~":?\'-"""<.::?\'''''''''''''''''''-''''''''''''''''-''''''<''?>''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''-'''''''-''''''''?>'-''''''~«:?>«:?>'-''''''<'::?\<'::?\<..?l~«:?>~<.::?\<.::?

\

~ The Folk-Song Sight Singing Series ~
~ EDGAR CROWE, ~ § Compiled and edited bY! ANNIE LAWTON, and W. GILLIES WHITTAKER

§

§

§ §

§ § § §
§

§§
§

A COLLECTION of Folk Tunes of many countries, carefully graded for schools and colleges, with notes and advice as to use. In all cases phLlSlng and expression marks are added, and the orizin of the tune stated.
BOOK I (IlO

§

tImes)

~ §
~

~.r
CJ
I

Doh chord and scale. Leaps of a third III soh and fah chords, 0 notes and rest!: ries.

r..;· p ~

Modal tunes. Less easy me of b•• nd se and of chromatics. Further modulation with keys " at ed. Compound tuuc, 1 and J rests, and

§~

The Folk Song'\';:/\" Sight Singing Series
,I

,tc!,wise

in itself and in quittance, (100

r·J

i

BOOK:>'

tlilles)

BOOK

7 (91 wnes)

Leaps r-f, f-r; all 4th, and 5ths in the three chid chords.

~§ §~
§
~

,. • •

ill very easy leaps.

i

V

III

very easy passages.

1....1

r

» and

More dil'flcult leaps. Practice in preVIOUS ru atc tial used ill more ditlicult ""'ys. Modulation without statement of key. Various misccl la ncous difficulti es , p and I
°1 •

Fluency in quaver-scale passages. A few easy tunes in the Millar mode. BOOK

as beat. &c.

3

(100

tllnes)

IIC i.IIe..!" II~"'II

I !
~

§

Book V
ANNIE

Compiled and Edited by EDGAR CROWE LAWTON, and w. GILLIES WHITTAKER

OXFORD

UNIVERSITY

PRESS

§

Leaf" ,-tl: all 4th, and jtlu in uy and lah chord" fe used step w ise: m-se-t and easy 4tlu In mmor. ~ scale wise only.

111-',.

BOOK 8 (50 tunes) Two-part: easy folk tunes with easy descants. Individual lines of about the diffICulty of Books I. II. and III. BOOK

§§
~

§

9

(50

trmes)

§
~

~

§
§

BOOK 4 (100' tunes) Leaps d-I: f-t\: t\-f: tl-s: tl-m. ta step wise ; ba-se in minor.

?

T w o-parr: moderately diffICult folk tunes with descants. Individual lines of about the difficulty of Books III and IV,

!
~

Easy Easy

II"',"'11 -~ ~"'II """11 J.....:l "-J-j compound lime II W'
5 (93 tunes)

r

BOOK

10 (50

tunes)

BOOK

Two-part: folk tunes with descants. more difficult. BOOK II (160 runes) Solfa notation only, comprising the grading of Books I. II. and III. but ~"~,, without fe and ~. BOOK 12 (160 tunes) Solfa notation only, comprising fe, and the melodic difficulties of Books IV-VII. No quarter pulses

I

Any diatonic leap within an octave, and some octave practire. f-sc, se-f and se-ba in minor. Easy chromatics. Simple modulation with keys stared. ~

II~ -, 11-'~ II and
~ in compound 6 (90

easy time.

e:

U U'" and

r~ i:;;'::O:::;;'C'::;;::
~

BOOK ""'

wnes)

::::: "'='f ca

c,;::.'"
and nor sixths

I

I
§

!
~

§ §

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ISBN 0 19 330255 1

PREFACE TO BOOK V
KEYSand KEYSIGNATURES.-Fora discussion of these matters see Prefaces to Books I l., II, and II I. TRAINING It is assumed that solfa training has been sound, and is being continued. To attempt to apply solfa names to the staff without thorough and systematic modulator practice previously is to court disaster. Reading.to laa is usually mere guess-work. No certainty can he obtained without a constant use of the solfa syllables. If a good foundation of solfa has been laid most easy leaps are prepared for. Reading from solfa notation also is an indispensable aid to securing fluency in the use of the syllables.
SOLfA

