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JOHN F.

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER

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A St~mmaryo f

M A J O R NASA LAUNCHINGS

Eastern Test Range (ETR)

Western Test Range (WTR)

October 1, 1958

- Septeniber

3 0 , 1968

Historical and Library Services Branch John F. Kennedy Space Center "ational Aeronautics and Space Administration

l<ennecly Space Center, Florida

October 1 9 68

GP 381
SATCIEN S.I!STC)RY DCCCIivlENT
U n i v e r s i t y uf

September 3 0 , 1968 (Rev. January 27, 1969)

A!;b:,rno

Rr=-?rrh Zn~tituta

Histcry of Sciecce & Technc;oGy

Group

ERR4TA SHEET

GP 381, "A

Strmmary

of Major M A Zaunchings, Eastern T e s t Range and Western Test Range,'" S

dated September 30, 1968, was considered to be accurate a g of t h e date of p u b l i c a t i o n .

Hmever, additianal research has brought t o light new informetion on t h e o f f i c i a l mission

designations f o r Project Apollo.

Therefore, in the interest of accuracy it was believed

necessary ta issue revfsed pages, rather than w a i t until the next complete revision of the
publiatlion to correct the errors. Holders of copies of thia brochure a t e requested to

remove and destroy the existing pages 81, 82, 83, and 84, and insert the attached revised
pages 81, 82, 83, 84, 8 U , and 84B in t h e h place.

William A . Lackyer, 3r.

PROJECT MOLL0 (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Name

Date

Launch Vehicle

NASA

Code -

Sitelpad

Remarks/Results

ORBITAL (lnaMANNED)
5 Jul 66 Uprated Saturn 1
SA-203

ETR 3 7B

t e s t launch vehicle second (S-IVB) stage and i n s t r m e n t (IU), which reflected Saturn V configuration. 58,500 Ib. payload consisting of S - I n , TU and a nosecone (heaviest s a t e l l i t e o r b i t e d by U, S,) was i n j e c t e d into 117 mile circular orbit. S-P'VB engine burned during launch phase, then shutdown. Capability of engine to restart i n space demons t r a t e d i n theory. TV photos of l i q u i d hydrogen fuel behavior in space transmitted to ground stations by camera within tank, Stage exploded an fourth orbit during test of common bulkhead when differential pressure in tanks rose w e l l above d e s i g n values. Pieces re-entered atmosphere between July 5 and July 22, 1966. ( S )

Unmanned f l i g h t t o

(Rev. January 1969)

PROJECT APOLIX) (FLIGEITS AND TESTS)

Date
SUBORBITAL (UNMANNED)

Launch Vehicle

AS-201

NASA Code

26 Feb 66

Saturn IB

( CM/SM- 0 0 9 )

ETR 34

First officially designated Apollo mission. First launch of t w o s t a g e Saturn IB (SA-201) and Apollo spacec r a f t (009) Unmanned suborbf t a 1 f l i g h t t o q u a l i f y launch v e h i c l e , spacecraft c m n d module (CM) heatshielding and service module (SM) s y s t e m s . Liftoff a t 11:12 & EST I was normal and powered f l i g h t was a s programed. After separation from the launch vehicle, spacecraft reached 310 mile a l t i t u d e . During descent SM reactlon-control system rockets w e r e fired once and main engine was f i r e d t w i c e , to increase spacecraft ' s re-entry speed. SM was jettisoned and (=M re-entered atmosphere a t 27,500 feet p e r second reaching a re-entry heat of about 4 0 0 0 9 . CM was recovered in good condition from South Atlantic near Ascension Island by h e l i c o p t e r from USS Boxer a f t e r 39 m i n u t e flight. (S)

NOTE, -

The Saturn IB launch v e h i c l e was renamed the Uprated Saturn f on June 9 , 1966. On January 15, 1968, the name was changed back t o Saturn 1B. Consequently, t h e AS-201 mission was launched by e S a t u r n IB, SA-203 and AS-202 were both launched by an Uprated Saturn I, and A p o l l o 5 was launched by a Saturn I B ; a l l four launch vehicles were of the same type.
(Rev. January 1969)

PROJECT APOLLO (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Name -

Date

bunch Vehicle

AS-204* (M/SM-012)

NASA Code

ORBITAL (MANNED)

Apolla 1

2 7 Jan 67

Uprated
Saturn I

ETR

Following a review of t h e results of the Apol lo/Sa turn missions, the Saturn IB launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft (command and service modules) were deemed q u a l i f i e d for Earth- orbi t a l manned missions and preparations began f o r t h e f i r s t manned Apolla flight. A t 6 : 3 1 PM EST on January 27, 1967, during a pre-launch t e s t on Launch Complex 34 w i t h t h e crew onboaxd and the spacecraft's 100% oxygen atmosphere pressurized to 1 6 . 7 pounds p s i a , fire broke out in the command module resulting in t h e deaths of astronauts V i r g i l 3 . (Gus) Grissom, Edward H. White If, and Roger B. Chaffee. Although not a launch, t h i s t e s t was officially designated a s Apollo 1 an A p r i l 24, 1967, by Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator f o r Manned Space Flight, NASA.
%he AS-204 launch v e h i c l e assigned to this mission w a s l a t e r ref uxbished and u t i l i z e d on the Apalla 5 mission.

(Rev. January 1969)

PROJECT AWLLO (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(continued)

Name

Date -

Launch Yehi cle

NASA
Code -

~ i t e / ~ a d Remarks/Results

SUBORBITAL f UNMANNED)
25 Aug 66

Uprated Saturn I

AS-202

ETR

((=MIEN-011)

34

Second f l i g h t test of major spacecraft systems and second performance check of conanand module ((24) heatshielding; first use of spacecraft fuel cell power system, Liftoff at P:16 m3 EDT was normal, Launch vehicle (SA-202) developed 2,600,000 lb. thrust during first (S-IB) stage powered flight. After separation of A p o l l a spacecraft (Oll), service module (SM) engine was burned once to r a i s e s p a c e c r a f t to 706 mile altitude, then was ignited and cut o f f three more times to test rapid restart capability. CM separated from SM and re-entered atmosphere a t more than
19,900 mph.

Maximum re-entry temperature

of 02's outer surface was c a l c u l a t e d to be about 2 0 ' ; 70~ interior temperature was 7 0 O ~ . CM landed in Pacific 500 miles southwest of Wake Island after 93 minute f l i g h t and was recovered by USS Hornet. (S)

(Rev. January 1969)

PROJECT APOLU) (FLIGH!l!S


(continued)

AND TESTS)

Name -

Lhte

Launch Vehicle

AS-501

NA SA Code

Sitelpad

~emarks/~esults

ORBITAL (UNMANNE!I)>

Apollo 4

9 Nov 67

Saturn V

ETR (KSC)
39A

F i r s t launch from mobile launch f a c i l i t i e s (LC-39) at Kennedy Space Center. First launch of Saturn Y. F i r s e "all-up" test of a launch vehicle (in which a l l stages were live and were f i r e d an a m i d e n flight). All 3 stages of the Saturn V successfully fired, i n j e c t i n g the 3 r d ( S - I n ) stage and Apollo spacecraft into a 115 s t a t u t e mile parking orbft. After 2 revolutions, the S-IVB s t a g e was reignited, injecting the s t a g e and spacecraft i n t o an Earth-intersecting o r b i t with an apogee of 10,696 statute miles. Following stagelspacecraft separation, the spacecraft service propulsion system (SPS) was i g n i t e d for a shortduration burn, raising the Apello command and service module (CSM) to a 11,232 s t a t u t e mile apogee. The CSM was then aligned to achieve a thermal gradient across the command module (CPZ) h e a t s h i e l d (with the CM hatch window d i r e c t l y toward the Sun) and held in this attitude for about 4% hours. The SPS was then reignited for a long-duration burn, accelerating the spacecraft to simulate the most severe combination of entry conditions of a lunar return trajectory. The CM and service module (SM) then separated, and the Apollo CM w a s oriented t o entry attitude. Atmospheric e n t r y occurred a t 400,000 feet, at a Slight path angle of - 7 O , and a velocity af 36,537 feet per second. CN lending occurred in the Pacific within 10 statute miles of the planned point, 8 hours, 37 m i n utes a f t e r liftoff. The CM, apex cover, and one of t h e 3 main parachutes were recovered. All primary mission objectives were successf u l l y accomplished. { S ) (Rev. January 1969)

(Rev. January 1969)

FOREWORD

With the publication of t h i s edition, "A Slmmtary of Major NASA Launchings, Eastern T e s t Range and Western Test Range" now spans the first ten y e a r s in t h e launch h i s t o r y of the National Aeronautics and Space AdministratLon, from October 1, 1958 through September 30, 1968, The i n i t i a l brief surmaary of NASA A t l a n t i c Missile Range (AMR) launchings was prepared a s a reference tool for internal u s e within the Launch Operations Center Historical Branch. Repeated requests for information concerning NASA launch activities warranted t h e presentation of t h i s information in h&dy fo m far broader distribution. In order to ensure its continued value as a reference tool, t h e Summary was periodically r e v i s e d and new includes major NASA launchings conducted under the direction of John F. Kennedy Space Center (or its antecedents) from both t h e Eastern and Western Test Ranges. A Appendix has been a d d e d , covering space launchings that occurred prior to October 1 , 1958, T h i s n e d i t i o n supersedes all previous issues of t h i s publication. \
The material contained in t h i s report w a s compiled frmn several different sources. Mission-oriented documents consulted i n c l u d e d : Operations Summaries, post-launch Flash Flight Reports, Final Field Reports, Mission Operations Reports (both pre-launch and post-launch), and . Other major references were publications of t h e SASA Historical O f f i c e , such a s : Aeronautics and Astronautics 1915- 1960; Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961-1962; Aeronautics and Astronautics ( y e a r l y editions s i n c e 1963) ; and NASA ' s Pocket S t a t i s t i c s (published monthly). The TRW S p a c e Log and o t h e r similar c m e r c i a l media were also reviewed. The writer is i n d e b t e d t o Francis E . J a r r e t t , Jr., KSC Historian, and William V. Schenck, formerly of the K S C historical staff, f o r their work in p r e p a r i n g earLier s m a r i e s .
The report i s broken down into projects within broad mission categories, with each project being treated chronologically. Eac? mlssion h a s been l a b e l e d with t h e classification 5 (Successful) or U (Unsuccessful) In a successful mission, the primary mission ob jectlves were accomplished. Unsuccessful indicates that t h e objectives of the mission were not obtained, although even those launches may have provided some collateral information. These are arbitrary classificat i o n s , made a f t e r a camparison of objectives and a c t u a l r e s u l t s .

The information presented on ETR launches, w i t h the exception of the "Remarks" column, has a l s o been prepared in chart form and i s available from t h e R S C H i s t o r i c a l and Library Services Branch. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions for the improvement of content, format and usefulness of t h i s publication are s o l i c i t e d . Corxespondence should be addressed to: Historical and Library Services Branch (IS-GAS-4), John F . Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Florida 3 2 8 9 9 . William A . Lockyex, Jr.

TABLE OF COrnPiPTS

GEOPHYSICS AND A S T R O N W
BEACON VANGUARD EXPLORER

.............................................

.......................................................... 1 ........................................................ 1 ............................................... 2 ............................ 11 OSO OGO ...*................... . . . . . . . I . 1 . . . . ........ 13 QAO ........................................................... 15 BIOS ...................................................... 18 JOINT PROGRAMS ................................................ 19 METEDRULOGfCAL EARTH SATELLITES .......................... ..... ...... 20
*......*.................(I......

TIIlOS
ESSA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 .

........................................................... 20
..................................................
25

NIFI3US

CQMMNLCATIONS AND NAVIGATION

ECHO RE-LAY TELS.IIAR SYNCOM

............................................................ 27 ....................r....m...... ....................... 28 ......................................................... ......................................................... 291 COMMERCIAL (COMSAT C W .) ............................. .... . 3 O . . . 29 . .

TABLE OF CONTEhTS
(continued)

PAGE

SCIENTIFIC LUNAR PROBES. ORBITERS. AND U N D m S

......................

35

PIONEER 35 RANGER 38 LUNAR ORBITER 41 SURVEYOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . w . . m . . . . . . . . 4 . . .2

....................................................... ................................................. ..................................................

SCIENTIFIC DEEP SPACE AND PTANETARY PROBES


PIONEER MARINER

........................... 47

........................................................ 47 ........................................... . . . . . . . 49
....................................
53

LAUNCH VISHTCLE DEVELOPMENT TESTS

PROJECT G M N E I I

......................................................
............... LAUNCHlNGS (Em) ...

71

APPENDIX A

. SUMMARY

OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS IATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA

A-i

APPENDIX B . CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA

B-i

VANGUARD SLV-4

17 FEBRUARY 1959

VANGUARD ll

KSC HISTORICAL REPORT S W R Y OF MAJOR NASA ETR AND WIT IAUNCBINGS,

1 OCTOBER 1958

30 SEPTFXBER 1967

GEOFWSICS AND ASTRONOMY P R O W S

Name B U CON
Be8 con

Date 22 O c t 58

bunch Vehicle

NASA
Code -

Remarks /Results

Juno 1 (Jupiter C)

--

ETR 5

Atmospheric Physics. Attempt to p l a c e a 92.6 pounds 1 2 - f o o t d i a m e t e r i n f l a t a b l e sphere of m-lcro-thin p l a s t i c , covered w i t h aluminum foil, i n t o a h i g h a l t i t u d e orbit f a i l e d ; premature uppers t a g e separation. Payload f l i g h t time,

424
Beacon

secmds,

(U)

14 Aug 59

Juno 11

--

Atmospheric Physics. A t t e m p t to o r b i t 12-foot diameter, h i g h visibility, aluminum sphere f a i l e d due to prmature f u e l d e p l a t i o n in booster, w i t h ensuing main engine c u t o f f , and unrelated upperstage malfunction in a t t i t u d e control system. (U)

Vanguard IT

17 Feb 59

Vanguard

1959 Alpha I
(Satellite)

E m
18A

SLV-4

1959 Alpha ' I L


(Ca sing)

Meteorology, F i r s t f u l l y instrumented Vanguard payload i n orbit; excessive wobble of sphere was caused by third stage bumping into s a t e l l i t e ; cloud cover data not used. Transmitted f o r 18 days, s t i l l in orbit. (P)

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PXOGttAMS


(continued)

Name

Date

Launch Vehicle Vanguard

SA

Va ngua rd

13 Apr 5 9
22 Sun 59

-Code

ETR
18A

SLV-5
Vanguard Vanguard

Second-stage f a i l u r e ; t u m b l i n g resuLted from thrust chamber damage. (U)

-1959 Eta

SLV-6
Vanguard I11

ETR 18A

Second-stage f a i l u r e ; helium tank burst


a s a result of f a u l t y pressure regulator in propulsion system. (U)

18 Sep 59

Vanguard SLV-7

ETR
188

Magnetic field, r a d i a t i o n belt, and microm e t e o r o i d findings. Transmissions ceased December 11, 1959. S t i l l in o r b i t . ( S )

EXPLDRER

Explorer

16 Jul 59

Juno I1

S- 1

A t t e m p t : to place a 91 ' 5 lb, s a t e l l i t e

Complete l o s s of power ta guidance and control system a t liftoff caused missile to d e v i a t e from intended fljght path. Destroyed by range safety officer 5% seconds a f t e r launch. (U)

into o r b i t .

