = r. we obtain Y3a 2 = s−a . Sima a Z plifying this.

Y C A B Z .5 Mixtilinear excircles The mixtilinear excircles are analogously deﬁned.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 60 4. The mixtilinear exradius in the angle A is given by ρA = ra sec2 where ra = 4 s−a α . 2 is the corresponding exradius.

Show that U P QV is a rectangle. Suppose the smaller semicircles have radii a and b respectively. This perpendicular is an internal common tangent of the smaller semicircles. Show that the area of the shoemaker’s knife is πab. 3. Let Q be the intersection of the largest semicircle with the perpendicular through P to AB. Q H U V a A O1 b O a-b P O2 b B A O1 O P O2 K B Exercise 1. Q.1 The shoemaker’s knife Let P be a point on a segment AB. 61 . Show that the circle through U . P .Chapter 5 The shoemaker’s knife 5. Let U V be the external common tangent of the smaller semicircles. AP and P B is called a shoemaker’s knife. 2. The region bounded by the three semicircles (on the same side of AB) with diameters AB. V has the same area as the shoemaker’s knife.

O2 (b). and P Q has the same radius t. and the line P Q. t= 5. given by t= ab . a+b Q tt t t a a+b A O1 O P B Proof. a+b Note that C3 P = t.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 62 5. the largest semicircle AB and one of the smaller semicircles have equal radii t. Consider the circle tangent to the semicircles O(a + b). From this. The center C1 of the . Denote by t the radius of this circle. Calculating in two ways the height of the center of this circle above the line AB. we have (a + b − t)2 − (a − b − t)2 = (a + t)2 − (a − t)2 .1. O1 (a). This proves the theorem. and C3 P = ab .1. a+b The symmetry of this expression in a and b means that the circle tangent to O(a + b). Let M1 and M2 be points on AB such that P M1 = P M2 = C3 P . ab . The lines O1 Q2 and O2 Q1 intersect at a point C3 on P Q. the radius of the Archimedean circles.2 Construction of the Archimedean circles Let Q1 and Q2 be points on the semicircles O1 (a) and O2 (b) respectively such that O1 Q1 and O2 Q2 are perpendicular to AB.1 Archimedes’ Theorem The two circles each tangent to CP .

C2 is the intersection of the circle O2 (M1 ) and the perpendicular through M2 to AB. Likewise. The coeﬃcients of ρ2 on both sides are clearly the same. By the cosine formula.3 Incircle of the shoemaker’s knife The circle tangent to each of the three semicircles has radius given by ρ= Proof. Eliminating ρ. . This is a linear equation in ρ: a3 + b3 + 2(a2 + b2 )ρ = (a + b)3 + ab(a + b) − 2(a + b)2 ρ. a2 ab(a + b) . + ab + b2 Let 6 COO2 = θ.1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 63 Archimedean circle C1 (t) is the intersection of the circle O1 (M2 ) and the perpendicular through M1 to AB. we have (a + ρ)2 = (a + b − ρ)2 + b2 + 2b(a + b − ρ) cos θ. Q C1 Q1 C2 Q2 C3 A O1 O M1 P M 2 O2 B 5. (b + ρ)2 = (a + b − ρ)2 + a2 − 2a(a + b − ρ) cos θ. we have a(a + ρ)2 + b(b + ρ)2 = (a + b)(a + b − ρ)2 + ab2 + ba2 .

and ρ is as above. since CX = CY = ρ. 3 (a + b) a+b This is the same as t. The semiperimeter of the triangle CO1 O2 is a + b + ρ = (a + b) + s (a + b)3 ab(a + b) = 2 . . the radius of the Archimedean circles. O2 Y = O2 P = b.1. The circle through P . a2 + ab + b2 a + ab + b2 The inradius of the triangle is given by abρ = a+b+ρ s ab · ab(a + b) ab = . Proof.YIU: Euclidean Geometry from which 4(a2 + ab + b2 )ρ = (a + b)3 + ab(a + b) − (a3 + b3 ) = 4ab(a + b). Y is clearly the incircle of the triangle CO1 O2 .4 Bankoﬀ ’s Theorem If the incircle C(ρ) of the shoemaker’s knife touches the smaller semicircles at X and Y . X. X. 64 è C è X a è Y b b A O1 O a P O2 B a + bè- 5. O1 X = O1 P = a. then the circle through the points P . Y has the same radius as the Archimedean circles.

which has the same radius as the Archimedean circles. a2 + ab + b2 2. Construct circle C3 (P ) to intersect O1 (a) and O2 (b) at X and Y respectively. Show that the area of the shoemaker’s knife to that of the heart (bounded by semicircles O1 (a). Show that the center C of the incircle of the shoemaker’s knife is at a distance 2ρ from the line AB. O2 (b) and the lower semicircle O(a+b)) is as ρ to a + b.5 Construction of incircle of shoemaker’s knife Locate the point C3 as in §??. Show that the area of triangle CO1 O2 is ab(a + b)2 . C X Y C3 A O1 O P O2 B Note that C3 (P ) is the Bankoﬀ circle. Let the lines O1 X and O2 Y intersect at C. Then C(X) is the incircle of the shoemaker’s knife. 3.1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 65 5. Exercise 1. .

Let C4 be the intersection of O1 V and O2 U . This means that the circle C4 (t) passes through P and touches the common tangent HK of the semicircles at N. ab C4 P = a+b = t.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 66 è X C Z Y Q1 b Q2 Y a A O1 O P O2 B X A P B 4. .2 Let t = Archimedean circles in the shoemaker’s knife ab a+b as before.2. which extends to a chord HK of the semicircle O(a + b). Show that P Z bisects angle AZB. Since O1 U = a. O2 V = b. Z are the intersections with Q2 (B). and O1 P : P O2 = a : b. 5. 5. and X. Show that the points of contact of the incircle C(ρ) with the semicircles can be located as follows: Y .1 Let U V be the external common tangent of the semicircles O1 (a) and O2 (b). 5. Z are the intersections with Q1 (A).

the circle tangent to HK and the minor arc HK of O(a + b) has radius t. Let the perpendiculars to AB through O and P intersect Q1 Q2 at I and J respectively. Since O and P are symmetric (isotomic conjugates) with respect to O1 O2 . and O2 Q2 be radii of the respective semicircles perpendicular to AB. 5. From this. and since O and P are isotomic conjugates with respect to O1 O2 .2.YIU: Euclidean Geometry H t U M N C5 Q 67 a V C4 t A O1 b O a -b P b K K b B Let M be the midpoint of the chord HK. OI = (a + b) − 2t. This circle touches the minor arc at the point Q. Then P J = 2t. we have JJ 0 = II 0 = 2t.2 Let OI 0 . it follows that (a + b) − QM = P N = 2t. O1 Q1 . Note that OQ1 = OQ2 . It follows that II 0 = 2t. OM + P N = O1 U + O2 V = a + b. Since I and J are isotomic conjugates with respect to Q1 Q2 . .

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

68

I'

Q1

C6

J'

I a J

C7 Q2

b

A

O1

b

O

P

b

O2

B

It follows that each of the circles through I and J tangent to the minor arc of O(a + b) has the same radius t. 1

5.2.3

M2 (t) C1 (t) and have two internal common tangents, one of C2 (t) M1 (t) which is the line P Q. The second internal common tangent passes through B the point . 2 A The circles

C1 C2

A

O1

O M 1

M 2O 2

B

A

O1

C M1

P

M2 2 O

B

1 2

These circles are discovered by Thomas Schoch of Essen, Germany. Dodge, in In Eves’ Circle.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

69

5.2.4

The external common tangent of P (t) and O O1 (a) passes through 2 . O1 O2 (b)

5.3

5.3.1

The Schoch line

The incircle of the curvilinear triangle bounded by the semicircle O(a + b) ab and the circles A(2a) and B(2b) has radius t = a+b . Proof. Denote this circle by S(x). Note that SO is a median of the triangle SO1 O2 . By Apollonius theorem, (2a + x)2 + (2b + x)2 = 2[(a + b)2 + (a + b − x)2 ]. From this, x= ab = t. a+b

x S 2a a + b -x a A O1 b O a -b P

x 2b 2b O2 B A O1 O P

S

O2

B

5.3.2

Theorem (Schoch)

ab If a circle of radius t = a+b is tangent externally to each of the semicircles O1 (a) and O2 (b), its center lies on the perpendicular to AB through S.

5.3.3

Theorem (Woo)

For k > 0, consider the circular arcs through P , centers on the line AB (and on opposite sides of P ), radii kr1 , kr2 respectively. If a circle of radius ab t = a+b is tangent externally to both of them, then its center lies on the Schoch line, the perpendicular to AB through S.

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70

Proof. Let Ak (ka) and Bk (ka) be two circles tangent externally at P , and Sk (t) the circle tangent externally to each of these. The distance from the center Sk to the “vertical” line through P is, by the cosine formula (ka + t) cos 6 Sk Ak P − 2a = = = Remark For k = 2, this is the circle in the preceding proposition. It happens to be tangent to O(a + b) as well, internally. (ka + t)2 + k2 (a + b)2 − (kb + t)2 − ka 2k(a + b) 2k(a − b)t + k2 (a2 − b2 ) + k2 (a + b)2 − 2k2 a(a + b) 2k(a + b) a−b t. a+b

5.3.4

Proposition

The circle Sk (t) tangent externally to the semicircle O(a + b) touches the latter at Q.

W Q

A

O1

O

P K O2

B

Proof. then

If the ray OQ is extended to meet the Schoch line at a point W , QW PK = , OQ OP

. The height of the center Sk above AB is 2ab q k(a + b)2 + ab. (a + b)2 2. Show that PT is perpendicular to AB. and T the inter(M ) S' T S S'' A O1 O M P O2 B Exercise 1. and P S 00 = 2t. S0 be the S 00 O(a + b). 2. 3 71 OQ a+b a−b · PK = · t = t. Let 2 intersection of Schoch line with the semicircle section of (M ) with the radius OS 0 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry and QW = Exercise 1. Show that S 00 is 3 Answer: k = a2 +4ab+b2 . OP a−b a+b 5. Find the value of k for the circle in Proposition ??. ab p (a + x)(b − x) above AB.3. .5 Consider the semicircle M ( a+b ) with O1 O2 as a diameter.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 3. P T S 0 S 00 is a parallelogram. . S 0 is the point Sk for k = 2a2 +11ab+2b2 . 5. and M S0 = a2 + 6ab + b2 . 4 4. S 00 is the point Sk for k = 3 . deduce that T S 0 = 2t. 4ab 6. S 0 is p 72 (2a + x)(2b − x) above AB. 2(a + b) From this.

we note that |z1 − z2 | measures the distance between z1 and z2 . |z1 z2 | = |z1 ||z2 |. In particular. Note that |z|2 = zz = zz. The norm is the nonnegative number |z| given by |z|2 = x2 + y 2 . 73 . 6. The conjugate of z is the complex number z = x − yi.1 Multiplicative property of norm For any complex numbers z1 and z2 . Note that |z| = 1 if and only if z = 1 .1. z Identifying the complex number z = x + yi with the point (x. where θ is unique up to a multiple of 2π. z is called a unit complex number if |z| = 1. |z| is the distance between |z| and the origin 0.2 Polar form Each complex number z can be expressed in the form z = |z|(cos θ + i sin θ). y) in the plane. 6. Note also that z is the mirror image of z in the horizontal axis.1 Review on complex numbers A complex number z = x + yi has a real part x and an imaginary part y.1. and is called the argument of z.Chapter 6 The Use of Complex Numbers 6.

we set up a coordinate system such that the circumcenter O corresponds to the complex number 0. 6. AB of the circumcircle of 4ABC respectively. 2 4. In particular. The centroid G has coordinates 1 (z1 + z2 + z3 ). the circumradius R is equal to 1. 3 2. Y. z2 .2 Coordinatization Given 4ABC. Z be the midpoints of the minor arcs BC.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 74 6. z3 respectively. The nine-point center F has coordinates 1 (z1 + z2 + z3 ). z1 A Y Z 0 GF z2 H z3 B X C Exercise 1.] Deduce that the orthocenter of 4XY Z is the incenter I of 4ABC. C correspond to unit complex numbers z1 . B. CA.1. (cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ. Let X. The orthocenter H has coordinates z1 + z2 + z3 . . In this way. and the vertices A. 3. [Hint: Consider the tangents at Y and Z.3 De Moivre Theorem (cos θ1 + i sin θ1 )(cos θ2 + i sin θ2 ) = cos(θ1 + θ2 ) + i sin(θ1 + θ2 ). Prove that AX is perpendicular to Y Z. Show that these are parallel to AC and AB respectively.

This. the radius of the nine-point circle is We apply Theorem 3.2. according to the preceding exercise. being the orthocenter of 4XY Z. Proof. 3 and X. and externally to each of the excircles. From these. we try to identify the coordinate of the incenter I. Since the circumradius R = 1. 1 z 2 = t2 . the incenter I. Y.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 75 6. 6. is the point −(t2 t3 + t3 t1 + t1 t2 ) = −t1 t2 t3 (t1 + t2 + t3 ). IC = t1 t2 t3 (t1 + t2 − t3 ). is the orthocenter of 4XY Z. −t3 t1 and −t1 t2 . Note that the distance between the incenter I and the nine-point center F is IF 1 = | (t2 + t2 + t2 ) + (t1 t2 + t2 t3 + t3 t1 )| 2 3 2 1 1 = | (t1 + t2 + t3 )2 | 2 1 = |t1 + t2 + t3 |2 . 2 1 2.1 The incenter Now.5. Exercise 1.1 to calculate the inradius r: . 2 z3 = t2 . t3 such that z1 = t2 .3 The Feuerbach Theorem The nine-point circle of a triangle is tangent internally to the incircle. It is possible to choose unit complex numbers t1 . Show that the excenters are the points IA = t1 t2 t3 (−t1 + t2 + t3 ). t2 . IB = t1 t2 t3 (t1 − t2 + t3 ). Z are respectively the points −t2 t3 .

. These two circles are therefore tangent internally. r = = = = 1 (1 − OI 2 ) 2 1 (1 − | − t1 t2 t3 (t1 + t2 + t3 )|2 ) 2 1 (1 − |t1 + t2 + t3 |2 ) 2 1 − IF. 2 This means that IF is equal to the diﬀerence between the radii of the nine-point circle and the incircle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 76 A C B n i n e -p o i n t c i r c le Feue rbach Theore m.