GRADING No collection of sight-singing examples can possibly meet all needs, or suit everybody's plan of grading. To secure sufficient variety, and to maintain interest in class, it is necessary to employ various forms of reading practice by use of the modulator, written examples and printed tests. Teachers should be ready to invent, and write on the board, additional melodies giving practice in any special difficulties of either time or tune which may arise in a lesson. All new time divisions should be prepared by time exercises alone before being used in time and tune combined. It must not be assumed that every tune in these books is necessarily more difficult than those immediately preceding it. Excepting for the new factor, the first tunes in each Section are sometimes easier than those at the end of the previous Section. But the Sections are arranged in order of difficulty, and the tunes graded within each Section. With tune, the primary difficulty is to attain speed in thinking out the solfa names of the notes, but facility in this is merely a matter of careful grading and well directed practice. Progressions commonly in use should be systematically introduced and practice limited to those until they are mastered. It is sometimes overlooked that an interval which is easy to sing may be difficult to read. It requires systematic practice and eye training to name the second note of certain intervals without hesitation, and the grading of these books has been planned with this in mind.
SUGGESTED PLANS FOR READING

It is suggested that at first each tune may be sung in all of the following ways:

once at least with a11 expression marks observed (and to an accompaniment where the teacher is sufficiently skilled to improvise one). The class should always beat time or tap each beat silently. When the class is more advanced each test should be sung at least three times, as follows: I) To solfa. 2) To laa. 3) With all expression marks observed (and to an accompaniment where the teacher is sufficiently skilled to improvise one). Classes must learn to think in phrases. As an aid to this, phrasing is marked in all tunes, and cases of irregular rhythmic structure are noted. Observation of these points of construction not only helps towards intelligent reading, but also increases the interest of the lesson. All repeats should be observed: expression marks in brackets refer to the second time. Tempo and other indications mayor may nut be attended to on a first reading, according to the capacity of the singers, but at a later stage all indications should be observed in order that sightsinging may be linked up with musical enjoyment. There is too often a tendency to divorce sight-singing from music, and one object of this collection is to provide material which is at once musical and useful, and which will help towards making this part of the singing lesson a delight to the class. To add interest, the nationalities of the tunes are given. Very slight alterations have been made occasionally in order to bring tunes within the limitations of a particular section; all such cases are indicated by a * The proportion of tunes containing certain leaps is not the result of an arbitrary choice but of an analysis of some hundreds of simple folk tunes. This anAlysis has revealed that much sight-singing that has been based upon theoretical plans is not in line with the findings resultant upon the arranging of a large number of folk-tunes in order of difficulty. It may be argued therefore that the basis of the scheme followed in these books is a natural and not an artificial one. The collection thus becomes a compendium of the difficulties likely to be met with in elementary reading.

2) In monotone (a) to time names, (b) to doh. 3) Combined time and tune to solfa. 4) Combined time and tune to laa, twice if necessary, and then

r) To solfa without time.

INDEX
Tunes in the minor mode may be found in any Section (see complete list given bclew), but new material in that mode does not occur until Section VI. SECTIONI. Nos. I-II. New time divisions

E:C.f: "1 C : C

i

SF.CT:ONII. Nos. 12-46. Leaps, within an octave, not already studied, and some octave practice. SECTION III. Nos. 47-58. Compound time introducing
Sscrto»

t~

IV. Nos. 59-69. New chromatic notes: re, de, rna, Ie. SECTION V. Nos. 70-83. Tunes containing modulation. In each case the new key stated and the change in the solfa shown.

IS

SECTION VI. Nos. 84-93. Minor mode: f-se, se-f, se-ba.
17, 24, 30, 39, 50, 52, 57, 59-62 inclusive, 84-93 inclusive.)

(Complete list of tunes using the minor mode: Nos. 5,8, 15, 16. inclusive, 64, 65, 66, 68-73

I\'ore.- The Editors wish to express their indebtedness to Messrs Bela Bartok and Karol Hlawiczka for kind permission to use many fine Hungarian and Polish tunes from their collections. It may be noted that in these, as well as in some other melodies, the phrasing seems unusual, but it has been dictated by the original words.

ii

iii

FOLK-SONG SIGHT SINGING SERIES
BOOK V
A few exarnp les will be found of semiquavers moving by leaps, but in each case the leap is an easy one: further practice in this is given in later books. Tunes in the minor mode may occur in all Sections. (see complete list in Index), but new progressions in that mode do not occur until SectionVI.

SECTION
No~. 1-3
~~

I. Nos. I-II

r:t.!

New time divisions, ~~~: '"1_: -., ~~ tafatai

...,

All egro
p_ I

VIVO

.