Explorer VI

7 Aug 59

Thar-Able

5-2

ETR 17A

I n j e c t e d i n t o most eccentric o r b i t achieved by any satellite up t o t h a t time; measured Van A l l e n belt and cosmic r a d i a t i o n , mapped the earth's magnetic field, and provided a crude TV image of t h e earth's cloud cover.

Significant discovery of large e l e c t r i c a l current system i n the outer atmosphere Transmitted data until October 6, 1959. Re-entered in July 1961, ( S )

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PROGRAMS


(continued)

Name -

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NASA
Code S-

Explorer

13 O c t 5 9

Juno I1

la

VII

ETR 5

91.5 Ib. s a t e l l i t e successfully i n j e c t e d into orbit araund the e a r t h ; provided s i g n i f i c a n t data on trapped r a d i a t i o n and cosmic r a d i a t i o n near t h e e a r t h . Seventh and last U , S . IGY e a r t h s a t e l l i t e . Transmitted data until l a t e 1961; s t i l l in orbit. (S) Attempt to o r b i t s a t e l l i t e equipped to a n a l y z e r a d i a t i o n energies in the Van Allen radiation zones; o r b i t v e l o c i t y not achieved due to f a i l u r e of uppers t a g e s to ignite. C m u n i c a t i o n w i t h launch v e h i c l e was l o s t after secondstage burnout. (u)

Explorer

23 Mr 60 a

Juno 11

S-46

Exp 1orer VTlI

3 NOV 60

JUIO I1

S-30

A l l systems f u n c t i o n e d normally to put into an e l l i p t i c a l orbit a scientific earth s a t e l l i t e carrying instruments t i o n for d e t a i l e d measurements of the ionosphere. T r a n s m i t t e d data until December 27, 1960; s t i l l in o r b i t . (S)
ETR

Explorer

24 Feb 61 Juno I1

S-45

26B

Primary missfon of i n j e c t i n g i n t o orbit an ionosphere satellite was n o t achieved Series of irregularities occurred follot-i n g first s t a g e s e p a r a t i o n , preventing firing of upper s t a g e s , (U)

13

OCTOBER 1959
4

EXPLORER V11

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PROGRAMS


(continued)

Name -

Date

munch Vehicle
Delta

NASA

Code -

Explorer X

25 Mar 61

P-14

ETR

17A

S a t e l l i t e probe, h i g h l y eccentric orbit. T r a n s m i t t e d data on earth and interpianetary m a g n e t i c fields a n d s o l a r wind. Present p o s i t i o n u n c e r t a i n . (S)

Explorer XI

27 Apr 61

Juno I1

S-15

ETR 26B

Placed astronomy telescope satellite i n t o orbit to detect h i g h energy gamma rays from cosmic sources and to map t h e i r s p e c i a l distribution. Vehicle and all p a y l o a d systems f u n c t i o n e d a s planned. S t i l l in o r b i t . (S)
P r i m a r y mission of i n j e c t i n g a r t i f i c i a 1 earth s a t e l l i t e into a r b i t was n o t achieved. Second s t a g e was not brought to ignition because of apparent voltage drop. S a t e l l i t e was to study ionosphere measurements. (U)

Explorer

24 May 62

Juno I1

S-45a

ETR

26B

Explorer X I 1

15 Aug 6 1

Delta

Data on magnetic fields, energetic p a r t i cles, and s o l a r wind. Data received from a l l experiments; transmitted until December 6 , 1961; re-entered in September 1963. ( S j
Highly e l l i p t i c a l orbit. Energetic particles experiment. Still in orbit, but o r b i t a l elements no longer maintained. na ts transmission continued until August 10, 1963, ( S )

Explorer X I V

2 O c t 62

Delta

G E O M S I CS AND ASTBOKWY PROFRATI[1 (continued)

Name

Date 2 7 O c t 52

Launch Vehicle

NASA Code S- 3b

Explorer X V

Delta

study a r t i f i c i a l r a d i a t i o n b e l t . H i g h spin r a t e , s t i l l in orbit, b u t o r b i t a l elements no l o n g e r maintained (S)


13 33 potind s o t e l r i t e to

Explorer

2 Apr 63

Delta

S-6

m 1

S a t e l l i t e studied d e n s i t y , pressure, c m position, and temperature of t h e earth's upper atmosphere, Re- entered on November 2 4 , 1966. (S)

Explorer

26 Nov 63

Delta

IMP-A
(S- 74)

ETR
17B

XVIII

Successi-ul l a u ~ c h i n gan an I n t i e r p l a n e t a p Monitorinq P m b e ; its mission was to measure t h e major m a g n e t i c f i e l d phenmena in space, i n c l u d i n g the interplanetary magnetic f i e l d , i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e s tteaming solar plasma, and t h e geomagnetic f i e l d , galactic a n d s o l a r radiation. Re-entered in November 1965. (S)

B ea conExplorer A

19 Mr 64 a

Delta

BE-A (S- 66)

ETR 1J A

Purpose of mission was to s t u d y t h e ionosphere. Contact lost w i t h satelLite 22 seconds a f t e r third stage ignition of the Delta booster, Beacon-Explorer was to have r e f l e c t e d back to e a r t h laser rays fired at it from Wallops Island, Va. The D e l t a failure was the f i r s t in 23 consecutive f i r i n g s for t h e space agency. (U)

Explorer X X I

3 O c t 64

Delta

IMP-B

Detailed study of environment of c i s l u n a r space through cosmic ray, solar wind and magnetic field measurements. The spacecraft d i d net achieve an o r b i t in true interplanet a r y space a s planned, b u t operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Re-entered in January 1 9 6 6 . ( S )

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PROGRAMS


(continued)
Za unch Vehicle

Name Explorer XXVI

Date
2 1 Dec 64

NA SA
Code EPE- D
Site/%d ETR IJA

Remarks /Results
P a r t i c l e s and fields; study of i n j e c t i o n , trapping, and loss mechanisms of trapped r a d i a t i o n b e l t s , both natural and a r t i ficial. The f o u r t h s a t e l l i t e in the Energetic P a r t i c l e s Explorer series. S t i l l transmitting. Still in orbit, b u t o r b i t a l elements no l o n g e r maintained,

Delta

cs>
Explorer XXVfI1

29 May 65

Delta

IMP-C

ETR 178

P a r t i c l e s and F i e l d s ; measured magnetic f i e l d s , cosmic rays and s o l a r wind from near earth to deep space d i s t a n c e s . T h i r d in the IMP s e r i e s . Orbit somewhat higher t h a n planned. Still in oxbit, but orbital elements not maintained, (S)

Explorer XXXI

28 Nov 65

ThorAgena B

ImE-A

D u a l launch w i t h A l a u e t t e I T . Complemented Alouette by taklng measurements of ionospheric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h a companion spacecraft, S t i l l in o r b i t ; still transmitting. (S)
ETR

Explorer

25 M R ~66

Delta

AE-B

=If

17B

Atmosphere explorer; the payload is designed to c o l l e c t temperature, c m position, density, and pressure d a t a to pennit t h e study of t h e physics of the atmosphere on a global b a s i s . Still in o r b i t . (s)

25 AUGUST 19b5

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY P R O W S


(continued) Name Date 1 J u l 66

Launch Vehf cle

NASA

Code -

Sitelpad
ETR 2 7A

Rema+ks/~esults
Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Flatform ( A m ) , designed to become t h e nation's f i r s t moon satellite. However, t h e second stage of the Delta booster accelerated t o o r a p i d l y for the retrorocket compensation necessary t o achieve l u n a r orbit. The spacecraft is now in a l o o p i n g e a r t h orbit (18,930-278,523) sending back informs t i o n on r a d i a t i o n , magnetic fields, and solar winds. ( S )

Explorer
XXXIf I

TAD
(Thrust
Augmented Delta 1

W - D

Explorer

24 May 67 TAD

WTR
SLC- 2E

XXXIV

Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP), s a t e l l i t e to study solar and g a l a c t i c cosmic r a d i a t i o n , s o l a r plasma, and related phenomena. H i g h l y e l l i p t i c a l polar o r b i t . A 1 1 eleven experiments functioned. S t i l l in orbit; still transmitting. (S]

Explorer XXXV

39 J u l 6 7

Delta

ETR

17B

Explorer W M V was the 50th Delta launch f o r NASA, of which only three have f a i l e d , a 94% success, The 235 Ib. s a t e l l i t e , an I n t e r p l a n e t a r y Monitoring Platform, s t u d i e s interplanetary space phenomena with emphasis on s t u d y of s o l a r wind and magnetic field a t lunar distances. Explorer XXXV is in a selenocentric (moon-centered) o r b i t , and s t i l l transmitting. (S)

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PROGMNS


(continued)

Name -

Date

Launch Vehicle

ME-A

NASA Code

SiteJPed

Remarks,'Results Liftoff a t 0825 PDT was nomsl, and perforrnance of a l l three launch vehicle s t a g e s was nominal. 420 lb. spacecraft, a Radio Astronomy Explorer, w a s i n j e c t e d into an e l l i p t i c a l orbit w i t h an apogee of 3647 s t a t u t e m i l e s and a perigee of 389 mPles. Mission intended to investig a t e sporadic r a d i o bursts from J u p i t e r , Earth, and t h e Sun; r a d i o emission from d i s c r e t e cosmic sources; plasma oscillations and background radio emission from g a l a c t i c sources. ( S )

Explorer XXXVfJ.1

4 J u l 68

Delta

WTR SLC- 2E

GEODETIC EARTH O R B I T I N G SATELLITES (GEOS)

Explorer XXIx (GEOS 1)

6 Nov 65 TAD

GEOS-A

ETR 17A

F i r s t launch of an improved thrustaugmented Delta ; first g r a v i t y - gradient s t a b i l i z e d satellite launched by NASA. Purpose was to investigate earth's gravitational f i e l d , to improve w o r l d wide geodetic accuracies, and to improve p o s i t i o n a l accuracies of s a t e l l i t e tracking s i t e s . Still in orbit. (S)

PAGEOS I

23 J u n 67

TATAgena

Pageos A

WlX SLC- 2E

P a s s i v e Geodetic Earth Orbiting S a t e l l i t e . N e a r c i r c u l a r polar o r b i t . Similar to Echo I, aluminum covered mylar balloon, 100-foot diameter. No ins t r m e n t s , w o r l d wide trfangulation network by o p t i c a l sightings a l l o w s very accurate mapping.

Still in o r b i t ,

(S)

GEOPRYSLCS AND A S T R O N W PROGRAMS


( continued)

Name Exploxer
XKXVI (GEOS 11)

Date -

Umch Vehicle

Code -

N&SA

Site/Pad

Remarks/Resul t s
Second spacecraft of t h e GEOS series and fifth s a t e l l i t e t o be launched in t h e National Geodetic Sa tell ite Program (NGSP) Successfully launched a t 1116 EST and injected into an o r b i t very close to that planned. Following verification of orbital parameters, spacecraft was checked out, end was dcclarcd operational on February 2 0 , 1968. GEOS I1 w i l l extend the investigations associated with the NGSP. (S)

II Jan 68

Delta

GEOS-B

WTR
SLC-2E

ORBITING S O U R OBSERVATORY (oSO)


OSO f

7 Max 62 Delta

S-16

ETR 1 7A

Measured s o l a r flares and subl a r e a ; transmitted data on sun I s r a d i a t i o n in ultraviolet, X-ray, and ganma r a y regions, plus other s o l a r phenomena. Prior to OSO I, lesa than an hour of solar phenome m data had been collected from above the earth's atmosphere. Still in orbit. (S)
S o l a r physics; continuation of OSO

OSO 11

3 Feb 65

Delta

OSO-32

ETR

17B

s t u d i e s with added a b i l i t y to scan t h e s o l a r dksc and part of the corona. Still

in orbit.
OSO- C

(S)

25 Aug 65

Delta

050C

ETR

17B

OSO

Solar physics, spacecraft was similar to I and bSO 11. Fafled to orbit due t o prmature ignition of the t h i r d stage.

cw

ATLAS-AGENA

4 SEPTEM RER 1954

OCO-I

GEO'PHYST CS AND ASTRONOMY PROCRAMS (continued)

Name
OSO 111

Date

Launch Vehicle
Delta

NASA

Code OSO-E-I

8 Mr 67 a

ETR L 7A

I d e n t i c a l to t h e unsuccessful OSO C. Nine separate experiments to provide data on solar disturbances and radiation in space. In earth orbit; s t i l l transmitting. (S)
S o l s r Physics. Launched at 11:58 AM Em into extremely good circular orbit w i t h apogee of 354.18 s t a t u t e miles and p e r i g e e of 353.68 statute miles. (Desired apogee and perigee were 345 s t a t u t e miles.) A l l spacecraft systems operated nominally following injection i n t a orbit. Experiments conducted by Ha ma r d Coll ege Observatory, American Science and Xngineering, University College, London, Naval Research Laboratory, and Lawrence R a d i a t i o n Laboratory. S t i l l in o r b i t ; still transmitting. (S)

OSO

IV

18 Oct

67 Delta

E;TR

17B

ORBITING GEOPRYSICAL OBSERVATORY ( 0 ~ 0 )


OGQ

4 Sep 64

AtlasAgena

OW-A

ETR
12

F i r s t o r b i t i n g geophysical observatory, designed to conduct nmerous space experiments simultaneously. OGO-A carried 20 tests. Failure to l o c k into earth o r b i t resulted in solar panels

generating insufficient pmef to complete a l l experiments. Considered successful since 75% of planned data acquisition w a s obtained. Still in orbit; still1 transmitting. (S)

GEOEIYSPCS AND ASTRONOMY PROGRAMS (continued)

