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State of Alaska | Digital Initiative Report

June 2011

Table of Contents
04 04 05 06 08 10 12 14 14 17 20 23 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 40 Executive Summary Project Overview Overview of Report Summary of Findings Summary of Recommendations Acknowledgements Activities to Date Report A. Digitization Analysis, Findings and Recommendations B. Metadata Analysis, Findings and Recommendations C. Preservation Analysis, Findings and Recommendations D. Access Analysis, Findings and Recommendations Appendices Appendix A: Digitization Procedures Documents Item 1: Quick Reference Chart-Photographic Film Digitization Item 2: Quick Reference Chart-Photographic Prints Digitization Item 3: Quick Reference Chart-Born-digital Image Capture Item 4: Quick Reference Chart-Text & Graphic Materials Digitization Item 5: Quick Reference Chart-Audio Format Digitization Item 6: Quick Reference Chart-Video Digitization Item 7: Quick Reference Chart-Moving Image Digitization Item 8: Digitization Sample Guidelines Item 9: Digitization Glossary 54 55 57 59 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 Appendix B: Metadata Schema Documents Item 1: Dublin Core Schema Item 2: IPTC Schema Item 3: PBCore Schema Appendix C: Preservation Procedures Documents Item 1: Alaska State Archives E-records Transfer Sample Form Item 2: Alaska State Library Historical Collections Born-Digital Donor/Receipt Sample Form Appendix D: Access Charts Item 1: Web CMS Comparison Chart: SharePoint2010 & Drupal v7 Item 2: Alaska SLAM Portal Criteria and Drupal v7 Chart Appendix E: References List

All images used in this document are part of the Alaska State Library Historical Collections: Alaska Railroad Tour Lantern Slide Collection 1923 In order: Aeromarine/ASL-P356-0233, Birch Lake/ASL-P198-55, Nenana River Bridge/ASL-P198-30, Port Benny/ASL-P198-78, RickardRanch/ASL-P198-36, ToklatGlacier/ASL-P198-39, PaxonRoundhouse/ASL-P198-50, RussianChurch/ASL-P198-20, HinesCreek/ASL-P198-63, SSNorthwestern/ASL-P198-76, BartlettGlacier/ASL-P198-13, Anchorage Hospital/ASL-P198-18, Skinner/ASL-P44-05-117, TakuRiver/ASL-P97-0008

Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Project Overview
Formally established in 1991 as the Alaska Division of Library, Archives and Museums with the mission to preserve Alaskas cultural heritage and to facilitate access to information and lifelong learning, the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums (SLAM) has embarked on a major project that will ultimately ensure ongoing access to division-wide collections for Alaskans and the world. The main goals of the project are to construct a physical building to integrate the library, archives and museum; to develop a program to integrate services of the three divisional units; and to create a shared digital pathway to improve access to information from the collections. Integrating digital technology is a key component to the success of the overall project. Understanding the role and function of digital technology within the State of Alaska Library, Archives, and Museums is essential to developing integrated services and operations throughout the division. An overview of the mandates and holdings of the library, archives and museums is presented below to provide a measure of current analog materials and digital formats, and to present the context for recommendations regarding standardization of procedures for managing a growing digital repository of digitized and borndigital resources. The Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums is a division within the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development. The division consists of three units: Alaska State Library, Alaska State Archives and Alaska State Museums (Alaska State Museum in Juneau and the Sheldon Jackson Museum in Sitka). Technical and Imaging Services (TIS) was established in April 2010 and provides support services for the other units of the division.

The work of the division is guided by a range of legislative tools, including the following: (1) Education, Libraries and Museums conform to regulations set forth in Chapters 55, 56 and 57 (Alaska Statute Title 14), (2) the Department of Education and Early Development shall manage and have complete charge of all of the property contained in the institutions known as the State Library and State Historical Library (AS 14.56.010), (3) the Department shall manage and have complete charge of all of the property contained in the institution known as the State Museum (AS 14.57.010), (4) established in the Department of Education and Early Development is the Alaska State Archives. The department shall establish and administer a state archives and records management program (Alaska Statute-Title 40: Public Records and Recorders and AS 40.21.020), and (5) the Alaska Public Records Act (APRA) and the Alaska Administrative Code for retention and preservation of electronic records (AS 40.25.110-40.25.125 and Title 4:Alaska Administrative Code. 59.005). Alaska State Library The Alaska State Library in Juneau, promotes and coordinates library services to the community of Alaskan libraries, serves as the primary research library for State Government and collects, preserves, and makes accessible a wide range of Alaska-related materials. The Alaska Historical Collections acquires and preserves manuscripts, photographs and audiovisual records produced by the private sector and worthy of retention for future reference and use. The duties of the Historical Collections are to collect, catalog and preserve these materials in addition to serving as a depository for state and federal historical publications concerning Alaska. Alaska State Library Physical Holdings State Publications: 4,600,000 pages Photographs: 500,000 images Maps and Plans: 22,000 items Historical Publications: 50,000 items Manuscripts: 1210 linear feet (1,400,000 pages) Audio-visual materials: 1300 reels Microfilm: 10,000 reels Alaska State Library Digital Holdings E-books and Publications: 40,000 items Digitized images: 13,000 items Digitized audiovisual: 300 titles [not available online]

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Alaska State Archives The Alaska State Archives is the repository for state government records that have been selected for permanent retention. Types of records acquired include: legislative bills, audio records, correspondence, court and probate records, meeting minutes, agency-related materials and a wide variety of other public documents, dating from 1874 to the present. The public records in the State Archives provide statistical data, support legal and genealogical research and contain information with significant evidential and historical value for researchers today and for future generations of Alaskans. Alaska State Archives Physical Holdings Paper records: 28,000 cubic feet (83,000,000 pages) [276 record groups, 1185 record series] Alaska State Archives Digital Holdings State Legislative Session audio [method of online delivery TBD] Alaska State Museums The Alaska State Museums is a state educational agency comprised of the Alaska State Museum and the Sheldon Jackson Museum. Through the activities of collection, preservation and exhibition of Alaskas material and natural history, the Alaska State Museums fulfill their mission to interpret and disseminate knowledge of the history of the state, its people and its resources. The Museums, physically located in Juneau and Sitka, provide in-house and online outreach services and educational programming for other museums located throughout the State of Alaska. Alaska State Museums Physical Holdings Objects: 36,000 Alaska State Museums Digital Holdings Digital images: 7,127 digital images [not currently available online]

The Digital Initiative Goals In November 2010 a digital archives consultant was brought into the project as part of the Design Team and asked to assess the current status of existing digital repositories at the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums, in order to determine the aims of an upgraded digital repository and access portal. During meetings and site visits in March 2011, the direction of the digital initiative began to take shape; in May 2011 three specific goals were identified: (1) to review current digitization procedures and products throughout Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums, and make recommendations for standardization and integration of digitization activities; (2) to review current preservation procedures for digital assets (born digital and digitized) throughout Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums, and make recommendations for their standardization and integration; and (3) to review current online access to the digital holdings of Alaska State Libraries, Archives and Museums, and make recommendations to support the development of an integrated online portal. The activities of the consultant to date have included: meetings, site visits, one-on-one discussions with key staff and the delivery of a draft report. These activities provided the consultant with the opportunity to gather valuable information about how Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are using digital technology to manage and protect the collections and to enhance public access to materials held throughout SLAM. Analysis of the organization, systems and procedures at SLAM for creating, managing and preserving digital surrogates are included in this report and provide the basis of the consultants findings and recommendations.

Overview of Report
The report is divided into four sections: (A) Digitization, (B) Metadata, (C) Preservation and (D) Access. Each section contains the consultants analysis and findings, followed by recommendations. Appendices are included at the end of the report and provide procedural documentation to support the four sections: Appendix A Digitization Quick Reference Charts, Digitization Sample Guidelines and Digitization Glossary, Appendix B Metadata Schemas, Appendix C E-records Transfer Sample Forms and Appendix D Web CMS Comparison Charts. All resources used and references made to standards and best practices throughout the report are listed in Appendix E - References List.

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Summary Of Findings
Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are actively engaged in digitizing the materials held in their collections in order to fulfil patron requests, preserve at-risk materials and create enhanced access. Although digitization at Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums began as discrete grant-funded projects, it has quickly grown into an operational activity that supports collections preservation and access. The Alaska State Library and Historical Collections staff currently perform the greatest range of digitization activities, creating digital surrogates from original source materials such as video tapes, sound recordings, and photographic images. Several different procedural documents have been developed to support digitization of SLAM materials. The division has not yet developed broad policies or procedures for the digitization of collections, and existing guidance does not provide the scope and content necessary to guide an integrated digitization program for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums. The importance of digitization policies and procedures to guide the creation and management of digital surrogates and born digital resources based on international standards and best practices should not be overlooked. In the past ten years the cultural heritage community has encouraged the adoption of file formats, metadata, software and systems architecture that are open standards, because the qualities of open standards ensure long-term accessibility of digital files and digital systems. While Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums staff are aware of the importance of open standards to ensure access to digital resources throughout their entire life-cycle, the absence of division-wide guidelines is an obstacle to compliance. Currently, the majority of SLAM digitized resources are produced by two staff members within Alaska State Library Historical Collections, who divide their responsibilities between digitizing materials for Historical Collections and Alaska State Archives (mainly audio) and providing Library reference services. Digitization equipment has been purchased in an ad hoc manner and is located throughout collections storage and reference desk locations, according to immediate space and workflow requirements. A master list of SLAM digitization hardware and software is in process but has not been completed. An equipment inventory contributes to division-wide control over digital resource creation and supports future planning of the digital strategy. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums participate in a number of collaborative projects and initiatives focused on improving access to archival and manuscript collections held by institutions in the Northwest (i.e., Northwest Digital Archives), providing discovery services for digitized resources about Alaska

history and culture (i.e., Alaskas Digital Archives) and contributing information and digital content for, about and by Alaskans (i.e. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway). The division has not yet developed standardized procedures for cataloging and describing SLAM collections, however, and each unit follows a range of practices. As well, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums utilize a variety of hardware and software programs to digitize their analog resources, but even though, the majority of these tools provide the capability of capturing important information (i.e., metadata) about the digitized surrogate and the original resource, the division has not established consistent approaches to metadata management. At one point Alaska State Library Historical Collections was creating metadata during the digitization process, but this practice has been halted in the face of an ever-increasing backlog of patron requests for digitized resources. Coordination and standardization of descriptive and cataloging practice helps facilitate the effective development of information resources and supports the success of collaborative projects. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to assess digitization software and collections management tools for their metadata management and consider their capacity for supporting standards for cataloging and description. International standards for exchanging information about digital files have developed to ensure that hardware and software vendors comply with requirements to support interoperability between components and systems. As part of the goal to enhance collaboration, community outreach and public access to the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums collections, it is important to identify the limitations to compatibility and extensibility imposed by legacy database programs and discipline-specific cataloging schemas, which may not be standardized. The volume of digitized resources being created and shared across the division is significant, yet at present there is limited capacity for sharing information about these resources in a standardized manner. As digital technologies have expanded, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums have developed a number of distinct digital preservation programs. Alaska State Library Historical Collections staff have developed workflow processes for managing preservation surrogates in digital format, transferring at-risk media to newer formats, and storing microfilm. These processes are not guided by division-wide procedural documents, however. The Alaska State Archives are currently planning best steps for accepting electronic records but have not yet started receiving digital files. With the move towards integration of services across Alaskas Library, Archives, and Museums, the development of a coordinated and well-planned digital preservation strategy founded on a digital preservation policy and procedures is critical to effective preservation of digital resources into the future.

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An analysis of current approaches to digital preservation and access reveals a lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities for managing preservation activities, including transfer, storage and backup. The inconsistency of current preservation practices places the digital assets of the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums at risk of loss or destruction. At present, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums store digital resources on a variety of external hard drives, housed in offices across the division. This approach to digital storage places resources at risk, as the devices used do not have data protection capabilities, can experience critical failure without warning and are vulnerable to theft. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to ensure that adequate storage space is designated to safely accommodate the growing digital collections held by the division as a whole. Specific digital preservation initiatives are underway in different areas of Alaska Library, Archives and Museums. These initiatives need to be considered in relation to the wider objectives of the division as a whole, and particularly in relation to decisions about the establishment of a digital repository within the division itself. Two such initiatives are the Washington State centralized repository project and the Hawaii State Archives digital archives project. The Washington State project involves the development of a centralized digital repository located at the Washington State Digital Archives in Cheney, Washington; this digital facility can be accessed online by participating state archives and by researchers and the general public. The Hawaii State Archives are currently working with former Washington State digital archivist Adam Jansen to create a digital archives plan (e.g., software, network architecture, access and security, storage and backup etc.); pilot the plan using the records from the state legislature, appellate court, and an executive branch agency; and produce a final software package. Both the Washington State Archives and Hawaii State Archives projects present opportunities for the creative management of digital archival assets. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums publish content online and provide links to services via three distinct websites. A recent development has been the addition of another website, referred to as the SLAM portal, which is intended as a context-driven gateway to resources from the division. The current system of updating website information and publishing dynamic content requires technical expertise and administrator privileges, which are presently limited to the Division Publications and Webmaster position. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are currently investigating options for the implementation of a web content management system, which will streamline web content creation, enable non-technical staff to update content and provide technical staff with centralized tools for managing all four sites. In the past, approaches to updating web content and publicizing time-sensitive events for SLAM could result in bottlenecks, as all changes had to be made by the Webmaster.

The implementation of a suitable web content management system would encourage staff to contribute content, which would support publishing timely and relevant content to the SLAM portal and generate public interest in returning to the site for updates. Enhancing the user experience with SLAM collections hosted online and on site in public galleries, is an integral part to a divisional digital strategy. As Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums discuss the possibilities of technology to integrate services and enhance public access to the collections, it is important to consider implementing new technologies into physical spaces. Current approaches to improving user experiences within exhibit galleries and research spaces, is to introduce touch-screen terminals and smartphone centric activities to support curatorial and educational programs and encourage user-driven experiences of the collections.

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Summary Of Recommendations
The following is a summary of the recommendations presented in this report. Readers are directed to the full report for additional information about each recommendation, including guidance about specific requirements for action related to the different recommendations. These recommendations have been identified as, High, Medium and Low to provide an indication of priorities for SLAM implementation, in the absence of specific time frames. Within the context of the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums project, actions on high priority recommendations should be considered immediately, medium priority recommendations should be considered in anticipation of the start of construction for the new building and low priority recommendations should be considered before or during building construction.

Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should:

A. DIGITIZATION

HIGH PRIORITY

MEDIUM PRIORITY

LOW PRIORITY

A1.0 Develop and implement a division-wide digitization policy, including guidance on digitization rationale, criteria and methodologies. A2.0 Develop digitization procedures to support the standardization of digital resource creation across the division. A2.1 Adopt open standards throughout the digitization process, to support the long-term usability of and access to its digital resources. A3.0 Develop a division-wide inventory of digitization equipment. A3.1 Integrate all digitization equipment and activities into one physical location. A3.2 Establish an integrated digitization studio in the new SLAM facility in accordance with international standards and best practices. A4.0 Establish one new FTE digitization position, to support the integration of SLAM digitization services and to assist with the backlog of patron requests for digitized resources. A5.0 Collaborate on the digitization and preservation of moving image collections with the Alaska Film Archives at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, to support the objectives for digitization, preservation, and access outlined in this report.

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B. METADATA

HIGH PRIORITY

MEDIUM PRIORITY

LOW PRIORITY

C. PRESERVATION

HIGH PRIORITY

MEDIUM PRIORITY

LOW PRIORITY

B1.0 Develop procedures for embedding standardized metadata into digital surrogates during the digitization process, to support management and preservation activities throughout the life-cycle of the digital resource. B1.1 Adopt the Dublin Core metadata element set as a broad spectrum schema to promote interoperability of digital resource description. B1.2 Adopt IPTC Core metadata schema as an additional standard to support metadata management for images (digitized and born-digital). B2.0 Assess the interoperability of information created about resources during digitization and during collections cataloging or description, in order to support the widest possible dissemination and exchange of digital information and resources. B2.1 Merge the content of the Alaska State Library Historical Collections MS-Word finding aids and the item-level MARC records, to produce hierarchically structured descriptions of related resources and therefore to support improved collections management and access. B2.2 Implement open-source collections management software to assist in the management of information about all aspects of collections management, as well as with the production of standards-compliant finding aids, supporting all levels of description from collections to items.