Let D be the midpoint of the side BC of triangle ABC. In that case. If dA is the distance from O to IA . γ ≥ π .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise Complete the proof of the Feuerbach theorem. 2 2. 1. then dA = | − t1 + t2 + t3 |. A I N B D C 2. The exradius rA = IA F − 1 . More generally. IA F = 1 | − t1 + t2 + t3 |2 .3. Show that one of the common tangents of the circles I(N ) and D(N ) is parallel to BC. they intersect at an angle arccos(1 + 2 2 cos α cos β cos γ). 2 77 6. . β. 3. the three lines each joining the point of contact of the nine-point with an excircle to the opposite vertex of the triangle are concurrent. Exercise 1. the nine-point circle intersects the circumcircle only if one of α. 3. The nine-point circle is tangent to the circumcircle if and only if the triangle is right.1 The Feuerbach point Indeed.

Three distinct points z1 . z1 − z2 B= 4. z3 ) and (w1 . and λ = − 1−A i. z1 − z2 z1 z2 − z2 z1 . . 2. z2 .4 The shape and orientation of a triangle with vertices z1 .4. The equation of the line joining two distinct points z1 and z2 is z = Az + B. z2 . z1 det z2 z3 Exercise 1. z3 are collinear if and only if z1 det z2 z3 w1 w2 w3 1 1 = 0. z2 .z3 is determined by the ratio z3 − z1 . 1 z1 z2 z3 1 1 = 0. The mirror image of a point z in the line z = Az + B is the point Az + B.1 Two triangles with vertices (z1 . z3 are collinear if and only if z3 −z1 is a real z2 −z1 number. Three distinct points z1 . 1 3. w2 . Show that if z = Az + B represents a line of slope λ. z2 . 1+A 5. z2 − z1 6. then A is a unit complex number. w3 ) are similar with the same orientation if and only if z3 − z1 w3 − w1 = . where A= z1 − z2 . z2 − z1 w2 − w1 Equivalently.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 78 6.

Exercise 1. z3 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle (with counter clockwise orientation) if and only if z1 + ωz2 + ω 2 z3 = 0. ω. AB respectively. If z1 . ﬁnd the coordinates of the remaining two vertices. On the three sides of triangle ABC. OAB. and of the center of the square. and has the same length as B 0 C 0 . z2 w2 . Show that the latter two have the same center. If u and v are two vertices of an equilateral triangle.2 Let ω denote a complex cube root of unity: √ 1 ω = (−1 + 3i). 2 This is a root of the quadratic equation x2 + x = 1 = 0. 2 If uvw is an equilateral triangle with counterclockwise orientation. z2 are two adjancent vertices of a square. if OAB (counterclockwise) and OCD (clockwise) are similar triangles. ω 2 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle (with counter clockwise orientation). w3 are the vertices of equilateral triangles (with counter clockwise orientation). w = (1 + ω)u − ωv. CA. and BCY are equilateral triangles with the same orientation. DAX. w = −ωu − ω2 v = −ωu + (1 + ω)v. 3.Dou. w2 . have the same circumcenter. show that AA0 is perpendicular to. construct outward squares. and z3 w3 . z2 . 5. z2 . B 0 . 1 .4. Let A0 . 4. then so are the midpoints of the segments z1 w1 . 2974). the other root being √ 1 ω 2 = ω = (−1 − 3i). both similar to the ﬁrst triangle. 1 2. 2 Note that 1.3 z1 . OCD. AMME 2866.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 79 6.4. z3 and w1 . If it has clockwise orientation. C 0 be the centers of the squares on BC. 2 More generally. ﬁnd the third vertex. If z1 . The triangles CAX (counterclockwise) and DY B (clockwise). 6. (J.

the centers of these equilateral triangles form an equilateral triangle.4. The center of this .4 Napoleon’s Theorem If on each side of a given triangle. Proof. Let ω be a complex cube root of unity. equilateral triangles are drawn.YIU: Euclidean Geometry B 80 B D X Y C X Y A O A D O C 6. so that the third vertex of 0 an equilateral triangle on z1 z2 is z3 := −(ωz1 + ω2 z2 ). either all outside or all inside the triangle.

w1 = 3 3 These form an equilateral triangle since w1 + ωw2 + ω 2 w3 = 1−ω [z3 + ωz2 + ω 2 z1 − ω 2 (z1 + ωz3 + ω 2 z 2 )] 3 = 0. Z1 Z2 Z3 . whose center is the centroid of triangle ABC. 0 0 (b) Consider the hexagon X3 Z3 Y3 X3 Z3 Y30 . Exercise 1. Show that the centroids of the 6 triangles formed by three consecutive vertices of this hexagon are themselves the vertices of a regular hexagon. 3 Mathematics Magazine. Y3 Y30 and Z3 Z3 have equal lengths. (Fukuta’s generalization of Napoleon’s Theorem) 3 Given triangle ABC. X2 Y1 Z3 . . BC X1 let Y1 be points dividing the sides CA in the same ratio 1−k : k. Y1 Y2 Y3 . w2 = [z2 − ω 2 z3 ]. and are concurrent. Problem 1493. 0 0 (a) Show that the segments X3 X3 . 0 0 X1 X2 X3 . DeZ1 AB X2 note by Y2 their isotomic conjugate on the respective sides. 60◦ angles with each other. 3 3 3 Likewise. Complete Z2 the following equilateral triangles. all with the same orientation. the centers of the other two similarly oriented equilateral triangles are 1−ω 1−ω [z3 − ω 2 z1 ].YIU: Euclidean Geometry equilateral triangle is 81 1 1−ω 1−ω w3 = ((1 − ω)z1 + (1 − ω2 )z2 ) = [z1 + (1 + ω)z2 ] = [z1 − ω2 z2 ]. Z2 X1 Y30 . Y2 Z1 X3 .

z3 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Y3 X '3 A Z1 Z3 Y2 82 c e n tro id Z2 B Y3 ' X1 Y1 X2 Z '3 C X3 6.5 Concyclic points is a real number. z4 ) := z3 − z1 z3 − z2 (z3 − z1 )(z4 − z2 ) z4 z4 z3 z1 z1 z2 z3 z2 . Four non-collinear points z1 . z3 . z2 . z2 . z4 are concyclic if and only if the cross ratio z4 − z1 z4 − z2 (z3 − z2 )(z4 − z1 ) / = (z1 .

16: k 3k 0 1 2 1 3 9 3 10 4 5 13 5 6 15 7 8 9 10 11 16 14 8 11 7 12 13 14 15 4 12 2 6 . The key idea involves the very simple fact that if the coeﬃcients a and b of a quadratic equation x2 − ax + b = 0 are constructible. Note that x1 + x2 = a and x1 x2 = b. 2. Gauss observed that the 16 complex numbers ω k . z2 are on opposite sides of z3 z4 . . Suppose z1 and z2 are on the same side of z3 z4 . then ω + ω 16 = 2 cos θ. . The four points are concyclic if the counter clockwise angles of rotation from z1 z3 to z1 z4 and from z2 z3 to z2 z4 are equal. k = 1. we obtain all 17 vertices. thereby completing the task of construction. if A0 . ω 2 . ω 16 .6 6. A3 . . . . 16. If we write ω = cos θ + i sin θ.1 Construction of the regular 17-gon Gauss’ analysis Suppose a regular 17−gon has center 0 ∈ C and one vertex represented by the complex number 1. the ﬁrst 16 powers of 3 form a permutation of the numbers 1. each with a sum constructible using only ruler and compass. It follows that the regular 17−gon can be constructed if one can construct the number ω +ω 16 . . . A1 are two distinct vertices of a regular 17−gon.) Geometrically. can be separated into two “groups” of eight. . 2. . . . . then so are its roots x1 and x2 . Then the remaining 16 vertices are the roots of the equation x17 − 1 = x16 + x15 + · · · + x + 1 = 0. then these 16 roots are precisely ω.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 83 Proof. 6. x−1 If ω is one of these 16 roots. . (Note that ω 17 = 1. But once this is done. This is decisively the hardest step. and the cross ratio is a negative real number. A16 with A0 A1 = A1 A2 = . the two angles diﬀer by π. ω 15 . On the other hand. . the ratio z4 − z1 z4 − z2 / z3 − z1 z3 − z2 of the complex numbers is real. . . modulo 17. . if z1 . . two more applications of the same idea eventually isolate ω + ω16 as a constructible number.6. Gauss observed that. (and indeed positive). then successively marking vertices A2 . = A14 A15 = A15 A16 . In this case.

It follows that y1 and y2 are the roots of the quadratic equation y 2 + y − 4 = 0. but adopt a convenient bookkeeping below. 2 √ −1 − 17 y2 = . z1 = ω + ω 13 + ω 16 + ω4 . 2 Now separate the terms of y1 into two “groups” of four. we enter a number j (from 1 to 8 meaning that ω k can be obtained by multiplying the jth term of y1 by an appropriate term of y2 (unspeciﬁed in the table but easy to determine): ω 3 4 6 7 ω2 2 3 5 6 ω3 2 3 4 6 ω4 1 2 4 5 ω5 4 5 6 8 ω6 1 2 3 5 ω7 1 3 7 8 ω8 1 3 4 8 ω9 4 5 7 8 ω 10 3 4 5 7 ω 11 1 5 6 7 ω 12 1 2 4 8 ω 13 1 5 6 8 ω 14 2 6 7 8 ω 15 1 2 6 7 ω16 2 3 7 8 From this it is clear that y1 y2 = 4(ω + ω 2 + · · · + ω 16 ) = −4.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Let y1 = ω + ω 9 + ω 13 + ω 15 + ω16 + ω 8 + ω 4 + ω 2 . z1 z2 = (ω + ω 13 + ω 16 + ω 4 )(ω 9 + ω 15 + ω 8 + ω 2 ) = ω + ω 2 + · · · + ω 16 = −1. however. Note that y1 + y2 = ω + ω 2 + · · · + ω16 = −1. Also. . and are constructible. Below each power ω k . We multiply these directly. is the fact that the product y1 y2 does not depend on the choice of ω. y2 = ω 3 + ω 10 + ω 5 + ω 11 + ω 14 + ω 7 + ω 12 + ω 6 . 84 Most crucial. Clearly. We may take √ −1 + 17 y1 = . z2 = ω 9 + ω 15 + ω 8 + ω2 . It follows that z1 and z2 are the roots of the quadratic equation z 2 − y1 z − 1 = 0. namely. z1 + z2 = y1 .

Similarly.6. . 4 H. Finally. 6. so that z3 and z4 are the roots of the quadratic equation z 2 − y2 z − 1 = 0 and are also constructible. Introduction to Geometry. 3. t1 t2 = (ω + ω 16 )(ω 13 + ω 4 ) = ω 14 + ω5 + ω 12 + ω3 = z3 . we obtain t1 + t2 = z1 . 2nd ed. It follows that t1 and t2 are the roots of the quadratic equation t2 − z1 t + z3 = 0.YIU: Euclidean Geometry and are constructible. z4 = ω 10 + ω 11 + ω 7 + ω 6 . p. since z1 and z3 are constructible. Mark a point E on the segment OA such that 6 OJE = 16 4 OJA.2 Explicit construction of a regular 17-gon 4 To construct two vertices of the regular 17-gon inscribed in a given circle O(A). further separating the terms of z1 into two pairs. 1. 85 we ﬁnd that z3 + z4 = y2 . t2 = ω 13 + ω4 . if we write z3 = ω 3 + ω 5 + ω 14 + ω 12 . by putting t1 = ω + ω 16 .27. 4 2. and are constructible.Coxeter. With AF as diameter. On the radius OB perpendicular to OA.M. and z3 z4 = ω + ω 2 + · · · + ω 16 = −1. Mark a point F on the diameter through A such that O is between E and F and 6 EJF = 45◦ .S. 4. since y1 is constructible. mark a point J such that OJ = 1 OA. construct a circle intersecting the radius OB at K.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

86

5. Mark the intersections of the circle E(K) with the diameter of O(A) through A. Label the one between O and A points P4 , and the other and P6 . 6. Construct the perpendicular through P4 and P6 to intersect the circle O(A) at A4 and A6 . 5

A6 B A4

K J

P6

F

O E

P4

A

Then A4 , A6 are two vertices of a regular 17-gon inscribed in O(A). The polygon can be completed by successively laying oﬀ arcs equal to A4 A6 , leading to A8 , A10 , . . . A16 , A1 = A, A3 , A5 , . . . , A15 , A17 , A2 .

5

Note that P4 is not the midpoint of AF .

Chapter 7

**The Menelaus and Ceva Theorems
**

7.1

7.1.1 Sign convention

Let A and B be two distinct points. A point P on the line AB is said to divide the segment AB in the ratio AP : P B, positive if P is between A and B, and negative if P is outside the segment AB.

P

A -1 < AP/PB < 0.

B

A

P AP/PB > 0.

B

A

B AP/PB < -1.

P

7.1.2

Harmonic conjugates

Two points P and Q on a line AB are said to divide the segment AB harmonically if they divide the segment in the same ratio, one externally and the other internally: AQ AP =− . PB QB We shall also say that P and Q are harmonic conjugates with respect to the segment AB.

87

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

88

7.1.3

Let P and Q be harmonic conjugates with respect to AB. If AB = d, AP = p, and AQ = q, then d is the harmonic mean of p and q, namely, 2 1 1 + = . p q d Proof. This follows from p q =− . d−p d−q

7.1.4

We shall use the abbreviation (A, B; P, Q) to stand for the statement P , Q divide the segment AB harmonically. Proposition If (A, B; P, Q), then (A, B; Q, P ), (B, A; P, Q), and (P, Q; A, B). Therefore, we can speak of two collinear (undirected) segments dividing each other harmonically. Exercise 1. Justify the following construction of harmonic conjugate.

C P'

M

A

P

B

Q

Given AB, construct a right triangle ABC with a right angle at B and BC = AB. Let M be the midpoint of BC.