L un ch a

Date

Vehicle
Agena

O W -C
WTR
SLC- 2E

NbSA Code

14 O c t 65 TAT-

Launched into a l o w a l t i t u d e , nearly polar o r b i t to allow observation of near earth phenomena. Atmospheric and e a r t h magnetic survey, 19 of 20 experiment s worked. Horizon scanners d r i f t e d , causing d e p l e t i o n of s t a b i l i z a t i o n g a s supply, which caused Loss of electrical power. Ceased transmittfng on O c t o b e r 24, 1965. Still in orbit. (U)

6 Jun 56 A t l a s Agena

060-13

ETR 12

Interdisciplinary s t u d i e s . Earth-sun space jnterrelationships using a h i g h l y e l l i p t i c a l o r b i t to correlate studies of p a r t i c l e s and fields, atmospheric physics, s o l a r , and o t h e r emissions, Development and operation of a standardized, o b s e w a tary type oriented spacecraft Demons t r a t e d c a p a b i l i t y of a three-axis s t a b i l i z e d observatory. Still i n orbit; s t i l l transmitting. (S)

28 J u l 67

TATAge-

WTR SLC- 2E

S a t e l l i t e put into nearly polar orbit. Mission is t o study the e f f e c t s of solar a c t i v i t y on the earth's environment during a period of increased s o l a r activity. Still in orbit; still transmitting. IS)

GEOPKYSICS AND ASTRONOm PROGRAMS


(continued)

Name OGO V

Date -

Bunch Vehicle
AtlasAg em

U S A

Code -

sit e/Pad
ETR

R E ~ I ~ ~ S / R ~ S U ~ ~ S

4 Mr 6 8 a

OGO-E

13

F i f t h of s i x approved missions in t h e OGO program. Sucrcssf ully launched a t 0806 EST into a p a r k i n g orjit. A f t e r a 32 minute c o a s t period, Agena s t a g e w a s restarted, injecting spacecraft into a highly e l l i p t i c a l e q u a t o r i a l orbit with an apogee oh 92,074 s t a t u t e miles a n d a perigee of 168 m i l e s . This o r b i t permits the s p a c e c r a f t to p a s s in a n d out of Earth's magnetosphere, sweeping the f o r w a r d Leading quadrant and t h e geomagnetic t a i l , a s it acquires data on magnetic fields, enersetic p a r t i c l e s , and p l a s m a . Last NASA launch using A t l a s Agena v e h i c l e . Last U S A launch from Launch Complex 13, Cape Kennedy, S t i l l in o r b i t ; s t i l l transmitting. (S)

OAO

8 Apr 66

Atlas-

OAO-A1

ETR
12

Agena

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. Capable of accurate, long duration p o i n t i n g for u l t r a v i o l e t , X-ray, and gannna ray observations and mapping anywhere in the c e l e s t i a l sphere, S p a c e c r a f t was lost a f t e r two days due to s p a c e c r a f t systws anomalies, However, it is sti 11 in orbit. (U)

GEOPHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PROGRAMS


( continued)

Name -

Date -

Launch Vehicle

ATS-B

NA SA Code

Sit e/Pad

RemarksIResults

APFLIUTIOMS TECHPJOWGY SATELLI!WS (ATS)


ATS- 1

6 Dec 66 A t l a s Agena

First satellite in Applications Technology Satellite Program. The 775 I b . satellite was placed in circular,
equatorial synchronous orbit. U s e d for 15 separate experiments r e l a t e d to conrmuniation and meteorology and control technology. Four more such satellites are planned. Still in orbit; still transmitting. (S)

5 Apr 67 A t l a s Agena

ATS-A

ETR 12

Purpose of satellite was to evaluate gravity- gradient s y s t e m f o r spacecraft stabilization. Entered e l l i p tical transfer o r b i t , but failed t o go into c i r c u l a r o r b i t when 2nd stage Agena engine failed t o re-ignite. S t i l l in o r b i t ; s t i l l transmitting. S m e experiments were carried out, but NASA r u l e d t h e satellite unsuccessful. (U)

GEOEFfIYSTCS AND ASTEUINOMY FROGWE (continued)

Name -

Date 5 Nov 67

Uunch Vel~icle

ATS- C

NASA Code

ATS-I11

AtlasA g ena

ETR
12

T h i r d in current series of f i v e A p p l i c a tions Technology S a t e l l i t e s . Contained 14 applications technology experiments concerned with communications, meteoro l o g y , stabilization and pointing technology, orbital technology, and space environmental degradation. Launch v e h i c l e injected s p a c e c r a f t i n t o highly e l l i p t i c a l a r b i t . men, a t apogee of second orbit, apogee k i c k motor was f i r e d on ground command to transfer spacecraft into near- stationary equa t o s i a l orbit a t approximately 22,200 statute miles and about 47 degrees West longitude. Transmitted excellent q u a l i t y high-resolution photos of e n t i r e visible disk of Earth. S t i l l in orbit; s t i l l transmitting. (S)
L i f t o f f at 6 : 3 3 PM EDT w a s normal and within the desired launch window. The Centaur f i r s t burn i n j e c t e d the Centaur and ATS-D into a parking orbit. However, t h e Centaur second i g n i t i o n d i d not occur, and a t t e m p t s to separate the ATS-D from t h e Centaur were unsuccessful Although the mission was a f a i l u r e , the satellite is in orbit and w a s therefore designated

ATS-IV

10 Aug 68 A t l a s Centaur

ATS-I)

ETR
36

ATS-IV.

(U)

(continued)

Name -

Date -

Vehicle

Code -

Bf OSATELLITES (BTOS)

BIOS I

14 Dec 6 6

Delta

BfOS-h .

ETR 17A

Objective of s a t e l l i t e was to test t h c e f f e c t o f weightlessness and space r a d i a t i o n on growth of p l a n t s and animals. Satellite contained millions of animal and plant: cells. S a t c l l i t c warked well, but retrorocket f a i l e d to f i r e , l e a v i n g c a p s u l e in o r b i t i n s t e a d of parachuting it i n t a t h e recovery a r e a . No useful d a t a wes acquired. S a t e l tite and capsule re- entered February 15, l a n d i n g near Aus t r a l ia , but ws s not recovered. Search c a l l e d off on February 2 2 ,

1966,

(PI

BIOS I1

7 S e p 6 7 TAD

BIOS-B

ETR

17B

Objectives were similar to those of BIOS-A. S a t e l l i t e worked well, except for slight d i f f i c u l t y in accepting ground commands. Because of concern w i t h the command reception and weather in the recovery area, it was decided to de-orbit an orbit 30, rather than continue 3-day mission. A l l d e - o r b i t events occurred normally, and capsule was recovered by a i r c r a f t aver t h e P a c i f i c within 15 miles af ptedtcted impact point on September 9, 1967, Remainder of satellite re-entered atmosphere on October 4 , 1947. (S)

GEOPHYSICS -

AND A S T R O N M PROGRAMS (cant i n u e d )

Name -

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NASA
Code

Arid f

26 Apr 62

Delta

S-51

ETR

(m-l)

176

F i r s t international s a t e l l i t e , j o i n t U. S -U .K. venture. Performed imospheric and a o l a r radiation studies. S t i l l i n o r b i t ; transmitted u n t i l November 1 9 6 4 . I S )

AlcuetteI

29 S e p 6 2

ThorAg-

WTR

SLC-2E

First NASA launch from WTR, first use by NASA of t h e Thor-Agena Canadian built s a t e l l i t e , put i n t o polar o r b i t of 597-619 miles. Investigated upper levels of ionosphere and aspects of space noise , and measured electron density. Experiments revealed that e f f e c t i v e radio frequency reflecting surfaces in the polar regions were very rough, and t h a t temperatures 300 m i l e s above t h e earth varied greatly and increased w i t h l a t i t u d e . Still in o r b i t ; s t i l l t r a n s m i t t i n g . (S)

Alouette

I1

28 Nov 65

ThorA g a

Alouette B

W X l ! SLC- 2E

Dual launch with Explorer XXXI. I n i tiated a NASA-Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l S a t e l l i t e s for Ionospheric (ISIS) program. S a t e l l i t e s were p l a c e d in near duplicate orbits of 310-1850 miles. Eight experfments of Explorer XXXI were correlated with f i v e of A l o u e t t e If. Extended to polar regions ionospheric soundings begun by A l o u e t t e I. S t i l l in o r b i t ; s t i l l transmitting. (S)

METEOKOLOGICAL EARTH SATELLITES


Name -

Date

Launch Vehf cle

NASA
Code -

Sitelpad

Rmarlcs/ResuZ t s

TEST INFRA-RED OBSERVATION SATELLITES ITIROSI

Tiros I

1 Apr 60 Thox-Able

A-1

ETB
17A

F i r s t t r u e meteorological s a t e l l i t e ; photographed c l o u d cover. Demonstrated that s a t e l l i t e s can be used to survey o t h e r surface f e a t u r e s frm space. Still in o r b i t . ( S )

Tiros II

23 Nov 60

Delta

A-2

ETR 17A

Combined i n f r a r e d mea surements with photography. Wide-angle photos were substandard. Transmitted data until December 4 , 1960; still in o r b i t . (S) Launched during hurricane sea son; one camera system f a i l e d by the end of J u l y , the other w a s used until February 1962. Weather Bureau reported Tiros 111 spotted 50 t r o p i c a l storms during the summer of 1961, S t i l l in o r b i t . I S )
A 1 1 s y s t e m s provided good d a t a . C l a r i t y of pictures from the new wide-angle lens w a s outstanding. Photos unclear a f t e r June 14, 1962. S t i l l in o r b i t , (S)

Tiros I11

22 J u l 6 1

Delta

A- 3

ETR
17A

T i r o s IV

8 Feb 62

Delta

A-9

ETR 17A

Tiros V

19 J u n 62

Delta

A-

50

Orbit more e l l i p t i c a l than planned, First to s p o t f i v e of the ten major t r o p i c a l storms around the world in August. S t i l l in o r b i t . IS)

METEOROMGICAL EART1I SATELLITES (continued)

U unch
Name Tiros

Date

Vehicle

A-51

NA SA Code

~ite/~ad ETR 1 7A Launch moved up from Novmber to cover storm season. Performed a s planned. One camera f a i l e d December 1, 1962. Still in orbit. (S)
F i r s t Tiros to carry an e l e c t r o n temperature and density probe. Still in orbit. (S)

V I

18 Sep 62 Delta

Tiros V I I

29 Jun 63

Delta

A-52

m
17B

Tiros VIII

21 Dec 63

Delta

A-53

ETR
17B

Tiras W

E i g h t successful Tiros launch; i t s p r f new experimental camera subsystem, called Automa tic Picture Transmission (APT) ; also c a r r i e d s TV camera similar to the one carried on previous Tiros s a t e l l i t e s . S t i l l in o r b i t . (S)

mary mission was to t e s t a

Tiros IX

22 Jan 65

Delta

Tiros 1

Ern
17A

First Tiros cartwheel canfiguration for increased coverage of world cloud cover; elliptical polar orbit. Still in orbit.
(S)

Tiros X

1 Jul 65

Delta

OT- 1

ETR 17B

F i r s t Weather Bureau funded spacecref t; spin- stabilized configuration w i t h two 104O T cameras, similar t o Tiros VI. V Placed in near perfect sun synchronous a r b i t to obtain photo data on storm breeding areas of hurricanes and typhoons S t i l l in o r b i t . (S)

DELTA

28 FEBRUARY 1966

ESSA II

m E O R 6 L o G f GAL EARTH SATELZTrnS


( continued)

Name -

Date -

La un ch Vehicle

NASA

Code -

ENVIROWNTAL SURVEY SATELLITES (ESSA)

ESSA I

3 Feb 66

Delta

OT-3
W S )

ETR 17A

Pravided cloud coverage of the e n t i r e sunlit portion of the earth a t least once a day for operational use. f i r s t
of the T i r o s Operational S a t e l l i t e (TOS) series. Eleventh s t r a i g h t success f o r TIROS. Funded by Environmental Science Administration. S t i l l in orbit.
(S)

ESSA 11

28 Feb 66 Delta

Advanced version of cartwheel configuration, Permits l o c a l readout of d a y l i g h t cloud cover by A u t a m a t i c Picture Trensmission (APT) TV system. Polar, sun synchronous o x b i t ; still t r a n s m i t t i n g . (S)
TOS-A

ESSA 111

2 Oct 66

TAD

WTR SLC- 2E

bunched t o r e p l a c e ESSA I. Near p o l a r , sun synchronous o r b i t . Provided d s f l y g l o b a l photographic coverage. Advanced cartwheel d e s i g n . Replaced by ESSA V, but s t i l l in o r b i t ; s t i l l t r a n s m i t t i n g .
(S)

ESSA

IV

26 Jan 67

TAD

TQS-B

m
SLC-ZE

P o l a r orbit , sun synchronous. Advanced cartwheel type. Two Automatic P i c t u r e Transmission camera s y s t e m s , one inoperable because of shutter problems. Replaced ESSA I1 whose usefulness was limited by o r b i t a l drift. S t i l l in orbit. (S)

METEOROLOGICAL EARTH SATELLITES (continued)

Name
ESSA V

Date 20 Apr 6 7

bunch Vehicle

TAD

TOS - C

NASA Code

sitelpad WTE SLC-ZE

Remarks/Reaulte

P o l a r orbit, sun synchronous. C a r r i e d two Advanced Vidicon Camera Systems to provide 24 hour globa 1 wea t h e r coverage , Turned over to ESSA May 8 . Still in orbit; s t i l l transmitting. (S)
Operational c l o u d mapping spa cecraf t launched into an Earth- oriented, near-polar o r b i t to provide r e a l - t i m e d a t a f o r w e a t h e r a n a l y s i s and forecasting. Launch v e h i c l e successfully i n j e c t e d spacecraft into desired orbit at an i n c l i n a t i o n ta t h e e q u a t o r of 1' 0, 2 with an apogee of 925 and a perigee af 876 s t a t u t e miles. Orbital period i s 114.8 minutes. A l l s p a c e c r a f t subsystems performed well. Still in o r b i t ; still transmitting. {S) Seventh spacecraft in the TIROS Operational S a t e l l i t e (TOS) series and seventeenth in the TIROS series. ESSA V I I was successfully launched into the desired o r b i t a t 7 : 2 4 AM Em. The 340 pound polyhedral spacecraft carries two advanced Vidicon Camera Systefns (AVCS) to o b t a i n d a i l y g l o b a l c l o u d photos and a f l a t p l a t e radiometer to measure t h e heat balance of the atmosphere. Following operational checkout of the spacecraft ' s systems by NASA, it was turned over to ESSA far operational use in the National Meteorological S a t e l l i t e System. { S )

ESSA

VI

10 NOW 67

TAD

TOS-II

WTR SLC-2E

ESSA V I I

16 dug 68

Delta

TOS-E

IJTR

SLC- 2E

METEOROIIOGICAL EARTH SATELL1 TES (continued)

Remarks/ResuZts

Name -

Date
.