C1.0 Create a division-wide digital preservation policy to provide a framework for a consistent and effective preservation strategy. C2.0 Develop and implement digital preservation procedures based on accepted national and international standards and best practices. C3.0 Develop a division-wide digital storage and backup policy.

X X

C3.1 Purchase additional digital storage. C3.2 Designate specific, secure and appropriate offsite storage for backup tapes; this storage should meet acceptable national and international standards and best practices for offsite storage. C3.3 Purchase a fireproof safe to house backup tapes until more suitable storage arrangements can be implemented. C4.0 Continue to participate in the Washington State Archives grant-funded centralized repository project to consider possible future directions. C4.1 Pursue the opportunity to participate in the Hawaii State Archives digital archives project.

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D. ACCESS

HIGH PRIORITY

MEDIUM PRIORITY

LOW PRIORITY

Acknowledgements
The Digital Initiative Report was written by Jessica Bushey, CaJe Creative Group with editorial support from Laura Miller, Archives Planner. The author wishes to thank the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums staff for their cooperation and commitment, the SLAM Leadership Team for their guidance, and Brian Meissner, ECI / Hyer Architecture & Interiors for project coordination. During the March 2011 visit to Juneau, Alaska the following division staff made time in their busy schedules for one-on-one discussions: Gordon E. Brown, Dean Dawson, Katie Fearer, Gayle Goedde, Sorrel Goodwin, Steve Henrikson, Chris Hieb, Anastasia Tarmann Lynch, James Simard, Sheri Somerville and Damon Stuebner. Over the subsequent months email exchanges with staff, including Micah Sommers and Bob Banghart provided additional information. The author wishes to thank Daniel Cornwall for always being available to answer questions. And last but not least, the author is grateful for Glenn Cooks Alaskan hospitality and the trip to Mendenhall Glacier. Owner/Client

D1.0 Create a division-wide digital access policy to provide a framework for managing access. The digital access policy should be incorporated into larger state-wide policies for managing online access. D2.0 Hire a website programmer as a FTE position, to provide website programming and web content management for all Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums online activities. D3.0 Select a web content management system to fulfill the mandatory requirements and desired features listed in this report and to meet future online needs for web management and access. D3.1 Implement open-source web content management system, like Drupal v7. D4.0 Perform a usability review of State Library, Archives and Museums websites, ideally using tools such as Intuition HQ. D5.0 Create curated digital pathways into the physical collections, to support dissemination of information from and about its holdings. D5.1 Investigate the acquisition of touchscreen terminals for use in gallery spaces, to support integrated and creative access to all resources held by the institution. D5.2 Investigate incorporating smartphone technology into exhibits. D5.3 Ensure adequate technical, human, and financial resources to support the ongoing maintenance of all such technologies used for exhibit and access.

State of Alaska, Department of Education and Early Development Division of Alaska State Libraries, Archives and Museums Linda Thibodeau, Director P.O. Box 110571 Juneau, AK 99811-0571 Digital Initiative Team
X

CaJe Creative Group #302- 505 Hamilton Street Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V6B2R1 Jessica Bushey, Digital Archivist Cameron Andrews, Visual Communications Elizabeth Padilla, Research Assistant 604.408.4704

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Activities to Date

ACTIVITIES TO DATE
November 2010 Development of User Engagement with Digital Content Proposal: The proposal addressed the opportunity for digital engagement in the virtual (i.e., online) and physical (i.e., galleries) environment of the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums. Recommendations made in this proposal were for the creation of a Digital Content Strategy document to discuss content management systems serving the State Library, Archives and Museums and identify potential analog materials for digitization to develop new exhibition and educational projects that could be launched in-house and online. March 15 17, 2011 Digital Initiative Meetings: The Digital Archives Group Kick-off session was organized as a brainstorming meeting with members of the Leadership Team and Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums staff involved with technology. The meeting provided an opportunity for staff to express their ideas and concerns about digital resource creation, management and preservation and to develop a set of issues to be addressed by the Digital Initiative process. A series of one-on-one discussions were conducted over a two-day period with key Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums staff members. Glenn Cook, Deputy Director of Library, Archives and Museums, and Daniel Cornwall, Head of Technical and Imaging Services (TIS), attended all the discussions. The interviews took place throughout the State Library, Archives and Museums buildings, and included a walk-through of the State Library Historical Collections digitization areas (downstairs and upstairs), audiovisual storage area and nitrate film cold storage area. Participation in the Aldrich Pears Exhibit Meeting provided an opportunity to discuss ways in which technology can be integrated into physical gallery spaces. Attendance at the Leadership Meeting with Commissioner Mike Hanley and Deputy Commissioner Les Morse and the THA Architecture and ECI/Hyer Public Planning Session provided context for the overall project. The Digital Archives Wrap-up meeting provided an opportunity to summarize discussions and activities held over the three-day visit in Juneau, Alaska. SLAM representatives requested analysis, findings and recommendations for the areas of digitization, preservation and access. May 10, 2011 Digital Initiative Draft Report: A draft report of the Digital Initiative was submitted electronically to SLAM staff for review. The draft report presented an overview of the project and discussed general findings regarding digitization, preservation and access. The draft provided a sample of a Digitization Quick-reference Chart that could be used by SLAM staff to support standardization of digitization activities. The draft also included select examples of websites that provide access to digital resources using different types of software and different online interfaces. May 16, 2011 A teleconference was organized the week after the Digital Initiative Draft Report was submitted for review. The teleconference provided an opportunity for the Leadership Team to discuss the Digital Initiative Draft Report and provide feedback. The draft was well received and the digitization quick-reference charts were requested; however, further clarification of the portal, both as a term and as a feature, was needed. James Simard requested a review of cataloging practices for the Alaska State Library Historical Collections. May 17, 2011 Digital Initiative Meeting Follow-Up: A two-page document was submitted electronically to the Leadership Team and SLAM staff with responses to questions raised during the teleconference feedback session. May 23, 2011 A teleconference was organized with Daniel Cornwall, Head of TIS, James Simard, Head of Historical Collections and Chris Hieb, Archivist/ TIS. The aim of this conversation was to discuss functional requirements for the portal in more detail. The need to compare web management software packages was raised by SLAM staff, specifically SharePoint 2010 and Drupal v7. Another issue discussed during the teleconference was methods being used by Alaska State Archives and Historical Collections for cataloging and describing archival materials. March to June, 2011 Numerous emails with SLAM staff to request additional information about processes, procedures and planning. June 9-16, 2011 Meetings and consultations with Laura Millar, Archives Planner, to review and edit the Digital Initiative Final Report.

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Report

REPORT
The Alaska State Library, Archives, and Museums project goal is to integrate the physical facilities and the services of the division and use technology to present a shared digital pathway into the collections. As part of the larger design process, an analysis of how digital technology is currently being used throughout the division has been undertaken in order to analyze the quality of digital programs, assess the digital readiness of the division to move forward and highlight key issues that will support a successful transition. The findings of these activities are presented in this report along with recommendations to assist SLAM in making the changes necessary to establish the division as an international leader in cultural and documentary heritage management and preservation. The recommendations are founded on current federal and international standards for the creation, management and preservation of digital media and electronic records. Adoption of these recommendations by the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums will ensure the ongoing preservation of Alaskas cultural resources and historical records of governance, provide enhanced public access to the collections and support educational programming. The report is divided into four sections: (A) Digitization, (B) Metadata, (C) Preservation, and (D) Access. Each section contains the consultants analysis and findings, followed by recommendations. As possible, the recommendations are structured to address specific issues associated with: policies and management issues; implementation of standards and procedures; staffing needs; equipment and resource management, and project planning.

and photographic images. Historical Collections digitizes graphic materials and some audio and video using in-house resources but occasionally outsources the digitization of moving images and audio recordings to the Alaska Moving Images Preservation Association (AMIPA) and KTOO TV station. The Alaska State Museums contract a professional photographer to create high quality born-digital images of the objects in their holdings; however, documentation of new acquisitions, exhibitions and special events is performed in-house by Museum staff. The Alaska State Archives has a relatively small number of digitized holdings, mostly audio files of legislative committee meetings that have been digitized by Library staff. Several discrete procedural documents have been developed to support digitization, including digitization guidelines for contributors to Alaskas Digital Archive (i.e., VILDA); an audio digitizing procedure document for legislative tape transfers; a proposal created in 2008 by Alaska State Library Historical collections Digital Librarian, Sean Lanksbury, entitled Libraries, Archives and Museums Digitization Proposal; and a document created in 2007 by the Head of Alaska State Library Historical Collections, James Simard, entitled Draft Plan Digitizing Archival Materials For Public Access. However, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums have not yet developed division-wide policies or procedures for the digitization of their collections, and none of the current documents provide a division-wide digitization strategy, nor do the documents provide the scope and content necessary to guide an integrated digitization program for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums. Both Lanksburys and Simards documents provide a list of objectives for the Historical Collections Digitizing Program, such as providing online access to a larger number of historical materials (including at-risk and obsolete formats), supporting efforts to preserve analog originals by reducing handling for reference and reproduction, increasing staff efficiencies in providing resource discovery and delivery to patrons, and promoting equitable access to primary sources about Alaskas history. By identifying the objectives of the State Library Historical Collections digitizing program, Simards document provides a good starting point for the creation of a more inclusive division-wide digitization policy. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to build on these existing resources to develop a division-wide digitization policy, in order to support the standardization of digital resource creation. This digitization policy should provide a high-level explanation of why SLAM materials are being digitized (e.g., preservation of at-risk materials, enhanced access etc.); how SLAM materials are being digitized (e.g., by in-house staff using national standards); what SLAM materials are being digitized (e.g., materials requested by users, Alaska primary sources etc.); and where SLAM digital resources can be accessed (e.g., through in-house delivery systems and online).

A. DIGITIZATION A1: DIGITIZATION POLICIES Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are actively engaged in digitizing the materials held in their collections in order to fulfil patron requests, preserve atrisk materials and create enhanced access. Although digitization at Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums began as a discrete grant-funded project, it has quickly grown into an operational activity that supports collections preservation and access. Digitization has become an important part of the services that Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums provide to citizens and visitors alike. Throughout the division, the Alaska State Library and Historical Collections staff currently perform the greatest range of digitization activities, creating digital surrogates from original source materials such as video tapes, sound recordings

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The digitization policy will support the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums mission to preserve Alaskas cultural heritage and to facilitate access to information and resources for research and lifelong learning. The policy will also provide a level of transparency regarding resource stewardship. The digitization policy is a living document and should be frequently consulted and regularly updated. Recommendation A1.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop and implement a division-wide digitization policy, incorporating the elements identified in this report, including guidance on digitization rationale, criteria and methodologies.

community has encouraged the adoption of file formats, metadata, software and systems architecture that are open standards, because the qualities of open standards ensure long-term accessibility of digital files and digital systems. To qualify as an open standard, the tool or product must be available for others to read and implement for free, non-proprietary, non discriminatory, extensible and user driven. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums staff are aware of the importance of open standards to ensure access to digital resources throughout their entire life-cycle. In order to adopt open standard tools, however, such as open source software applications and web servers, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums must receive a waiver from Enterprise Technology Services (ETS), the parent IT department for the State of Alaska. This process highlights the need for SLAM to advocate for the use of open source tools. Selecting open standards for file formats and metadata schemas ensures ongoing support of the file and/ or schema, access to the specification and/or source code for purposes of migration or emulation in the future, and compatibility with standards-compliant software applications and online interfaces. Recommendation A2.1 Whenever possible, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should adopt open standards throughout the digitization process, to support the long-term usability of and access to its digital resources.

A2: DIGITIZATION PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS Alaska State Library Historical Collections staff have developed a routine workflow for digitizing most material types; however, documentation of these processes and publication of procedures is very limited. VILDA participants received the Contributors Manual in 2005, which could be updated and adapted for use throughout Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums. While staff responsible for digitization activities connected to VILDA are aware of best practices, specific digitization procedures for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums have not been developed; staff across Alaska State Archives and Museums rely on Historical Collections staff and professional photographers to provide digitized media. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to develop simple operating procedures that support the digitization of all suitable materials held in SLAM collections. These procedures should explain: the preferred order of execution (e.g., establish order of tasks); appropriate methods and technologies (e.g., digitization hardware and software); preferred standards and specifications (e.g., file formats and metadata); and quality assurance (e.g., calibration, targets, integrity checks etc.). Providing comprehensive digitization procedures that are applicable to all divisions will assist SLAM staff in creating reliable digital resources that contribute to an integrated digital repository that supports preservation and access into the future. Recommendation A2.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop digitization procedures to support the standardization of digital resource creation across the division, addressing the requirements covered in this report. Decisions made during the creation of digital resources will affect the long-term usability and viability of those assets. In the past ten years the cultural heritage

A3: DIGITIZATION EQUIPMENT Digitization equipment throughout Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums has been purchased in an ad hoc manner and is located throughout collections storage and reference desk locations, according to immediate space requirements and needs. A master list of SLAM digitization hardware and software is in process but has not been completed. Most units have a computer and scanner available for digitizing 2-D graphic and textual materials, and the Alaska State Library Historical Collections has acquired additional equipment to digitize a range of materials, including: photograph albums and books (e.g., Opus Bookeye), 3-D objects and oversized materials (e.g., DSLR camera and copy stand) and audiovisual materials (e.g., playback equipment and analog-to-digital converter). The maintenance of SLAM digitization equipment, including software upgrades and physical repairs, does not appear to be coordinated or scheduled, and the responsibility for equipment upkeep is not clearly allocated to a specific department or individual. It is particularly difficult in Juneau to obtain replacement parts for obsolete equipment or to locate individuals with the required technical expertise.

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The risks posed to collections by institutions that do not have control over their equipment inventory are very real. Digitization equipment that is neglected and not properly maintained can damage original source materials and produce inferior digital surrogates, which do not meet standards for preservation and access. Incompatible components and equipment failure interrupt work schedules and present obstacles to meeting production targets. Lastly, without an accurate inventory, SLAM cannot plan ahead for equipment replacement and upgrades, nor can the division easily support arguments for the purchase of necessary digitization equipment. An inventory of SLAM digitization equipment will support interoperability of hardware and software, assist in maintaining access to original resources in obsolete analog formats and gain institutional control over equipment replacement cycles. The combination of hardware and software required to produce preservation quality digital surrogates is not a static system. Advances in technology impact the equipment needed for standards-based digitization procedures, and as a result, SLAM will need to replace components on an ongoing basis. Recommendation A3.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop a division-wide inventory of digitization equipment. The inventory should include: make and model, date of production, warranty expiration, version (e.g., Adobe Photoshop CS5), contacts for repair and replacement, purpose (e.g., analog-to-digital converter for audio tapes), obsolescence indicator (e.g., telecine machine for moving image film transferobsolescence indicator high) and scheduled replacement date. This inventory should be updated yearly. Recommendation A3.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should physically integrate all digitization equipment and activities into one physical location. This location must be suited for the purposes of multi-media digitizing. A designated space for digitization activities will centralize staff involved with digitization, encouraging knowledge exchange, streamlining procedures for moving materials through the digitization process and minimizing risks during object transport. Centralization will also simplify equipment maintenance and troubleshooting. Recommendation A3.2 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should establish an integrated digitization studio in the new SLAM facility. The viewing, sound and space requirements for this digitization studio should be established in accordance with international standards and best practices. This digitization studio should accommodate the variety of physical materials held in the collections, from oversized maps and textiles to heavy sculptures and flammable nitrate negatives. Allocating enough space for all equipment

and special media requirements, including, for example, a sound booth for audio digitizing, will require planning and consultation with sound engineers as well as architects.

A4: HUMAN RESOURCES FOR DIGITAL MANAGEMENT Currently, the majority of SLAM digitized resources are produced by two staff members within Alaska State Library Historical Collections, who divide their responsibilities between digitizing materials for Historical Collections and Alaska State Archives (mainly audio) and providing Library reference services. Their production output is approximately 100 film/videos digitized per annum and 2000 photographic prints scanned per annum. The current backlog of patron requests for digitized resources is estimated at 2000 items, a volume that will likely increase. The two positions will soon be reduced to one, and escalating workloads have already placed limits on digitization procedures and curtailed playback equipment repair. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to address the staffing requirements associated with digitization as a matter of urgency, in order to deal with growing demands. It will be difficult to expand current digitization activities into a larger division-wide program if digitization priorities are limited to managing an ever-growing backlog. While the key recommendation is for a new staff position, another option is to involve student interns and volunteer assistants in the process of digitization. Unfortunately, however, current staff levels do not provide for supervision and quality control, which are particularly important when working with students or volunteers. An additional staff position would offer needed support and enable digitization activities to meet patron requests in a timely manner. Recommendation A4.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should establish one new FTE digitization position, to support the integration of SLAM digitization services and to assist with the backlog of patron requests for digitized resources. The ideal candidate will have expertise in magnetic media digitization to enable in-house delivery of these services and reduce the cost of outsourcing. As noted above, alternate approaches may include involving students or volunteers, but supervision of such positions will be difficult at current staff levels.