For every point P (except the midpoint of AB).2. 7. C B C BX : XC = c : -b. since BX : XC = c : b.2 7. 1 If k − 1.2.3 A and B are two ﬁxed points. then A BX : XC = c : b. where X and Y are points on the line AB such that AX : XB = k : 1 and AY : Y B = k : −1. 7. A c b c b B X BX : XC = c : b.2. 1 the locus of points P satisfying AP : P B = k : 1 is the circle with diameter XY .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 89 The intersection Q of the lines P 0 M and AB is the harmonic conjugate of P with respect to AB.1 Apollonius Circle Angle bisector Theorem If the internal (repsectively external) bisector of angle BAC intersect the line BC at X (respectively X 0 ). For a given positive number k 6= 1. let P 0 be the point on AC such that P P 0 ⊥ AB. BX 0 : X 0 C = c : −b. and BX 0 : X 0 C = c : −b. .2 Example The points X and X 0 are harmonic conjugates with respect to BC. X' 7. the locus is clearly the perpendicular bisector of the segment AB.

and R. + + P P 0 QQ0 RR0 a b c A Q' R Q P' B P R' C 2. and RR0 //AB. AB respectively at P . Note that P X and P Y are respectively the internal and external bisectors of angle AP B. P 0 . AB. QQ0 //CA. and let D. G be points on the line BC deﬁned as follows: D is the midpoint of BC. F is the foot of the perpeandicular from . Show that µ ¶ 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + =2 . points X and Y can be found on the line AB satisfying the above conditions. Since k 6= 1. F. Q0 . Suppose ABC is a triangle with AB 6= AC.YIU: Euclidean Geometry P 90 A X B Y Proof. and R0 on the sides CA. The bisectors of the angles intersect the sides BC. and BC respectivley such that P P 0 //BC. Consider a point P not on the line AB with AP : P B = k : 1. This means that angle XP Y is a right angle. Exercise 1. E. Q. CA. AE is the bisector of 6 BAC.

XC Y A ZB A Y Z Z W Y A W B C X B C X Let a and b be the radii of the circles. AB respectively. it is clear that the locus of P is the circle with the segment joining the centers of similitude of (A) and (B) as diameter. 4. CA.e. Suppose each of these angles is 2θ. Z are collinear if and only if BX CY AZ · · = −1. Prove that AB · AC = DF · EG. Then b = sin θ = BP .3 The Menelaus Theorem Let X. Y . 2 7. a AP 2 . Z be points on the lines BC. the radius of the Apollonius circle is k k2 −1 d. The points X. Given two disjoint circles (A) and (B). and k 6= 1. and AP : BP = a : b. ﬁnd the locus of the point P such that the angle between the pair of tangents from P to (A) and that between the pair of tangents from P to (B) are equal. and AG is perpendicular to AE (i. Y .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 91 A to BC. AG bisects one of the exterior angles at A). If AB = d. From this. A G B F E D C 3.

XC Y A ZB XC Y A ZB It follows that CY 0 CY = . AB at D. BX BZ = . YA ZA 92 BZ W Z AZ BZ W Z AZ BX CY AZ · · = · · = · · = (−1)(−1)(−1) = −1. Exercise 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Proof. The line joining E and F meets BC at P . F respectively. These must be the same point. XC Y A ZB ZW ZA ZB ZB ZW ZA (⇐=) Suppose the line joining X and Z intersects AC at Y 0 . BX CY 0 AZ BX CY AZ · 0 · = −1 = · · . (=⇒) Let W be the point on AB such that CW//XY . From above. Find the ratio AN : N B. The line CM intersects the side AB at N . A A F E F Z X E Y B D C P B D C 3 Answer: AN : N B = p : 2q. XC ZW It follows that and CY WZ = . and X. The incircle of 4ABC touches the sides BC. 3 2. CA. Suppose AB 6= AC. E. M is a point on the median AD of 4ABC such that AM : M D = p : q. Show that P and D divide BC harmonically. 0A Y YA The points Y 0 and Y divide the segment CA in the same ratio. Then. Y . . Z are collinear.

AB respectively. AB at D. F . Z be points on the lines BC.4 The Ceva Theorem Let X. at the projection of B on this bisector. Y A XP BC IMO 1996. Y are concyclic. Show that E. The incircle of 4ABC touches the sides BC. 7. CA. Consider the line BP Y cutting the sides of 4CAX. CZ are concurrent if and only if BX CY AZ · · = +1. CZ intersect at a point P . CA. Then the lines XY and X 0 Y 0 intersect on the bisector of angle A. Z. The lines AX. CY AP XB · · = −1. X is a point inside 4ABC such that the incircle of 4XBC touches BC at D also. By Menelaus’ theorem. . 4 B X I X' A Y C IA Y' 4. BY .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 93 3. (=⇒) Suppose the lines AX. E. Given a triangle ABC. Y A P X BC 4 or CY P A BX · · = +1. and the line AC at Y and Y 0 respectively. and touches CX and XB at Y and Z respectively. XC Y A ZB Proof. Y . let the incircle and the ex-circle on BC touch the side BC at X and X 0 respectively. F respectively. BY .

Y A ZB XC (⇐=) Exercise. consider the line CP Z cutting the sides of 4ABX.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 94 Also.5 7. By the Menelau theorem. −1 = GD BC EA GD 2 1 It follows that AG : GD = 2 : 1. we have CY AZ BX · · = +1. F B DC EA The medians AD. Consider the line BGE intersecting the sides of 4ADC. AB of 4ABC. The centroid of a triangle divides each median in the ratio 2:1.1 Examples The centroid If D. AG −1 1 AG DB CE · · = · · . By Menelaus’ theorem again.5. . 7. BE. F are the midpoints of the sides BC. ZB XC P A Z A Z Y Y P C X P B X C B Multiplying the two equations together. CA. CF are therefore concurrent (at the centroid G of the triangle). E. ZB CX P A A or AZ BC XP · · = +1. then clearly AF BD CE · · = 1. AZ BC XP · · = −1.

CZ are concurrent. at the incenter I of the triangle.5. Show that these are the medians of the triangle. (ii) Show if if AX. ABC is a right triangle. Suppose three cevians. CA. 4. AB such that BAC CBA . 3. each through a vertex of a triangle.2 The incenter AX BY bisects CZ 6 6 6 Let X. C P B A Q R . Use the Ceva theorem to justify the existence of the excenters of a triangle. then 4ABC is a right triangle. BY .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 95 7. ACB CY a = . trisect each other. ZB a BX c = . BY . CZ be cevians of 4ABC intersecting at a point P . Y . Exercise 1. ZB XC Y A a b c and AX. XC b AZ BX CY b c a · · = · · = +1. Show that the lines AP . Let AX. YA c then It follows that AZ b = . BY . 2. and CR are concurrent. Z be points on BC. CZ are bisectors and BP · ZP = BZ · AP . BQ. (i) Show that if AX bisects angle A and BX · CY = XC · BZ. then 4ABC is isosceles.

the triangle must be equilateral. Then BX c sin α1 .1 Trigonmetric version of the Ceva Theorem Let X be a point on the side BC of triangle ABC such that the directed angles 6 BAX = α1 and 6 XAC = α2 . the median on the side b. BCA0 and CAB 0 are isosceles triangles satisfying 6 BCA0 = 6 CBA0 = α. Given triangle ABC. 6. BX c sin α1 BX/AX sin α1 / sin β sin γ sin α1 = · . By the sine formula. 5 96 If three equal cevians divide the sides of a triangle in the same ratio and the same sense. Show that 6 c cos α = . construct points A0 . = · XC b sin α2 A A ~ ~ Z ~ ~ Y B X C B X C Proof. 7. and CC 0 are concurrent.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 5. and the altitude on the side c are concurrent. Suppose the bisector of angle A. Show that AA0 . 6 7 ABC 0 = 6 BAC 0 = γ. BB 0 .6. CMJ 455.6 7. 7 0 0 0 A B C is the tangential triangle of ABC. C 0 such that ABC 0 . B 0 . 6 CAB 0 = 6 ACB 0 = β. b+c 7. . = = = · XC XC/AX sin α2 / sin γ sin β sin α2 b sin α2 5 6 Klamkin AMME 263.

2 Let X. B 0 CA and C 0 AB are similar isosceles triangles.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 97 7. Then BX XC = sin(β+ω) sin(γ+ω) · sin γ . AZ BX CY sin α1 sin β1 sin γ1 · · . BY . Show that AA0 . CC 0 are concurrent. 8 IB IC A B C IA 8 Solution. C 0 be points outside 4ABC such that A0 BC.6. The lines AX. AB respectively. = · YA c sin β2 AZ b sin γ1 . · · = ZB XC Y B sin α2 sin β2 sin γ2 Exercise 1. Analogous to BX c sin α1 = · XC b sin α2 are CY a sin β1 . Let A0 . Z be points on the lines BC. = · ZB a sin γ2 Multiplying the three equations together. CA. B 0 . CZ are concurrent if and only if sin α1 sin β1 sin γ1 · · = +1. sin α2 sin β2 sin γ2 Proof. Let X be the intersection of AA0 and BC. sin β . Y . 2. Show that the three altitudes of a triangle are concurrent (at the orthocenter H of the triangle). BB 0 .

OC = R. where R is the circumradius of triangle ABC. b(s − c) 1 . Note that CX2 = b(s−c) . BB 0 . we have OK = R − ρ1 . A0 are collinear. C 0 . ·p s 2R(R − ρ1 ) . sin α2 = 9 Consider these as cevians of triangle IA IB IC . C of triangle ABC touch the circumcircle respectively at the points A0 . and s 2 KC 2 = ρ2 + CX2 . B 0 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 98 3. Since cos 2α2 = 1 − 2 sin2 α2 . Let A0 be the point of contact. B. Applying the cosine formula to triangle KOC. Denote α1 := 6 A0 AB and α2 := 6 A0 AC. Show that the perpendiculars from IA to BC. 6 KOC = 2α2 . In triangle KOC. and the points K. from IB to CA. and from IC to AB are concurrent. We examine how the mixtilinear incircle divides the minor arc BC of the circumcircle. 9 7. after rearrangement of the terms. Note that the circumcenter O. we have 1 2R(R − ρ1 ) cos 2α2 = (R − ρ1 )2 + R2 − ρ2 − 1 µ b(s − c) s ¶2 . we obtain. and CC 0 are concurrent. C' B B O ~ A ~ K A' ~ Ñ C B' A' X2 C A ~ Proof.7 Mixtilinear incircles Suppose the mixtilinear incircles in angles A. The segments AA0 .

sin α2 b(s − c) b(s − a) sin γ1 = . we obtain sin α1 = It follows that c(s − b) 1 ·p . each of these divides the respective minor arcs into the ratios a(s − c) sin β1 = . . The mixtilinear incircle in angle A of triangle ABC touches its circumcircle at A0 . BB 0 and CC 0 are concurrent. the segments AA0 . s 2R(R − ρ) 99 If we denote by B 0 and C 0 the points of contact of the circumcircle with the mixtilinear incircles in angles B and C respectively. Show that AA0 is a common tangent of the mixtilinear incircles of angle A in triangle AA0 B and of angle A in triangle AA0 C. sin α2 sin β2 sin γ2 c(s − a) a(s − b) b(s − c) By the Ceva theorem. 10 c(s − b) sin α1 = .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Similarly. sin β2 c(s − a) From these. Exercise 1. sin α1 sin β1 sin γ1 a(s − c) b(s − a) c(s − b) · · = · · = +1. sin γ2 a(s − b) C A' A B 10 Problem proposal to Crux Mathematicorum.

Z 0B ZB BX CY AZ · · = +1. Choose a point C outside the line AB. X 0C XC CY 0 CY =− . Z 0 are collinear if and only if the cevians AX. Y 0 . Y. Z 0 AB Given a triangle ABC.8. BX 0 BX =− . Y 0A YA AZ 0 AZ =− .8 Duality BC X. XC Y A ZB It follows that BX 0 CY 0 AZ 0 · · = −1 if and only if X 0C Y 0A Z 0B The result now follows from the Menelaus and Ceva theorems.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 100 7.1 Ruler construction of harmonic conjugate Given two points A and B. Draw the . By assumption. X 0 0 be harmonic conjugates with respect to the side CA . let The points X 0 . Y Z. BY . 7. the harmonic conjugate of a point P can be constructed as follows. A Z' Y' B X C X' P Y Proof. Z CZ are concurrent.

B 0 C 0 are CA. If H is the point on the same ray OA such that h = OH is the harmonic mean of a and b. the point H is the harmonic conjugate of O with respect to the segment AB. 7. CC 0 intersect at a point X. Q is the harmonic conjugate of P with respect to A and B.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 101 lines CA.9 7. BB 0 . Through P draw a line intersecting CA at Y and CB at X. Proof. B). A. C 0 A0 collinear.1 Triangles in perspective Desargues Theorem Given two triangles ABC and A0 B 0 C 0 .8. Finally. Suppose AA0 . B be three collinear points such that OA = a and OB = b. CC 0 are conAB. B. CB. let Q be the intersection of CZ with AB. H). BB 0 . Since this also means that (A. and CP . the lines AA0 . A0 B 0 current if and only if the intersections of the pairs of lines BC. Let Z be the intersection of the lines AX and BY . O. then (O. H.2 Harmonic mean Let O. 1 1 5 2 2 2 5 2 2 7 4 4 6 Q 3 5 6 4 4 3 P 5 B A B O A H H a r m o n ic c o n j u g a te h a rm o n i c m e a n 7. A.9. Applying Menelaus’ .

X is the center of perspectivity. we have XCA C 0 A0 Q XA0 AR BB 0 · · = −1. if the lines AA0 .9. 7.3 Given two triangles ABC and A0 B 0 C 0 . RB P C QA By Menelaus’ theorem again.YIU: Euclidean Geometry XAB A0 B 0 R theorem to the triangle XBC and transversal B 0 C 0 P .9. CC 0 are parAB A0 B 0 allel. then the intersections of the pairs of lines BC B 0 C 0 are collinear. A0 A RB B 0 X XB 0 BP CC 0 · · = −1. and the line P QR the axis of perspectivity. we obtain A' A X B' C' B C P Q R 7. Q. CA C 0 A0 . the points P . BB 0 . C 0 C QA A0 X Multiplying these three equation together. B 0B P C C 0X AR BP CQ · · = −1.2 Two triangles satisfying the conditions of the preceding theorem are said to be perspective. R are concurrent. 102 XC 0 CQ AA0 · · = −1.