Iaunch Vehicle

NdSA
Cod e -

Sitelpad

NIMBUS
Nhbus I

28 dug 64 ThorAgena

Nimbus A

WTR SLC-2E

Polar orbit. 3% week l i f e because of mechanical problem causing l o s s of b a t t e r y power. Orbit more e l l i p t i c a l than planned d u e to premature Agena cutoff, t h u s p i c t u r e s of earth were n o t overlapping. Used APT to send c l o u d cover p i c t u r e s to l o c a l s t a t i o n s , A l s o , took cloud cover p i c t u r e s o f dark side of earth through infrared camera. Produced over 27,000 p i c t u r e s . S t i l l in orbit. (S)
600 mile n e a r circular orbit. Used to provide g l o b a l weather photography and i n f r a r e d d a t a on study of earth's heat balance, APT with d i r e c t l o c a l r e a d o u t , Inr a r e d radiometer provided n i g h t cloud cover photos. Still in orbit; s t i l l transmitting. (S)

Nimbus 11

15 m 66 y

TATAgena

Nimbus B

WTR SLC-ZE

METEOROLOGICAL EART!J SATELLITES {continued)

Name Nimbus

De te -

Launch Vehicle

NASA

Code -

18 May 68

ThoradAgena (Thrust Augmented

Nimbus B

WlX

First NASA launch using Thorad-Agena

SLC-2E

Thor-Agena)

Spacecraft included a r a d i o i s o t o p e thermoelectric generator (SNAP- 191, augmenting the s o l a r conversion power supply, to a s s e s s operational c a p a b i l i t y af r a d i o i s o t o p e power f o r long life w e a t h e r s a t e l l i t e s . A l s o carried a s a "piggy-back" payload was a U.S. Anny SECOR (Sequential Collation of Range) geodetic s a t e l l i t e . L i f t o f f at 0123 PET was normal. However, although the solid-propellant strap-on boosters performed normally, the Thor engine began an undamped oscillation about two seconds after liftoff. The launch vehicle w a s destroyed by t h e Range Safety O f f i c e r after 121 seconds of f l i g h t when it veered beyond limits.

Cu)

COMMUNICATIONS

A NAVIGATION m
~ite/Pad

PROGRAM

Nsme
ECHO -

Date

Launch

Vehi cle

Code -

NASA

~em~rks/Results

E cho

13 May 60 Delta

A- 10

ETR 17A

Attempt ta launch a 100 foot passive r e f l e c t o r sphere into orbit f a i l e d due to f a i l u r e i n upper s t a g e s . (U)

Echo I

12 Aug 60

Delta

A- l l

ETR 17A

FFrst passive cormnunications s a t e l l i t e ; 100 foot diameter sphere used a s a r e f l e c t i n g r e l a y for g l o b a l cormnunications w a s largest and most visible s a t e l l i t e to that time. Numerous successful l o n g range transmissions. Lost its s p h e r i c a l shape due t o meteorite punctures and l o s s of internal g a s e s . Re-entered atmosphere May 24, 1968. IS)
"Big Shot" suborbital inflation test of 135 foot diameter sphere. Canister ejection successful, but t o o r a p i d inf lstion r i p p e d balloon apart at 250 mile a l t i t u d e . Capsule with movie film re-entered and was recovered. (U)

Echo (Test)

15 Jan 62 Thor

AVT- 1

Echo (Test)

18 J u l 62

nor

AVT-2

ETR

1 7A

Inflation test of 13 story balloon, "Big Shot", was successful. Visible far 10 minutes frm Cape Canaveral, it was the largest man-made object sent into space, the previous record being h e l d by Echo I. Re- entered July 27,

1962.

(S)

COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGUM


(continued] La un ch Vehicle
NASA

Name

Date
25 Jan 64

Cede
A- 22

Sitelpad

Ranarks/Results
Passive cmun5cations s a t e l l i t e . 535 l b . b a l l o o n , 135 ft. d i a m e t e r . International communications experlments between U.K. and U.S.S.R. and U.S. Still in orbit. (S)

Echo I1

ThorAgerna

TJTR
SLC- 2E

RELAY

Relay I

13 Dec 62

Delta

A- 15

ETR 17A

P i r s t launch with u p r a t e d D e l t a . Power supply v o l t a g e originally t o o 1 ow f o r communication experiments ; v o l t a g e built up and early in January 1963 transatlantic TV transmissions began. S t i l l in o r b i t , ( S )

Relay II

21 Jan 64

Delta

A-16

ETR 17B

S i m i l a r to Relay I, but had longer expected operating t i m e , more e f f i cient orbit and i n t e r n a l changes designed to improve operation over e a r l i e r design. The 183.6 Ib. spacec r a f t successfully t r a n s m i t t e d t e l e v i s i o n t e s t patterns a t the end of its f i r s t orbit and performed successfully when t e s t e d on subsequent o r b i t s . S t i l l in orbit; s t i l l transmitting.
(S)

COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGRAM


(continued)
Launch Vehicle

Name TELSTAB

Dkt e

NASA
Code -

Sitei'pad

Remarks/Resul t s

Telstar I

10 Jul 62 Delta

A- 40

F i r s t active communication satellite (also first c m e r c i a l satellite), owned and operated by AT&T, launched by NASA. Transmission ceased c m November 23, 1962 but w a s restored on January 4, 1963 and transmitted until February 21, 1963. Still in o r b i t . (S)
S a t e l l i t e used successfully for several communicat~ons t e s t s , including trans-

Telstar I1

7 May 63

Delta

6-41

mission of black and white and color TV (live and video tape) a s w e l l as voice messages between U . S . , France, and England. S t i l l in orbit; n o t transmitting (S)

Syncmt I

14 Feb 63 Delta

A- 25

ETR

17B

F i r s t attempt for near-synchronous, 24-hour orbit successful. S a t e l l i t e transmitted data during launch, then went silent in orbit. Was lost until location was confirmed by photographs March 1, 1963. Still in o r b i t , but current elements not maintained. (P)

THRUST-AUGMENTED DELTA

I9 AUGUST 1 964

SYNCOM Ill

ColfMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGIUM (continued)

Name

Date
26 J u l 63

La un eh Vehicle Delta

A-26

NASA Code

Sitelpad
ETR 17A

Remarks/Results
t o achieve synchronous 24-hour o r b i t . Entered definite synchronous o r b i t over B r a z i l and t h e S o u t h A t l a n t i c Ocean on August 15. Reached an a l t i t u d e of 22,300 miles and a speed of 6,800 mph, matching t h e e a r t h ' s rota t i o n speed of 1,040 mph at the equator to keep it on station. S t i l l in o r b i t . (S)

Syncom II

World's first s a t e l l i t e

Syncm 111

19 Aug 64

TAD

A-27
Syncm C

ETR 17A

Syncom TI1 was launched into preliminary o r b i t and l a t e r maneuvered into synchronous orbit position over t h e P a c i f i c above the Equator and the International Dateline. Live TV p i c t u r e s of the Olympic Games in Tokyo were transmitted t o the U.S. by Syncm 111. Still in o r b i t . (S)

Intel s a t I: 6 Apr 65 (Early Bird 1)

TAD

EB-A

First commercial satellite launched by NASA f o r ComSat Corp. on a reimbursable b a s i s ; up to 240 voice channels, television er high speed data between North America and Europe. S t i l l in geostationary orbit over A t l a n t i c , 27.5O west longitude. (S)

COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGRAM


(continued)

Name I n t e l s a t 11

Dare
26 O c t 66

Launch Vehicle
TAD

NASA

Code F- P

ETR

17B

Purpose of Intelsat program was to p l a c e t w o s e p a r a t e l y launched sgacec r a f t in 24 hour synchronous a r b i t f o r c m m ~ n i c a t i o nuse. F - l was to be t h e P a c i f i c s a t e l l i t e . Munched by NASA under the c o n t r a c t with C m S a t 'She Apogee motor burned s h o r t g i v i n g t h e satellite an e l l i p t i c a l rather than a s t a t i o n a r y orbit. Was usable f o r communications about 12 h o u r s a d a y . S t i l l in o r b i t . (P)

I n t e l s a t I1 (Pacific I)

11 Jan 67 TAD

T h i r d ComSat corrrmercial s a t e l l i t e , launched to t a k e t h e p l a c e of I n t e l s a t I1 E-1. Entered i n t o geostationary o r b i t over t h e P a c i f i c (176"E), it provided c m u n i c a t i o n s f o r NASA and commercial users. S t i l l in o r b i t . ( S ) F o u r t h ComSat commercial s a t e l l i t e . Placed in geostationary orbit aver the A t l a n t i c at: 5% for communication service befmeen North and South America and Europe. Still in Orbit. ( S ) ETR

Intelsat 11 (Atlantic 2)

22 M r 67 a

TAD

I n t e l s a t I1 (Pacific 2)

27 Sep 67

TAD

17B

Fifth commercial communications satellite Launched by NASA f o r ComSat to supplement and back-up I n t e l s a t I1 F-2 (Pacific I). Still in geostationary orbit over P a c i f i c a t about 176%. (5)

COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGRAM


(continued) Launch Vehicle
NASA Code

Name Intelsat III

Date

111-A

SiteJPad
ETR 17A

~emarks/Besults
First of three spacecraft planned ta improve global communication network. Tntelsat 111's are designed to provide teleconnnux1icatian service to a l l a r e a s of t h e world v i a a c t i v e satellite. P r e liminary d a t a indicated that a t 102 seconds i n t o t h e flight a malfunction developed in the p i t c h r a t e system in the f i r s t s t a g e a u t o p i l o t , The space vehicle was destroyed. This w a s the f i r s t of the long tank D e l t a configuration to be launched frm the ETR. (U)

18 Sep 68 TAD

THOR-ABLE

1 1 OCTOBER E 958

PIONEER F

34

SCTENTIFIC LUNAR PROBES. ORBITERS- AND IANDERS

Name Pioneer I

Date

Launch Vebi cle

Code -

NASA

Site/Pad

Remarks/ResuLts

11 O c t 58

ThorAble

--

ETR 176

Lunar probe. Uneven separation of second and third stages; reached a l t i t u d e of 70,717 miles. V e r i f i e d Van Allen Belt and returned other useful data before payload re-entered a f t e r 43 hours. (U)

Pimeer I1

8 Nov 58

ThorAble

--

Lunar probe. T h i r d stage f a i l e d t o ignite; reached 963 miles. Brief deta i n d i c a t e d that earth's equatorial region has higher flux and energy levels than previously believed. Suggested micrometeoroid density h i g h e r near earth than in space.
(Y U

Pioneer 311

6 Dee 58

Juno 11

--

Lunar probe. Premature cutoff of f i r s t stage, f a i l e d t o produce required velocity for lunar probe. Reached altitude of 63,580 miles t o contribute major scientific discovery of dual bands of r a d i a t i o n araund the e a r t h . Reentered a f t e r 38 hours, 6 minutes. (U)

ATLAS-ABLE

1 5 DECEMBER 1958

36

SCIENTIFIC LUNAR PROEES. OKBITERS- AND LAIDERS


(continued)
Name -

Date 3 Mar 59

Launch Vehicle

NA SA
Code --

Site/Pad
ETR 5

~anarks/~esul ts
Lunar probe, Instrumented for space r a d i a t i o n measurements on Earth-moon t r a j e c t o r y ; c a r r i e d photo- e l e c t r i c scanner for use in v i c i n i t y of moon. Trajectory caused it to p a s s within 37,000 miles of moon; not close enough for scanner t o function. Yielded excellent data on radiation in space. Was tracked f o r 82 hours t o a distance of 407,000 miles (greatest tracking distance for man-made object t o d a t e ) before going into permanent heliocentric (solar) orbit. ( S )

Pioneer JV

Juno II

Pioneer

26 Nav 59

AtlasAble
Atlas-

ETR 14

Lunar probe. Payload shroud broke away 45 seconds after liftoff, satellite torn off. (U)
L u n a r orbit attempt; f a i l e d to achieve trajectory due to second stage malfunction.

Pioneer

25 Sep 60

ETR
12

Able Pioneer
15 Dec 60 A t l a s -

cu>
ETR

Able

12

Lunar orbit attempt; exploded 70 seconds after liftoff due t o f i r s t stage m a l function. (U)

SCIENTIFIC LUNAR PROBES, ORBITERS, AND U N D E R S (continued)

Date RANGER

Launch Vehi cl e

P-32

NASA Code

Sitelpad

Remarks/Results -

Ranger I

23 Aug 61

Atlas-

Agena

ETR 12

Lunar probe. I n j e c t e d into low e a r t h orbit r a t h e r than planned deep space orbit due to failure of Agena s t a g e to restart, Served a s useful engineering test. Returned scant scientific data before re-entry on August 2 9 , 1961. (U)
Lunar probe, Placed in l o w earth orbit r a t h e r than programmed deep space orbit. T e s t of spacecraft achieved. Re-entered same day, (U)

Ranger I1

18 Nov 61 A t l a s A g ena

P-33

Ranger 111

26 Jan 62

Atlas-

P-34

Agena

ETR 12

United S t a t e s ' f i r s t attempt to roughland separable instrumented c a p s u l e on l u n a r surface. Spacecraft: i n j e c t e d into l u n a r transer path a t excessive v e l o c i t y due to malfunction in A t l a s guidance equipment. Arrived in area of the moon approximately 14 hours early, missing it by 22,862 miles. P r o v i d e d first measurement of interplanetary g a m ray flux. Entered s o l a r o r b i t . (U)

SCTEWIFIC L L W R PROBES, ORBZTERS, A N D LANDERS ( cont i a u e d )

Name Ranger IV

Date 23 Aps 62

bunch Vehicle
AtlasAgena

NASA
Code -

P-3 5

ETR

12

First l u n a r impact: for a U . S . payload. Put into p r o p e r l u n a r i m p a c t t r a j e c t o r y by Agena r e s t a r t , b u t f a i l u r e of timer prevented controlled descent onto moon's surfa c e and precluded a c c m p l f shment of engineering and scientific experiments. No mid-course correction. Crashed onto b a c k s i d e of moon on April 26, 1962. NhTle full f l i g h t objectives were not achieved, a h i g h order of performance in t h e Atlas-AgenaJRanper combjnation w a s demonstrated. (P)