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A5: COLLABORATION INITIATIVES FOR DIGITIZATION Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums participate in a number of collaborative projects and initiatives focused on improving access to archival and manuscript collections held by institutions in the Northwest (i.e., Northwest Digital Archives), providing discovery services for digitized resources about Alaska history and culture (i.e., Alaskas Digital Archives) and contributing information and digital content for, about and by Alaskans (i.e. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway). These opportunities have enabled the delivery of online content in a contextual framework that encourages cross-institutional research and promotes the work of Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums nationally and internationally. More direct benefits have included sharing digitization procedures (e.g., Western State Best Practices and California Digital Library Guidelines), technological tools (e.g., XMetal for EAD authoring) and software applications (e.g., CONTENTdm and Archivists Toolkit). As is well known to everyone in Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums, funding for cultural heritage programs is limited, and the challenges of preservation and access, particularly for audiovisual materials is so complex it requires technical expertise. Consequently, the importance of building collaborative relationships cannot be overemphasized. As noted by SLAM staff, audiovisual materials face limited longevity -- 25 years for magnetic (e.g., BetacamSP) and 15 years for digital (e.g., DVCam and MiniDV) -- and the equipment necessary to play older audiovisual media is no longer in production. To support preservation and access, particularly for fragile audiovisual material, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should take advantage of opportunities for collaboration, particularly within the State of Alaska, to maximize efficiencies and make the best use of limited resources. The Alaska Film Archives at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have been a Beta Test facility for a new system of digitizing and providing long-term access to audiovisual materials. This new system promises to output files as full-motion video in a wide variety of formats. Involvement with this project could provide an opportunity for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums to learn about a new approach to the challenges of preserving audiovisual formats. Recommendation A5.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should collaborate on the digitization and preservation of moving image collections with the Alaska Film Archives at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, to support the objectives for digitization, preservation, and access outlined in this report.

B. METADATA B1: METADATA STANDARDS Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums utilize a variety of hardware and software programs to digitize their analog resources. Digitization hardware and software now have the capacity to read (i.e., extract) and write (i.e., embed) information about the technical specifications and the descriptive content and context of a digital surrogate into the structure of the digital file. This practice, often referred to as metadata tagging, is used extensively to embed copyright information into digital images when publishing them online. In most cases libraries, archives and museums present digital surrogates in online catalogs and virtual galleries, in which the cataloging and descriptive information about the original resource is presented alongside the image. Problems arise with the identification and management of digital images, however, when those images are removed from the presentation interface (through actions of downloading and dragging) and the identifying information is left behind. If metadata are embedded into digital files at the time of digitization, the resulting digital file can become self-describing. International standards for exchanging information embedded in digital files have developed to ensure that hardware and software vendors comply with requirements to support interoperability between components and systems. Metadata schemas defining the content and context of a digital resource can be embedded into the file. The majority of digitization hardware and software, and born-digital capture equipment (e.g., digital cameras, video cameras and audio recorders), automatically write technical metadata into the header of a digital file. This information can be read by other applications, supporting the accurate identification and rendering of the digital file. Embedding information into the file about the who, what, when, where and why of a digital resource ensures that this information can be extracted by other software applications and revealed to users, regardless of where they find the digital file. Embedded metadata is not a replacement for cataloging or description, but the incorporation of metadata provides a further layer of assurance that the digital item, whether a digital surrogate of an analog original or a born-digital object, will retain attributes that attest to the identity and integrity of the resource throughout its life-cycle. At one point Alaska State Library and Historical Collections was embedding information about the digital surrogates and the digitization process into the file headers of digital images; however, this practice has been halted in the face of an ever-increasing backlog of patron requests for digitized resources. Alaska State Museums does not require professional photographers to embed

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metadata into born-digital images when documenting museum objects. As a result, when Alaska State Museums and Historical Collections publish digital surrogates online there is no identifying information embedded into the digital files. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are strongly encouraged to re-establish division-wide metadata management procedures to support preservation of and access to digital resources. Recommendation B1.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop procedures for embedding standardized metadata into digital surrogates during the digitization process, to support management and preservation activities throughout the life-cycle of the digital resource. The Dublin Core metadata element set is an international standard which is broad enough to provide basic descriptive information about the content and context of digital resources held in library, archival and museum collections. Approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z39.85-2007) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15836:2009), Dublin Cores fifteen elements provide information professionals with a simple metadata schema that is widely used. Dublin Core is also supported by machine to machine protocols for information sharing such as the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), the American National Standard for information retrieval (Z39.50) and the Resource Description Framework (RDF). The Dublin Core metadata schema describes digital resources, irrespective of media type, providing the who (e.g., creator), what (e.g., title, description of content and type of content), when (e.g., date of creation), where (e.g., subject of content) and why (e.g., source). In addition to these elements, Dublin Core includes rights management information about a digital resource, such as intellectual property rights (i.e., copyright) and usage (i.e., licensing and restrictions on access). Dublin Core is widely used and supported by the cultural heritage community. The Alaska State Library Historical Collections staff have been using a template based on Dublin Core to describe their digital resources in VILDA, in which elements have been mapped between MARC, Library of Congress Subject Headings and Dublin Core. As Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums move towards integration of digital services, the importance of mapping metadata to Dublin Core and ensuring that digital resource can be shared across systems cannot be ignored.

Recommendation B1.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should adopt the Dublin Core metadata element set as a broad spectrum schema to promote interoperability of digital resource description. All units should ensure that their cataloging and descriptive standards can map to the 15 Dublin Core elements in the schema. Dublin Core provides the foundation for other metadata standards that can be embedded into digital files and/or expressed as XML, such as the International Press Telecommunications Council Core schema (IPTC Core) and Public Broadcasting Core schema (PB Core). These two schemas, based on the Dublin Core schema, provide media professionals with standardized descriptive, technical and rights management metadata specific to images and audiovisual material. The target audience for these schemas includes: photographers, film makers, videographers, advertisers, and information professionals managing collections of digital media. In combination with Adobe Systems Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP), and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Extensible Markup Language (XML), the IPTC Core and PB Core schemas can be utilized to increase search and retrieval of digitized media files. IPTC metadata can be embedded directly into the file header of digital image files (e.g., Tagged Image File Format [TIFF], Joint Photographer Exchange Group [JPEG] and JPEG2000) and Portable Document Files (PDF and PDF/A). Adobes XMP provides a method for audiovisual metadata to be embedded into sound files (e.g., WAVE and Broadcast WAVE [BWF]) and video files (e.g., MP3, MP4, Audio Video Interleave [AVI] and MotionJPEG2000). Embedding IPTC Core metadata into digital resource files is recommended. As hardware and software manufacturers increasingly support embedded metadata in their products, and as professional communities promote the use of embedded metadata for digital resource management and preservation, the opportunities for extracting and sharing metadata will only increase. As a result of increased support, digital resources that have embedded metadata will be easier to locate, share and preserve. The most recent version upgrade of CONTENTdm, for instance, now offers the ability to automatically extract IPTC metadata embedded into JPEG and TIFF images and then map that metadata to Dublin Core elements. Such developments present a strong argument for including steps in the digitization process to embed metadata using digitization software that supports standards, such as Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Premiere, Audacity and Final Cut Pro. Recommendation B1.2 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should adopt the IPTC Core metadata schema as an additional standard to support metadata management particularly for images (digitized and born-digital).

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B2: INTEROPERABILITY OF METADATA The interoperability of metadata used to describe digital resources requires machine-to-machine protocols, such as Adobes XMP and W3Cs XML, for the exchange and use of standardized languages for information exchange, Two related technological developments that impact information professionals are: embedding metadata into digital files and encoding cataloging and descriptive standards. These developments are aimed at improving the ability to share collections information across systems (i.e., hardware to software, between database applications, from intranets to the internet). As changes in technology occur, it is important to assess all components in a collections information system to ensure that information created during digitization and during collections cataloging or description can be shared with other databases and with online discovery applications. As part of the goal to enhance collaboration, community outreach and public access to the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums collections, it is important to identify the limitations imposed by legacy database programs and discipline-specific cataloging schemas, which may not be standardized and may not support compatibility and extensibility. Numerous projects initiated by the cultural heritage community over the past twenty years have been aimed at encoding metadata schemas and using XML so that the information about a resource and its relationship to other resources can be accurately disseminated and exchanged . Recommendation B2.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should assess the interoperability of information created about resources during digitization and during collections cataloging or description, in order to support the widest possible dissemination and exchange of digital information and resources. Any cataloging and descriptive software used by Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should be capable of importing and exporting information about resources using machine-readable formats such as MARC and Encoded Archival Description (EAD), as well as schemas in XML format (e.g., MARCXML, Dublin Core XML, Visual Resource Association Core XML). The Alaska State Historical Collections staff are currently supplying finding aids and item-level information through various cataloging formats and collections databases (hosted both in-house in Juneau and remotely in Fairbanks). Staff are considering the option of migrating Historical Collections finding aids, which are unstructured and exist as Microsoft Office documents such as MS-Word, to EAD to improve search access to the finding aids. A preliminary review, however, has revealed that these documents are being indexed by Google and can be found using keywords in the search box on the new SLAM portal homepage.

For a more advanced search, such as finding items created before a certain date, or by a specific person, Googles full-text keyword indexing will not work, but searchers can find results by searching the Alaska State Historical Collections item-level MARC records held in the Alaska State Library online database. The goal should be to merge the collections-level finding aids with item-level catalog records into a standardized format for internal and online discovery and retrieval. The option to export the descriptions using EAD or MARCXML or DublinCore XML should be considered afterwards. Recommendation B2.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should merge the content of the Alaska State Library Historical Collections MS-Word finding aids and the item-level MARC records, to produce hierarchically structured descriptions of related resources and therefore to support improved collections management and access. The decision to encode these structured finding aids into EAD is an option that should be explored further in relation to decisions about the larger IT infrastructure for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums . As digital integration moves forward, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to review older cataloging and descriptive systems, many of which were initially designed to support manual access to analog collections. The volume of digitized resources being created and shared across the division is significant, yet at present there is limited capacity for sharing information about these resources in a standardized manner. The Alaska State Archives are using a proprietary software program, Minisis M2A, to describe their repository records. M2A provides data entry tools to standardize descriptive content using Describing Archives: a Content Standard (promoted by the Society of American Archivists) and includes import and export functionality that supports EAD and Dublin Core. At the time of writing this report, the EAD export functionality was not working and Minisis technical support had been contacted. The Alaska State Museums are using a proprietary software program, Questor Systems ARGUS, to catalog their physical collections and manage digital image documentation. The ability to discover and search the museums collections via the Alaska State Museums website was possible in the past, but this online service is currently unavailable. A new version of the software, ARGUS.net, was released in April 2011, however, upgrading to the new version is not currently being discussed by the division. ARGUS.net offers a browser based collections management system, which includes the functionality to support online searching of the collections and mounting online exhibits geared towards mobile interfaces (e.g., iPhones and iPads). A preliminary review of current cataloging records held within ARGUS revealed data elements that map to the Dublin Core schema, which means that collection records can be

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structured to comply with existing national museum content standards (e.g., VRA Core). Assessment of ARGUSs data export capabilities and support for standard formats for information exchange (e.g., Dublin Core XML or VRA Core XML) requires further analysis and testing. The Alaska State Library and Historical Collections utilize SirsiDynix Unicorn, to provide internal and remote access to the collections. As mentioned previously, the Historical Collections uses a number of different methods and software tools for providing access to archival holdings. The use of open-source collections management software would provide Historical Collections with a flexible tool to begin standardizing descriptive records. Open-source software provides cost-effective solutions without sacrificing sound approaches to preservation and access. However, automation of cataloging and descriptive processes in open-source software (and many proprietary programs) is far from perfect and a degree of customization should always be expected. As development of open-source software for cultural institutions matures, the opportunity to implement division-wide systems will present itself; however, at this time the integration of collections is best served through standardized cataloging and descriptive practices that utilize open standards for data exchange. Recommendation B2.2 Alaska State Library Historical Collections should implement open-source collections management software to assist in the management of information about all aspects of collections management, as well as with the production of standards-compliant finding aids, supporting all levels of description from collections to items. Open-source collections management software would also provide a flexible tool to migrate legacy finding aids and descriptive tools and would support the creation of standards-compliant descriptions that can be exported in a variety of interoperable formats.

Archives are less stable than paper records or many three-dimensional artifacts and require special housing (e.g., freezer storage for nitrate negatives), increased monitoring for signs of deterioration (e.g., vinegar syndrome and sticky shed) or transfer from obsolete formats to newer ones. As digital technologies continue to expand, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums have developed a number of distinct digital preservation programs. Alaska State Library Historical Collections has begun transferring at-risk analog media to digital formats and creating microfilm surrogates for paper records. From 1991-1998, the Alaska State Library participated in a collaborative program with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress to identify, preserve and provide access to Alaskas newspapers: the Alaska Newspaper Project produced 488 reels of preservation-quality microfilm. The Alaska State Archives retains the master copy of government agency records that have been microfilmed to comply with fifty-year retention schedules, as well as digitized copies of legislative committee hearings on DVD. With the move towards integration of services across Alaskas Library, Archives, and Museums, the development of a coordinated and well-planned digital preservation strategy is critical to effective preservation into the future. A preservation policy should provide a high-level rationale for why SLAM materials are being preserved (e.g., mission and mandate of the institutions), who is responsible for SLAM preservation activities (i.e., staff roles and responsibilities), how SLAM materials are being preserved (e.g., in-house staff using national standards, external partnerships etc.), what SLAM materials are being preserved (e.g., Alaska primary sources, government records etc.), what approaches SLAM will adopt to undertake digital preservation (e.g., bitstream preservation, migration, normalization etc.) and where SLAM digital surrogates for preservation will be stored (e.g., development of a digital repository). Recommendation C1.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should create a division-wide digital preservation policy to provide a foundation for a consistent and effective preservation strategy. The digital preservation policy should be incorporated into a broader policy framework for the management of the State LAM division. As with any policy, this preservation policy is a living document and should be frequently consulted and regularly updated.

C. PRESERVATION C1: DIGITAL PRESERVATION POLICY As custodians of Alaskas documentary and artifactual cultural heritage and records of governance, the Alaska State Libraries, Archives and Museums are mandated to protect and preserve their holdings for current use and for evidential and informational value well into Alaskas future. Traditional preservation activities include providing adequate physical housing for materials, monitoring environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity, and performing conservation treatments on damaged materials. Audiovisual materials held in the Alaska State Library Historical Collections and the State

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C2: DIGITAL PRESERVATION PROCEDURES Alaska State Library Historical Collections staff have developed workflow processes for managing preservation surrogates in digital format, transferring at-risk media to newer formats and storing microfilm. These processes are not guided by an Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums procedural document, however. The absence of consistent and formally approved preservation procedures for the transfer of at-risk materials and the creation of digital surrogates has placed the onus of preservation upon individuals, which in turn, has led to increased concern over the longevity of current preservation formats. The Alaska State Archives are currently planning best steps for accepting electronic records but have not yet started receiving digital files. Current priorities for the preservation of electronic records include coordinating records management procedures with archival transfers and deposits. Archives staff cite the absence of standardized preservation procedures as an obstacle to codifying roles and responsibilities. The challenge of accepting born-digital media into collections is a reality all units will face as government agencies convert to the paperless office model, as donors offer scanned materials, and as artists create computer-generated works. Establishing and implementing preservation policies and procedures will allow Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums to comply with legal requirements for the management of documentary and artifactual resources, provide assurance to funding bodies of the sustainability of heritage and archival services and support staff in the course of managing the states cultural and heritage assets over the long term. Simple, clear and effective operational procedures will support preserving all suitable materials and media held in SLAM collections (including the digital repository). These procedures should explain: order of execution (e.g., establish order of tasks for specific scenarios), methods and techniques (e.g., preservation hardware and software), standards and specifications (e.g., file formats and metadata), and quality assurance (e.g., checksums, backup procedures etc.). Providing comprehensive digital preservation procedures applicable to all units will assist SLAM staff in preserving authentic digital resources for ongoing access and use. Recommendation C2.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop and implement digital preservation procedures based on accepted national and international standards and best practices. Preservation procedures are required to clarify workflow processes for managing the digital repository and standardize approaches to electronic records transfer, storage and long-term preservation.