9. Proof.5 Two triangles whose sides are parallel in pairs are said to be homothetic. then the lines joining the corresponding vertices are concurrent. . 0 XC BC CA 0 and CC 0 therefore coincides with X. Then CX BC CA = 0 0 = 0 0. Distances of corresponding points to the homothetic center are in the same ratio as the lengths of corresponding sides of the triangles.9.YIU: Euclidean Geometry R 103 A P C C' A' Q B B' Proof. 7.4 If the correpsonding sides of two triangles are pairwise parallel. Let X be the intersection of BB 0 and CC 0 . The intersection of the lines joining the corresponding vertices is the homothetic center. BP CQ AR BB 0 · · = − P C QA RB CC 0 µ ¶µ − CC 0 AA0 ¶µ − AA0 BB 0 ¶ = −1. The intersection of AA A C' B' X A' B C 7.

Each point X on the line BC is uniquely determined by the ratio BX : XC. Note that λ + λ0 6= 0 unless X is the point at inﬁnity on the line BC. satisfying y + z = 1.1 Let B and C be two distinct points. 2.2 Coordinates with respect to a triangle Given a triangle ABC (with positive orientation). If BX : XC = λ0 : λ. 104 . C. every point P on the plane has barycenteric coordinates of the form P : xA + yB + zC. the harmonic conjugate of the point P = (1 − λ)A + λB is 2 the point 1−λ λ P0 = A− B. In this case. then we say that X has homogeneous coordinates λ : λ0 with respect to the segment BC. x + y + z = 1. Given two distinct points B. yB + zC is the point on the line BC such that BX : XC = z : y.1 8. we shall normalize the homogeneous coordinates to obtain the barycentric λ λ0 coordinate of X : λ+λ0 B + λ+λ0 C. 1 − 2λ 1 − 2λ Coordinates of points on a line 8. z. and real numbers y. If λ 6= 1 . Exercise 1.1.Chapter 8 Homogeneous coordinates 8.

P CA and P AB are respectively 4P BC = x4. we also say that P has homogeneous coordinates x : y : z with respect to triangle ABC. We shall often identify a point with its barycentric coordinates. and Z are points on the lines BC. CA. X= y+z y+z This is the point at inﬁnity if and only if y + z = 0.2. A A Z P P Y B C B X C Exercises If P has homogeneous coordinates of the form 0 : y : z. and 4P AB = z4. 8. Y . AY : YC = λ : ν. . and AB respectively such that BX : XC = µ : ν.2. if Y and Z are respectively the intersections of BP with CA. Show that X has homogeneous coordinates 0 : y : z.1 Let X be the intersection of the lines AP and BC. AZ : ZB = λ : µ . In this case.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 105 This means that the areas of the oriented triangles P BC. and write P = xA + yB + zC. 4P CA = y4. then z x y x A+ C. Z = A+ B. and of CP with AB. Likewise. Y = z+x z+x x+y x+y 8. and hence barycentric coordinates z y B+ C. then P lies on the line BC.2 Ceva Theorem If X.

P = 1 (µν · A + λν · B + λµ · C). then the lines AX. YC = c : a = bc : ab. In barycentric coordinates. The medians intersect at the centroid G. = 1 : 1. bc ca ab . µν + λν + λµ 8. Y . F of the sides of ratios BD : DC AE : EC AF : F B triangle ABC divide the sides in the = 1 : 1. E.2. ZB = b : a = bc : ac .3 Examples Centroid The midpoints D. 3 Incenter The (internal) bisectors of the sides of triangle ABC intersect the sides at X.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 106 1 1 1 and if λ + µ + ν 6= 0. which has homogeneous coordinates 1 : 1 : 1. = 1 : 1 . or 1 G = (A + B + C). BY . These bisectors intersect at the incenter I with homogeneous coordinates 1 1 1 : : = a : b : c. CZ intersect at the point P with homogeneous coordinates 1 1 1 : : = µν : λν : λµ λ µ ν with respect to the triangle ABC. Z respectively with AY : AZ : BX : XC = c : b = ac : ab.

Y . AZ : ZB = λ : −µ . Y . Z are collinear. note that BX · CX = AX 2 . then the points X. and Z are points on the lines BC. Suppose AB 6= AC. This intersects the line BC at a point X.2. Y . 2 1 . 1 b2 : : − b1 2 : − c1 . Therefore. BX : XC = c2 : −b2 . CA. µ ¶ µ ¶ AX 2 AB 2 c2 AX 2 BX · CX BX = = = = 2. we have BX : XC = c2 : −b2 = 1 2 : a2 = − a2 AY : Y C = −c 1 2 : −a2 = AZ : ZB = b a2 From this.5 Example Consider the tangent at A to the circumcircle of triangle ABC. = CX CX 2 CX 2 CX CA b where we have made use of the similarity of the triangles ABX and CAX. 8. A Y A Z X B C X B C Similarly.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 107 8. and AB respectively such that BX : XC = µ : −ν. if the tangents at B and C intersect respectively the lines CA and AB at Y and Z. To determine the coordinates of X with respect to BC. From this. AY : Y C = −λ : ν. it follows that the points X.4 Menelaus Theorem If X. . Z are collinear.2. c2 .

B. and divides the segment AB externally in the ratio of the radii: AK : KB = r1 : −r2 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 108 8. Let AP and BQ be (directly) parallel radii of the circles. The point K has homogeneous coordinates r2 : −r1 with respect to the segment AB. The point H has homogeneous coordinates r2 : r1 with respect to the segment AB.3. P Q A H Q' B K 8. then the line P Q0 always passes a ﬁxed point H on the line AB. The line P Q always passes a ﬁxed point K on the line AB. This is the external center of similitude of the two circles.3.3 8.1 The centers of similitude of two circles External center of similitude Consider two circles. and divides the segment AB internally in the ratio of the radii: AH : HB = r1 : r2 . This is the internal center of similitude of the two circles. .2 Internal center of similitude If AP and BQ0 are oppositely parallel radii of the circles. centers A. and radii r1 and r2 respectively. Note that H and K divide the segment AB harmonically. Suppose r1 6= r2 .

i. O1 C3 : C3 O2 the lines O1 A1 . . i = 1. whose centers are not collinear and whose radii are all distinct. (O2 ) Find the homogeneous coordinates of the points P1 . Let P2 be the external center of similitude of the circles (O3 ). Denote by Ck . O2 C1 : C1 O3 = C2 O3 = r1 : r3 . j 6= k. (O3 ) P1 1. their intersection being the point 1 1 1 : : r1 r2 r3 with respect to the triangle O1 O2 O3 . O1 O1 C3 C2 O2 O3 C1 O2 O3 P1 P2 P3 Exercise (O2 ). the internal center of similitude of the circles (Oi ) and (Oj ). Since r2 : r3 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Example 109 Consider three circles Oi (ri ). 2. P3 (O1 ). 2. P3 with respect to the triangle O1 O2 O3 . O2 A2 . P2 . (O1 ) . O1 C2 : = r1 : r2 . 3. and show that they are collinear. k = 1. 3. O3 A3 are concurrent.

BB 0 . . Let ² = 1 or −1 according as the tangency with the circumcircle is external or internal. we have OP : P K = R : −²ρ. and P = −²ρ R 1 (R · K − ²ρ · O) = ·O+ · K. IB C0 AB CA 0 are concurrent.S905. the perpendiculars from the excenters IC to IA AC A0 AB IC BC and IA to CA intersect at B 0 . and the circumcircle of triangle ABC. tangent to the sides AB and AC. Since AK : AI = ρ : r. Since OP : KP = R : ²ρ. every point on the line AP is of the form λP + (1 − λ)A = 1 CMJ408.408. R + ²ρ R − ²ρ R − ²ρ λρ (−²r · O + R · I) + f (λ)A.894. Given triangle ABC. AK : KI = ρ : −(ρ − r). r(R − ²ρ) Now. r C C è K K O I r è è P O r R I P è A B A B Also.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 110 IB 2. radius ρ. 1 K = [ρI − (ρ − r)A]. 1 and CC 8. let P be the point of contact with the circumcircle. Show that the lines AA0 .4 Consider a circle with center K.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 111 for some real number λ. f O l f . it is clear that AP intersects OI at a point with homogeneous −²r : R with respect to the segment OI.. R − ²r This applies to the mixtilinear incircles (excircles) at the other two vertices too. the circle (K) touching the circumcircle 1 internally of ABC . Assuming A not on the line OI. this is the point This is the X= 1 (−²r · O + R · I). 8.1 Theorem Let ABC be a given triangle.4. i. In other words.e. OX : XI = R : −²r. external center of similitude of the circumcircle (O) and the ininternal −1 circle (I) according as ² = . externally In barycentric coordinates. The three segments joining the each vertex of incircles the triangle to the point of contact of the corresponding mixtilinear excircles external are concurrent at center of similitude of the circumcircle and the internal incircle.

CP with the sides BC. It follows that AX 0 . x y z . Y 0 . CY : Y A = x : z. It has homogeneous coordinates 1 1 1 : : . 0B : Z = x : y . CA.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 112 8.1 Let P be a point with homogeneous coordinates x : y : z with respect to a triangle ABC.5 Isotomic conjugates Let X be a point on the line BC. BX 0 : X 0 C = : Y 0C = x : z. Denote by X. AZ : ZB = y : x. and CZ 0 are concurrent. then 0 AY AZ 0 y : z. Y . Clearly. BY 0 . and Z on the respective sides.5. Note that BX 0 = X 0C µ BX XC A ¶−1 . AB. Y . BX : XC = z : y. Y' Z' P' Z P B X X' C B X' X C Y 8. and Z 0 are the isotomic conjugates of X. If X 0 . The unique point X 0 on the line satisfying BX = −CX 0 is called the isotomic conjugate of X with respect to the segment BC. The intersection P 0 is called the isotomic conjugate of P (with respect to the triangle ABC). BP . Z the intersections of the lines AP .

then the isotomic conjugate is X 0 = zB + yC. X 0 . The point X 0 is indeed the point of contact of the excircle IA (r1 ) with the side BC. Y. Y . similarly for Y 0 and Z 0 . BY . BY 0 . ZB = s−a : s−b . Y 0 . CA. A A Y Z L I Z' N B X C B X X' C Z Y' Y Let X 0 . Z are collinear. Z 0 are collinear if and only if X. CZ 0 are . 113 8. YC = s−a : s − c. BX : XC = s − b : s − c. and Z respectively. CZ are concurrent. sometimes also known as the Gergonne point. Z on the respective sides. The cevians AX 0 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 1. and AB at the points X. Z 0 be the isotomic conjugates of X. The intersection is called the Gergonne point of the triangle. Y . If X = yB + zC.5. Y 0 .2 Gergonne and Nagel points Suppose the incircle I(r) of triangle ABC touches the sides BC. AY : AZ : This means the cevians AX. 2.

Show that AN : N X 0 = a : s. Z respectively. Similarly for BY 0 and CZ 0 . This is the isotomic conjugate of the Gergonne point L. 2 2. Y . Show that AA0 . AB at X.6. Z respectively.1 Isogonal conjugates Given a triangle. two cevians through a vertex are said to be isogonal if they are symmetric with respect to the internal bisector of the angle at the vertex. Let the excircle on the side CA touch this side at Y 0 . Let A0 . Which point is the isotomic conjugate of itself with respect to a given triangle. CA. From this the result follows. Exercise 1. 3 3. 4 0 The line AX intersects the side BC at the point of contact X 0 of the excircle on this side. Apply the Menelaus theorem AN a to 4AX 0 C and the line BNY 0 to obtain NX 0 = s−a . The intersection is the Nagel point of the triangle.6 8. Y . C 0 be the points on the incircle diametrically opposite to X. BB 0 and CC 0 are concurrent. Suppose the incircle of 4ABC touches its sides BC.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 114 concurrent. 3 2 . 4 8. B 0 . It follows that these three lines intersect at the Nagel point of the triangle. A A B C B M D E N C The centroid. Suppose the excircle on the side BC touches this side at X 0 .

it is easy to see that the ∗ ∗ ∗ cevians la . lc be the respective cevians through P the vertices ∗ ∗ ∗ A. AZ : ZB = y : x. lb . lc their isogonal cevians. let D and E be points on BC such that 6 BAD = 6 CAE. If the cevian BP and its isogonal cevian respectively meet the side CP BC X X∗ CA at Y and Y ∗ . Show that BX ∗ c2 XC = 2· . A A P P* B C C B 8. AY : Y C = z : x. C of 4ABC. BM MD CN NE 8. lb .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 1. lc are concurrent if and only if la . then since Z∗ AB Z BX : XC = z : y. Show that 1 1 1 1 + = + . Denote by la . lb . Suppose the incircles of the triangles ABD and ACE touch the side BC at M and N respectively. Their intersection P ∗ is called the isogonal conjugate of P with respect to 4ABC.2 Given a point P . B.6. Using the trigonometric version of the Ceva theorem. lc are concurrent.6. lb . X ∗C b BX 115 2. Given a triangle ABC. . let la .3 Suppose P has homogeneous coordinates x : y : z with respect to triangle AP ABC.

H. If α 6= 90◦ .4 Circumcenter and orthocenter as isogonal conjugates H =O * O The homogeneous coordinates of the circumcenter are a cos α : b cos β : c cos γ = a2 (b2 + c2 − a2 ) : b2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) : c2 (a2 + b2 − c2 ).5 The symmedian point The symmedian point K is the isogonal conjugate of the centroid G. c2 z . Show that a triangle is isosceles if its circumcenter. .YIU: Euclidean Geometry we have AY ∗ AZ ∗ BX ∗ : X ∗ C = c2 y : b2 z = : Y ∗ C = c2 x : a2 z = : Z ∗B = b2 x : a2 y = x a2 x a2 y b2 116 : : : y b2 z c2 . It has homogeneous coordinates. From this it follows that the isogonal conjugate P ∗ has homogeneous coordinates a2 b2 c2 : : . then 6 OAIA = 6 HAIA = 0 or 180◦ . and an excenter are collinear. if O.6. K = a2 : b2 : c2 . orthocenter. 5 8. x y z 8. 5 Solution (Leon Bankoﬀ) This is clear when α = 90◦ . Exercise 1. the lines AO and AH are isogonal with respect to the bisector AIA . IA are collinear. the triangle is isosceles. and the altitude AH falls along the line AIA . Hence.6. .