Ranger V

18 O c t 62

AtlasAgena

S p a c e c r a f t launched into proper Lunar i m p a c t trajectory; a f t e r 1 5 m i n u t e s of normal operation, malfunction caused spacecraft to transfer from solar to b a t t e r y power. Norma 1 operation never resmed; b a t t e r y power supply ran down a f t e r 8 h o u r s , rendering spacecraft systems and experiments useless. Passed w i t h i n 450 miles of moon and on i n t o s o l a r o r b i t ; tracked ta distance of 790,000 miles. (a)

Ranger VI

30 Jan 64

AtlasAge-

Ranger A (P-53)

ETR 12

Successful launch but mission nat accom-

p l i s h e d due to f a i l u r e of TV cameras which were to transmit 3,OUO p i c t u r e s of the m o o n a t a l t i t u d e s ranging from 900 to 4 miles. Ranger impacted in the Sea of Tranquility a t 4 : 2 4 A EST on February 2, M precisely on s c h e d u l e . (P)

SCIENTIFIC LUNAR PROBES, OEU3TTERS, AND ~ N l l E R S (continued)

Name -

Date

Launch Vehicle
Agena

Ranger B

NASA Code

Ranger V I I

28 J u l 64 A t l a s -

(P-54)

ETR 12

The 806 l b . spacecraft which c a r r i e d six TV cameras was successfully p l a c e d i n t o parking o r b i t , and l a t e r injected,into lunar t r a j e c t o r y by restarting the Agena motor. During t h e last 15 minutes of f l i g h t , t h e cameras s e n t back 4,316 h i g h q u a l i t y photographs of the moon's surface. The f i n a l p i c t u r e s were transmitted 2 . 3 seconds before impact on J u l y 31, 1964 A 1 1 a s p e c t s of t h e t e s t were successful. (S)
Lunar phatography 7,137 p i c t u r e s o b t a i n e d ; impact occurred about 15 miles from target in Sea of Tranquility on February 20, 1965. (S) Lunar photography. 5,814 p i c t u r e s obtained, impact only a few miles from t a r g e t i n eastern floor of c r a t e r of Alphonsus, March 2 4 , 1965. Pictures converted f o r live viewing an cmmercial !W. Final mission of Ranger series. ( S )

Ranger V I I f

1 7 Feb 65

AtlasAgena

Ranger C

Ranger IX

21 Mar 65 A t l a s Agena

Rsnger D

SCIENTIFIC LUMR PROBES, ORBITERS, AND PANDERS


(contf n u e d )

Name -

Date

Launch Vehicle

NASA

Code -

Sitelpad

Remarks/Results

LUNAR ORBITER
Lunar O r b i t e r 10 Aug 66
1
AtlasAgena
LO-A

E m
13

First 05 f i v e planned missions t o explore e q u a t e r i a l regions of moon to s e l e c t area for Apollo landing. Put into lunar o r b i t a t h e i g h t of 117 t o 1159 miles, laLer lowered to 25 m i l e s a t p e r i l u n e . Total of 207 frames taken; high- resolut2on camera p i c t u r e smeared, medium resolution excellent. Terminated by crashing into moon on October 2 9 , 1966 to avoid c o n f l i c t w i t h LO-2. (S)

Lunar Orbiter ff

6 Nov 66

AtlasAgena

LO- 3

ETR 13

Orbited Moon at perilune of 31 m i l e s and photographed 13 primary target s i t e s f o r Apollo landing. Returned 205 high-resolution photos before pictures stopped December 6 (one day early), when high-power transmission ceased. Also monitored r a d i a t i o n i n lunar environment. Crashed on lunar surface October 11, 1 9 6 7 . (S)
Lunar o r b i t at perilune of 34 miles, 211 pictures ef Apallo and Surveyor sites taken (72% of planned) before malfunction in priority seedout s y s t e m caused termination on February 24. A l s o continued ID-B experiments. Crashed on lunar surface October 9 , 1967. ( S )

Lunar Orbiter 111

4 Feb 67

AtlasAg e m

LO-C

ETR 13

SCIXNTIFZC LUNAR PROBES, ORBITERS, A M , LANDERS (continued)

Name

Date 4 May 67

Launch Vehicle
AtlasA g ena

LO- D

NASA Code

Lunar Orbiter

IV

ETR 13

N e a r p o l a r lunar o r b i t . Problems w i t h Thermal Camera Door overcome. 99% coverage of lunar face and some of backside. Readout of photos completed June 1. Crashed on lunar surface October 6, 1 9 6 7 . (S)

Lunar Orbiter

I Aug 67 A t l a s Agena

LO-E

ETR

13

Lunar orbit st 42 mile perilune, Photographed Apollo target s i t e s , areas of scientific interest, and backside areas not previously covered, P h o t o readout completed August 28. Still in lunar orbit. ( S )

SURVEYOR Sunreyor I

30 May 66

Atlas-

Surveyor A

Centaur

ETR 3 66

Soft landed on Moon in t h e Ocean of Storms, June 2 , proving c a p a b i l i t y of launch v e h i c l e and spacecraft Returned thousands of high-quality pictures. Selenolagical data o b t a i n e d on morphology and lunar origin. Completed mission J u l y 13. (S)

Surveyor 11

20 Sep 66 AtlasCentaur

Surveyor B

ETR
3 6A

Intended to demonstrate soft lunar l a n d i n g and provide data far Apollo program. Flight successful until midcourse maneuver, when one of three vernier engines f a i l e d to ignite, causing spin. Data obtained on spacecraft performance until it crashed on Moon September 22. (PI

SCIXTTTFIC LUNAR PROBES. ORBITERS. AND LANDERS


( continued)

Name
Surveyor 111

Date -

Launch Vehicle
AtlasCentaur

Code -

NASA

1 7 Apr 67

Survey o r C

ETR 36B
-

Soft landed on Moon within Apollo landi n g area. R e t u r n e d TV pictures and obtained data on Lunar surface by digging up a sample with a claw. On b a s i s of data, scientists concluded that lunar soil h a s consistency similar t o w e t sand, with a bearing strength of 10 p s i , firm enough for A p o l l a landing. Experiments stopped May 2, when lunar n i g h t began. (S)
Carried a surface claw similar t o Surveyor 111, w i t h a magnet in the claw t~ measure ferrous elements in lunar soil. F l i g h t was successful until a l l c m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h Surveyor IV were lost 2 seconds before retrorocket burnout, 2% minutes before landing. S c i e n t i s t s t h e o r i z e that Surveyor IV spacecraft exploded. (P)

Surveyor IV

14 Jul 67

Atlas-

Surveyor D

Centaur

ETR 36 A

ATLASCENTAUR

SCIENTIFIC L m R PROBES, ORBITERS, ANT3 TAMDEW


(cant inued)

Name
Surveyor V

Date

Launch Vehicle
Centaur

Surveyor E

NASA Code

Sitelpad
EZ"R

Rmarks/Resu! ts
S o f t l a n d e d on Moon in Sea of Tranquility on September 1 0 . Spacecraft, landed on inner slope of small crater, about 30 feet in diameter and 4+ feet deep, with t h e TV camera about 20 inches above crater's rim. Returned TV pictures of surface, some in c o l o r . Conducted a vernier engine experiment to investig a t e erosion from rocket's flame. Obtained touchdown dynani cs, t h e r m a l and radar reflectivity data on lunar surface. Performed alpha scattering experiments to determine r e l a t i v e abundance of elements in lunar s o i l . S h u t d m f o r lunar n i g h t on September 2 4 . CS) S o f t landed in Sinus Medii near A p o l l o Site I1 P-8 ( 3 ) November 9, a f t e r 53 hours, 22 minutes f l i g h t from Earth. Transmitted over 30 thousand pictures to E a r t h during

8 Sep 67 A t l a s -

368

SurveyorVI

7 N o v 6 7 AtlasCentaur

Surveyor F

ETR

36B

first lunar day operations. Besides surveying lunar surface, also photographed E a r t h , J u p i t e r , and t h e stars Canopus, Capella, S i r i u s and Vegs. Obtained data on touchdown dynamics, thermal and radar reflectivity of lunar surface, and relative abundance of chemical elements in lunar soil. On November 17, spacecraft's three vernier engines were restarted and Surveyor VL was l i f t e d about 13 feet o f f t h e lunar surface and translated a horf zontal distance of about 10 feet. Shutdown for lumr night on November 2 4 , 1967. ( S )

SCIENTIFIC LUNAR PROBES. ORBITERS. AND LANDERS


(continued)

Launch
Name Surveyor V f 3
Date

NASA

Vehicle
Atlas-

Code -

7 Jan 68

Surveyor G

Centaur

ETR 3 6A

L a s t spacecraft of current Surveyor series. S u c c e s s f u ~ l y launched from Cape Kennedy at 0130 EST (within one second of t h e desired l i f t o f f time) into a direct ascent lunar trajectory, which required only a single midcourse correction maneuver. S o f t landed near crater Tycho at 2005 EST January 9, 1968 after a flight of 66 hours, 34 minutes. Landing s i t e ( 4 0 . 8 9 S . Latitude, 11.44 W. longitude) was about 1.5 miles from aiming p o i n t . Returned over 21,000 t e l e v i s i o n pictures, including some s t e r e o pictures, of lunar surface and lunar rocks of special geological interest during f i r s t lunar day operations. On t w o different occasions, Surveyor camera detected laser beams directed from Earth towards t h e s p a c e c r a f t . A l s o , photographed Earth and J u p i t e r . Returned telemetry d a t a on lunar surface, similar to Surveyors I, 111, V, and VI. Spacecraft w a s shutdown f o r its f i r s t lunar n i g h t on January 22, 1968. (S)

SCIENTIFIC DEEP SPACE AND PLANETARY PROBES


Name

Date

Launch

NASA

Vehicle

Code -

Sitelpad

Pioneer V

IL Mar 6 0

Thor-Able

--

ETR L7A

Highly successful exploration of i n t e r p l a n e t a r y space between orbits of Earth and Venus; produced f i r s t data on nature of interplanetary space; established communication record of 2 2 . 5 million miles on June 26, 1960, a record unmatched until Mariner IT. F i r s t r a d i o communication a t interplanetary d i s tances. Tn solar orbit. I S )
Study of interplanetary phenomena in s p a c e . Provided simultaneous scientific measurements at widely separated points in heliocentric o r b i t in interplanetary space to provide data on interplanetary environment for U.S. advanced space program. (S)

Pioneer VI

16 Dec 65

TAD

Pioneer A

ETR
17A

Pioneer VII

17 Aug 66

TAD

Pioneer B

ETR 17A

Heliocentric o r b i t , measuring solar magnetic f i e l d , solar wind, and cosmic rays Like Pioneer VI, continued measurements of solar activity a t w i d e l y separated points in interplanetary s p a c e . O r b i t of 403 d a y s . ( S )

SCIENTIFIC D E E ' SPACE AND PTANETARY PROBES


(continued)

Name -

Date 13 Dec 67

Launch Vehicle Delta

Pioneer C

NASA Code

Sitelpad

Remarks/Results

Pioneer VITI

ETR 17B

Third mission in current Pioneer Program of s c i e n t i f i c interplanetary explara tion of a continuing b a s i s . Spacecraft similar in appearance to Pioneers VI and VII but contains different experiments. Intended to collect data including magnetic field, plasma, and cosmic ray measurements in a heliocentric (Sun-centered) orbit for a p e r i o d covering two or more passages of solar a c t i v i t y centers. Will a l s o a i d in providing a synoptic study of solarinterplanetary r e l a t i o n s by (a) long-term observations using t h e Pioneer series, and (b) correlative mea susements between t h e s e spacecraft. Was launched in a path ahead of Earth to give s p a c e c r a f t added velocity in solar orbit to move out beyond the orbit of Earth. A l l experiments working properly following o r b i t a l injection. Reached Earth ' s magnetospheric boundary a t approximately 1400 EST, December 15, 1967. On January 28, 1968 Sun, Earth and spacecraft were aligned, w i t h s p a c e c r a f t about two million miles from Earth, thus providing opportunity for f u r t h e r investigation of Earth" magnetic t a i l ( f i r s t performed by Pioneer V I I in September 1966). Early tracking data indicates Pioneer VIII w i l l reach an aphelion (furthest point from Sun) of 1.088 A.U., or 101,136,487.81 miles, and a perihelion (closest point to Sun) of 0.9892 A . U . , or 91,952,402.34 miles.