C3: DIGITAL STORAGE AND BACKUP An analysis of current approaches to digital preservation and access reveals a lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities for managing preservation activities, including transfer, storage and backup. The inconsistency of current preservation practices places the digital assets of the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums at risk of loss or destruction.
Media Type Device Type Storage Use Storage Capacity 4TB 3TB ? Backup Procedure Weekly Tape Manual None Tape Tape

Digital Images / VILDA Digital Video Digital Audio State Archives State Museums

Netapps Appliance 2 External Hard Drives 1 External Hard Drive ? 1 External Hard Drive

2.2TB 2TB ?

? ?

? ?

The above chart provides a snapshot of storage devices and backup procedures at the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums. Gaps exist where information was unavailable to the consultant. Servers, appliances, external drives and backup tapes are distributed throughout the different physical buildings of each division and in the Early Education Department (EED) Goldbelt Building. The majority of digital content is scheduled for automatic backup; one exception involves the digital video drives in Historical Collections, which are not scheduled and are backed up manually. The State Office Building (SOB) houses the Library and Historical Collections and is the designated location for the tape-backup library, which is rotated every two weeks. The Alaska State Museums digital holdings are included in the SOB tape library. There is currently no offsite storage for tape backup. At present, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums stores its digital resource on a variety of external hard drives, housed in offices across the division. This approach to digital storage places resources at risk, as the devices used do not have data protection capabilities, can experience critical failure without warning and are vulnerable to theft. As Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums move forward with integrating operations and services, the division needs to develop a digital storage and backup policy separate from the preservation policy and procedures recommended earlier. The division also

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needs to clarify IT roles and responsibilities between ETS IT, Technical & Imaging Services and SLAM staff. Recommendation C3.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should develop a division-wide digital storage and backup policy. This policy should explain how Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums deal with secure storage and backups, including policy information about: 1) what data are backed up, 2) what method is used, 3) how often data are backed up, and 4) what media data are backed up onto. The policy should establish the roles and responsibilities of staff across the division and should ensure that storage systems and backup procedures comply with current best practices. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums need to ensure that adequate storage space has been designated to safely accommodate the growing digital collections held by the division as a whole. Options for additional digital storage are under consideration, including the purchase of an additional Netapp storage appliance with a twelve terabyte capacity. Implementation of the Netapp storage appliance would centralize SLAM digital storage and replace the existing external hard drives, which are currently located within different office spaces. Recommendation C3.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should purchase additional digital storage . The selected storage appliance should feature data protection capabilities, Redundant Array of Independent Disc (RAID) architecture, remote management and expansion slots for scalability. Recommendation C3.2 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should designate specific, secure and appropriate off site storage for backup tapes; this storage should meet acceptable national and international standards and best practices for off site storage. Recommendation C3.3 In the absence of secure off site storage, Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should purchase a fireproof safe to house backup tapes until more suitable storage arrangements can be implemented.

State Archives have indicated an interest in continuing involvement with the Washington State Digital Archives grant-funded centralized repository project and in pursuing an external partnership opportunity with the Hawaii State Archives on their grant-funded digital archives project. The Washington State project involves the development of a centralized digital repository located at the Washington State Digital Archives in Cheney, Washington; this digital facility can be accessed online by participating state archives and by researchers and the general public. Alaska State Archives are currently participating in the program as an educational partner, not a full partner, and are reluctant to commit further before resolving outstanding questions regarding funding, variations in data structures between Washington and Alaska and the legality of depositing records out of state. The Hawaii State Archives are currently working with former Washington State digital archivist Adam Jansen to create a digital archives plan (e.g., software, network architecture, access and security, storage and backup etc.). The goal is to pilot the plan using the records from the state legislature, appellate court, and an executive branch agency, after which the developers will produce a final software package. Representatives of Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are conducting informal conversations with representatives of the Hawaii project to consider possible future involvement. Both the Washington State Archives and Hawaii State Archives projects present opportunities for the creative management of digital archival assets. The Washington project offers a hosted solution that removes the burden of managing an in-house digital repository; however, legal questions will need to be addressed by Alaskas Attorney General before Alaska can proceed further. The Hawaii project offers an opportunity for Alaska to participate in software development and testing and eventually implement an in-house digital archives repository. As a partner, Alaska would be required to provide IT support as well as staff time to analyze data structure of archival records series, and oversee software testing and hosting. Both projects are worth considering, with the caveats noted here. Recommendation C4.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should continue to participate in the Washington State Archives grant-funded centralized repository project to consider possible future directions. Legal, technical, and resource questions need to be considered as a priority, however. The first step is to determine the legal ramifications of storing records of Alaska State governance out of state; the second step involves determining the effort and time needed to address discrepancies in archival descriptions and data structures; the last step is to ascertain the costs of ongoing participation at the end of the grant-funded period.

C4: COLLABORATIVE DIGITAL PRESERVATION INITIATIVES Specific digitization initiatives are underway in different areas of Alaska Library, Archives and Museums, and these initiatives need to be considered in relation to the wider objectives of the division as a whole, and particularly in relation to decisions about the establishment of a digital repository within the division itself. The development of separate initiatives is valuable if these initiatives achieve overall division-wide goals for preservation and access. For example, Alaska

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Recommendation C4.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should pursue the opportunity to participate in the Hawaii State Archives digital archives project. The majority of work will be done by Hawaii State Archives consultant, Adam Jansen, whose prior experience as the Washington State Digital Archivist positions him as a leading expert in the field of archival digital repositories. The software solution would most likely be open-source, in accordance with best practices that embrace open standards. Therefore, approval from ETS IT may be required prior to testing and implementation in the Alaska State Archives.

Recommendation D2.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should hire a website programmer as a FTE position, to provide website programming and web content management for all Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums online activities. In addition to website programming experience, the suitable candidate should also have experience with library, archives and museums services, experience with search engine optimization, knowledge of indexing large data sets, knowledge of open-source software, knowledge of social media and good communication skills.

D2: WEB CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS D. ACCESS D1: DIGITAL ACCESS POLICY Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums publish content online and provide links to services via three distinct websites. A recent development has been the addition of another website, referred to as the SLAM portal, which is intended as a context-driven gateway to resources from the division. Discussions about the portal have centered on the desire to present a curated pathway into State Library, Archives and Museums collections and to enable online users to discover the relationships between the various resources available. The portal provides a unique opportunity for Library, Archives and Museums collections to be presented together, however, the success and sustainability of such a venture will require cooperation and coordination throughout the division. The development of a strong policy framework for access, in conjunction with digitization and preservation policies already addressed in this report, will help ensure that decisions about access are made in a consistent and equitable fashion. Recommendation D1.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should create a division-wide digital access policy to provide a framework for managing access. The digital access policy should be incorporated into larger state-wide policies for managing online access. Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are currently investigating options for the implementation of a web content management system, which will streamline web content creation, enable non-technical staff to update content and provide technical staff with centralized tools for managing all four sites. In the past, approaches to updating web content and publicizing time-sensitive events for SLAM could result in bottlenecks, as all changes had to be made by the Webmaster. Different software tools have been investigated, and information about options were presented to SLAM staff in the May 2011 Digital Initiative Draft Report. Feedback provided by members of the staff during two teleconferences identified two software packages for further review, SharePoint2010 and Drupal v7. To support an analysis of web content management systems, SLAM TIS staff drafted a set of mandatory functional requirements and desired features in February 2011 to be circulated among senior management in April 2011. The mandatory requirements (R) and desired features (D) are listed below: SLAM Portal Mandatory Functional Requirements and Desired Features 1.0 General The website must conform to Alaska Governors Look and Feel
(http://doa.alaska.gov/ets/plan/LookAndFeelPolicy_Final_TMCApproved_20101208.pdf).

(R) (R)

D2: STAFFING RESOURCES FOR WEBSITE MANAGEMENT The current system of updating website information and publishing dynamic content requires technical expertise and administrator privileges, which are presently limited to the Division Publications and Webmaster position. The Webmaster position has been vacant during the months leading up to this report; at the time of writing, however, SLAM announced that the position has been successfully filled.

The website must be able to reference the four domains: lam.alaska. gov, library.alaska.gov, archives.alaska.gov, museums.alaska.gov. (D) There must be a mechanism for automated link checking. (D) There must be a mechanism for approval of new pages before they become live. 2.0 ALL SITE VISITORS CAN: Access all public pages. Use Ask-A-Links (web mail forms). Submit image usage requests.

(R) (R) (R)

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(R) View Public Events Calendar. (D) Sign-up for a Website Account. 3.0 ALL LOGGED-IN USERS CAN: (D) Leave comments on selected pages. (D) Sign-up for notification of site changes. 4.0 ALL LOGGED-IN STATE AGENCY EMPLOYEES CAN: (D) See state employee specific resources. (D) Have Inter-library Loan (ILL) and other selected forms populated with their contact information. 5.0 ALL LOGGED-IN DESIGNATED PUBLICATIONS CONTACTS CAN: Upload state agency publications using a form with minimal metadata View their document submissions

(R) (R)

6.0 ALL LOGGED-IN DOCENTS CAN: (D) Access Docent-only documentation (Training Manuals etc.). (D) Edit selected Docent content. 7.0 Designated Site Maintainers (2 from each SLAM section) CAN: Edit existing pages in their area (Museum, IS, HC, Lib Dev, Archives, TIS). Create new pages in their area. Upload and link files to pages. Limited to uploading file types defined by web administrators.

The two software packages under consideration, SharePoint 2010 and Drupal v7, are similar in many aspects but philosophically different. Drupal v7 is an open-source software package aimed at web content creation, management and publication. Essentially, Drupal v7 is a web-design package, also referred to as an internet facing site. Through simple templates and custom content types, Drupal v7 provides an interface that enables non-technical staff to quickly create and contribute content (e.g., video, images, blogs etc.) for web publication. The initial installation and set-up of Drupal requires the involvement of a Drupal consultant or an administrator with programming knowledge. Once user roles are established and content templates are customized, however, selected staff can interact with the website. Drupal v7 can provide multi-site configuration and offers over 6000 add-on modules for special features. Drupal is free to use (distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License) and relies on a community of users to provide technical support and software development. As a complement to the open development model, professional Drupal consultants can be contracted to provide installation, customization and technical support. Drupal operates on a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) or Microsoft Windows, Apache, MySQL, PHP (WAMP) package. SharePoint 2010 is a proprietary software package aimed at document management, integration with Microsoft Office and Outlook, and web content creation, management and publication. Essentially, SharePoint is an internal site, with an extension (Standard/Enterprise CAL) for building internet sites. Recent versions of SharePoint (2007 and 2010) offer increased web content management features, such as forums, blogs, RSS feeds and modules that eliminate developer intervention and allow users to create web content (the equivalent of custom content types in Drupal). Initial installation and set-up of SharePoint requires a SharePoint consultant and daily administration requires extensive programming and network experience. Use of SharePoint 2010 requires a license, as well as separate licenses for any other Microsoft product required for system integration. Technical support and maintenance are negotiated as part of the software fees, and SharePoint provides access to extensive documentation (i.e., user manuals) for SharePoint customers. SharePoint operates on a Windows, IIS, MS SQL, .NET package. SharePoint 2010 is better suited to large homogenous businesses and/or corporations with a dedicated IT department and with structured administrative hierarchies, which allow for centrally coordinated content production. Drupal integrates easily into institutions with limited IT staffing, is structured to enable programmers to create easy-to-use templates for non-technical staff to update and contribute to online content, provides social media modules, complies with open-standard principles and is free. While Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums operate within the Alaska government, the model for governance

(R) (R) (R) (R)

8.0 WEBSITE ADMINISTRATORS CAN: Designate who is a member of which user group. Edit all information pages. Generate and share website activity reports including visitor sessions, most popular pages and most downloaded files. (D) Have the ability to run a statistics report on a specific page or file. (R) (R) (R) An effective and flexible web content management system will support these mandatory requirements and desired features.

Recommendation D3.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should select and implement a web content management system to fulfill the mandatory requirements and desired features listed in this report and to meet future online needs for web management and access.

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is decentralized, with day-to-day management of web resources managed within the SLAM environment. In the past two years the federal government of the United States has started implementing Drupal for government portals and content delivery. The U.S. House of Representatives recently adopted Drupal for their web presence because it met requirements for quick and efficient deployment, flexibility and extensibility. A more flexible content management system, requiring less centralized support, will allow SLAM the opportunity to move forward with digital initiatives independently. Recommendation D3.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should select an open-source web content management system, like Drupal v7.

D4: TECHNOLOGY IN PHYSICAL SPACES As Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums discuss the possibilities of technology to integrate services and enhance public access to the collections, it is important to consider the role of technology in physical spaces such as museum galleries. Integrating digital technology into the on-site experience provides visitors with an opportunity to explore alternative pathways into the physical collections and facilitates a deeper contextual understanding of heritage and documentary resources. As technology becomes omnipresent in our daily lives, it is logical to explore approaches to incorporating it into cultural heritage services. Digital curation -- the selection, preservation and dissemination of digital assets -- presents the opportunity for SLAM to tailor content for specific audiences (e.g., children, community groups, scholars, or professional researchers), incorporate information from collections held in other institutions and repurpose documentary resources such as artists interviews, audiovisual materials or community-generated information. Recommendation D5.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should create curated digital pathways into its physical collections, to support dissemination of information from and about its holdings. Another technical innovation worth investigating is the incorporation of touchscreen terminals for use in gallery spaces. The implementation of touch-screen terminals within physical galleries is one method of expanding patron access to the collections and providing an interface for patrons to interact with digitized media. Examples of this approach are growing in museums, libraries, archives and art galleries around the world, with touch-screen terminals running customized software that allows patrons to rotate objects, zoom to view details of objects, locate objects on maps, watch videos of artists at work, compare similar items and view all materials originating from a specific community. The search capabilities of the software can be extensive or selective, offering different levels of interpretation and the capacity for scalability as the collections increase. Further customization can transform the touch-screen interface into an online experience. Digital technology can also be incorporated into physical exhibit spaces through the use of smart phones and quick response (QR) codes. A single QR code can link patrons to a website URL, podcast, song, Google map location or video creating the opportunity for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums to collaborate with other institutions. The technology also supports repurposing existing online media without incurring the costs usually associated with integrating technology into exhibits. New technologies present the opportunity for libraries, archives, museums and art galleries to encourage their patrons

D3: ENSURING USABILITY OF WEBSITES As discussed earlier in this report, the addition of a dedicated web programmer to the staff of Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums and the implementation of a web content management system will encourage staff contributions to online content and will, in turn, increase public access to the Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums resources and services. A preliminary review of the existing Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums websites revealed that most pages are text-rich, information-heavy, static, and deeply nested. Numerous clicks are needed to reach sections of the websites, content is repeated, and occasional broken links do not support easy retrieval of information. The vision of the SLAM portal is still in development, which means that Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums are in an ideal position to conduct usability testing to assess current approaches and consider updates and revisions. A usability review of existing SLAM websites would provide valuable feedback that could contribute to shaping the portal interface and ensuring its functionality and effectiveness. A simple and cost-effective website usability testing tool, such as the one provided by IntuitionHQ, is recommended, to support usability testing without adding a significant burden to SLAM staff. (For access to the IntuitionHQ tool, go to http://www.intuitionhq.com/.) A demonstration of this tool as used by the National Library of New Zealand is available at: http://nlnz.intuitionhq.com/updated-test. Recommendation D4.0 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should perform a usability review of current SLAM websites, ideally using tools such as IntuitionHQ, as discussed in this report.

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to customize their experience and create a relationship that lasts beyond the physical visit. The implementation of any technology in gallery spaces, including touchscreen terminals or smart phone technologies, will require regular monitoring and maintenance by front-of-house staff. Recommendation D5.1 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should investigate the acquisition of touch-screen terminals for use in gallery spaces, to support integrated and creative access to all resources held by the institution. Recommendation D5.2 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should investigate incorporating smartphone technology into exhibits, as discussed in this report. Recommendation D5.3 Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums should ensure adequate technical, human, and financial resources to support the ongoing maintenance of all such technologies used for exhibit and access.