Consider the isogonal cevian BP of the side BA0 . BC is symmetric with respect to the bisector of angle B. It follows that BP is tangent to the circle ABC at B. Since each of the pairs BP .6 The symmedians If D∗ is the point on the side BC of triangle ABC such that AD∗ is the isogonal cevian of the median AD. BA0 . 6 p 8. . Show that the lines joining each vertex to a common corner of the squares meet at the symmedian point of triangle ABC. and BA. 8. complete it to a parallelogram BACA0 . The intersection of these two tangents at B and C to the circumcircle is therefore the isogonal conjugate of A0 with respect to 6 Crux 960.6. If an altitude of a triangle is also a symmedian.7 The exsymmedian points Given a triangle ABC. 6 P BA = 6 A0 BC = 6 BCA. ta = tb if and only if a = b. ta = 2 2 b +c b2 + c2 Exercise 1. AD∗ is called the symmedian on the side BC.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 117 K G B Y X Z C Exercise 1.6. 2. then either it is isosceles or it contains a right angle. Similarly. The length of the symmedian is given by 2bc bc 2(b2 + c2 ) − a2 · ma = . the isogonal cevian of CA0 is the tangent at C to the circumcircle of triangle ABC.

KC = a2 : b2 : −c2 . . Since A0 has homogeneous coordinates −1 : 1 : 1 with respect to triangle ABC. aλ + bµ + cν aλ + bµ + cν aλ + bµ + cν 3. show that its tangential triangle is ﬁnite unless ABC contains a right angle. KA = −a2 : b2 : c2 . Given λ. The other two exsymmedian points KB and KC are similarly deﬁned. What is the isogonal conjugate of the incenter I ? 2. bµ and cν is nonzero. This is the exsymmedian point KA of the triangle. Given a triangle ABC. KB = a2 : −b2 : c2 . ν. These exsymmedian points are the vertices of the tangential triangle bounded by the tangents to the circumcircle at the vertices.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 118 the triangle. B A' A P I O C KC KB B KA C A Exercise 1. the exsymmedian point KA has homogeneous coordinates −a2 : b2 : c2 . there is a (unique) point P such that P P1 : P P2 : P P3 = λ : µ : ν if and only if each “nontrivial” sum of aλ. This is the point bµ cν aλ A+ B+ C. µ.

sin 2α : sin 2β : sin 2γ = a2 (b2 +c2 −a2 ) : b2 (c2 +a2 −b2 ) : c2 (a2 +b2 −c2 ). Solution. Justify the following table for the homogeneous coordinates of points associated with a triangle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 119 (b) The sides of the tangential triangle are in the ratio (a) The angles of the tangential triangle are 180◦ − 2α. Find the barycentric coordinates of the incenter of 4O1 O2 O3 . 180◦ − 2β. 4. 1 [(b 4s 7 + c)A + (c + a)B + (a + b)C] = 3 M − 1 I. Show that the incenter I. and the Nagel point N are collinear. A I G N C IG : GN = 1 : 2. Furthermore. and 180◦ − 2γ. the centroid G. Point Centroid Incenter Excenters Gergonne point Nagel point Symmedian point Exsymmedian points Circumcenter Orthocenter Symbol G I IA IB IC L N K KA KB KC O H Homogeneous coordinates 1:1:1 a:b:c −a : b : c a : −b : c a : b : −c (s − b)(s − c) : (s − c)(s − a) : (s − a)(s − b) s−a : s−b :s−c a2 : b2 : c2 −a2 : b2 : c2 a2 : −b2 : c2 a2 : b2 : −c2 2 2 2 2 2 2 a (b + c − a ) : b (c + a2 − b2 ) : c2 (a2 + b2 − c2 ) (a2 + b2 − c2 )(c2 + a2 − b2 ) : (b2 + c2 − a2 )(a2 + b2 − c2 ) : (c2 + a2 − b2 )(b2 + c2 − a2 ) 5. IG : GN = 1 : 2. (or 2α. 2β and 2γ − 180◦ if the angle at C is obtuse). B 7 6. 2 2 .

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 120 7. 10. s−c c2 .6. XC b sin α2 (s − c)/c2 BX : XC = AY : YC = AZ : ZB = 8 s−c a2 s−c a2 s−b b2 : : s−b b2 s−c c2 . GC respectively the centroids of 4P BC. then the line joining the centroid and the symmedian point is parallel to a side of the triangle.8 In §? we have established.914. Characterize the triangles of which the midpoints of the altitudes are collinear. see MGQ781. 8. It follows that the orthocenter must be a vertex of the triangle. BB 0 . P . CZ are never collinear. Suppose the line AA0 . if P is a point with nonzero homogeneous coordinates with respect to 4ABC. BP . 9 11. AB at points X. GA . Let P be a point in the plane of 4ABC. CA. Show that AGA . then the line joining the centroid to the incenter is parallel to a side of the triangle. Z respectively. See MG1197. GB .S854. BY . CC 0 intersects the sides BC. 12. More generally. and the triangle must be right. the concurrency of the lines joining each vertex of a triangle to the point of contact of the circumcircle with the mixtilinear incircle in that angle. . C. B. then the midpoints of AX. and CGC are concurrent. using the trigonometric version of Ceva theorem. and AP . CP cut the opposite sides at X. 4P CA and 4P AB.844. The Gergonne point of the triangle KA KB KC is the symmedian point K of 4ABC. 8. Y . If the sides of a triangle are in arithmetic progression. If the squares of a triangle are in arithmetic progression. Show that the mirror image of the orthocenter H in a side of a triangle lies on the circumcircle. . Y and Z respectively. 8 9. BGB . 9 At the centroid of A. We have c sin α1 (s − b)/b2 BX = · = .

parallel . 8. 10 It is easy to see that these intercepts have lengths (1 − x)a. G. This means that 3G − P = 2I 0 . the isotomic conjugate of the incenter I. 10 AMM E396.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 121 These cevians therefore intersect at the point with homogeneous coordinates b2 c2 a2 : : . MacKay . 8.intercept point P. D. the points I 0 .C. Show that the isogonal conjugate of the Gergonne point is the internal center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle.L.9 The isogonal conjugate of the Nagel point is the external center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle. a b c Note that (1 − x)A + (1 − y)B + (1 − z)C = 3G − 2P. we locate the point P through which the parallels to the sides of ABC make equal intercepts by the lines containing the sides of ABC.7 Point with equal parallel intercepts Given a triangle ABC.6. the Nagel point. Exercise 1. Oursler.C. For the equal . 1 1 1 1−x: 1−y :1−z = : : . and (1 − z)c respectively. . From this. s−a s−b s−c This is the isogonal conjugate of the point with homogeneous coordinates s − a : s − b : s − c. P are collinear and I 0 G : GP = 1 : 2. (1 − y)b.

11 2. x+y+z 13 1 1 1 x : y : z = −a + 1 + 1 : a − 1 + 1 : a + 1 − 1. X. b c b c b c 11 12 . Make use of this to determine the homogeneous coordinates of the equal . Show that the triangles OII 0 and HN P are homothetic at the centroid G. IN. ab + bc + ca 4. Supose the parallel through P to BC intersects AC at Y and AB at Z. Y and Z are respectively the points x : 0 : y + z and x : y + z : 0. Z the traces of K on the sides of the triangle. 12 A A Z P Y P B C B C 3. and I 0 P in the ratio 1 : 2. The segment Y Z has length a(y+z) . Find the homogeneous coordinates of the points Y and Z. and the length of the segment Y Z. Let K be a point with homogeneous coordinates p : q : r with respect to triangle ABC. The centroid G divides each of the segments OH.intercept point 13 of triangle ABC and show that the equal parallel intercepts have a common length = 2abc . Y . Let P be a point with homogeneous coordinates x : y : z.parallel .YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 122 P G I' B C Exercise 1.

14 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 123 If the triangle ABC is completed into parallelograms ABA0 C. and C 0 Z are concurrent at the point Q with homogeneous coordinates 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 − + + : − + : + − . The line A0 X has equation (q − r)x − ry + qz = 0. then the lines A0 X. similarly for the lines B 0 Y and C 0 Z. BCB 0 A. From this it is straightforward to verify that these three lines are concurrent at the given point. B 0 Y . and CAC 0 B. p q r p q r p q r The trace of K on the line BC is the point X with homogeneous coordinates 0 : q : r. the fourth vertex A0 is the point −1 : 1 : 1. If the triangle ABC is completed into a parallelogram ABA0 C.

15 AZ : ZB = ν : ν 0 . µ + µ0 µ + µ0 Z= ν0 ν A+ B. Q and R are respectively the points P = x1 A + y1 B + z1 C. 4XY Z = = ¯0 ¯ 1 ¯µ 0 )(µ + µ0 )(ν + ν 0 ) ¯ (λ + λ ν0 λµν + λ0 µ0 ν 0 . Deduce that the points X. Z are collinear if and only if λµν = −λ0 µ0 ν 0 . and AB respectively such that BX : XC = λ : λ0 . Y 0 . show that the areas of the triangles XY Z and X 0 Y 0 Z 0 are equal. Let X.8 Area formula If P . If X 0 . ¯ z3 1. and Z be points on BC. The area of triangle XY Z is given by 4XY Z = λµν + λ0 µ0 ν 0 . then the area of triangle PQR is given by ¯ x1 ¯ 4P QR = ¯ x2 ¯ x3 y1 y2 y3 Exercise z1 ¯ ¯ z2 ¯4. CA. R = x3 A + y3 B + z3 C. CY : Y A = µ : µ0 . 15 Proof. (λ + λ0 )(µ + µ0 )(ν + ν 0 ) 2.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 124 8. (λ + λ0 )(µ + µ0 )(ν + ν 0 ) λ0 0 ν . These have barycentric coordinates λ0 λ B+ C. Z on their respective sides. ν + ν0 ν + ν0 λ¯ ¯ µ0 ¯ ¯ 0 X= By the preceding exercise. Y . Y . 3. Q = x2 A + y2 B + z2 C. Y . Z 0 are isotomic conjugates of X. λ + λ0 λ + λ0 Y = µ0 µ C+ A.

The cevians AX. 0 and AZ : ZB = ν : 1. BY . CZ are such that BX : XC = CY : Y A = AZ : ZB = λ : 1. BY and CZ bound a triangle of area λ0 µ0 λµ0 )(µν (λµν − λ0 µ0 ν 0 )2 4. Find λ such that the area of the triangle intercepted by the three cevians AX. µν + µ0 ν 0 + µν 0 8. BX : XC = λ : 1.9 8.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 125 8. 4 λ 1 1 1 1 2 3 µ 1 1 2 4 2 6 ν λµν − 1 λµ + λ + 1 µν + µ + 1 νλ + ν + 1 2 4 3 7 2 7 40 4 2. CA and AB respectively such that BX : XC = λ : λ0 . Find 4 . CY : Y A = µ : µ0 . BY .2 Theorem Let X. Y and Z be points on the lines BC. AZ : ZB = ν : ν 0 .9.9. The lines BY and CZ intersect at the point P with homogeneous coordinates µν 0 : µν : µ0 ν 0 : P = 1 (µν 0 A + µνB + µ0 ν 0 C). In each of the following cases. The lines AX. 7 . CY : Y A = µ : 1. CZ is 1 of 4ABC.1 Routh’s Theorem Intersection of two cevians Let Y and Z be points on the lines CA and AB respectively such that CY : Y A = µ : µ0 and AZ : ZB = ν : ν 0 . + µ0 ν 0 + µν 0 )(νλ + ν 0 λ0 + νλ0 ) (λµ + Exercise + 1.

2 The general formula follows by replacing x. CEP . z − 1 by x − u. It is enough to assume Q = C. show that P is the centroid of triangle ABC. CF intersect at P .10 8. The cevians AD. y − v. and CF of triangle ABC intersect at P . By the cosine a b formula. and AF P are equal.1 Distance formula in barycentric coordinates Theorem The distance between two points P = xA + yB + zC and Q = uA + vB + wC is given by 1 P Q2 = [(x−u)2 (b2 +c2 −a2 )+(y −v)2 (c2 +a2 −b2 )+(z −w)2 (a2 +b2 −c2 )]. . y. Show that [DEF ] PD PE PF =2 · · . 2 2 2 P1 P2 = P P1 + P P2 + 2 · P P1 · P P2 · cos γ x y a2 + b2 − c2 = 442 [( )2 + ( )2 + xy · ] a b a2 b2 x y 1 = 442 {( )2 + ( )2 + [(1 − z)2 − x2 − y 2 ] · (a2 + b2 − c2 )} a b 2 242 2 2 2 2 = [x (b + c − a ) + y2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) + (z − 1)2 (a2 + b2 − c2 )]. The cevians AD. 2 Proof. z − w respectively. [ABC] PA PB PC 16 126 4.10. BE. If the areas of the triangles BDP .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 3. BE. a2 b2 It follows that CP = CP 2 = P1 P2 sin γ = ab·P1 P2 24 is given by 1 2 2 [x (b + c2 − a2 ) + y 2 (c2 + a2 − b2 ) + (z − 1)2 (a2 + b2 − c2 )]. The distances from P to the sides BC and CA are respectively P P1 = 24 · x and P P2 = 24 · y . 8. 16 Crux 2161.