SCIENTIFIC DEEP SPACE AND PLANETARY PROBES


(continued)

Name -

Date
22 Jul 62

La unch Vehicle

Code -

NASA

sitelgad

R&rks/Results

Mariner I

AtlasAgena

P-37

ETR
12

A t t m p t e d Venus probe, t h e booster deviated frcnn course and was destroyed by t h e range s a f e t y o f f i c e r 290 seconds a f t e r launch. (U)

Mariner11

27Aug62

AtlasA l 3 a

P-38

E m 12

F i r s t spacecraft to scan another planet; passed w i t h i n 21,600 m i l e s of p l a n e t Venus on December 14, and made a 42 minute instsument scan of Venusian atmosphere and surface before continuing i n t o h e l i o c e n t r i c orbit. Transmissions from interplanetary experiments received until January 4 , 1963 from 54.3 million miles d i s t a n c e , establishing a new c m u n i c a t i o n record. (S)
Planetaxy exploration to the v i c i n i t y of Mars. The shroud f a i l e d to jettison; battery power dropped and there was no evidence to i n d i c a t e that t h e solar panels opened to replenish t h e power supply; conrmunications were lost. In p e m n e n t heliocentric o r b i t . (U)

Marines III

5 N w 64

AtlasAgena

ETR 13

MarinerfV

28Nov64

Atlas-

Mariner

Aa-

64D

Planetary and interplanetary exploration. Mars t r a j e c t o r y . Flyby occurred July 1 4 , 1965 with closest approach between f i v e and s i x thousand miles. 22 pictures were taken. In h e l i o centric orbit. (5) Purpose is t o conduct a single flyby mission to Venus in 1967 to complement and extend results of Mariner 11. 540 lb. s p a c e c r a f t . Planned to pass within 2,500 miles of Venus on October 19. Will measure the planet's magnetic field, foaoaphere, and xadiatian belts and temperature. W i l l be cut o f f from transmlttlng 10 days l a t e r , (S)

Mariner V

1 Jun 67 A t l a s 4 A g ena

Mariner E

ATLAS

PROJECT FIRE

Name

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NASA Code

Site/Pad

Bmarks/Results

Fire I

14 Apr 64

Atlas

ETR 12

First launch of F r o je c t Fire re- entry v e h i c l e in support of P r o j e c t A p o l l o . Designed to investigate re-entry a t escape speeds and beyond. Re-entry speed reached 25,750 miles p e r hour; h e a t i n g reached 1 1 , 2 0 0 degrees K, instead of the planned 11,300 degrees due to lower re-entry a n g l e of 14.5 degrees i n s t e a d of the planned nanina 1 15 degrees, Impacted 200 miles south of Ascension Island after a 32 minute flight. Test objectives achieved. (S)
Re-entry test. Fire I1 spacecraft, similar in shape to an Apolla c m n d module, was launched into a b a l l i s t i c trajectory to test re-entry h e a t i n g of a s p a c e c r a f t returning from the moon. Re-entry velocity of approximately 25,000 miles p e r hour. Second and last f l i g h t of Fire program. (S)

Fire I1

22 May 65

Atlas

ETR
12

SATURN C-l

SA-

ISIllTCtt: VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT TESTS

Name -

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NA SA
Code

Sitelpad

~marks/Results

SATURN
Saturn
27 O c t 6 1
Saturn C- 1
SA- 1

ETR
34

Successful initial flight t e s t of first stage. Take-o f f t h r u s t a c h i e v e d was 1,296,000 pounds. H u r l e d two waterfilled, dummy upper s t a g e s , c a r r i e d a s b a l l a s t , t o peak altitude of 84.8 miles and d l s t a n c e of 214.7 m i l e s down range. Reached maximum v e l o c i t y of 3,607 miles per hour before plunging into ocean 8 minutes a f t e r launch. (S)

Saturn

25 Apr 62

Saturn
C-l

SA- 2

Like first Saturn, f i r e d only f i r s t s t a g e engines, g e n e r a t i n g 1.3 million pounds of


thrust. D m y upper s t a g e s f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r were detonated a t 6 5 mile altitude (Project Highwater) and formed a r t i f i c i a l c l o u d . All test objectives a c h i e v e d . ( S )

Saturn

1 6 Nov 62

Saturn C- 1

F i r s t s t a g e o n l y ; coasted to I04 m i l e altitude where it was destroyed t o release 95 t o n s of water b a l l a s t i n t o the atmosphere, forming a huge ice c l o u d (Project Highwater). 411 test objectives a chi eved , ( S }
SA- 4

Saturn

28 Mar 63

Saturn

F i r s t stage only. One engine purposely s h u t o f f a f t e r 100 seconds to determine "engine-out" capability L a s t of four f i r s t stage tests. ( O f f i c i a l l y designated S a t u r n Z on February 7, 1963 .) (S)

SATURN I

19 J A N U A R Y 1964

54

UUNM VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT TESTS (continued)

Name
Saturn

Date 29 Jan 64

Launch Vehicle
Saturn

Code -

NASA
SA- 5

Site /Pad
E m 3 73

~emarks/~esults
F i r s t successful t e s t f l i g h t of t h e new Block I1 v e h i c l e s which have powered second s t a g e s . E i g h t H - 1 engines of the f i r s t stage operated at a rated capacity of 188,000 lb. each for a t o t a l of 1,505,000 I b . a5 thrust. The six engines of the second stage ignited a s planned at T-plus 149 seconds and delivered s total of 90,000 Ib, of t h r u s t . The o r b i t e d body weighed 37,700 lb., nearly 20,000 lb. of which w a s payload. During f 1 i g h t , e i g h t onboard mot ion p i c t u r e cameras and one TV camera provided t h e most: e l a b o r a t e o p t i c a l instrumentation ever carried on a launch vehicle to date. Seven of the eight motion p i c ture cameras t h a t w e r e ejected w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y recovered. Test proved flight c a p a b i l i t y of Saturn 1's l i q u i d hydrogen, clustered engine upper stage and demonstrated the vehicle's c a p a b i l i t y to o r b i t 20,000 pound payload. Re-entered April 3 0 , 1966. (S)

TAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT TESTS ( continued)

Nrne -

Date 28 May 64

Launch Vehf cle


Saturn

Code SA- 6

MSA

Saturn

FllR
3 7B

First major flight test in Project Apollo with successful orbiting of first boilerplate A p o l l o s p a c e c r a f t . The payload consisted of t h e boilerplate and the S-IV second s t a g e ; re- entered atmosphere and disintegrated over the western P a c i f i c d u r i n g i t s 50th o r b i t of t h e Earth an June 1, 1964. One mission h i g h l i g h t was the perfect performance of t h e ST-124 guidance p l a tfo m , which control l e d the second s t a g e during flight. One first stage engine shut down 24 seconds early, but deviation from the planned trajectory was corrected by the SA-4 guidance system. Test considered highly successful. (S)

Saturn

18 Sep 6 4

Saturn I

SA- 7

Boilerplate Apollo spacecraft cormnand and s e w i c e modules, instrument unit and S - I V stage were placed in o r b i t . A 1 1 major test o b j e c t i v e s were met. Motion picture cameras and a TV camera mounted on the S - I s t a g e recorded flight events. However, t h e motion p i c t u r e s were e j e c t e d near a hurricane area and recovery was not attempted. Re-entered atmosphere on September 22, 1964. (S)

I U C V E " H I C I 3 DEVELOPMENT TESTS A NH (continued) Uunch


NASA
Code

Name -

Date -

Vehicle

Site/~ad

Remarks/~esults
Spacecraft used to d e t e c t rnicrometeoroids, the f i r s t p r i m a r y use of capacitor-type p e n e t r a t i o n detector Sensor area, 2,000 sq. ft. Still i n o r b i t ; still transmitting.

Saturn/ Pegasus I

16 Feb 65 Saturn I

SA-9

E m 3 7B

(S)

Saturn/ Pegasus I1

25 May 65

Saturn I

SA-8

Near earth mi crmeteoroid environment data obtained; test of S a t u r n launch vehicle. Ninth successful test i n n i n e f l i g h t s for Saturn I. Still in orbit; still transmitting. [S)

saturn/
Pegasus 111

30 Jul 65

Saturn 1

SA-10

La st of current Pega sus program. Continued study of distribution, size, and velocity of meteoroids i n near earth o r b i t , and continued development of Saturn I veh3cle. S t i l l in o r b i t ; still transmitting. (S)

NOTE Further development tests of S a t u r n launch vehicles (Saturn TB and Saturn V) were conducted a s space v e h i c l e (launch vehicle p l u s spacecraft) development f l i g h t s . These tests were designated a s o f f i c i a l Project Apollo missions, and may be found under that listing.

ATLAS CENTAUR

8 MAY 1962
58

PAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT TESTS

(continued)
Name -

Date

Ls u ch n Vehicle

NASA

Code -

Centaur

8 May 62 A t l a s Centaur

F-1

Exploded 55 seconds a f t e r launch, apparently due to a structural f a i l u r e which r e s u l t e d in s fuel tank rupture. Vehicle destroyed before separation. (U)

Centaur

27 N w 63

Atlas-

AC-2

Centaur

ETR 3 66

First successful launch of Centaur; first known ignition of liquidhydrogen f u e l e d rocket engines i n space. Centaur d i d not carry an instrumented payload on t h i s space flight. S t i l l in orbit. (S) Technica 1 problems caused preliminary shutdown of t w o 15,000 lb. thrust R L l O engines 127 seconds before programed burning t i m e of 380 seconds e l a p s e d . Flight objectives which w e r e a t t a i n e d included successful jettison of insulation panels and nose fairings, separation of the A t l a s and Centaur s t a g e s , and demonstration of guidance s y s t m operatians. AC-3 achieved maximum velocity of 11,425 miles per hour and an a l t i t u d e of 345 miles. (P) Carried model of Surveyor spacecraft. A l l primary mission objectives m e t ; however, secondary t e s t of second burn not accompPished. Re- entered atmosphere December 12, 1 9 6 4 . (S)

Centaur

30 Jun 64

Atlas-

AC-3

Centaur

ETR 3 6A

Centaur

11 Dec 64 AtlasCentaur

AC- 4

ETR 3 6A

LAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT T E S T S (continued)

Name Centaur

Date 2 Mr 65 a

Lsunch Vehicle
Atlas-

Code AC-5

NASA

Site/pad FTR 36A

Remarks/Results
First attempt to p l a c e a Surveyor dynamic model into a simulated lunar transfer t r a j e c t o r y . Seconds a f t e r liftoff the A t l a s booster f a i l e d due to the closing of a fuel line valve. (U)

Centaur

Centaur

I1 dug 65 A t l a s Centaur

AC-6

Test f o r vehicle development, Fourth successful A t l a s-Centaur launch; a c c u r a t e l y put a Surveyor dynamf c model into a simul a t e d lunar trajectory; demonstrated capability of guidance s y s t e m . Still in orbit. (S)
V e h i c l e development test. Seventh A t l a s Centaur development flight Major ob ject i v e ; simulate lunar transfer t r a j e c t o r y using parking o r b i t , "two burn" indirect ascent. Nominal second burn not achieved. Payload, a Surveyor mass m d e l . Reentered atmosphere Fby 5, 1966. (U)

Centaur

7 Apr 66 A t l a s Centaur

AC- 8

Centaur

26

Oct

66

AtlasCentaur

AC-9

Final R&D of Centaur. Primary objective was restarting of Centaur engines after a coast phase i n o r b i t . AC-8 had failed in this. Llquid-hydrogen proved satisfactory, success meant that remaining 10 v e h i c l e s in t h e series would be flown on operational missions. A surveyor mass model was i n j e c t e d i n t o a simulated lunar t r a n s f e r a r b i t . Re-entered atmosphere November 6, 1966. (S)

PROJECT MERCURY (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


Laun ch
Name

Date

Vehicle

NA SA Code

Remarks /Results

B i g Joe

9 Sep 59

Atlas-

B i g Joe

--

ETR 14

Full-scale instrumented boilerplate model of Mercury capsule reached an altitude of 100 miles in re-entry test. Capsule recovered after suwiving re-entry heat of more than 10,000~F. (S)
Launch of Mercury production capsule by an A t l a s ended in failure when r r a l f u n c t i o n occurred one minute after l i f t o f f , resulting i n destruct i o n of Paunch v e h i c l e . (U)

Mercury

29 Ju1 60 MercuryAtlas

M-1

ETR 14

Mercury

21 Nov 60 MercuryRedstone

MR-1

Note: Generally not considered a launch, MR-1 rose one inch, stopped firing, and s e t t l e d back on pad. Premature booster cutoff, t r i g g e r e d by f a u l t y ground support circuitry, r e s u l t e d i n engine shutdown innnedia tely after ignition, and ignition of escape tower rockets. Capsule was used a g a i n in MR-1A launch on December 19, 1960 with a d i f f e r e n t booster. (U)

PROJECT HERCURY (FLIGHTS A N D TESTS) (continued)

Name -

Date

Launch Vehicle
MercuryR e d s t one

NA SA Code -

Mercury

19 Dec 60

MR-1A

ETR 5

Repeat of NR-1 flight mission was successful and a l l major o b j e c t i v e s fulfilled. Capsule re-entered and landed in target area 235 miles dawn range after reaching an altitude of 135 miles and speed up to 4,300 miles per hour. Capsule recovered in excellent condition 48 minutes after launch. ( S )

Mercury

31 Jan 61 MercuryRedstone

MR-2

ETR

Successfully launched, fully equipped, operationa L Mercury c a p s u l e c o n t a i n i n g 37 pound chimpanzee named "Ham" on 16 minute suborbital flight to altitude of 156 miles a n d over a distance of 420 miles. Excessive booster velocity carried s p a c e c r a f t h i g h e r and f a r t h e r than programed, but mission ob j e c t i v e s - - f l i g h t test of capsule and i t s life- support system-was achieved when spacecraft and passenger were recovered in satisfactory condition. (S)

PROJECT MERCURY (FLIGHTS A N l l TESTS)


(continued)

Name

Date

Launch Vehicle

NASA

Code MA-2

Mercury

21 Feb 61 MercuryAtlas

ETR

14

Successful 1 , 4 2 5 mile f l i g h t test of Mercury capsule. A t l a s shutdown prematurely to simulate an a b o r t . After s e p a r a t i o n , capsule coasted to altitude of 107 miles; automatic stabilization and control system oriented capsule for steep entry. Attained maximum velocity of 12,850 miles per hour. Landed in Atlantic Ocean 18 minutes after liftoff, sighted by search a i r c r a f t 4 minutes after landing, and recovered i n excellent condition shortly thereafter. Mercury-Atlas combination functioned smoothly during severe t e s t , which was an essential step before manned o r b i t a l flights c o u l d be attempted. (S) Booster development test f l i g h t t o verify modifications necessitated by MR-2 flight. M o d i f i e d Redstone carried boilerplate Mercury capsule t o an altitude of 115 miles and distance of 311 miles dawn range; test d i d not c a l l f o r separation or recovery of capsule. Completely successful flight q u a l i f i e d Redstone for manned suborbital flights. (S)

Mercury

24 M r 61 a

MercuxyBedstone

MR-ED

ETR 5

MERCURY-REDSTONE

PRWECT MERCURY (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Launch
7

NA SA
7

Name

Date -

Vehicle

Code

SUBORBITAL N N N E D )

Freedom 7

5 May 61 MercuryRedstone

MIC-3

ETEl
5

First U . S . suborbital manned space flight. After reaching peak altitude of 1 1 6 miles and velocity of 5 , 1 8 0 m i l e s per hour, Mercury capsule, manned by astronaut Alan B. Shepard, J r . , landed i n Atlantic Ocean 302 miles down range following 1 4 . 8 minute flight. A l l phases of flight were normal; astronaut and capsule recovered by helicopter w i t h i n 6 minutes of landing and placed aboard recovery vessel w i t h in I1 minutes. Astronaut undement 5 minutes of weightlessness and experienced maximum acceleration of 11 times Carried normal gravity on re-entry out a l l tasks a s assigned, demonstrating that man can control a vehicle during weightlessness and high G stresses, and suffer no adverse physiological effects. (S)

PROJECT MERCURY (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(continued)

Name -

Date

bunch

Vehicle

MR-4

NASA Cede

SiteJPad
FTR 5

Remrks/Results
Second U.S. suborbital manned space f l i g h t . Spacecraft , manned by astronaut V i r g i l I . Grissom, made successful 15 minute, 318 mile high, and 303 mile f l i g h t down range. A l l phases of flight were normal; however, due t o inadvertent firing of explosive hatch, capsule filled with w a t e r and sank. Astronaut egressed and wa s re covered and, w i t h exception of missing capsule, a l l missions were successfully accomplished. Analysis of data indicated that a l l objectives of suborbital phase of Project Mercury had been achieved and no further suborbital flights were necessary. ( S )

Liberty B e l l 7

21 JuL 6 1 MercuryRedstone

ORBITAL (UNMANNED)

Mercury

25Apr6l

MercuryAtlas

MA-3

ETR 14

Attempted o r b i t a l capsule test. A t l a s d i d not fellow programed f l i g h t path imnediately after l i f t o f f and was destroyed by range safety action at approximately 16,400 feet. Mercury capsule boosted clear of Atlas by escape tower rockets and was recovered intact. Provided thorough t e s t of abort and recovery s y s t e m s . (U)

PROJECT MERCmY (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) ( continued)

Name
Mercury

Date -

Launch Vehicle
Atlas

NASA

Code
MA-4

Sitelpad
ETR 14

13 Sep 61 Mercury-

Successfully completed one orbit. Capsule was recovered, Checked Mercury world-wide tracking network, IS)
Destroyed by range s a f e t y action 3 0 seconds a f t e r l i f t o f f . Air Force launched; had been intended a s test of global Mercury tracking network.