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2

2+2+~+4

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~~tifDljiJlaJJJI;OJIcUulrecrl
___________

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I

Copyright 19" Oxford University Press. Renewed in U.S.A. 1961. Printed in Great Britain OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, MUSIC DEPARTMENT, WALTON STREET, OXFORD OX2 6DP Photocopying this copyright material is ILLEGAL.

2 Nos.4-7 ., ~ saat e i

3 Lively
Note the3 d iffe reut prese nt at ions of the opening idea.

4

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r

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CT~.

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interp"jdliL'lI

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Dutch

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__________

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4

SECTION

II. Nos. 12-46

5

Leaps within an octave not previously studied and some octave practice.
In rr""ioll8 Looks hinh on the reading of new leap" have been given whenever it ",'as thought des ira ble. By this tim!', c lasses should be suff icient ly experienced to think out fresh i nt erv a ls Cor t hemse lves. Wltbthis Section,tberefore.thelpapliarenottrPltteri separately, but to enconrage the continuance of Borne syst ern in rf'ading,tbe following-hints are off ..r..d. One of the best ways of naming the note to which a leap is made is by itB position relat lve I.. on.' or more not ..11 of th .. tonic chord. For Instance, te and ray are read as being respf'cth'dy one IIt..p be low andone step above doh: fah as one above tnt' or one be low soh.whichever i. more convenient to the reader: lah as a 3rd below duh or a ht"!' above soh. 7th. and oetane may be read either in Ihe above manner or by fi<miliarilywiththcstaff names: the latter m a kes octaves easy, and 7ths are read a, one d"I!'r.'., l.,,~,(lindincorsrac.' spaee}. Instrumcnta.Iist s will adopt this plan unconsciously, Each tune.before beiDI:'~unl!',should be examined by the class, the new Ir-apor leaps dlecov,'red, and the 801fa namn found. Once the names are known the diffiruIty Is removed,as~lIming that preparatory modulator and other practice haa been Ihorough.

I5Eti~J~ . J=-.

Allegretto "if
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3 setsor 4 bar~::==--

Fmnisb

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NOi. 12-17 New leaps

of a

4th and a 5th

flQdJD), 1&rnq~fi*F711

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po ~

-=-~~=======::::::. 18 *&i\IE±:JrtH5f I r· tqtB=J J2j
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lIB. Nos, rS-22 New leaps of a e th

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Section

23

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JJ 1"31

17"3

n.. Nos. 23-38

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24

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27
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Note the striking
the same conclusi0n

a lt er at io n in t he zn.l phrase, and the UH: l f flr the 1st de Jrd p hr a ses . British

&

cresco

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36

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41

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SECTION

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lID NOS.39-46

Pract icc in octaves and further

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0

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12

SECTION III Nos.47- 58
Compound time,introducing ,,

13

.
J

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46

1:1

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Allegretto
p~ (mfl

Compare the first

; U IJ rJ I; r IJMJJIjJ IJ reR
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II
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SECTION IV. Nos.59-69 Chromatic notes re, de, rna, le Moderato
Compound time may now occur in any Section

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55

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67

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Italian

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64

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l

PiJ J J I~ U
Lithuanian

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I

65

'~J.;

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1#3 IJ

OJ IF

Ifi3 ~

IFJ

I

~
,

18 SECTION V. Nos. 70-83
Modulation
Nos.70-73 contain modulations only to the relative major or minor, involving no change in the solfa. Specimens of this have occurred previously. Nos.7-l-83 contain other rno :1ulations: in each case the change of key is stated and the so lfa bridge notes given.

19

Allegretto

A rnaj.

British

7o

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dim.

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20
British'"

21

Allegretto

78 '{;

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tow njJj
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British

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1-:
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p

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ill

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hy and "lids in allother

British

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P

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22
French

23

dt Mo era

SECTION VI Nos.8+-93 Minor Mode. f-se: st:-f: se-ba.
0

Italian

"if

84

t !~J
~. p

Moderato

H2+2

Polish

IJjJJI$QU l:tnlblliE_:Jji#J
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88

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II
Polish

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92

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p

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r' ~H
jF
P

"If'

French

e~I
I

_

If ~I

,- f;ffir· ¢vr r r IE/or I; I; m
Moderato
2+2+3

Polish

Reproduced and printed by Halstan & Co. Ltd .• Amersham,

Bucks .• England

OXFORD

UNIVERSITY

PRESS

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