By Stewart’s Theorem.Chapter 9 Circles inscribed in a triangle 9. x2 = kb2 + (1 − k)c2 − k(1 − k)a2 .1 Analysis Suppose BP : P C = k : 1 − k.1. and denote the length of AP by x. to locate a point P on the side BC so that the incircles of triangles ABP and ACP have equal radii. c + x + ka b + x + (1 − k)a 127 . we have 2(1 − k)4 2k4 = . Equating the inradii of the triangles ABP and ACP . A I' I'' B H P K C 9.1 Given a triangle ABC.

k 1−k b+x c+x = .2) from which Now substitution into (1) gives x2 (2x + b + c)2 = (2x + b + c)[(x + c)b2 + (x + b)c2 ] − (x + b)(x + c)a2 . 2x + b + c 128 (9. 9. 1 Solution to Crux 1097. we have (x + b)(x + c)a2 = = = = = From this.1) or (9.YIU: Euclidean Geometry This latter equation can be rewritten as c + x + ka b + x + (1 − k)a = .1. If the angle between the median AD and the angle bisector AX is θ. x2 = 1 1 ((b + c)2 − a2 ) = (b + c + a)(b + c − a) = s(s − a). 4 4 (2x + b + c)[(x + c)b2 + (x + b)c2 − x2 [(x + b) + (x + c)]] (2x + b + c)[(x + b)(c2 − x2 ) + (x + c)(b2 − x2 )] (2x + b + c)(x + b)(x + c)[(c − x) + (b − x)] (2x + b + c)(x + b)(x + c)[(b + c) − 2x] (x + b)(x + c)[(b + c)2 − 4x2 ]. then ma · wa · cos θ = s(s − a). . k 1−k k= x+c .2 Lau 1 has proved an interesting formula which leads to a simple construction of the point P . Rearranging.

one of which is the required point P .3 An alternative construction of the point P Let X and Y be the projections of the incenter I and the excenter IA on the side AB. then AY = s(s − a). A X I P C B Y .1. and then the tangents from A to this circle. the circle A(Y ) intersects the side BC at two points. Construct the circle with XY as diameter. Now. P is the point on BC such that AP has the same length as these tangents.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 129 A A c wa é m a b Y B X P D C B X D C This means if the perpendicular from X to AD is extended to intersect p the circle with diameter AD at a point Y . 9.

a 2. 0 AC = α − θ. Show that the circle with XY as diameter intersects BC at P if and only if 4ABC is isosceles. 2 6 A A0 C = c. AA0 C = α + θ. A 2 é B p D C A' By the sine formula. 2 2 Hint: AP is tangent to the circle XY P . we have 6 AA0 = 2ma . . 2 9.1. = = 2ma sin(180◦ − α) sin α cos α 2 From this it follows that ma · cos θ = 2 b+c α · cos .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Exercise 1. Show that r = 0 130 s− p s(s − a) · r. In triangle AA0 C.4 Proof of Lau’s formula Let θ be the angle between the median and the bisector of angle A. ACA0 = 180◦ − α. Complete the triangle ABC into a parallelogram ABA0 C. sin( α + θ) + sin( α − θ) 2 sin α cos θ b+c cos θ 2 2 2 = . 6 AC = b.

we also have 2 2 µ 0 ¶2 r ρ = tan v u β γ tan . 2 ma · wa · cos θ = bc cos2 This proves Lau’s formula. 2 2 This in turn leads to θ u tan γ 2 tan = t . we equate the exradii of the same two subtriangles on the sides BP and CP . If we denote the inradii by r 0 and the exradii by ρ. we make an interesting observation which leads to a simpler construction of P . 2 tan β 2 .5 Here. and leading to a stronger result: (3) remains valid if instead of inradii. we have 2 α = s(s − a). ρ 2 2 2 2 Since tan θ tan(90◦ − θ ) = 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Now.1. Thus. 9. A B C P Let θ = 6 AP B so that 6 AP C = 180◦ − θ. the two subtriangles have equal inradii if and only if they have equal exradii on the sides BP and CP . then θ β θ γ r0 = tan tan = tan(90◦ − ) tan . bypassing the calculations. since wa = 2bc b+c 131 cos α .

we have θ tan = 2 s 132 s−b = s−c p (s − b)(s − c) = s−c √ BX · XC . A Y B X P C Q Exercise 1. Construct a semicircle with BC as diameter to intersect the perpendicular to BC through X at Y . Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = BC. . 2 The perpendicular through A to AB intersects the circle F (K) at a point Q. F is the midpoint of AB. Show that the inradii of triangles ABP and ACP are equal. and the side BA is extended to a point K with AK = 1 AC. Let the incircle of 4ABC touch the side BC at X.YIU: Euclidean Geometry In terms of the sides of triangle ABC. The intersection of the perpendicular bisector of AQ with the side BC is the point P required. XC This leads to the following construction of the point P . P is the point on BC (the one closer to B if there are two) such that AP = AQ. Mark a point Q on the line BC such that AQ//Y C.

. For k = 1. k Show that tan θ2 . . . Let P be a point on the side BC of triangle ABC such that the excircle of triangle ABP on the side BP and the incircle of triangle ACP have the same radius. . P1 .YIU: Euclidean Geometry K 133 A F Q B P C 2. . 1 tan β 2 . . let P0 . . . . Show that 3 BP : P C = −a + b + 3c : a + 3b + c. . 2.e. 3. by Stewart’s Theorem x2 = kb2 + (1 − k)c2 − k(1 − k)a2 . . c + x − ka b + x + (1 − k)a Also. then (1 − k) k = . P2 . and AP = x. . and AP = (b + c)2 − a(s − c) . i. . n. Pn = C and the inradii of the subtriangles APk−1 Pk . Pn be points on BC such that P0 = B. tan . n − 1 are n − 1 geometric means between β γ cot 2 and tan 2 . . are all equal. . n. . k = 1. . . . Given triangle ABC. k = 1. tan θ1 θ2 θn−1 γ . tan 2 2 2 2 form a geometric progression. 2(b + c) 3 If BP : P C = k : 1 − k. . denote 6 APk Pk−1 = θk . tan ..

On the minor arc BC of the circle A(B). Let Y be the projection of X on the side AC. Let ABC be an isosceles triangle. Let P be a point on BC such that AP = AY . A Y C B P D P' X . mark a point X such that CX = CD. D the midpoint of the base BC. Show that the inradius of triangle ABP is equal to the exradius of triangle ACP on the side CP .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 134 A B P C 4.

Similarly. is the Gergonne point of the triangle.2 Given a triangle. each tangent to two sides of the triangle.2. Y1 . AZ2 = AZ1 + Z1 Z2 = AY1 + Y1 Y3 = AY3 . e . and Z1 . and CZ. Y . the line CZ (K3 ) (K1 ) . Then XX2 = XX3 . Y3 on CA. X3 on the side BC. AMM E457. the points of contact. such that the 6 points of contact are concyclic. being the intersection of AX. and Z1 Z2 are all equal in length. 4 Th´bault . A G B C Let G be the common point of the circles. Also. Z the projections of I on the sides. This center is indeed the incenter I of the triangle. The line AX is the radical axis. It follows that the segments X2 X3 . and X2 . This means that X and A are both on the radical axis of the circles (K2 ) BY is the and (K3 ). Denote by X. BY .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 135 9. Y3 Y1 .1 Analysis 4 Consider the circle through the 6 points of contact. The common point G of the radical axis of the pair of circles (K1 ) )K2 ) circles. Z2 on AB. 9.Eves. The line joining the center to each vertex is the bisector of the angle at that vertex. to construct three circles through a common point.

to construct three congruent circles through a common point.3. AB. CA. each tangent to two sides of the triangle. The other two centers K2 and K3 can be similarly located. Note that the lines I2 I3 and BC are parallel.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A Y1 Z1 K1 Z G I Y 136 B X C The center K1 is the intersection of the segment AI and the parallel through G to the radius XI of the incircle. It follows that triangles I1 I2 I3 and ABC are per- . IB. I2 . and I1 I2 . 9. A R I1 O I2 T I3 t T I B C 9. I3 be the centers of the circles lying on the bisectors IA. so are the pairs I3 I1 . IC respectively.3 Given a triangle.1 Analysis Let I1 .

Since I3 I1 I1 I2 I2 I3 r−t = = = . (3) Join OX and IM . OT : T I = R : r. CA AB BC r we have t = t r = . R R+r This means I divides the segment OT in the ratio T I : IO = −r : R + r. The line joining their circumcenters passes through I. IB. I3 respectively. intersecting the latter at X. I2 .3. intersecting OI at T . (4) Construct the circle T (P ) to intersect the segments IA. j = 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 137 spective from their common incenter I.2 Construction Let O and I be the circumcenter and the incenter of triangle ABC. the circumradius being the common radius t of the three circles. Through their intersection P draw a line parallel to IX. Equivalently. and T is the internal center of similitude of the circumcircle and the incircle. the internal center of similitude of the circumcircle and incircle. This means that T . . Note that T is the circumcenter of triangle I1 I2 I3 . 3 are three equal circles through T each tangent to two sides of the triangle. (2) Construct the perpendicular from O to BC. r−t r · R. IC at I1 . or 9. 2. O and I are collinear. (5) The circles Ij (T ). (1) Construct the perpendicular from I to BC. intersecting the circumcircle at M (so that IX and OM are directly parallel).

and IAB respectively.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 138 I1 I T I2 P B X C O I3 M 9. ICA. . α β γ : b sec : c sec . Extend II1 beyond I1 to intersect BC at A0 .4.4 9. I3 the incenters of the triangles IBC. 2 γ . the lines AA0 . 2 2 2 This point apparently does not appear in Kimberling’s list. I2 . and similarly II2 beyond I2 to intersect CA at B 0 . 2 The homogeneous coordinates of I1 with respect to IBC are cos 5 α β γ : sin : sin . CC 0 are concurrent at a point 5 with homogeneous barycentric coordinates a sec Proof. II3 beyond I3 to intersect AB at C 0 . 2 The angles of triangle IBC are 1 π − (β + γ). and I1 . 2 2 2 β . Then.1 Proposition Let I be the incenter of 4ABC. BB 0 .

O2 I2 . we have made use of the sine formula: a cos b c 2s 2s a . 2 2 α β a sec : b sec : 0. O3 be the circumcenters of triangles I1 BC. CC 0 intersect at a point with homogeneous coordinates a sec Exercise 1. 2 2 α γ a sec : 0 : c sec . the homongeneous coordinates of I1 with respect to ABC are α β α γ α : b cos + 2s sin : c cos + 2s sin 2 2 2 2 2 γ β = a : b(1 + 2 cos ) : c(1 + 2 cos ). 2 2 Here. 2 2 2 9. 2 2 2 2 Similarly.1 Malfatti circles Construction Problem Given a triangle. 2 2 From these. Are the lines O1 I1 . it is easy to see that the line II1 intersects BC at the point A0 with homogeneous coordinates 0 : b cos γ β β γ : c cos = 0 : b sec : c sec . = = = = α sin α sin β sin γ sin α + sin β + sin γ 4 cos 2 cos β cos γ 2 2 Since I has homogeneous coordinates a : b : c. I2 CA. I3 AB respectively. BB 0 . Let O1 . .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 139 1 Since I = 2s (a · A + b · B + c · C).5 9. O3 I3 concurrent? β γ α : b sec : c sec . each touching two sides of the triangle. O2 . it is clear that AA0 . to construct three circles mutually tangent to each other. B 0 and C 0 have coordinates A0 B0 C0 β γ 0 : b sec : c sec .5.

r3 are mutually tangent to each other. and IAB.) These common tangents intersect at a point P. BZ2 X2 . ICA. (3) The incircles of triangles AY1 Z1 . (2) Construct the external common tangents of each pair of these incircles. Label the other common tangent Y1 Z1 with Y1 on CA and Z1 on AB respectively. A Y1 Z1 A' E F Z' I' Z2 B' X' Y3 Y' C' B X2 D X3 C Exercise 1. r2 . Likewise the common tangent of the incircles of IAB and IBC is Z2 X2 with Z2 on AB and X2 on BC. (The incircles of ICA and IAB have IA as a common tangent. Three circles of radii r1 . (1) Construct the incircles of the subtriangles IBC. and CX3 Y3 are the required Malfatti circles.YIU: Euclidean Geometry Construction 140 Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC. and that of the incircles of IBC and ICA is X3 Y3 with X3 on BC and Y3 on CA. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle bounded by their external .

1 Given a circle K(a) tangent to O(R) at A. 9. Construct the perpendicular bisector of KP to intersect OB at K 0 . at A and B respectively.YIU: Euclidean Geometry common tangents.6. AB = 2R 6 s Crux 618. the center of the required circle.6 9. R−a R−b √ √ √ √ √ √ r r ( r2 r3 − r3 r1 + r1 r2 ) + ( r2 r3 + r3 r1 − r1 r2 ) r − r2 r − r3 √ √ √ √ r1 + r2 + r3 + r1 + r2 + r3 √ · r1 r2 r3 . larger circle O(R). r= √ √ √ r2 r3 + r3 r1 + r1 r2 where . a= a b · . A K O K' B P Construction Extend OB to P such that BP = a. 6 141 9.6. to construct a circle K 0 (b) tangent externally to K(a) and internally to (O) at B. and internally to a third.2 Two circles H(a) and K(b) are tangent externally to each other. and a point B.

and OX intersect. (R − a)(R − c) BC = 2R bc . and also externally to a third. Applying the cosine formula to triangle AOB. If (P ) is a circle tangent internally to (O) at C. AB = 2R R+a R+b 9.3 Let H(a) and K(b) be two circles tangent internally to O(R) at A and B respectively. 2(R − a)(R − b) 142 by applying the cosine formula again. 2.6. and externally to each of (H) and (K). By Ceva theorem. Let 6 AOB = θ. r a : R−a s b . Exercise 1. R−b s The lengths of AC and BC are given by AC = 2R s ac . then AC : BC = Proof. AB 2 = R2 + R2 − 2R2 cos θ. Given a circle K(A) tangent externally to O(A). BH. to triangle OHK. at A and B respectively. Show that s a b · . and a point B on O(A). R−a R−b . larger circle O(R). Two circles H(a) and K(b) are tangent externally to each other. AX : XB = a b : .YIU: Euclidean Geometry Proof. (R − b)(R − c) Construction of the point C (1) On the segment AB mark a point X such that the cevians AK. where cos θ = (R − a)2 + (R − b)2 − (a + b)2 . construct a circle tangent to O(A) at B and to K(A) externally (respectively internally).

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 143 (2) Construct a circle with AB as diameter. (H). Also. Note that AQ2 = AX · AB and BQ2 = XB · AB. It follows that AY : Y B = r a : R−a s b . B. . Let the bisectors angle AQB intersect the line AB at Y . AY : Y B = AQ : QB. and (K). Y . The required point D is the intersection of the line Y E and the circle (O). to locate a point D such that there is a chain of 4 circles tangent to (O) internally at the points A. C on a circle (O). D.6. Let Y be the point diametrically opposite to X. C. A A Q H O X K B H O Q' Y X K B 9. B. Then C and C 0 are the points of contact of the circles with (O). Bisect angle ABC to intersect AC at E and the circle (O) at X. Q0 to intersect (O) at C and C 0 . Their centers can be located by the method above. Let the perpendicular through X to AB intersect this circle at Q and Q0 . R−b (3) Construct the circle through Q.4 Given three points A.