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Appendix A: Digitization

QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Photographic Film Digitization


Original Photographic Film (Negative/Positive) Digital Image Size (one side) Resolution at Original Size Digital MASTER File Format Digital ACCESS Image Size Digital ACCESS File Resolution Digital ACCESS File Format Digital ACCESS Thumbnail Size Digital ACCESS Thumbnail Resolution

8 x 10 sheet film, glass plate

8000 pixels
(longest side)

800 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0 (48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG (24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

5 x 7 sheet film

8000 pixels
(longest side)

1000 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0 (48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale) Uncompressed TIFF 6.0 (48-bit RGB/ 1 6-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG (24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

4 x 5 sheet film, glass plate

6000 pixels
(longest side)

1200 ppi
at original size

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG (24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

35 mm film

4000 pixels
(longest side)

2800 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0 (48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG (24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Photographic Prints Digitization


Original Photographic Print 11 x 14 Digital Image Size (one side) Resolution at Original Size Digital MASTER File Format Digital MASTER File Compression Digital ACCESS Image Size Digital ACCESS File Resolution Digital ACCESS File Format Digital ACCESS File Compression Digital ACCESS Thumbnail Size Digital ACCESS Thumbnail Resolution

6000 pixels
(longest side)

430 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

8 x 10

4000 pixels
(longest side)

600 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

5 x 7

4000 pixels
(longest side)

600 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

4 x 5

4000 pixels
(longest side)

800 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

3.5 x 5

4000 pixels
(longest side)

800 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

Stereographs

6000 pixels
(longest side)

750 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

Uncompressed

600 pixels
(longest side)

200 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Medium / Level 6

200 pixels
(longest side)

144 dpi

VILDA
recommendations

720 pixels
(longest side)

72 ppi

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Level 4

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Born Digital Image Capture


Digital Camera Type & Rating Born Digital Image Capture Size [w x h] ICC Color Profile Digital MASTER File Format Digital MASTER Image Size Digital ACCESS File Format Digital ACCESS Image Size Digital ACCESS File Resolution

Large Format w/Scanning Back [200 megapixels] Medium Format w/Scanning Back [30 megapixels] DSLR Full Frame Sensor [18 megapixels] Point and Shoot [8 megapixels]

16,000 x 12,500 pixels

Adobe RGB 1998

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB)

Camera Capture Maximum

JPEG
(24-bit RGB/8-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

300 ppi

6,400 x 4,800 pixels

Adobe RGB 1998

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB)

Camera Capture Maximum

JPEG
(24-bit RGB/8-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

300 ppi

5,600 x 3,700 pixels

Adobe RGB 1998

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB)

Camera Capture Maximum

JPEG
(24-bit RGB/8-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

300 ppi

3,600 x 2,700 pixels

Adobe RGB 1998

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB)

Camera Capture Maximum

JPEG
(24-bit RGB/8-bit grayscale)

600 pixels
(longest side)

300 ppi

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Text and Graphic Material Digitization


Document Type Digital Image Size (one side) Resolution at Original Size Digital Master File Format Digital ACCESS File Format

Maps & Plans

6000
(longest side)

600 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Textual (typeset)

4000
(longest side)

400 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(8-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(8-bit grayscale)

Textual (handwritten)

4000
(longest side)

400 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Illustrations/ Artwork

6000
(longest side)

600 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Oversized

8000
(longest side)

300 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

At Risk / Deteriorating

6000
(longest side)

600 ppi
at original size

Uncompressed TIFF 6.0


(48-bit RGB/ 16-bit grayscale)

JPEG
(24-bit RGB / 8-bit grayscale)

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Audio Format Digitization


Audio Format Digitization Content Type Digital MASTER File Format Digital MASTER Codec Digital MASTER Frequency Sample Rate Digital MASTER Sample Size Bit Depth Digital MASTER Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Digital ACCESS File Format Digital ACCESS Frequency Bit Rate) Digital ACCESS Size

Recommended

Musical Broadcast WAVE Linear Pulse Recordings, Audio File Format Code Modulation Spoken Language, (also BWF or BWAV) (LPCM) uncompressed Nature, Birds
preferred

96 kHz

bit depth of 24

No outboard or software digital signal processing (DSP) applied

MP3 - MPEG 1, Layer 3

bit-rate of 220 kbp/s

2244.1 KHz; Stereo

Minimal

Broadcast WAVE Linear Pulse Spoken Language Audio File Format Code Modulation (also BWF or BWAV) (LPCM)
uncompressed preferred

44.1 kHz

bit depth of 24

No outboard or software digital signal processing (DSP) applied

MP3 - MPEG 1, Layer 3

bit-rate of 128 kbp/s

2244.1 KHz; Stereo

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Video Digitization


Video Format Digitization Process Digital MASTER Video Frame Format Digital MASTER Audio Track Digital MASTER Container Digital ACCESS low-speed connections Digital ACCESS high-speed connections

Analog Standard Definition (SD)video. NTSC

480p. 720x480 resolution, 29.97 frames per second, 4:2:2 quantization, 10 bit uncompressed. 30Mib/s data rate. NTSC rectangular pixels. Select anamorphic if widescreen. 1080p. 1920x1080 resolution, 29.97 frames per second, 4:2:2 quantization, 10 bit uncompressed. 127Mib/s data rate. HD square pixels.

Audio tracks should be captured at 96 kHz, 24 bit depth, stereo, uncompressed WAVE-LPCM.

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime(MOV)

MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, 30 frames per second, multi-pass resolution, 15 frames per second, encoding. Data rate of 300-600 kbp/s. multi-pass encoding. Data rate Key frames inserted every of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted 150 frames. Audio track AAC, every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format. container file format.
MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 30 frames per second, multi-pass resolution, 15 frames per second, encoding. Data rate of 300-600 kbp/s. multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted Key frames inserted every 150 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format. container file format. MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 30 frames per second, multi-pass resolution, 15 frames per second, encoding. Data rate of 300-600 kbp/s. multi-pass encoding. Data rate Key frames inserted every of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted 150 frames. Audio track AAC, every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format. container file format.

High Definition (HD/HDV) video on tape.

Audio tracks should be captured at 48 kHz, 16 bit depth, stereo, uncompressed WAVE-LPCM. Or original media settings.

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime(MOV)

Standard Definition DV tape. NTSC

480p. 720x480 resolution, 29.97 frames per second, 4:2:2 quantization, 10 bit uncompressed. 30Mib/s data rate. NTSC rectangular pixels. Use anamorphic if widescreen. Preserve the exact specifications of the original.

Audio tracks should be captured at 48 kHz, 16 bit depth, stereo, uncompressed WAVE-LPCM. Or original media settings.

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime(MOV)

Born digital video

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime(MOV)

MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 resolution, 15 frames per second, 30 frames per second, multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300-600 multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted kbp/s. Key frames inserted every 150 frames. Audio track AAC, every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format. container file format.

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS - Moving Image Digitization


Moving Image / Film Digitization Process Use Digital MASTER Video Frame Format Digital MASTER Audio Track Digital MASTER Container Digital ACCESS low-speed connections Digital ACCESS high-speed connections

Telecine to Video

Complies with current video standards.

1080p. 1920x1080 resolution, 24 frames per second, 4:2:2 quantization, 10 bit uncompressed. 127Mib/s data rate. *Adjust frame rate for film with slower or faster frame rate

Audio tracks should be captured at 96 kHz, 24 bit depth, stereo, uncompressed WAVE-LPCM

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime (MOV)

MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 resolution, 15 frames per second, multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format

MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, 30 frames per second, multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300-600 kbp/s. Key frames inserted every 150 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format

Telecine to Image Sequence and Audio file

Can be used to create high resolution video for emerging standards.

For 4:3 aspect ratio scan at 2880 x 2160 pixels, 32 bit RGB bitmap image per frame. Fits into 4K video format

Audio tracks should be captured at 96 kHz, 24 bit depth, stereo, uncompressed WAVE-LPCM

Material Exchange Format (MXF) or QuickTime (MOV)

MPEG4/H.264, 320 x 240 resolution, 15 frames per second, multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300 kbp/s. Key frames inserted every 75 frames. Audio track AAC, 32 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format

MPEG4/H.264, 640 x 480 resolution, 30 frames per second, multi-pass encoding. Data rate of 300-600 kbp/s. Key frames inserted every 150 frames. Audio track AAC, 48 kHz, Stereo. QuickTime (MOV) container file format

Charts created by CaJe Creative Group, 2011. Update Yearly

Sources: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practices.

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Appendix A: Digitization Sample Guidelines


Sample guidelines for digitizing photographic prints, objects (e.g., museum artifacts and photographic albums), audio recordings, video tapes and moving image film are provided to support the development of division-wide digitization procedures for Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums collections. The sample guidelines are based on international standards for digitizing graphic and textual materials and best practices emerging from federal initiatives focused on digitizing audiovisual materials. The sample guidelines do not replace the need for SLAM digitization policy and procedures documents. Issues outside the scope of the sample guidelines include: developing a digitization policy, the process of appraising materials for digitization, copyright and usage restrictions on specific materials and digitization program costs. The sample guildelines are divided into four sections: 1) Digitizing Graphic and Textual materials, Albums and Objects, 2) Digitizing Audio recordings, 3) Digitizing Video tapes and Moving Images. Where applicable, each section is divided into three sub-sections: environment, equipment and file formats.

Software is the interface between the hardware components and the digitization technician. Selecting the right software to support digitization activities requires expertise and planning. It is important to review the final file output parameters prior to purchasing software to ensure that the professional quality and range of manual operations provided by the software meets the criteria required to produce authentic, accurate and reliable digital assets. Software applications that are outdated may present the digitization technician with limited functionality and increased risk of failure. It is important to be aware of the most recent version of all applications used in the digitization process and be prepared to upgrade to newer versions (once the initial bugs have been resolved). In general, digitization of 2-D graphic materials requires the most recent version of Adobe Photoshop and digitization of 3-D objects requires specific software to ingest raw files (i.e., proprietary native capture format for digital cameras) and perform batch edit processes (i.e., raw workflow) before outputting digital files for preservation and access. 1.3 Image File Formats Master/Preservation Image: represents as closely as possible the information contained in the original, is uncompressed, is unedited, serves as the long-term source for derivative file creation, is the highest quality available, is generally a large file size (i.e., megabytes or gigabytes), and is usually stored as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) for images or Portable Document File/Archival (PDF/A) for multi-page albums and books. Access Image: is used for general web access, is compressed for speed of access and possible online delivery, is acceptable quality for general research, and is usually stored as Joint Photographer Expert Group File Format (JPEG). Thumbnail Image: is a very small image usually presented with a bibliographic or descriptive record in a cataloging application or online interface, is very low quality, and is usually stored as a JPEG. In general, the software bundled with scanners limit the available file formats to: JPEG, TIFF, Multi-page TIFF, and PDF.

1.0 Digitizing Graphic and Textual materials, Albums and Objects.


1.1 Environment The layout and illumination of the digitization studio determines how accurately digital images can be assessed. International standards for viewing conditions (ISO 3664) and displays for color proofing (ISO 12646) establish criteria that should be considered at the design stages when planning a digitization studio, including: ambient lighting levels should be less than 64 lux, color temperature of the ambient illumination should be 5000k and the workspace should be painted in neutral colors and paints selected for the digitization environment should be matte gray with a 60% reflectance or less to minimize flare. Ideally, a viewing booth is designed to support accurate color rendition by blocking unwanted light or glare in the digitization studio. 1.2 Equipment Hardware refers to the computers and image capture devices (e.g., Opus Bookeye, scanners, cameras etc.) involved in the digitization process. All computer monitors used for digitization should be Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) set to 24 bits (millions of colors) or greater and calibrated to a gamma of 2.2. Monitors should be calibrated using a photosensor-based color calibrator and appropriate software.

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The recommended file format for digital image preservation files is TIFF Revision 6.0. Published in 1992, Tiff 6.0 is cross platform, backward compatible and offers different compression schemes; but uncompressed is preferred for preservation. TIFF is considered an open standard (although it is owned by Adobe Systems Inc.), which means that the specification of how it stores digital data is readily available for use and implementation by anyone. JPEG is the format recommended for access copies of digitized materials and is also an open standard. Both TIFF and JPEG are capable of writing technical and descriptive metadata into the digital file header. Book scanners offer digitization technicians the option to create capture files in TIFF, JPEG and PDF formats, as well as Portable Any Map (PNM) and TIFF G4 (CCITT). If possible, avoid the use of PNM as this file format is not widely supported, which means that finding software programs and browsers to display these images is difficult. TIFF G4 refers to a compressed TIFF that can be used for fax systems and specific databases (i.e., patents databases); however, it is not considered a standard for digitization and should be avoided. Most professional digital cameras used for documenting heritage collections offer capture in raw, TIFF and JPEG. It is important to understand that a raw file refers to the native capture format of the specific digital camera make and model. This means that Nikon creates a proprietary raw format that ends with .nef and Canon creates a proprietary raw format that ends with .cr2 and so on and so on. The use of proprietary formats for long term preservation is not recommended; therefore, most professional photographers will shoot in raw and process the images into TIFF and JPEG, using raw workflow software. The JPEG2000 (JP2, J2K) file format has been promoted by the heritage community as a viable alternative to TIFF as a preservation file format for digital images. JPEG2000 offers a more storage-efficient file format than TIFF, as it utilizes a compression standard based on wavelet technology. Although JPEG2000 has been embraced by major cultural and archival institutions, there is still a lack of software support, which inhibits the ease of use and limits widespread acceptance of the format for preservation purposes. 1.4 Quality Control It is strongly recommended to use references targets for color accuracy and dimensional measurements when digitizing 2-D graphic materials, textual documents and 3-D objects. At the very minimum, a grayscale target for tone and color reference and an accurate dimensional scale (e.g., ruler) should be included in one view of the material being digitized (e.g., verso view or profile view). The reference target should be placed on the scanner with the material being digitized and within the frame of the object being captured by

a digital camera. It is acceptable to crop the reference target(s) out of the access copies if this interferes with presentation and use of the images, but preservation masters should always include a target to assure color accuracy when rendering digital images at a future date. It is recommended to replace reference targets on a regular basis due to color fading from exposure to ultraviolet light and accumulation of surface dirt and fingerprints. Always store targets in a protective sleeve when not in use. When digitizing 3-D objects and museum artifacts, position the color targets and measurements along the shortest dimension of the object as this will produce a smaller file size. Make sure the illumination on the target is uniform (avoid shadows). If the original documents are digitized under glass (e.g., books and maps), place the grayscale or color reference target under the glass as well. When digitizing objects with depth, such as books, museum artifacts and photographic albums, make sure that the reference targets are on the same plane and/or level with the front of the object. The International Color Consortium (ICC) promotes the use of vendor-neutral, cross-platform color management systems. Digitizing objects with a digital camera that is ICC-compliant and/or a scanner with ICC-compliant profiles ensures that the resulting digital image will be presented and re-presented consistently by unknown software. The ICC compliant, Adobe RGB 1998 color space is adequate for a wide range of digitization and printing needs. Most scanners, digital cameras, and printers will allow the operator to select the Adobe RGB 1998 color space from a list of ICC Profiles. It is recommended to save preservation quality digital files as 48bit RGB (16 bits per Red, Green, and Blue channel) and 16-bit grayscale in the Gray Gamma 2.2 ICC-profile. After edit procedures, image files destined for print and online display should be saved as 24-bit RGB and 8-bit grayscale. It is recommended to scan black & white photographs and negatives in RGB to allow for subtleties in tone, as many historical prints offer a range of whites and blacks that are too subtle for grayscale calibration.