Mercury

INov61

MercuryS caut

MS-1

ETR 18B

(U)
Mercury

2 9 N o v 6 1 MercuryAtlas

MA-5

Scheduled three orbit flight to test a l l Mercury systems. Spacecraft, c a r r y i n g chimpanzee, completed two orbits when re-entry was commanded due to development of abnormal roll r a t e . Capsule w a s recovered 1 hour and 25 minutes after water landing, and well-performing "Enos" was recovered in excellent

condition.
ORBITAL (MANNED)

(S)

Friendship 7

20 Feb 62

MercuryAtlas

MA-6

ETR 24

F i r s t U . S , o r b i t a l manned space f l i g h t . Mercury spacecraft, manned by John H . Glenn, Jr., completed three orbits in 81,000 mile f l i g h t lasting 4 hours, 56 minutes. S p l a s h dawn in A t l a n t i c Ocean 166 miles e a s t of Grand Turk Island. Astronaut remained inside capsule until on deck of recovery vessel. F l i g h t prov i d e d significant aerospace m e d i c a l d a t a during 285 minutes of weightlessness. Astronaut piloted spacecraft during second and t h i r d orbits due to automatic pilot difficulties. I S )

MERCURY-ATLAS

20 FEBRUARY 1962

FRIENDSHIP 7

PROJECT MERCURY (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(continued)

Name -

Date

Launch Yehicl e
Atlas

NASA
Code Sitelpad

~emarks/~esults
Second U . S . orbital tnanned space f l i g h t with M. S c o t t Carpenter a s p i l o t , was placed into o r b i t at 17,532 miles p e r hour. 81,200 mile f l i g h t featured a t t i t u d e stabilization and control pilotage f o r completion of three orbits. R e - e n t r y error caused l a n d i n g 200 miles beyond intended area; astronaut egressed through t o p of capsule to a w a i t rescue three hours l a t e r . (S)

Aurora 7

2 4 M a y 62 Mercury-

MA-7

ETR 14

Sigma 7

3Oct62

MercuryAtlas

MA-8

ETR 14

Walter PI. Schixrs, Jr., t r a v e l e d 140,000 miles in Mercury spacecraft, completing nearly six orbits and returning to earth a t predetermined point i n Pacific Ocean about 9 hours, 14 minutes a f t e r launch. Safely aboard recovery vessel within 37 minutes after landing. F l i g h t proved f e a s i b i l i t y of prolonged weightlessness in space. (S)
Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, manning Mercury spacecraft, completed 22 orbits, traveling approximately 593,885 miles in 34 hours, 20 minutes. Astronaut and spacecraft recovered only 36 minutes a f t e r splash down in P a c i f i c Ocean. (S)

Faith 7

15 May 63 MercuryAtlas

MA-9

PROJECT GEMINI (FLIGHTS A M ) TESTS)


Name -

Date
8 Apr 64

Ia .unch
Vehi cl e

NASA
Code -

GEMINI (tnWNNED)

Gemini I

GeminiTitan IT

m- I

ETR 19

F i r s t Project Gemini f l i g h t , which tested t h e T i t a n I1 launch v e h i c l e , Gemini spacecraft st ructura 1 integrity, and spacecraft- launch vehicle compatibility Spacecraft placed int o orbit of 204 mile apogee, 99.6 mile perigee and 89.27 minute period. No separation between the 7,000 pound spacecraft and the spent rocket ca sing was planned; orbiting assembly re- entered the atmosphere and disintegrated about 3% days l a t e r . Test objectives achieved.

(S)
Gemini I1
19 Jan 65

GeminiTitan TI

GT-2

ETR 19

Space Vehicle Development. Suborbital, unmsnned re-entry t e s t a t maximum heating rate; demonstrated structural integrity and systems performance of the spacecraft throughout the flight, re-entry and parachute w a t e r landing. Recovery in down range Atlantic. {S)

GEMINI (MANNED)
G e m i n i I11

23 Mar 65 GeminiTitan 31

GT-3

ETR
19

First manned Gemini. Virgil Grissom, cmmnand p i l o t , and John W. Young, p i l o t . Three orbits, 4 hours and 53 minutes in space. F i r s t use of O r b i t a l Attitude Maneuver System. First control of re-entry f l i g h t path using v a r i a b l e spacecraft. Spacecraft unofficially c e l l e d ' M o l l y Brown". (S)

FROJECT G

~ (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) L (continued)

Name Gemini I V

D%te

launch Vehicle

NASA
Code CX-4

3 Jun 65 G e m i n i T i t a n I1

ETR 19

James McDivitt, conrmtlnd p i l o t , Edward White, pilot. 62 orbits, a total of 9 7 hours and 59 minutes i n space. First extravehicular activities (EVA) for 22 minutes, and the first use of personal propulsion unit (both by White). A program of eleven scientific experiments was successfully conducted, rendezvous with booster not achieved due to excess f u e l consumption. First mission controlled from MSC. Recovery by USS Wasp. (S)

Gemini V

21 Aug 65

GeminiT i t a n I1

GT-5

ETR

19

L. Gordon Cooper, cmmand pilot, Charles Conrad, p i l o t . 120 revolutions, a t o t a l of 190 hours, 56 minutes in space. (8 days) Demonstrated physiological f e a s i bility of lunar mission; evaluated spacecraft performance. Successfully simulated rendezvous and 16 of 1 7 experiments were performed. First use of t h e f u e l c e l l . Recovery by the carrier, Lake Champlain. (S)
Agena stage t a r g e t vehicle for V I rendezvous disintegrated at: ignition of ma in Agena engine; o r b i t . Caused postponement of which was l a t e r rescheduled to w i t h Gemini VII. (U)
Gemini time of d i d not Gemini VI, rendezvous

Gemini VI (Target Vehicl e )

25 O c t 65

Atlas-

GATV

ETR

Agena

14

PROJECT G W N I (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(continued)
Date -

Uunch Vehi cle


GeminiT i t a n If

NASA
Code GT- 7

4 Dec 65

ETR 19

Frank Borman, corrnnand pilot, and James Lovell, p i l o t . 206 revolutions, 330 hours and 35 minutes in space, the longest duration to date. The f i r s t U.S. space flight in which part of the f l i g h t was made without space s u i t . U s e d a s a rendezvous vehicle f o r GT-6, t h e t w o coming within one foot. Landed on December 18th, 17 miles from the

uss
Gmnini V I

Wasp.

(S)

15 Dec 65 G e m i n i Titan I1

GT-6

ETR

19

Walter Schirra, command p i l o t , Thomas S t a f f o r d , p i l o t . Conducted world's first sendemous, using Gemini VII, f o r 5 hours, 19 minutes, approaching as near a s one f o o t ; re-entered December 16th a f t e r 25 hours, 51 minutes. Landed within 12 m i l e s of the USS Wasp. (S) Target v e h i c l e a v a i l a b l e f o r passive rendezvous. U s e d a s a rendezvous -vehicle for Gemini V I I I . Re-entered atmosphere September 15, 1967. (P)

Gemini VIII (Target Vehf c l e )

16 Mr 66 a

AtlasAgena

GATV

ETR 14

ATMSAGENA

16 MARCH 1966

GEMlNl AGENA TARGET VEHICLE

74

PROJECT GEMINI (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) ( cont i n u e d )

h e Gmin5 VllX

Date -

Launch Vehicle Titan 11

EC- 8
EJ !X

NASA Code

16 Mr 66 G e m h i a

19

N e i l Armstrong, Command Pilot, and David Scott, P i l o t . 7 revolutions, 10 hours and 42 minutes in space. First dual launch and docking with the Agena target vehicle. Mission curtailed by short c i r c u i t i n the O r b i t a l Attitude Maneuvering System d e p l e t i n g fuel through thruster #8. Unexpected yaw and r o l l motion caused astronauts t o undock, use their re-entry control system to s t a b i l i z e the spacecraft, and re-enter on t h e 7 t h revolution instead of going the planned 44. Landing was i n s t i p u l a t e d emergency area in the Western P a c i f i c , 3 miles fram USS Mason. EVA for one o r b i t not achieved. (P)
Taxget vehicle for GT-9. The number two A t l a s engine malfunctioned, the number one engine was unable to compensate for the pitch down attitude and the missile f e l l into the Atlantic. (U)

Gmini IX (Target Vehicle)

17 May 66 A t l a s Agena

GATV

ETR

14

G e m i n i IX (Augmented

1 Jun 66

Atlas

ATDA

Target Docking Adapter Vehicle)

Sent up in l i e u of t h e unsuccessful GATV for GT-9. The ATDA was to be used f o r rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Hawever, due t o the f a u l t y installation of separation devices, the protective shroud f a i l e d to separate f r o m t h e s a t e l l i t e . Rendezvous later accomplished w i t h t h e shroud still in p l a c e . Re-entered atmosphere June 11, 1966 (P)

1 JUNE lObh

AUCZZENTEI) TARGET ADAPTER VEHICLE

76

PROJECT GEMINI (FLIGHTS AND TESTS1


(continued)

Name Gemini IX

Date

Launch Vehicle

NASA
Code

Site/%d

Remarks/Results
Thomas S t a f f o r d , cormand p i l o t , and Eugene Cernan, pilot, were in o r b i t for 44 revolutions. The primary purpose w a s to rendezvous and dock with the GATV and t o e v a l u a t e EVA. The ATDA, sent up in place of the unsuccessful GATV, kept i t s protective shroud, making docking impossible, although rendezvous was accomplished. Splash down on June 6 t h , 600 m i l e s from Cape Kennedy, 31 miles from the USS Wasp. (P)
Rendezvous vehicle for GT-10. Launched 300 minutes before launch of GT-10. Placed in near circular orbit o f 184 miles. Re-entered abnosphere December 29, 1966. IS)
John Young, c m n d p i l o t , with Michael Collins, pilot. Primary purpose was to rendezvous and dock with Agena test vehicle. Secondary objectives included rendezvous with the GT-7 target vehicle. More fuel used in docking than was planned. Docking accomplished on fourth revolution, Mated spacecraft reached apogee of 476 miles, l a t e r rendezvoused with GATV of GT-8. Stand-up EVA by Collins terminated due to i r r i t a t i o n in e y e s . Umbilical EVA terminated to save f u e l . Re-entered on July 21 a f t e r 43 revolutions. ( 5 )

3 Jun 66 GeminiTitan I1

C=r-9

ETR 19

Gemini X (Target Vehi ele)

18 Jul 66 A t l a s Agena

GATV

ETR 14

Gemini X

18 Jul 66 GeminiTitan I1

GT-I0

Ern
19

(continued)

Name
Gemini Xf (Target Vehicle)

Launch

NASA
Code -

Date 12 Sep 66

Vehicle
AtlasAgena

GATV

ETR

14

Launched 97 minutes Near c i r c u l a r o r b i t Docking vehicle far ahnosphere December

before GT-11. of 185 m i l e s . GT-11. Re-entered 30, 1966. (S)

Gemini XI

12 Sep 66

GeminiTitan 11

GT-11

ETR 19

Charles Conrad, c m n d pilot, Richard Gordon, p i l o t . Achieved main goal of rendezvous on first revolution. Four practice dockings aecmplished. Gordon's planned 105 minute EVA cut s h o r t after 44 minutes when prescribed tasks caused perspiration t o b l i n d h i s e y e s . Mated spacecraft attained an apogee of 851 miles. Gordon took 2 hour, 8 minute standup EVA, conducting photographic experiments. GATV and GT-11 tethered by rope. R e - e n t r y on September 15 a f t e r 71 hours, 17 minutes, 44 revolutions. Landed 2 miles from t a r g e t , picked up by USS Guam. IS)
Target vehicle launched 98 minutes b e f o r e GT-12. W e n t into a 158-169 mile o r b i t . Trouble with propulsion system caused cancellation of plans to raise spacecraft (mated) apogee to 530 miles. Re-entered atmosphere December 23, 1966. I S )

GeminiXII (Target Vehi cl e )

IINov66

AtlasAgem

GATV

ETR

14

PROJECT GEMINI (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(continued)
Launch
Vehlcle

Name
Gemini X I 1

Date

Code -

NASA

Site/Pad

Rmrks/~es~llts

11 Nov 66

Gernini-

GT-I2

ETR
19

Titan 11

Manned o r b i t a l f l i g h t , with James Love11 a s conrmand p i l o t and Edward A l d r i n a s pilot. Rendezvous and docking w i t h GATV completed on t h i r d revolution. Photos taken of t o t a l solar e c l i p s e on November 12. Two stand-up E V A r s for 208 minutes and 129 minutes of umbilical EVA. None
of the former problems w i t h EVA arose. Undocking and t e t h e r experiments c a r r i e d o u t . Mission successfully ended a f t e r 94 hours, 35 minutes, and 59 revolutions. Landed 3 miles off target, picked up by USS Wasp in the Atlantic. Last G e m i n l f l i g h t . (S)

UPRATED SATURN

26 FEBRU hRY 1966

80

PROJECT APOLLO (FLIGHTS AND TESTS1


Name -

Date

Launch
Vehicle

AS-201 (CM/ SM-009)

NASA Code

Sitelpad

Rernarks/~esults

Apollo 1

26 Feb 66 Saturn IB

ETR

34

First o f f i c i a l l y designated Apollo mission. First launch of t w o stage Saturn IB (SA-201) and Apollo spacecraft ( 0 0 9 ) U m n n e d suborbi t a P flight to q u a l i f y launch vehicle, spacecraft command module ( l heatO) shielding and service module (SM) systems. Liftoff a t 11:12 AM EST was normal and powered flight was a s programed. After separation from the launch vehicle, spacecraft reached 310 mile altitude. During descent SM reaction- control system rockets were f i r e d m c e and main engine was f i r e d

t w i c e , to increase spacecraft ' s re-entry speed. SM w a s jettisoned and CM re-entered atmosphere a t 27,500 feet per second reaching a re-entry heat of about 40' F. CM 00 was recovered in good condition from South Atlantic near Ascension Island by helicopter from USS Boxer after: 39 minute flight. (S)

NOTE

The Saturn IB launch vehicle w a s renamed the Uprated Saturn I on June 9 , 1966. On January 15, 1968, t h e name was changed back to Saturn 13. Consequently, t h e A p o l l o 1 mission was launched by a Saturn IB, Apollo 2 and 3 were both launched by an Uprated Saturn I, and A p o l l o 5 was launched by a Saturn IB; a l l four launch vehicles were of the same type.