. i = 1. F be six consecutive points on a circle. E. Show that the chords AD. D. C. 2. 6. B. D. a chain of four circles can be completed to touch (O) at each of the four points A. 4.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 144 Y B E A B A C D X D C Beginning with any circle K(A) tangent internally to O(A). Let A1 A2 . BE. Inside a given circle C is a chain of six circles Ci . CF are concurrent if and only if AB · CD · EF = BC · DE · F A. . Let A. 3. 5. . Show that the diagonals A1 A5 . C. B. Exercise 1. A12 be a regular 12− gon. 3. A3 A6 and A4 A8 are concurrent. A4 A B A6 F A7 E C A8 D A9 A 11 A 12 A1 A2 A5 A3 A 10 2.

7 A2 A1 A3 A6 A4 A5 Rabinowitz. Suppose each Ci also touches C internally at Ai . The statement is still valid if each of the circles Ci . 3. (Remark: C7 = C1 ).YIU: Euclidean Geometry 145 such that each Ci touches Ci−1 and Ci+1 externally. 5. 3. Show that A1 A4 . i = 1. 4. 7 (1987) pp. 6. 4. i = 1. 5. 6. 2. The seven circle theorem. 2. A2 A5 and A3 A6 are concurrent. no. 7 . vol 8. Pi Mu Epsilon Journal. is outside the circle C.441 — 449.

DAB = α. we have x2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos β.Chapter 10 Quadrilaterals 10. angles 6 BC = b. and diagonals AC = x. 146 . 6 BCD = γ. 6 ABC = β. Applying the cosine formula to triangles ABC and ADC. B a A ~ b d y Å D c x Ñ C BD = y.1 Area formula Consider a quadrilateral ABCD with sides AB = a. DA = d. 6 CDA = δ. CD = c.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry x2 = c2 + d2 − 2cd cos δ. −16abcd cos2 2 2s := a + b + c + d. 16S 2 = 4(ab + cd)2 − (a2 + b2 − c2 − d2 )2 − 16abcd cos2 β+δ 2 = [2(ab + cd) + (a2 + b2 − c2 − d2 )][2(ab + cd) − (a2 + b2 − c2 − d2 )] β +δ −16abcd cos2 2 β+δ 2 = [(a + b) − (c − d)2 ][(c + d)2 − (a − b)2 ] − 16abcd cos2 2 = (a + b + c − d)(a + b − c + d)(c + d + a − b)(c + d − a + b) β +δ . 2 147 = = = = = Consequently. Denote by S the area of the quadrilateral. Clearly. 1 1 S = ab sin β + cd sin δ. Eliminating x. 2 . 2 2 Combining these two equations. we have 16S 2 + (a2 + b2 − c2 − d2 )2 4(ab sin β + cd sin δ)2 + 4(ab cos β − cd cos δ)2 4(a2 b2 + c2 d2 ) − 8abcd(cos β cos δ − sin β sin δ) 4(a2 b2 + c2 d2 ) − 8abcd cos(β + δ) β+δ 4(a2 b2 + c2 d2 ) − 8abcd[2 cos2 − 1] 2 β+δ 4(ab + cd)2 − 16abcd cos2 . we have a2 + b2 − c2 − d2 = 2ab cos β − 2cd cos δ. Writing we reorganize this as S 2 = (s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d) − abcd cos2 β+δ .

where s = 1 (a + b + c + d). then β + δ = 180◦ . its area is greatest when the quadrilateral is cyclic.1. 2 Exercise 1. We give a synthetic proof of the theorem and its converse. It follows that a2 + b2 − x2 c2 + d2 − x2 + = 0. and cos β+δ = 0. The area 2 formula becomes S= q (s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d).1 Cyclic quadrilateral If the quadrilateral is cyclic. 10. This is Ptolemy’s Theorem.2 Ptolemy’s Theorem Suppose the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic. Show that the Heron formula for the area of a triangle is a special case of this formula. 2ab 2cd and (ac + bd)(ad + bc) . we obtain xy = ac + bd. 2. the other diagonal y is given by x2 = y2 = From these.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 148 10. (ab + cd)(ac + bd) . ab + cd Similarly. and cos β = − cos δ. Then. (ad + bc) . β + δ = 180◦ . If the lengths of the sides of a quadrilateral are ﬁxed.

triangles ABC and AP D are also similar. and 6 ACB = 6 ADP . (Necessity) Assume. It follows that AC : BC = AD : P D. that 6 BAD > 6 ABD. It follows that AB : AC = BP : CD. Now. Proof. Then the triangles ABP and ACD are similar. since 6 BAC = 6 BAP + 6 P AC = 6 DAC + 6 P AC = 6 P AD. From this we conclude that (i) AB · CD = AC · BP 0 . and . A D O P' P B C B C D (Suﬃciency).YIU: Euclidean Geometry 149 10. and AB · CD = AC · BP. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral satisfying (**).2. It follows that AB : AP 0 : BP 0 = AC : AD : CD.1 Ptolemy’s Theorem A convex quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic if and only if AB · CD + AD · BC = AC · BD. and BC · AD = AC · P D. we have A AB · CD + BC · AD = AC(BP + P D) = AC · BD. without loss of generality. Locate a point P 0 such that 6 BAP 0 = 6 CAD and 6 ABP 0 = 6 ACD. since 6 ABP = 6 ACD. Combining the two equations. Triangles BAP and CAD are similar. Choose a point P on the diagonal BD such that 6 BAP = 6 CAD.

6 ABD = 6 ABP 0 = 6 ACD. P is a point on the incircle of an equilateral triangle ABC. From this. .YIU: Euclidean Geometry (ii) triangles ABC and AP 0 D are similar since AB : AC = AP 0 : AD. 1 1 If each side of the equilateral triangle has length 2a. Show that AP = BP + CP . Show that AP 2 + BP 2 + CP 2 is constant. then AP 2 + BP 2 + CP 2 = 5a2 . Let P be a point on the minor arc BC of the circumcircle of an equilateral triangle ABC. AC : BC = AD : P 0 D. A B P C 2. and 6 150 BAC = 6 P 0 AD and AD · BC = AC · P 0 D. C. Combining the two equations. It follows that BP 0 + P 0 D = BC. Exercise 1. and the point P 0 lies on diagonal BD. AC(BP 0 + P 0 D) = AB cot CD + AD · BC = AC · BD. D are concyclic. and the points A. B. Consequently.

5. b. then α tan = 2 Proof.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A 151 P B C 3. Find the diameter of the circumcircle. Each diagonal of a convex quadrilateral bisects one angle and trisects the opposite angle. c. AD = d. (s − b)(s − c) In triangle ABD. we have AB = a. 7 2 Answer: Either A = D = 72◦ . Determine the angles of the quadrilateral. The radius R of the circle containing the quadrilateral is given by R= (ab + cd)(ac + bd)(ad + bc) .2 If ABCD is cyclic. 2 4. show that d is the real root of the cubic equation x3 − (a2 + b2 + c2 )x − 2abc = 0. 4S 10. and the fourth side d is a diameter of the circumcircle. where y2 = (ab + cd)(ac + bd) . ad + bc 720 ◦ . s (s − a)(s − d) . 7 . One side of a cyclic quadrilateral is a diameter. or A = D = B=C= 540 ◦ . cyclic quadrilateral have lengths a. If three consecutive sides of a convex. B = C = 108◦ .2. 6. 4. and BD = y. and the other three sides have lengths 3. 5.

Y . (J. Prove that the quadrilaterals in F(Q) of maximum area is the one whose diagonals are perpendicular to one another.945. cos α = a2 + d2 − y 2 a2 − b2 − c2 + d2 = . c. (b) Find the radius of the circumcircle.YIU: Euclidean Geometry By the cosine formula. Let a. (E. Denote by O0 the intersection of this 3 4 MG1472. (a − b + c + d)(a + b − c + d) (s − b)(s − c) 3.G¨el) r CMJ545. this can be written as tan2 α 2 = = Exercise 1.S961. Z. Let X.952. 4 1 − cos α (b + c)2 − (a − d)2 = 1 + cos α (a + d)2 − (b − c)2 (−a + b + c + d)(a + b + c − d) (s − a)(s − d) = . B. 3 2. Let Q denote an arbitrary convex quadrilateral inscribed in a ﬁxed circle.4 Construction of cyclic quadrilateral of given sides The anticenter of a cyclic quadrilateral Consider a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD.2. Consider the perpendicular X to the opposite side CD. in cyclic order. are a. (a) Prove that a + b > |c − d| and c + d > |a − b| are necessary and suﬃcient conditions for there to exist a convex quadrilateral that admits a circumcircle and whose side lengths. 5 10. with circumcenter O. BC.Klamkin) .3 10.S. d be positive real numbers. c. DA respectively. The midpoint of XZ is the centroid G of the quadrilateral.951. C.2.Fukuta) 5 CMJ538. and let F(Q) be the set of inscribed convex quadrilaterals whose sides are parallel to those of Q. b. Determine the maximum area of the quadrilateral with consecutive vertices A. and D if 6 A = α. W be the midpoints of the sides AB. d. b.S955. (M. 2ad 2(ad + bc) 152 In an alternative form. CD. BC = b and CD = c are given.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry 153 perpendicular with the lien OG. X 0 are concyclic. The lines XX 0 and W W 0 intersect at O0 . Let X 0 and W 0 be the projections of the midpoints X and W on their respective opposite sides.2. 6 XP W = 6 XAW . This is called the anticenter of the cyclic quadrilateral. 10. Clearly. it is clear that O0 G = GO. Since O0 X//ZO and G is the midpoint of XA. C. which is the symmetric of the circumcenter in the centroid. we have 6 XO0 W = 6 X 0 O0 W 0 = 180◦ − 6 X 0 CW 0 = 6 XAW = 6 XP W. B B X A OG O' A O G O' C Z D C D It follows that the perpendiculars from the midpoints of the sides to the opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral are concurrent at the point O0 . O0 . From this.5 Let P be the midpoint of the diagonal AC. B X W ' P O A O' W C X' D . Since AXP W is a parallelogram. W 0 .

it is also the perpendicular bisector of QR. . is the perpendicular bisector of P S. The same reasoning also shows that the chord joining the midpoints of the arcs AB and CD is the common perpendicular bisector of P Q and RS. If K is the midpoint of the arc AD.6 Theorem The incenters of the four triangles determined by the vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral form a rectangle. X. 10. and O0 are concyclic. the circle through them is the nine-point circle of triangle ABD. From this. It follows that P QRS is an isosceles trapezium. 6 Court. then HK. we have Proposition The nine-point circles of the four triangles determined by the four vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral pass through the anticenter of the quadrilateral. From this. K A R Q D S P B C H Proof. being the bisector of angle AHD.2. W .6 The lines AS and DP intersect at the midpoint H of the arc BC on the other side of the circle ABCD. we conclude that P QRS is indeed a rectangle. X. For the same reason. p.133.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 154 It follows that the four points P . Since P . Note that P and S are both on the circle H(B) = H(C). W are the midpoints of the sides of triangle ABD.

If AB and CD are parallel. and ra + rc = rb + rd .2.7 Corollary 7 The inradii of these triangles satisfy the relation ra + rc = rb + rd . 7 . Japanese Temple Geometry Problems. Suppose the incircles of triangles AC X at respectively.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 155 10. p. 2 The proof given in Fukagawa and Pedoe. 2 Since P Q = SR and 6 BDC = 6 BAC. BD Y ABC ABD and touch the diagonal ACD BCD and A X W Z B Y C D Show that 1 XY = ZW = |a − b + c − d|. In this case. then each is parallel to HK. it follows that ra − rb = rd − rc . ra = rb and rc = rd . does not cover the case of a bicentric quadrilateral. 1 ra − rb = P Q sin (6 BDC − 6 AHD) 2 1 rd − rc = SR sin (6 BAC − 6 AHD).127. Proof. More generally. Exercise 1.

AK bisects angle A since the triangles AKX and AKB are congruent. This problem has a long history. Proof. X. issue of Math. 8 . Magazine.3. Charles Trigg remarks that the Nov. D S A A K R P B Q C B C Y X D (Suﬃciency) Suppose AB + CD = BC + DA.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 156 10. It follows that K is equidistant from the sides of the quadrilateral. Z.1 Theorem A quadrilateral is circumscriptible if and only if the two pairs of opposite sides have equal total lengths. The quadrilateral admits of an incircle with center K. W the points of contact of the incircle with the sides. Let K be the circumcircle of triangle BXY . contains nine proofs of this theorem. 1962. Similarly. The diagonals of the quadrilaterals ABCD and XY ZW intersect at the same point. CK and DK are bisectors of angles B and C respectively. See Crux 199. 10.3.-Dec. 10. Then BC < CD. and there are points Y CD CY = CD DX = DY . and AB < AD.2 8 Let ABCD be a circumscriptible quadrilateral. and usually proved using projective geometry.3 Circumscriptible quadrilaterals A quadrilateral is said to be circumscriptible if it has an incircle. Then X AD AX = AB on such that . The proof here was given by Joseph Konhauser. (Necessity) Clear. Y .

It follows that AP · AX 4AP X = . the angles P CZ and P AX are supplementary. Since BX = AX and DZ = CZ. Proof. This is clearly AP · P X 4AP X = . Exercise 1. The same reasoning shows that Q divides XZ in the ratio BX : DZ. let Q be the intersection of the diagonal XZ and the chord BD. The area of the circumscriptible quadrilateral is given by S= √ abcd · sin α+γ . since Y Z and XW are tangents to the circle at the ends of the chord CA. we have PX AX = . We compare the areas of triangles AP X and CP Z. Now. The diagonal XZ passes through the intersection of AC and BD. PZ CZ This means that the point P divides the diagonal XZ in the ratio AX : CZ. Likewise.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 157 X B Y P A C Z D W Furthermore. we conclude that Q is indeed the same as P . so does the diagonal Y W . 4CP Z CP · P Z On the other hand. 4CP Z CP · CZ From these. XY ZW is orthodiagonal if and only if ABCD is orthodiagonal. 2 .