2.0 Digitizing Audio Recordings


2.1 Environment The digitization studio should be suitable for monitoring audio digitization and producing audio transfers for preservation purposes. Ideally the studio should be designed as a critical listening space and have an ambient noise level well below that of the quietest sound, when listening at a non-fatiguing playback level. The room should not distort the frequency spectrum of interest, the

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accuracy of the sonic images, the sense of space or the timing of the audio content. The digitization studio must be removed from other work areas and traffic, and its acoustic weaknesses should be well understood in order to be free from ambient noise. Knowing the acoustic weaknesses of the room are vital for the digitization technician to be able to make accurate judgments during transfer and when selecting and aligning equipment. HIring an audio technician to sound proof an area designated for audio digitization within the larger digitization studio is ideal. 2.2 Equipment Transferring analog audio to a digital medium for preservation and access depends on four devices: (1) an analog audio playback device, (2) an analog-to-digital converter, (3) a computer to process the digital signal, and (4) a device for digital file storage (mixing device is optional). Always monitor the transfer through high quality headphones or monitor speakers. There are several audio software programs available that allow manipulation of the audio, including volume adjustments, tracking, equalization, noise reduction, and compression. The audio equipment combined with procedures for digitization are key factors in producing a preservation quality surrogate that is an accurate, authentic, and high quality representation of the original audio resource. Hardware refers to the computers, audio capture devices (e.g., analogueto-digital converters and sound cards) and playback equipment (e.g., audio tape reel-to-reel players, audio cassette recorders, cd players etc.) involved in digitization of audio recordings. It is important to maintain an up-to-date list of all digitization hardware. Older analog audio materials and playback equipment require additional handling and care to maintain ongoing access and operation. At some point at-risk media needs to be transferred to a newer more stable format. It is important to remember that without proper equipment, the process of transfer and digitization cannot be accomplished. In practice, the preservation studio signal chain components feed the audio signal into a computer where the audio content is recorded and further processed in the digital domain. It is no longer necessary to invest in expensive proprietary, dedicated systems for audio preservation transfer work. A standard desktop computer can handle multiple channels of audio, at least in terms of processing power and memory, although dedicated systems may have advantages for applications that require significant signal processing. If transfer work is relatively simple, emphasizing signal capture without much downstream manipulation and using a carefully designed desktop audio methodology with a native audio processing system is a valid approach.

Playback Equipment used in digitization studios must meet or exceed the digital audio specifications required for sampling rate and bit depth, and be operated within specified procedures and by trained personnel. Playback equipment must be optimally adjusted, used properly and maintained, so as not to damage at-risk content or the playback equipment. Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) is an electronic device which converts the analog signal (i.e., continuous quantity) to a digital signal (i.e., discrete time digital representation). The choices made in the A/D can dramatically and permanently affect the fidelity of the audio signal that is carried over into the digitized version. In converting analogue audio to a digital data stream, the A/D should not color the audio or add any extra noise. This is one of the most critical components in the digital preservation pathway for audio materials. In practice, the A/D converter incorporated into a computers sound card cannot meet the specifications required due to low cost circuitry and the inherent electrical noise in a computer. The International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) recommends the use of discrete (stand alone) A/D converters and sound cards that meet published baselines for performance (Audio Engineering Standard AES 17-1998 and IEC 61606-3). Analog audio signals are susceptible to noise and distortion, which is unavoidable due to the innate characteristics of electronic circuits and associated devices. The digitzation studio should provide a bit-clean signal path; audio transferred into the system should be unaltered unless alterations are deliberately introduced. The most direct and clean signal path must be used from source to destination. All signal chain components should be of professional-quality. Software is the interface between the hardware components and the digitization technician. It is important to be aware of the most recent version of all software applications and be prepared to upgrade to newer versions. Audio software includes: audio capture and editing software (e.g., Audacity, Adobe Audition and Ardour), transcoding/encoding software, audio playback software, monitoring and system measuring software. The studio should include a monitoring chain that enables the digitization technician to monitor the signal directly from both the playback machine and after the analog-to-digital converter to verify the quality of the converted signal. The studio should include calibration equipment to test and monitor the transfer chain itself for noise as well as to test individual components for performance. During transfer, the calibration equipment should not be inserted between the playback machine and the recorder. Do not omit calibration and adjustment of equalization (EQ) curves. Some analog recordings will require the use of

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calibration and an appropriate EQ curve (e.g., vinyl recordings) to approximate the signal characteristics intended by the original mastering engineer. The goal of audio digitization is to present an unaltered digital representation of the analog recording. 2.3 Audio File Formats During digitization the original media source will be stored for long-term preservation and the digital surrogates created will serve the purposes of a high-quality archival preservation master and an access copy. Master Audio File: represents as closely as possible the information contained in the original, is unedited, serves as the long-term source for derivative files, provides the highest quality, is a large file size (e.g., megabytes or gigabytes), utlizes Linear Pulse Code Modulation (LPCM) encoding (uncompressed preferred), and is usually stored as Broadcast WAVE LCPM Audio File with 16 bps. Access Audio: used for general web access, compressed for size and speed of access, acceptable quality for general research, and usually stored as MP3 - MPEG 1, Layer 3 The Broadcast WAVE Audio File Format (BWF or BWAV) based on the Microsoft WAVE audio file format, was introduced by the European Broadcast Union (EBU) in 1996 to allow files to be exchanged between the increasing number of digital audio workstation used in radio and television production. Broadcast Wave is an extension of the WAVE file and is supported by most software programs. BWF has the capacity for embedding basic metadata into the header of the file, such as title, date, origin and timestamp. BWF is not a destination for the extensive metadata that must be collected during digital preservation projects. The Broadcast Wave Format itself has become a de facto standard in the audio industry. In addition to its widespread use in Europe and Australia, it is specifically recommended by IASA, Audio Engineering Society (AES) and the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences as the preservation format for digital audio.

copy and preserve the film original. The transfer of moving image film to audio tape for preservation and access is now being replaced by digitization as large volumes of aging magnetic media deteriorate and the necessary playback eqiupment becomes obsolete. Digitization is one of the best preservation options for aging moving image film and videotape formats. In cases of very rare or highly valuable moving image resources, film-to-film duplication can be performed; creating a presevation master copy and access surrogates. Film-to-film duplication is expensive and labor intensive, but new film can be very stable when properly handled and stored in a controlled environment. Universal standards for video and moving image digitization have not been established; however, the number of heritage organizations embarking upon audiovisual digitization is substantial and has provided the impetus for recent developments, such as the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative audio-visual working group. Film Analysis & Identification Because different procedures are required for the handling and digitization of emulsion film, it is recommended to accurately identify the film type first and assess its condition second. If the film does not show extensive wear and tear, then digitization can proceed. If nitrate film has been positively identified it is strongly recommended to seek the expertise of a film technician regarding proper handling, digitization (if safe to proceed) and freezer storage. The properties of an image recorded on film are determined by the film stock and camera used, as well as the actual exposure process. Moving images consist of a series of single images characterized by: the size and shape of the individual images (frames), the detail in which the images are recorded, the speed at which the images follow in a sequence, accompanying audio, and the overall length of the sequence. 3.1 Equipment Hardware refers to the computers, capture devices (i.e., analogue-to-digital converters, video cards, film scanners) and playback equipment (i.e., VCR, video cassette recorders, camcorder, telecine etc.) involved in digitization procedures. Film Scanners are expensive, but provide the ability to digitize film by scanning it at high resolution. Telecine machines provide the ability to transfer moving image film to various video formats. The digitization technician then has the option of digtizing the analog video formats.
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3.0 Digitizing Video Tapes and Moving Images


The life-span of audiovisual collections in original format is limited. Traditionally, analog video tapes are made from moving image film to provide an access

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Digitizing analog video is largely a real-time process, and memory-intensive, so the computer workstation used will be unavailable for other tasks while digitization is in progress. Video digitization requires a computer to have more RAM and storage and a faster processor than most computers designated for graphic and textual digitization. For Standard Definition (SD) video, the workstation should have at least 2 GB of RAM, and at least 4 GB when working with High Definition (HD) video. Consideration for processor speed is also necessary, the faster the processor, the more likely it is that the computer can handle the video files without significant lag or dropping frames. Current best practices recommend a workstation using Apple Mac Pro with 2.93GHz Quad Core and Apple Mac mini 2.26GHz Intel Core 2 Duo incorporating two transfer workflows: one supporting sources in analog video cassette and Digital Betacam formats; and one supporting DV formats. The video digitization workstation includes: Super VHS (improved version of standard video casette recorder), VHS recorder with extended play (EP), U-Matic SP recorder, Betamax, Digital Betacam, Betacam SP, DV/HDV (e.g., Sony HVR-M15AU or Sony DSR-2000), AV Interface (e.g., AJA IO Express), A/D Converter Multiplexer (e.g., AJA HD10AVA), Waveform Monitor and Vectorscope, Time Base Corrector, audio mixer, and video monitor. Playback Equipment used in audiovisual digitization studios must meet or exceed the digital video specifications required for capturing frame size, frame rate and bit depth. Audiovisual digitization success is dependent on analog playback devices. In addition, the equipment must be optimally adjusted, maintained and used properly so as not to damage at-risk content or the playback equipment. Video Capture Device sits between the playback machine and the computer. A professional analog-to-digital external conversion unit is recommended. It is important to find a conversion unit which will provide the capabilities needed, such as support for the type of analog output from the playback device (e.g., composite video, component video or S-video). It is also important to consider how the device handles audio and what type of digital output it supports. A number of high-end conversion boxes can support both analog input and

output as well as digital input and output, and are a good choice for working with different types of video sources in the future. It is also important to note what type of video compression the conversion box supports. Many low-end external conversion devices automatically compress video. When digitizing video for preservation, the master files should not be compressed; therefore, it is important that the selected device allows for compression control and adjustment. Software is the interface between the hardware components and the digitization technician. Available video software includes: video capture and editing software (e.g., Adobe Premiere and Final Cut Pro), video codec transcoding/encoding software, video playback software, file organization and monitoring and system measuring software. 3.2 Video File Formats Unlike digitizing photographs, textual documents or recorded sound, there is no universal file format established as a preservation standard for digital video. Master/Preservation Format: utilizes lossless compression, is an open standard, supports frame accurate timecode and includes technical & descriptive metadata, supports LPCM encoding for audio, and is usually Motion JPEG2000 (MJ2) or JPEG2000 wrapped in Material Exchange Format (MXF). Access Format: utilizes lossy compression, and is usually MPEG2 (good for DVD) or MPEG4 (good for web streaming). The National Association of Records Administrators (NARA) and IMAP recommend capturing lossless, open codecs such as Motion JPEG 2000 (MJ2) wrapped in the Material Exchange Format (MXF), the Audio-Video Interleave format (AVI) and the Quicktime format (MOV). 3.3 Audiovisual Storage Requirements Digital storage space needed to store audiovisual media for the long term is significant. Uncompressed digital video files are significant, a single frame of uncompressed SD video (640 x 480 resolution, in color) equals about 1MB, approximately 1.5 GB per minute of footage. High Definition (HD) video files are even larger. Digitizing a 30 minute film results in a digital video file of approximately 2 TB.

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Appendix A: Digitization Glossary


A-to-D converter Device that receives analog sound waveforms as an input and produces a digital audio stream, most frequently in Linear Pulse Code Modulation encoding. Also A/D converter. Access File Often called service, access, delivery, viewing, or output files, these derivative files are by their nature secondary items, generally not considered to be permanent parts of an archival collection. To produce derivative files, organizations use the archival master file or the production master file as a data source and produce one or more derivatives, each optimized for a particular use. Typical uses (each of which may require a different optimization) include the provision of end-user access; high quality reproduction; or the creation of textual representations via OCR or voice recognition. In many cases, the derivatives intended to serve end-user access employ lossy compression, e.g., JPEGformatted images, MP3-formatted sound recordings, or RealMedia-formatted video streams. The formats selected for derivative files may become obsolete in a relatively short time. Analogue recording A logging of an event by one of various methods of capturing and storing a continuous replica of the source sound pattern by tracing an analogous pattern into another medium. The most commonly used storage methods have been: engraved or embossed modulated grooves in a disc; magnetic particle patterns in tape; optical patterns in film. Archival master file File that represents the best copy produced by a digitizing organization, with best defined as meeting the objectives of a particular project or program. Archival master files represent digital content that the organization intends to maintain for the long term without loss of essential features. Archival master files are the starting point when organizations produce the production master files and/ or derivative files that will in turn support a wide range of objectives, e.g., the provision of end-user access; high quality reproduction; and the production of textual representations from OCR, voice recognition, or other similar process. Also referred as Preservation Master. Bit depth (audio) Bit depth (aka "word length") fixes the encoded dynamic range of an audio event or item. 24-bit audio provides a dynamic range that approaches the limits of the dynamic ranges of sound encountered in nature; in contrast, 16-bit audio, the CD standard, may be inadequate for many types of material especially

where high level transients are encoded, such as the transfer of damaged discs. When reformatting, the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) recommends a bit depth of at least 24 in order to ensure that the transfer process captures the full dynamic range. Bit depth (image) The number of bits used to represent each pixel in an image. The term can be confusing since it is sometimes used to represent bits per pixel and at other times, the total number of bits used multiplied by the number of total channels. For example, a typical color image using 8 bits per channel is often referred to as a 24-bit color image (8 bits x 3 channels). Color scanners and digital cameras typically produce 24 bit (8 bits x 3 channels) images or 36 bit (12 bits x 3 channels) capture, and high-end devices can produce 48 bit (16 bit x 3 channels) images. A grayscale scanner would generally be 1 bit for monochrome or 8 bit for grayscale (producing 256 shades of gray). Bit depth is also referred to as color depth. Born digital Digital content that originated as a digital product. Born digital content is distinct from digital content, which is created through the digitization of analog content. Examples of born digital content include word processing documents, spreadsheets, and original images produced with digital cameras. Channel (audio) A single stream of recorded sound with a location in a sound field ("left front loudspeaker"). This definition reflects common (although not universal) usage. Some writers use the term more broadly (no requirement for sound field location) or apply it to a signal that has been stored on media ("a two-channel tape"). Audio professionals sometimes use track for the meanings outlined in the preceding paragraph. Channel (color) A color channel stores the color information for one of the primary color components of a color model. For example, the RGB color model has three separate color channels; one for red, one for green and one for blue. Codec A codec is a software or hardware application that compresses and decompresses data, combining the functions of an encoder and decoder. Compression, lossless Data compressed using a lossless compression technique will allow the decompressed data to be exactly the same as the original data before compression, bit for bit. The compression of data is achieved by coding redundant data in a more efficient manner than in the uncompressed format.

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Compression, lossy Data compressed using a lossy compression technique results in the loss of information. The decompressed data will not be identical to the original uncompressed data. Conservative lossless compression can result in a form of lossy compression referred to as visually lossless compression. Contrast A measure of rate of change of brightness in an image. -High contrast implies dark black and bright white content; -Medium contrast implies a good spread from black to white; -Low contrast implies a small spread of values from black to white. Digitization The process of recording an analog signal in a digital form. In relation to content of this site, it describes the process of translating analog signal data emanating from an object (light or sound) into a digitally encoded format. Audio, still and moving images are commonly digitized for increased access or for preservation purposes. Encoding The transformation of a signal or data into a code by means of a programmed algorithm. The code may serve any of a number of purposes such as transforming analog information into digital form, compressing information for transmission or storage, encrypting or adding redundancies to the input code, or translating from one code to another. For this paper, the term is used broadly and in the digital realm, generally as a way to refer to the particular structure of the bitstream in a still image, an audio or video waveform, or the way in which, say, XML-marked-up text is structured. File Format The standard to which data is arranged in an electronic resource file. Grayscale An image type lacking any chromatic data, consisting of shades of gray ranging from white to black. Most commonly seen as having 8 bits per pixel, allowing for 256 shades or levels of intensity. ICC The International Color Consortium (ICC) was established in 1993 to create, promote and encourage the standardization and evolution of an open, vendorneutral, cross-platform color management system architecture. The resulting ICC specification (ISO 15076-1:2005) provides a cross-platform format to translate color data between devices in order to ensure color fidelity, and is specified in many international standards.

Image processing (digital) The manipulation of digitally encoded image data. Two of the most common categories of image processing include image data compression and image enhancement. Typical processes include resizing, cropping, sharpening, rotating, and adjusting color or contrast. Linear Pulse Code Modulation Pulse code modulation (PCM) with linear quantization. Applies to many types of signals; defined here for audio. PCM is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. Metadata Information about an analog or digital object, a component of an object, or a coherent collection of objects. Metadata describing digital content is often structured (e.g., with tagging or markup) and it may be embedded (Metadata, embedded) within a single file, incorporated within the "packaging" that is associated with a group of files (e.g., METS), placed in a related external file (e.g., XMP sidecar file), or in a system external to the digital file (e.g., a database) to which the digital file or files are linked via a unique key or association. Pixel An abbreviation of picture element, this term may refer to a component of either a digital image or a digital sensor. In the case of a digital image, the pixel is the smallest discrete unit of information in the image's structure. Images based in raster data can be thought of as a grid in which each cell is called a pixel. The amount of data recorded for each pixel can vary, and is expressed as bit depth or bits per pixel, often also as per channel in order to indicate the allocation of bits to different color channels. In the case of the sensor in a scanner or digital camera, a pixel is the smallest photosensitive component or cell providing a response to light (or photons). The photons collected at each pixel liberate electrons, which register as an electrical charge. The strength of the charge or signal is proportional to the number of photons collected at the pixel location. A primary measure used in describing a digital imaging device is the number of pixels the sensor comprises, normally expressed as megapixels (MP) or millions of pixels. Production master file Files produced by processing the content in one or more archival master files, resulting in a new file or files with levels of quality that rival those of the archival master.