11 10. then √ S = abcd. (a) The quadrilateral is cyclic.YIU: Euclidean Geometry In particular.78S.4 10. No.2 A quadrilateral is orthodiagonal if and only if the sum of squares on two opposite sides is equal to the sum of squares on the remaining two opposite sides. √ a cyclic quadrilateral with sides a. 5.1 Orthodiagonal quadrilateral A quadrilateral is orthodiagonal if its diagonals are perpendicular to each other. when the quadrilateral is a rectangle with unequal sides. (Crux 777). b.Dodge) 9 . show that 10 (a + c)b2 − 2(a2 + 4ac + c2 )b + ac(a + c) = 0. d. Prove that the line joining the midpoints of the diagonals of a circumscriptible quadrilateral passes through the incenter of the quadrilateral. √ (c) The area of the quadrilateral is S = abcd.(C. 10. cyclic and circumscriptible quadrilateral have lengths a. if the quadrilateral is also cyclic. b.4. 158 2.4. is it necessarily circumscriptible? 9 3.S79S. If the consecutive sides of a convex. c. any two of these together implies the third. d (in order) has area S = If abcd. Find the radius r0 of the circle with center I so that there is a quadrilateral whose vertices are on the circumcircle O(R) and whose sides are tangent to I(r0 ). Consider the following three statements for a quadrilateral. Apart from the exception noted above.W. and d is a diameter of the circumcircle. 10 Is it possible to ﬁnd integers a and c so that b is also an integer? 11 PME417. 4. (b) The quadrilateral is circumscriptible. c.

Crux 2209. BK 2 + CK 2 + 2BK · CK · cos θ. = = = = 10. and the the distance d between the circumcenter and the incenter of a bicentric quadrilateral satisﬁes the relation 1 1 1 = + . 13 AK 2 + BK 2 − 2AK · BK · cos θ. Exercise 1. orthodiagonal quadrilateral. 10. . CK 2 + DK 2 − 2CK · DK · cos θ.5 Bicentric quadrilateral A quadrilateral is bicentric if it has a circumcircle and an incircle.1 Theorem The circumradius R. Court called this Brahmagupta’s Theorem. AB 2 CD2 BC 2 DA2 Now. By the cosine formula. 12 13 Klamkin. also Crux 1866. and that the circumcircle also passes through the midpoints of the sides of ABCD. and 6 AKB = θ. The quadrilateral is orthodiagonal if and only if the distance from O to each side of the ABCD is half the length of the opposite side. the inradius r. DK 2 + AK 2 + 2DK · AK · cos θ. Show that the projections of P on the sides of ABCD form the vertices of a bicentric quadrilateral. whose diagonals intersect at P . 12 2. Let ABCD be a cyclic. Crux 1062. Let K be the intersection of the diagonals. Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral with circumcenter O.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 159 Proof.5. 2 2 r (R + d) (R − d)2 The proof of this theorem is via the solution of a locus problem. BC 2 +DA2 −AB 2 −CD2 = 2 cos θ(BK·CK+DK·AK+AK·BK+CK·DK) It is clear that this is zero if and only if θ = 90◦ .

2 Fuss problem Given a point P inside a circle I(r).YIU: Euclidean Geometry 160 10.5. x x See §39 of Heinrich D¨rrie. IQ = x. and P K = IM − c cos θ = rx − c cos θ. o 1965. Since IXQ is a right triangle and XM ⊥ IQ. IP = c. to ﬁnd the locus of the intersection of the tangents to the circle at X. . 6 P IQ = θ. x 2 Note that M K = c sin θ. Y with 6 XP Y = 90◦ . From this. Let M be the midpoint of XY . and IM = r2 . we obtain ( 14 r4 r2 − c cos θ)2 = r 2 − 2 − c2 sin2 θ. Dover. P K 2 = XK · Y K = r 2 − IK 2 = r2 − IM 2 − M K 2 . We ﬁrst ﬁnd a relation between x and θ. we have IM · IQ = IX 2 . Q Y M K X O I P Solution 14 Let Q be the intersection of the tangents at X and Y . 100 Great Problems of Elemetary Mathematics. Since P K is perpendicular to the hypotenuse XY of the right triangle P XY .

R 2 + d2 = r 4 (2r2 − c2 ) c2 r4 2r 6 + 2 = 2 . . 2 2 − d2 )2 2 r (R (R + d) (R − d)2 relating the circumradius. after rearrangement. center O. r2 − c2 More precisely. radius R given by From these. (r 2 − c2 )2 This means that Q always lies on the circle. we obtain a relation connecting R. r and d.YIU: Euclidean Geometry and. then OQ depends only on c and r: OQ2 = c2 r4 2r4 (r 2 − c2 ) r 4 (2r 2 − c2 ) + = (r2 − c2 )2 (r 2 − c2 )2 (r 2 − c2 )2 R2 = Proof of Theorem By eliminating c. r − c2 On the other hand. R2 = (r 2 − c2 )2 r − c2 from which 2r 4 R2 − d2 = 2 . the inradius. Fuss observed that this becomes constant by choosing d= cr2 . for any point Z on the left hand side with IZ = d. if Z is the point O such that OI is given by this expression. we eliminate c and obtain 1 2(R2 + d2 ) 1 1 = = + . x2 + 2x · cr 2 2r 4 · cos θ = 2 . It is easy to see that 2r 4 (r2 − c2 ) + c2 r4 2r4 = 2 + d2 . and the distance between the two centers of a bicentric quadrilateral. r2 − c2 r − c2 161 Now. we have ZQ2 = d2 + x2 + 2xd cos θ. (r 2 − c2 )2 (r − c2 )2 (r − c2 )2 r 4 (2r 2 − c2 ) .

The quadrilateral bounded by the tangents to circumcircle at the vertices is cyclic if and only if Q is orthodiagonal. IK < IH. to construct a circle I(r) and a bicentric quadrilateral with circumcircle (O) and incircle (I). W .YIU: Euclidean Geometry 162 10. 10. Since (α + γ) + 2(θ + φ) = 360◦ . Z. Given a cyclic quadrilateral quadrilateral XY ZW .3 Construction problem Given a point I inside a circle O(R). Y . (1) Let HK be the diameter through I. (2) Join H. . M and construct the projection P of I on HM .5. M P H O I K Construction R If I and O coincide. We shall assume I and O distinct. let ABCD be the quadrilateral bounded by the tangents to the circumcircle at X. The circle I(P ) is the required incircle. r = √2 .5. the bicentric quadrilaterals are all squares.4 Lemma Let Q be a cyclic quadrilateral. and IK = IM . it is clear that ABCD is cyclic if and only if the diagonals XZ and Y W are perpendicular. Choose a point M such that IM is perpendicular to IK. Proof.

The projections of P on the sides form a bicentric quadrilateral. orthodiagonal quadrilateral. The quadrilateral XY ZW formed by the points of contact with the incircle is orthodiagonal (and circumscriptible). Exercise 1. X D A l C W X l Z A W D Y B Z _ Y C (b) Let ABCD be a bicentric quadrilateral.5.YIU: Euclidean Geometry A ~ é X É l É é _ Y É Ñ C é W D É é Z 163 10. The quadrilateral XY ZW bounded by the tangents to the circumcircle at the vertices is bicentric.5 Proposition (a) Let ABCD be a cyclic. The diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral are perpendicular and intersect at P . . the diagonals of XY ZW intersect at a point on the line joining the circumcenter and the incenter of ABCD. Furthermore.

Extend BO to N such that ON = OM . The one closer to the shorter side of AB and BC is P . 16 3. Given triangle ABC. circumradius R and inradius r. 19 Crux 1376. construct a point D so that the convex quadrilateral ABCD is bicentric.J. Characterize quadrilaterals which are simultaneously cyclic. In cyclic order. The diagonals of a bicentric quadrilateral intersect at P . 17 A D P K I O B M C H 4.S895). b. CMJ374. Construct the circle with diameter BN to intersect AC. (CMJ 304.853. the sides are of the form a. q. 17 D. 19 pq 4R2 − = 1.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 164 the circumcircle of which passes through the midpoints of the sides. Let HK be the diameter of the circumcircle perpendicular to the diagonal AC (so that B and H are on the same side of AC). Crux 2027. 16 15 . If HK intersects AC at M . 18 Let M be the midpoint of AC. and orthodiagonal. b.882. 15 2. 4r2 pq Crux 2209. 18 5. For a bicentric quadrilateral with diagonals p.Smeenk. a. also Crux 1203. show that BP : P D = HM : M K. circumscriptible. Extend BP to intersect the circumcircle of ABC at D.

YIU: Euclidean Geometry

165

10.5.6

The circumcenter, the incenter, and the intersection of the diagonals of a bicentric quadrilateral are concurrent.

10.6

Consider a convex quadrilateral ABCD whose diagonals AC and BD interD sect at K. Let A0 , B 0 , C 0 , D0' be the projections of K on the sides AB, BC, D A CD, DA respectively.

C' A' K

B

B'

C

10.6.1

Theorem

20

**The quadrilateral ABCD has a circumcircle if and only if A0 B 0 C 0 D0 has an incircle.
**

C B' D A' P C' B D'

A

**We prove this in two separate propositions.
**

20

Crux 2149, Romero M´rquez. a

YIU: Euclidean Geometry Proposition A.

166

Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral, whose diagonals intersect at K. The projections of K on the sides of ABCD form the vertices of a circumscriptible quadrilateral. Proof. Note that the quadrilaterals KA0 AB 0 , KB 0 BC 0 , KC 0 CD0 , and KD0 DA0 are all cyclic. Suppose ABCD is cyclic. Then

6

KA0 D0 = 6 KAD0 = 6 CAD = 6 CBD = 6 B 0 BK = 6 B 0 A0 K.

This means K lies on the bisector of angle D0 A0 B 0 . The same reasoning shows that K also lies on the bisectors of each of the angles B 0 , C 0 , D0 . From this, A0 B 0 C 0 D0 has an incircle with center K. Proposition B. Let ABCD be a circumscriptible quadrilateral, with incenter O. The perpendiculars to OA at A, OB at B, OC at C, and OD at D bound a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at O.

A'

D

A D' O B' B C' C

Proof. The quadrilaterals OAB 0 B, OBC 0 C, OCD0 D, and ODA0 A are all cyclic. Note that 6 DOD 0 = 6 DCD 0 = 6 BCC 0

**YIU: Euclidean Geometry since OC ⊥ C 0 D0 . Similarly, 6 AOB 0 = 6 CBC 0 . It follows that
**

6

167

DOD0 + 6 AOD + 6 AOB = 6

10.6.2

Squares are erected outwardly on the sides of a quadrilateral. The centers of these squares form a quadrilateral whose diagonals are equal and perpendicular to each other. 21

10.7

Centroids

The centroid G0 is the center of The edge-centroid G1 The face-centroid G2 :

10.8

10.8.1

A convex quadrilateral is circumscribed about a circle. Show that there exists a straight line segment with ends on opposite sides dividing both the permieter and the area into two equal parts. Show that the straight line passes through the center of the incircle. Consider the converse.

22

10.8.2

Draw a straight line which will bisect both the area and the perimeter of a given convex quadrilateral. 23

10.9

Consider a quadrilateral ABCD, and the quadrilateral formed by the various centers of the four triangles formed by three of the vertices.

21 22

Crux 1179. AMM3878.38?.S406. (V.Th´bault). See editorial comment on 837.p486. e 23 E992.51?.S52?,531.(K.Tan)

then Q(O) is circumscriptible. The orthocenters of the triangle P AB. P BC.1 The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect at P . Let P be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle (O) and let Q be the quadrilateral formed by the centers of the four circles internally touching (O) and each of the two diagonals of P . Prove that the four triangles of the complete quadrangle formed by the circumcenters of the four triangles of any complete quadrilateral are similar to those triangles.B. (W. then Q(I) is a rectangle. Exercise 1.Th´bault) e Crux 2276 26 E619. 24 (c) If Q is cyclic. CDA.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 168 10. P CD.S837. See editorial comment on 837. P DA form a parallelogram that is similar to the ﬁgure formed by the centroids of these triangles. (d) If Q. DAB.444.S538. (b) If Q is circumscriptible. then Q(O) is cyclic.532. Then the incenters of the four triangles having for sides the sides and diagonals of P form a rectangle inscribed in Q. then the nine-point circles of BCD.(V.10.10 10.9. . is cyclic.1 (a) If Q is cyclic. AMM 3887. 25 . e 28 Crux 1820.S451.p486. 26 2.Clarke) 27 Th´bault.38. What is “centroids” is replaced by circumcenters? 28 24 25 E1055. 27 10. ABC have a point in common.

CD intersect at E.YIU: Euclidean Geometry 169 10. 30 10. then ABCD is a parallelogram. BC intersect at F .11. Proof. 31 Seimiya. 29 30 Crux 2149. M .11 10. Prove that ABCD is cyclic if P QRS is circumscriptible. N are collinear. R be the midpoints of the segments AE. Let P . BC.2 The Newton line of a quadrilateral L and M are the midpoints of the diagonals AC and BD of a quadrilateral ABCD. BC.12 10. Q. R.1 Quadrilateral formed by the projections of the intersection of diagonals The diagonal of a convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at K. Apply the Menelaus theorem to the transversal BCF of 4EAD. RP respectively. then Q is circumscriptible. AD.12. Crux 2257.11. QR. Prove that if KP = KR and KQ = KS. The lines AB. S are the projections of K on the sides AB. 29 10. DE respectively. N are on the lines P Q. . S are the projections of K on the sides AB. P . CD. CD. Q. Crux 2338.1 The quadrilateral 0 Q(center) If Q0 (I) is cyclic.2 The diagonals of a convex quadrilateral ABCD intersect at K. and DA. and DA.12.Pompe. Let N be the midpoint of EF . M . and the lines AD. Q. 31 10. Then L. R. W. Then the points L. P .

S549. The Gauss-Newton line of the complete quadrilateral formed by the four Feuerbach tangents of a triangle is the Euler line of the triangle. 33 32 2. (R. EF respectively. AF = b · AD. BC intersect at F . prove that M P = ab · M N .YIU: Euclidean Geometry F 170 A N L M B D C E Exercise 1.537. and AE = a·AB. AMM 4549. where a and b are nonzero real numbers. P are the midpoints of AC. If M. 32 33 AMM E3299.Obl´th). Let AB and CD intersects at E and AD. a . BD. N.8810. Suppose ABCD is a plane quadrilateral with no two sides parallel.

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