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Resolution An imaging systems ability to resolve finely spaced detail. The level of spatial detail that can resolved in an image. PPI (pixels per inch) is commonly used in describing the resolution capabilities of an imaging device such as a scanner or the resolution of a digital image. The terms DPI (dots per inch) and PPI are used somewhat interchangeably today. Sampling rate (audio) Sampling rate or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per second (or per other unit) taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete or digital signal. For time-domain signals like the waveforms for sound (and other audio-visual content types), frequencies are measured in in hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. Thumbnail image A small, low resolution file normally used as a preview of an image. A thumbnail image is often linked to a higher resolution version of the same image. Wrapper A term often used by digital content specialists to name a file format that encapsulates its constituent bitstreams and includes metadata that describes the content within. Archetypal examples include WAVE and TIFF. Files that are instances of these wrappers are distinguished in terms of their underlying bitstreams, e.g., WAVE files may contain (a) linear pulse code modulated (LPCM) audio, (b) highly compressed audio as used for digital telephony, or (c) other representations of sound. Meanwhile, the self-describing, content-declaring feature of a wrapper is typified by the familiar TIFF header. Relatively more complex and facile wrappers like QuickTime may contain multiple objects, e.g., one or more video streams and separate audio streams.
Note: Glossary sources are: Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) , Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI), The U.S. National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA) and Western States: Digital Imaging Best Practice.s.

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Appendix B: Metadata

Appendix B: Dublin Core Metadata Schema


The Dublin Core metadata schema attempts to close the gap between discipline specific metadata (i.e., library, archives and museums) by providing a broad standard for describing digital resources, irrespective of media type. Approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z39.85-2007) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15836:2009), the Dublin Core fifteen metada elements provide information professionals with a simple schema that is widely used, scalable and supported by machine to machine protocols for information sharing. The source of the Dublin Core metadata schema presented below is:
DCMI. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.1995-2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/

The remaining eight Dublin Core elements are optional, but are recommended since they increase the likelihood that online and database users will be able to quickly and accurately locate a specific digital resource. Publisher - An entity responsible for making the resource available. Contributor - The person(s) or organization(s) who made significant intellectual contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary to any person(s) or organization(s) already specified in the Creator element. Type - The nature or genre of the content of the resource. (ex text, sound, event, dataset) Source - When applicable, use the Source element to cite any other resource from which the digital resource was derived, either in whole or in part. Language - Indicates the language(s) of the intellectual content of the resource. Relation - The element contains information necessary to show a relationship with another resource. Ex : versions, replaces, replaced by Coverage - Coverage describes the spatial or temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource. (ex locations, Latitude/Longitude, historic periods, centuries) Contributing Institution - A consistent reference to the institutions or administrative units that contributed to the creation, management, description, and/or dissemination of the digital resource.

The seven mandatory Dublin Core elements that are critical for supporting interoperability in a collaborative initiative are listed below, along with three additional mandatory elements that have been added to support digitization projects. Title - The name given to the resource by the creator or publisher; may also be an identifying phrase or name of the object supplied by the contributing institution. Creator (if available) - A person or entity primarily responsible for creating the intellectual content of the resource. Subject - A topic of the content of the resource. Description - An account of the content of the resource. Date Digital - Date of creation or availability of the digital resource. Date Original (if applicable) - Creation or modification dates for the original resource from which the digital object was derived or created. Format - Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Digitization Specifications - Use the Digitization Specifications element to record technical information about the digitization of the resource: the hardware, software and processes used to create the digitized resource. Resource Identifier - A character string or record number that clearly and uniquely identifies a digital object or resource. (URL, ISBN, DOI) Rights Management - The content of this element is intended to be a rights management or usage statement, a URL that links to a rights management statement, or a URL that links to a service providing information on rights management for the resource.

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Appendix B: IPTC Core Schema


As the exchange of digital images (digitized and born-digtial) over the Internet and between devices increases, so does the need for persistent metadata that can describe the content and context of the image file. The International Press Telecommunications (IPTC Core) metadata schema developed out of earlier information interchange models suited to wiring images from photojournalists on assignment to news service agencies. IPTC metadata meets the challenge of describing both the image content and the context surrounding the creation of the image. The majority of current imaging software used to edit and process digital images has the capacity to read and write descriptive IPTC metadata into standard files such as, JPEG and TIFF. IPTC templates provide an easy to use interface that can be pre-populated and saved for addition to single files or batches of files, making them well-suited to digitization workflows. The IPTC Core Schema is listed below and grouped according to the four core templates: 1) IPTC Contact, 2) IPTC Content, 3) IPTC Image, and 4) IPTC Status. IPTC Contact: Creator Creator Job Title Address City State/Province Postal Code Country Phone E-mail Website IPTC Content: Headline Description Keywords IPTC Subject code Description Writer

IPTC Image: Date Created Intellectual Genre IPTC Scene Location City State/Province Country ISO Country Code IPTC Status: Title Job Identifier Instructions Provider Status Copyright Notice Rights Usage Terms In 2010 IPTC Extension v1.1 was released to provide additional metadata elements aimed at supporting the digitization of heritage resources and professional photographers that license their images. New elements introduced in the IPTC Extension include: Name of Artwork or Object in Image Location shown in Image Person shown in Image Digital Image Globally Unique Identifier IPTC metadata last edited date Copyright notice for artwork or object in image Source of artwork or object in image Source inventory number of artwork or object in image

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Screen captures from Adobe Photoshop CS4 are presented below to illustrate the IPTC Core templates that are available. Alaska State Library Historical Collections staff are currently using Adobe Photoshop in their digitization workflow.

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Appendix B: Public Broadcasting Core Metadata Schema


PB Core v1.0 was released in 2005 and based in large part on the Dublin Core metadata standard. The transformation of the public broadcasting industry from relying on analog media to producing digital media and distributing it through digital networks prompted the need for a metadata standard that could describe and deliver digital audiovisual content. Since then, PB Core has been widely adopted by broadcasters and media archives as descriptive and technical metadata. PB Core v2.0 (an XML compliant version) was released in early 2011 and is accepted as the metadata standard for audiovisual media. The Public Broadcasting Core metadata schema is presented here as an introduction to audivisual metadata and to assist SLAM in identifying key attributes of audiovisual media. Mapping of PB Core to Dublin Core is provided online by the Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary Project. Available at: http://www.pbcore.org/PBCore/mappings/PBCore-DublinCore_Mapping.html The PB Core schema is organized into four high-level content classes, that are further divided into containers that hold over sixty metadata elements. The most important elements are listed. PB Core Intellectual Content (divided into 9 containers; 16 elements) This is metadata related to the intellectual content of the media resource. Containers: Identifier, Title, Subject, Description, Genre, Relation, Coverage, Audience Level, and Audience Rating. PB Core Intellectual Property (divided into 4 containers; 7 elements) This is metadata related to the creation, creators, usage, permissions, constraints and use obligations associated with the media resource. Containers: Creator, Contributor, Publisher, and Rights Summary.

PB Core Instantiation (divided into 1 container; 3 sub-containers; 28 elements) This is metadata that identifies the nature of the media resource as it exists in physical form and/or digital format. This is the most important section for capturing information about the technical attributes of audiovisual media. Container: Instantiation Sub-container: Date Available, Format ID, and Annotation Elements: Date Created, Date Issued, Physical Format, Digital Format, Location, Media Type, Generation, Standard, Encoding, File Size, Time Start, Duration, Data Rate, Bit Depth, S ampling Rate, Frame Size, Aspect Ratio, Frame Rate, Tracks, Channel Configuration, Language, and Alternative Modes. PB Core Extensions This is metadata customized by the institution.

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Appendix C: Preservation

Appendix C: Alaska State Archives E-Records Transfer SAMPLE FORM


[To supplement the existing Alaska State Archives Transmittal/Receipt For Transfer of Public Records.This sample form was compiled by CaJe Creative Group and is based on Chris Prom's recommendations for e-records transfer guidelines. Available at: http://e-records.chrisprom.com/?page_id=587]]

Alaska State Archives aim to preserve historical records originally created or maintained by an Alaska territorial or state agency. When records are transferred to the state archives, the creating agency not only transfers physical custody, but also transfers legal ownership to the archives. Such records retain long-term value to the State and allow for historical and legislative research.

IN GENERAL
1. The following types of records DO have archival value: a. Constitutions, bylaws, meeting minutes. b. Annual or other reports. c. Email or other correspondence with internal and external parties. d. Policies and procedure documents. e. Budgets and budget reports. f. Records documenting a major decision, plan, or set of actions. g. Publications and reports generated by your organization, including web publications and blogs. h. Project files. i. Photographs, films, and videos produced by your organization. 2. The following types of records generally DO NOT have archival value: a. Duplicate copies. b. Working papers and drafts, where the final results are published. c. Detailed financial records (e.g. vouchers, invoices, reimbursements). d. Information that is maintained solely for reference use (e.g. external circulars or publications). e. Routine correspondence or email (e.g. scheduling meetings/events). f. Some personnel records.

ORGANIZING EXISTING INFORMATION


3. For electronic files (e.g. Word documents, PDF etc), prepare a short note describing the records, including sufficient descriptive and contextual information to meet the Alaska State Archives standards for electronic records, including system documentation. a. Software you use now or used previously (note file extensions for files created with out-of-date software if possible). b. File naming conventions that you or your department use (if any).

DELIVERING ELECTRONIC RECORDS TO ALASKA STATE ARCHIVES


4. Procedures for delivery of digital files (e.g., FTP, CD/DVD, or portable hard drive) must be confirmed prior to transfer. Follow steps published by the Alaska State Archives on Transferring Records. Available at:

http://www.archives.state.ak.us/Archives/Archives_Transfer.html
E-Records Transfer SAMPLE FORM to supplement existing Alaska State Archives Transmittal/Receipt Form

Page 1

PRE-TRANSFER GUIDELINES
1. Digital Formats Accepted and Preferred by the Alaska State Archives: File Type Word Processing Documents Raster Images Vector Images Spreadsheets Presentations Accepted .doc, .wpd, .rtf, .odf, .docx, .pdf .tiff, .jpg, .png, .gif, .psd, .bmp .ai, .eps, .svg .xls, .xlsx, .csv Preferred Preservation Format .odf .tiff (uncompressed) .svg .ods Preferred Access Format .pdf .jpg .pdf Original format .pdf

.ppt, .pptx, .pdf, .odp .pdf, .odp

2. E-mail should be collected and retained in electronic formats. Capture and storage may be accomplished using one of the following methods: a. Come from an e-mail system via an e-mail archive supported by ETS IT. b. Filed in an Alaska State Library, Archives and Museums electronic records repository. c. Copied to portable media (CDs). CD-ROMs used for this purpose must conform to ANSI/NISO/ISO 9660. d Via removable hard drives.
For specific guidelines on capturing and collecting e-mail messages for preservation, consult the Alaska State Archives Records & Information Management Service (RIMS) Policies. Available at: http://www.archives.state.ak.us/for_state_agencies/for_state_agencies.html

3. Social Media Records. Public entities that use social media should be aware that social media sites contain communications sent to or received by state employees that are subject to the same electronic records requirements discussed throughout this document. To the extent that the social media providers policies are inconsistent with the Alaska State Records Retention Schedule, the public entity is obligated to take affirmative steps to retain copies of social media posts, such as taking a periodic screenshot of the social media sites in order to meet specific records retention obligations.

POSTTRANSFER PROCEDURES
Note: The majority of these actions should be automated by a digital preservation system. 1. Virus checking will be done by the Alaska State Archives on all transferred records. 2. Electronic records will be assessed to determine the degree of digital preservation required; appropriate preservation data formats will be selected. 3. Transferred records will be appraised. 4. Targeted records will be migrated to the prescribed preservation formats. Preserved records will be stored according to the recommendations of digital preservation best practices. 5. Any disposal of records received for preservation submission requires the approval of the owner or agency contact, or the depositing agency. The nature of these events will be documented and proper destruction of transferred copies will occur following written approval. E-Records Transfer SAMPLE FORM to supplement existing Alaska State Archives Transmittal/Receipt Form Page 2

Appendix C: Alaska State Library Historical Collections Born-Digital Donor/Receipt SAMPLE FORM
[To supplement any existing Alaska State Library Historical Collection Donor/Receipt forms. This sample form was compiled by CaJe Creative Group and is based on Chris Prom's recommendations for e-records transfer guidelines. Available at: http://erecords.chrisprom.com/?page_id=587]
I (THE UNDERSIGNED DONOR) GIVE TO THE ALASKA STATE LIBRARY HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS (HC) the Digital Materials, listed on the attached schedule, voluntarily

and without receiving any consideration or benefit (except for an income tax receipt for the assessed fair market value if requested from and deemed appropriate by the HC). Donor Contact Information Name Position Address Telephone Email Statement of Ownership The Donor represents and warrants that, to the Donors knowledge, the Donor is the owner of the Materials. The Donor hereby, irrevocably assigns and transfers to the Alaska State Library Historical Collections ownership in and title to the Materials and all rights, title and interests that the Donor may have in the copyright in the Materials. The Donor, and Donors successors, heirs and legal representatives, waive and shall not assert at any time, any and all copyright, and other intellectual and proprietary rights, and privacy rights, that they may have in the Materials, against the Alaska State Library Historical Collections and its licensees and customers, for their use, reproduction, sale or disposal of the Materials or copies of the Materials. The Donor, if creator or author of the Materials, waives and shall not assert at any time all moral rights in the Materials against the Alaska State Library Historical Collections and its licensees and customers. Do you own the material? Are you submitting original Materials? How can you show ownership? If not, what arrangements are to be made for eventual receipt of original materials?

Born-Digital Donor/Receipt SAMPLE FORM to supplement any existing Alaska State Library Historical Collections Donor/Receipt Forms

Page 1

Materials List The Materials detailed in the schedule of donated materials below are transferred under the terms and conditions set out in Statement of Ownership. Schedule of Donated Materials The following Materials are or have been gifted by the Donor to the Alaska State Library Historical Collections. Title [Official title, file title, identifier or descriptive title] Media & ref. no. [Ref. no of CD-R or USB stick, e.g. CD-R1] MD5 checksum(s) [record values of MD5 checksum(s)] Extent [In bytes] Technical description [description of file formats, passwords] Context Description [Creator Name, Photographer, Author, etc...] Content Description [Covering dates, subjects, record types, etc.] Restrictions on Access [Cultural or confidential restrictions on access.] Does the material contain any culturally sensitive, confidential items or personal data? Note: This may need to be assessed by an outside expert or SLAM staff.

Born-Digital Donor/Receipt SAMPLE FORM to supplement any existing Alaska State Library Historical Collections Donor/Receipt Forms

Page 2

Signatures I have read and agree to the conditions of donation above. Signature of owner Name of signatory Date Signature of librarian or archivist Name of signatory Date

Accepted and Preferred File Formats for Donation


The following chart outlines the accepted and preferred file formats for donation. The Alaska State Museums, Library and Historical Collections cannot guarantee the long-term preservation and access to digital files submitted in any format other than the preferred preservation and access formats. Accepted File Formats .doc, .wpd, .rtf, .odf, .docx .tiff, .bmp, .jpg, .png, .gif, .psd, .tga, .pct .dng, .raw, .nef, .crw, .dcr, .raw, .orf .ai, .eps, .svg .mp3, .wav, .ac3, .aif, .wma .mj2, .avi, .mov, .flv, .wmv, MPEG-1, MPEG2, MPEG-4, .swf Preferred Preservation Format(s) .odf Uncompressed .tiff .dng .svg .wav WAVE(LPCM) MPEG-2 Preferred Access Format(s) pdf .jpg jpg .pdf .mp3 .mpg

File Type Word Processing Documents Raster Images Born Digital Images Vector Images Audio Video

Born-Digital Donor/Receipt SAMPLE FORM to supplement any existing Alaska State Library Historical Collections Donor/Receipt Forms

Page 3

Appendix D: Access

Appendix D: Web CMS Comparison Chart: Drupal v7 & SharePoint2010


This chart provides a comparison of Drupal v7 and SharePoint 2010. There are five designated areas for comparison: System Requirements, Ease of Use, Management, Interoperability, Collaboration & Media and Commerce. Note that Drupal v7 utilizes free add-on modules (identified in the chart by an asterisk) that are developed by the open-source community to extend the capabilities of the Web content management software and are made available under the GNU General Public License.

Drupal v7
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: Application Server Cost Database License Operating System Programming Language Root Access Shell Access Web Server EASE OF USE : Drag and Drop Content Email to Discussion Image Resizing Spell Checker Prototyping Batch Uploading Templates WYSIWYG Editor Subscriptions MANAGEMENT: Manage System Accounts (roles) Manage System Security (roles) Digital Asset Management Content Scheduling Inline Administration Online Administration Themes/Skins Apache Free (GNU GPL) MySQL Open-source Platform Independent PHP No No Apache

SharePoint 2010
IIS/.NET 3.5 4,000 40,000 MS SQL Proprietary/Closed Windows Only C# Yes Yes IIS

Yes * Yes * Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


*add-on module (GNU GPL)

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


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Drupal v7
MANAGEMENT contd: Web Statistics Web-based Style Templates Extensible User Profiles INTEROPERABILITY: Content Syndication (RSS) Multi-lingual Content UTF-8 Support XHTML Compliant COLLABORATION & MEDIA: Blog Contact Management Events Calendar Integrate rich content (i.e. Multi-media, Flash, etc...) into pages FAQ Management Graphs & Charts Bug Reporting Guest Book Link Management Mail Form Photo Gallery Polls Discussion/Forum Wiki User Contributions Surveys COMMERCE: Point of Sale Shopping Cart Yes Yes Yes

SharePoint 2010
Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes* Yes* Yes Yes Yes* Yes* Yes* Yes Yes* Yes Yes Yes Yes* Yes Yes*

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes*
*add-on module (GNU GPL)

No Limited
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State of Alaska | Digital Initiative Repor t

Appendix D: Alaska SLAM Portal Criteria and Drupal v7 Chart

This chart provides a comparison of Drupal v7 with criteria established by TIS staff for the Alaska SLAM Portal. The analysis was performed by a Drupal v7 programmer on behalf of CaJe Creative Group.

ALASKA SLAM PORTAL REQUIREMENTS & FEATURES


GENERAL: Ability to Alaska Governors Look & Feel Website Standards Available at: http://www.alaska.gov/LookAndFeel/ , Ability to reference (4) Alaska domains: lam.alaska.gov, library.alaska. gov, archives.alaska.gov, museums.alaska.gov, Ability to perform automated link checking, Ability to approve new pages before becoming live. WEBSITE VISITORS: Ability to access all public pages, Ability to sign-up for a Website Account, Ability to use Ask-a-Links, Ability to submit image usage requests, Ability to view public events calendar. ALL LOGGED-IN USERS: Ability to leave comments on selected pages Ability to be notified of Site Changes ALL LOGGED-IN STATE AGENCY EMPLOYEES: Ability to see state employee specific resources, Ability to have InterLibraryLoan and other selected forms populated with contact information. ALL LOGGED-IN DESIGNATED PUBLICATIONS CONTACTS: Ability to upload State Agency publications using form prompts, View Document Submissions. ALL LOGGED-IN DOCENTS: Ability to access Docent-only documentation (e.g., User Manuals), Ability to edit selected Docent content.

Drupal v7

These rules are generated by the website designer and implemented in the template system Not CMS specific. Forwarding is established by the server Not CMS specific. Yes Yes This is dealt with in Workflow that alerts certain roles (admin, staff) of requests for approval. Yes Yes To be determined. Yes - Contact forms. Yes

Yes See: Workflow comment above. No

Yes To be determined. Auto-population of Forms is Limited, but contact Information can be connected through profiles.

To be determined. See: Auto-population comment above. Yes

Yes Yes
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ALASKA SLAM PORTAL REQUIREMENTS AND FEATURES

Drupal v7

DESIGNATED WEBSITE MAINTAINERS [2 Persons Per SLAM Unit]: Ability to edit existing web pages in their area (e.g., Museums, IS, HC, Lib Dev, Archives and TIS), Ability to create new web pages in their area, Ability to link files to web pages, Ability to upload file types defined by the web administrators. WEBSITE ADMINISTRATORS: Ability to designate who is a member of which user group (roles), Ability to edit all information pages, Ability to generate and share website activity reports, such as visitor sessions, most popular pages and most downloaded files.

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Ability to run statistics reports on specific pages or files.

Yes Yes Limited This is generated by a variety of statistics packages, not specifically by the CMS. Most packages feature visitor sessions and popular pages; however, the administrator would have to perform some customization to enable tracking of downloaded files. Limited See above.

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Appendix E: References

Appendix E: References List


Adobe Systems Inc., Digital Negative (DNG) Specification v.1.3.0. Adobe Systems.com. San Jose, CA (June 2004-2009). n.pag. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://wwwimages.adobe.com/www.adobe.com/content/dam/Adobe/en/products/ photoshop/pdfs/dng_spec.pdf Alaska State Government. Performance Details for the Department of Education and Early Development - Alaska State Library and Museums. Office of the Governor. 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://omb.alaska.gov/html/performance/details.html?p=29 American Society of Media Photographers. dpbestflow.org. Philadelphia, PA. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.dpbestflow.org/ Artefactual. Archivematica: Open Archival Information System. Vancouver, BC. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://archivematica.org/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page Arts and Humanities Data Service. Digital Images Archiving Study. Polemicweb.com. March 2006, Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.polemicweb.com/research/papers/image_archiving_study.pdf Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA). "Guidelines, Manuals, Q&As and Fact Sheets." AMIA the association of moving image archivists. Hollywood, CA. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.amianet.org/resources/guidelinesnologin.php?accesscheck=%2Fresources%2 Fguidelines.php Audio Engineering Society. AES Standards Meetings & Reports: AES-X098B Administrative and Structural Metadata for Audio Objects. Audio Engineering Society. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.aes.org/standards/meetings/archive/aes125-sc-03-06-report.cfm Barnes, Heather. Folkstreams Guide to Best Practices in Film Digitization. folkstreams.net. American Folklore Society. August 2007 and updated by Tom Davenport and Steve Knoblock in August 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.folkstreams.net/bpg/index.html#digitization_3_0 Boost Limited. IntuitionHQ. Wellington, New Zealand. 2009. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.intuitionhq.com/ Buytaert, Dries. Drupal. N.p. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://drupal.org/ California Digital Library. "CDL Guidelines for Digital Images (CDL GDI)." California Digital Library.org Version 2.0 January 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.cdlib.org/services/dsc/contribute/docs/cdl_gdi_v2.pdf California Digital Library, CDL Guidelines for Digital Objects (CDL GDO)." California Digital Library.org. Version 2.0 January 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.cdlib.org/services/dsc/contribute/docs/GDO.pdf Caplan, Priscilla. Understanding PREMIS. Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office. 2009. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/understanding-premis.pdf

Casey, Mike and Bruce Gordon. Sound Directions : Best Practices for Audio Preservation. Indiana University Digital Library. Harvard University. 2007. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/bestpractices2007/ Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) Digital Audio Working Group. "Digital Audio Best Practices." v.2.1 October 2006. UCB Libraries. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/systems/digitalinitiatives/docs/digital-audio-bp.pdf Collaborative Digitization Program (CDP) Metadata Working Group, Dublin Core Metadata Best Practices. v.2.1.1 September 2006. UCB Libraries. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.mndigital.org/digitizing/standards/metadata.pdf DCMI. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.1995-2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ Digital Collections Users Group.Guidelines for the Creation of Digital Collections : Digitization Best Practices for Audio. CARLI Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois. Revised 11/1/09. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.carli.illinois.edu/mem-prod/contentdm/guidelines_for_audio.pdf Digital Collections Users Group. Guidelines for the Creation of Digital Collections : Digitization Best Practices for Moving Images. Appendix A : Hardware : Video Capture Devices. CARLI Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois. Created 8/1/10. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.carli.illinois.edu/mem-prod/contentdm/guidelines_for_video.pdf Division of Alaska State Library, Archives, Museums. Alaska State Archives. Juneau, Alaska. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.archives.state.ak.us/ Division of Alaska State Library, Archives, Museums. Alaska State Library. Juneau, Alaska. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://library.state.ak.us/ Division of Alaska State Library, Archives, Museums. Library, Archives and Museums. Juneau, Alaska. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.lam.alaska.gov/ Division of Alaska State Library, Archives, Museums. Alaska Historical Collections. Juneau, Alaska. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://library.state.ak.us/hist/hist.html Division of Alaska State Library, Archives, Museums. Alaska State Museum. Juneau, Alaska. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.museums.state.ak.us/ Duraspace. DSpace. N.p. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.dspace.org/ Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI). Guidelines Homepage. U.S. Government. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/guidelines/ Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)-Still Image Working Group, Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials. U.S. Government. August 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/guidelines/digitize-technical.html Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)-Audio Visual Working Group, MXF Application Specifications" and "Broadcast WAVE Metadata". U.S. Government. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/audio-visual/

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Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)-Audio Visual Working Group, Audio-Visual Format Documentation Project: Background Paper. U.S. Government. October 7, 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/guidelines/FADGI-AV_ AppSpecProj_Bkgd_101007.pdf Harvard University Library. Administrative Metadata for Digital Audio Files." Office for Information Systems. Sept 2007. Web. 17 June 2011. Available online at: http://hul.harvard.edu/ois/systems/drs/ audiometadata.pdf Hawaii State digital Archives, A Work in Progress. Hawaii State Archives. Honolulu, Hawaii. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://hawaii.gov/dags/archives/hawai-i-state-digital-archives-a-work-in-progress Image Science Associates. Targets. Image Science Associates. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.imagescienceassociates.com/mm5/merchant.mvc?Screen=CTGY&Store_ Code=ISA001&Category_Code=TARGETS Independent Media Arts Preservation. Information Resources. Electronic Arts Intermix. New York, NY. 2009.Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.imappreserve.org/info_res/index.html International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) Technical Committee. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects. ed. by Kevin Bradley. Second edition 2009. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.iasa-web.org/tc04/audio-preservation International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) Technical Committee. The safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy. ed. by Dietrich Schller. Version 3, 2005. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: www.iasa-web.org/tc03/ethics-principles-preservationstrategy International Organization for Standardization. ISO 3664:2009 Viewing Conditions For Graphic Technology and Photography. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43234 International Organization for Standardization. ISO12646:2010 Graphic Technology Displays for Color Proofing Characteristics and Viewing Conditions. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.iso.org/ iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=53464 International Press Telecommunications Council. IPTC Photo Metadata Standard." IPTC.org. July 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.iptc.org/site/Photo_Metadata/IPTC_Core_&_Extension/ International Press Telecommunications Council. IPTC Standard Photo Metadata - IPTC Extension Specification v.1.1. July 2010. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://iptc.cms.apa.at/std/photometadata/specification/IPTC-PhotoMetadata-201007.pdf International Press Telecommunications Council. Software supporting IPTC photo metadata standards IIM and IPTC Core. IPTC.org. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.iptc.org/site/Photo_Metadata/Software_list/ Kussmann, Carol. Preserving State Government Digital Information. Minnesota Historical Society. Version 1.0. May 2009. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.mnhs.org/preserve/records/ legislativerecords/docs_pdfs/DigitalAudioVideoWhitePaper_CRK_05-4-2009.pdf Library and Archives Canada. Digital Policies, Guidelines and Tools JPEG2000 as a Preservation File Format. Digital Initiatives at LAC. 2008. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/digital-initiatives/012018-2100.01-e.html.

Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Microfilming Records of Archival Value. Collections Canada. 2006. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/government/002/007002-3009-e.html Library and Archives Canada. Managing Audio-Visual Records in the Government of Canada. Collections Canada. 2006. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/government/002/007002-2049-e.html Library and Archives Canada. Managing Photographic Records in the Government of Canada. Collections Canada. 2006. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/government/002/007002-2048-e.html Library of Congress. Baseline Tags for TIFF Images." Building Digital Collections: A Technical Overview. 2006. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/about/standardsTable4.pdf. Library of Congress. Encoded Archival Description, v2002. Official Site. 2006. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/ead/ead.html Library of Congress. Format Descriptions for Moving Images. Sustainability of Digital Formats, Planning for Library of Congress Collections. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ formats/fdd/video_fdd.shtml Library of Congress. METS Official Web Site. Standards, April 21, 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/ Library of Congress. MODS Official Web Site. Standards, November 19, 2010. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/ Library of Congress. PREMIS Official Web Site. Standards, Feburary 22, 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/ Library of Congress. VRA Core Official Web Site. Standards, March 28, 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/vracore/ Library of Congress. NISO Metadata for Images in XML Schema. Standards, May 13, 2008. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mix/ LOCKSS. Formal Statement of Compliance to ISO 14721:2003. Stanford University Libraries. Palo Alto, Ca. 2008. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://lockss.stanford.edu/lockss/OAIS Mathes, Adam. Scurlock Photographs Cataloging Analysis. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Adam Mathes. December 2004. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.adammathes.com/academic/archives/eadscurlock.html McAdams, Deborah D. Supplies of Sony Videotape are Running Low. TVB Television Broadcast. March 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.televisionbroadcast.com/article/115606 Microsoft. SharePoint Foundation 2010. Microsoft Coporation. 2011. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://sharepoint.microsoft.com/en-us/product/Related-Technologies/Pages/SharePointFoundation.aspx National Archives and Records Adminstration (NARA).Expanding Acceptable Transfer Requirements: Transfer Instructions for Permanent Electronic Records. U.S. National Archives. November 12, 2003. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/initiatives/digital-photo-records.html

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Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary Project. "PBCore Mapping to Dublin Core." Corporation for Public Broadcasting. 2005. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.pbcore.org/PBCore/mappings/PBCore-DublinCore_Mapping.html Schewe, Jeff and Bruce Fraser. A Color Managed Raw Workflow- From Camera to Final Print. Adobe Systems Inc. (2004) n.pag. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.adobe.com/digitalimag/pdfs/color_managed_raw_workflow.pdf Schreibman, Susan ed. Best Practice Guidelines for Digital Collections at University of Maryland Libraries. Office of Digital Collections and Research. Second Edition. University of Maryland, College Park. May 2007. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.lib.umd.edu/dcr/publications/best_ practice.pdf Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Standards." SMPTE. 2011. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.smpte.org/standards Stephen Naron, David Walls and Molly Wheeler. Best Practices for the Digital Conversion of Dynamic Media." Media Best Practices Task Force: Yale University Libraries. 2008. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.library.yale.edu/dpip/bestpractices/ Technical Standardization Committee on AV & IT Storage Systems and Equipment. Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.2. Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA CP-3451). April 2002. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.exif.org/Exif2-2.PDF. The Alaska State Legislature. "Title 14.Education, Libraries, And Museums" 27th Legislature (2011-2012). Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folio.asp The Alaska State Legislature. "Title 4: Education and Early Development" 27th Legislature (2011-2012). Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.legis.state.ak.us/basis/folioproxy.asp?url=http://wwwjnu01.legis.state.ak.us/cgibin/folioisa.dll/aac/query=*/doc/{t15004}? Tiffen Scales and Guides. Kodak Gray Scale Q-13/ Q-14. Tiffen.com. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://www.tiffen.com/results.html?search_type_no=447&tablename=sundries University of Alaska (Fairbanks), University of Alaska (Anchorage), and Alaska State Library (Juneau). Alaska Virtual Library and Digital Archives. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: http://vilda.alaska.edu/ University of Colorado Digital Library. Digitization Best Practices. Colorado University. Version 1.0 August 2009. Web. 17 June 2011. Available at: https://www.cu.edu/digitallibrary/cudldigitizationbp.pdf University of Colorado Digital Library. Metadata Best Practices. Colorado University. Version 1.0. August 2009.Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: https://www.cu.edu/digitallibrary/CUDL_MetadataBP.pdf Washington State Archives, Muti-State Preservation Partnership. Washington Digital Archives. n.d. Cheney, WA. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://www.digitalarchives.wa.gov/StaticContent/LocProjectSite Washington University Libraries. About the Film and Media Archive. Washington University Department of Special Collections. 2011. Web. 18 June 2011. Available at: http://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/filmandmedia/about.html

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