PROJECT APOLIN (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Name -

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NASA
Code -

Sitelpad

Remarks/Results

Apollo 2

5 Ju1 66

Uprated Saturn I

AS-203

ETR 3 73

Umnned flight to test launch vehicle second (S-IW) stage and instrument (IU), which reflected Saturn V conf i g u r a t i o n . 58,500 lb. payload consisting of S - I n , fU and a nosecone (heaviest s a t e l l i t e orbited by U.S.) was injected into 117 mile circular o r b i t . S-IVB engine burned during launch phase, then shutdown, Capability of engine t a restart in space demonstrated in theory. TV photos of liquid hydrogen fuel behavior in space transmitted to ground stations by camera within tank. Stage exploded on f o u r t h orbit during test of c m o n bulkhead when d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure in tanks rose w e l l above design values. Pieces re-entered atmosphere between July 5 and J u l y 22, 1966. (S)

PROJECT A P O U O (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Name

Date

bunch
Vehicle

AS- 202

NASA Code

~ite/Pad

Remarks/Results

Apollo 3

25 Aug 66 Uprated
Saturn I

ETR

CCMISM-011)

34

Second f l i g h t test of major spacecraft systems and second performance check of

cmmand module (CM) heatshielding; f f r s t use of spacecraft f u e l cell power system. Liftoff a t l:16 PM EDT was normal. Launch vehicle (SA-202) developed 1,600,000 lb. thrust during first IS-IB) stage powered f l i g h t . After separation of Apollo spacec r a f t (011) , s e m i ce module (SM) engine w a s burned once t o ra5s.e spacecraft to 706 mile altitude, then was i g n i t e d and cut off three more t i m e s to test rapid restart c a p a b i l i t y . CM separated from SM and re-entered atmosphere a t more than 19,900 mph Maximum re- entry temperature a m's outer surface was c a l c u l a t e d to be about 2700' F; interior temperature was 70O F. CM landed in P a c i f i c 500 miles southwest of Wake Island after 9 3 minute f l i g h t and was recovered by USS Hornet. (S)

F o l l d n g a r e v i e w a t h e results of the Apollo 1, 2 and 3 missions, the Saturn IB launch vehicle and t h e Apollo spacecraft (command and service modules) were demed q u a l i f i e d far E a r t h - o r b i t a l manned missions and preparations began for t h e f i r s t manned Apollo f l i g h t . A t 6 : 3 1 PM EST on January 27, 1967, during a pre-launch test on Launch Complex 34 w i t h t h e crew snbosrd and the spacecraft's 10077 oxygen atmosphere pressurized to 16.7 pounds p s i a , fire broke out in the c u m a n d module resulting in the deaths of astronauts V i r g i l I. (Gus) Grissm, Edward H. White 11, and Roger B. Chaffee. 83

PROJECT APOLIXI (FLIGHTS AND TESTS)


(cant inued)

Name
Apollo 4

Date -

Launch Vehicle

NA SA
Code -

Site/~ad

Remerks/Resnlts

ORBITAL (IlNmNmD)
9 N w 67

Saturn V

AS-501

ETR

(KSC)
3 9A

First launch from mobile launch f a c i l i t i e s (LC-39) a t Kennedy Space Center. F i r s t launch of Saturn V. First ffall-upll test of a launch vehicle (in which a l l stages were live and were f i r e d on a maiden flight). A l l 3 s t a g e s of the Saturn V successfully fired, injecting the 3 r d ( S - I D ) stage and Apollo spacecraft i n t o a L15 s t a t u t e mile parking orbit. After 2 revolutions, the S-IVB stage was reignited, injecting the stage end spacecraft into an Earth-intersecting orbit with an apogee of 10,696 s t a t u t e miles. Following stage/spacecraf t: separation, the spacecraft service propulsion system (SPS) was ignited for a shortduration burn, raising the Apollo cormnand and service module (CSM) to a 11,232 statute mile apogee. The GSM was then aligned to achieve a thermal gradient a c r o s s the command module (CM) h e a t s h i e l d (with t h e C h a t c h window M d i r e c t l y toward the Sun) arid h e l d in this a t t i t u d e f o r about 44 hours. The SPS w a s then reignited for a long-duration burn, accelerating the spacecraft to simulate the most severe combination of e n t r y conditions of a lunar return trajectory The CM and service module (SM) then s e p a r a t e d , and t h e A p o l l o (=M w a s oriented t o e n t r y attitude. Atmospheric entry occurred at 400,000 feet, at e f l i g h t path angle of , ' 7 and a velocity of 36,537 f e e t per second. GM landing occurred in the Pacific w i t h i n 10 s t a t u t e miles of the planned point, 8 hours, 37 minutes after liftoff. The CM, apex cover, and one af the 3 main parachutes were recovered. A1 1 primary mission objectives were successfully accomplished. CS)

PROJECT ATPOLLO (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) ( continued)

Name -

Date 22 Jan 68

bunch Vehicle
Saturn IB

Code -

Nb SA

Sitelpad

Remarksl~esults
F i r s t E a r t h - o r b i t a l t e s t (unmanned) of Apollo spacecraft Lunar Module ( M . L) (On this flight Apollo Canrmand and Service Modules were replaced by a d m y nosecone.) Launched a t 1748 EST after extended holds caused by spa cecra ft equipment and ground instruments tion problems. LM and second (S-IVB) stage of Saturn IB successfully injected into desired orbit, then separated. Although IM descent stage propulsion system d i d not sustain combustion following first ignition, later attempts were successful ( i n c l u d i n g restart) LM ascent stage propulsion system operation and staging of ascent and descent stages were also performed successfully. All mission objectives were achieved. S-IVB s t a g e re- entered Earth ' s atmosphere on January 23, LM ascent s t a g e re-entered on January 24, and descent stage r e entered on February 12, 1968. N o attempts a t recovery w e r e planned, or made. (S)

ApoLlo 5

AS-2041 M- 1

ETR 37B

APOLLO 6

PROJECT A O m (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) PL (continued)

Name Apollo 6

Date 4 Apr 68

hunch Vehiel e
Saturn V
(AS- 502)

AS-5021

NASA Code

Sitelpad
ETR

Remarks/Results Planned a s a mission similar to Apollo 4 (November 9 , 1967), but i n - f l i g h t problems prevented achievement of p r l m r y mission objectives. Liftoff was normal and on schedule a t 0700 EST. However, severe up-and-down vibrations of the entire space vehicle (POGO) during first ( S - I C ) stage thrust, early shutdown of t w o second (S-11) stage engines, and f a i l u r e of the t h i r d IS-IVB) s t a g e engine to restart following o r b i t a l coast, required that Mission Control perform an alternate mission. Spacecraft separation was commanded, and the S e r v i c e Module ISM) engine was s t a r t e d and burned for 445 seconds to raise spacecraft apogee to 12,000 miles, utilizing most of the propellants and resulting in Corrnnand Module (04) reentry 4,000 feet p e r second less than planned. CM was recovered in P a c i f i c near H a w a i i , about 200 nm from t h e target area, 9 hours, 58 minutes after l i f t o f f . (U)

CSM-020

(Ksc)
39A

PROJEa APOLU) (FLIGHTS AND TESTS) (continued)

Name Test and Training Satellite

Date
13 Dec 67

Launch Vehicle
Delta

TTS- 1
ETR

NASA Code

17B

Launched a s a piggy-back payload attached to rear of second stage of Delta vehicle that successfully injected Pioneer VIII into solar orbit. Timer aboard Delta second stage e j e c t e d TTS one minute after third stage i g n i t i o n . Forty-pound, eight- sided (14 inches/ side) s a t e l l i t e w i t h s o l a r c e l l s on external surfaces, Contains a power supply, coaanand receiver, telemetry transmitter, passive magnetic stabilization system, and a transponder compatible w i t h unified S-Band (USE) system. Transponder is designed to transmit and receive S-Band data characteristics of the Apollo spacecraft and i t s mission. During anticipated 3 month lifetime, satellite will a f f o r d each shift of every Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) s t a t ion amp1e opportunities to checkout equipment and t r a i n personnel. 300 s t a t u t e mile apogee; 182 statute mile perigee; 33 degree tnclinatton; 92 minute period. Re- entered atmosphere A p r i l 28, 1968.
(S)

KSC HISTORICAL REPORT


APPENDIX A

SUMMARY OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS MTER TRANSFERRED TO NASA
On October 1, 1958, coincidental with the o f f i c i a l activation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10783. This order transferred jurisdiction to WiSA from t h e Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency of several space programs that were already w e l l under way. Included among these were: the Naval Research Laboratory's International Geophysical Year s a t e l l i t e program (Vanguard), i n i t i a t e d Septmber 9, 1955; the A m r y B a l l i s t i c Missile Agency's s a t e l l i t e launching project ( E x p l o r e r ) , authorized t o proceed on November 8, 1957; c e r t a i n lunar probes under the direction of the Air Force B a l l i s t i c Missile Division (forerunner of the Pioneer space probes), o f f i c i a l l y announced on March 27, 1958.
This Appendix l i s t s the launching a t t e m p t s in these programs that occurred p r i o r to October 1, 1958. bunching a t t e m p t s made subsequent: to October 1, 1958, a s a part of these and other space programs transferred to NASA by Executive Order 10783, are contained in the main portion of t h i s report.

JUNO 1 (JUPITER C)

31 JANUARY 1958

EXPLORER 1

.A i i

SUMMARY OF UUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED M NASA ( A l l launchings were from Cape Canaveral)
Launch Vehicle

Intntl.
Desig

Date EXPLORER

Pad

Remarks/Results

Explorer I

31 Jan 5 8

Juno I
(Jupiter

1958
Alpha

C> RTV-4

Explorer I, the first American s a t e l l i t e , was successfully launched i n t o an orbit with a n apogee of 1,573 miles and a perigee of 224 miles. The satellite, 80 inches long and 6 inches in diameter, was" a n integral p a r t of t h e launch vehicle's fourth s t a g e motor case, and weighed 3 0 . 8 pounds. I t s payload, neighing 18.13 pounds ( i n c l u d i n g t w o radio transmitters and their mercury batteries), w a s developed by Iowa State Unfversity under the d i r e c t i o n of James A . Van Allen and contained instruments t o measure cosmic r a y s , micrmeteor i m p a c t , and Lnternal and external temperatures. Analysis of d a t a returned by Explorer I resulted in the discovery of belts of radiation surrounding the Earth ( t h e Van Allen b e l t s ) . The s a t e l l i t e transmitted d a t a until May 23, 1958 and is still in orbit. The Juno I lzunch vehfcle, developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency with the a s s i s t a n c e of the J e t Propulsion Laboratory, consisted of a three stage Jupiter C Composite Re-entry Test Vehicle m o d i f i e d by the addition of a live, s o l i d propellant fourth stage. (Of the six Juno I ' s constructed, three successfully orbited satellites,) (S)

SUMMARY OF UUNMINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA (All launchings were from Cape Canaveral) (continued)

Name
Explorer 11

Date
5 Mar 5 8

Launch Vehicle
Juno I (Jupiter C) RTV-5

Intntl. Desig

Pad -

Remarks/Results

An attempt to orbit the Explorer I1 s a t e l l i t e was unsuccessful when the f o u r t h stage of the Juno I launch vehicle failed to ignite, r e s u l t i n g in insufficient s p e e d to attain o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y . The satellite probably burned up on re-entering the atmosphere, before falling into t h e A t l a n t i c near Trinidad, 1,900 m i l e s from t h e launching site. (U)

Explorer 111

26 Mar 5 8

Juno I
(Jupiter C) RTV-6

1958
G m a

Explorer 111, the t h i r d U . S . IGY satellite, into an o r b i t w i t h an apogee of 1,746 miles and a perigee of 121 miles. The satellite instrumentation w a s similar to that of Explorer I, with t h e addition of a tape recorder f e a t u r e . On May 1, 1958, Dr. James A . Van A l l e n announced that s c i e n t i f i c findings from Explorers I and 111 d i s c l o s e d an unexpected band of high-intensity radiation extending from 600 miles above Earth to possibly an 8,000 mile a l t i t u d e . The Explorers a l s o showed that t h e atmosphere a t 220 m i l e s w a s denser than p r e d i c t e d , that satellite temperatures would not be too g r e a t f o r humans, and that cosmic d u s t was only a s m a l l hazard t o space travel. Explorer I11 transmitted data until June 16, 1958 and re-entered the atmosphere June 28, 1958. (S)
was successfully launched

SUMMARY OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA (All launchings were from Cape Canaveral)
(continued)

Name Explorer IV

Date -

Launch Vehicle
Juno 1 (Jupiter C) RTV-7

Intntl Desig

Pad
5

RemarksJResults

26 Jul 58

1958 Epsilon

The fourth U . S . IGY s a t e l l i t e was

success-

fully launched by a Juno I into an orbit with an apogee of 1 , 3 8 0 miles and a perigee of 163 miles. Instrumentation was designed ta measure corpuscular radiation and consisted af t w o Geiger-Mueller counters and two scintillator counters. Two radios, powered by mercury batteries, transmitted information simultaneously and continuously, utilizing the satellite's stainless s t e e l skin as antennas. Explorer IV transmitted data until October 6, 1958 and re-entered t h e atmosphere on October 23, 1959. (S)

Explorer V

24 dug 58

Juno I (Jupiter C) RTV-8

--

The fifth orbital attempt by t h e Army Ballistic Missile Agency, using the Juno I launch vehicle, was unsuccessful. Lifto f f w a s normal, but after separation o f the first stage, its residual fuel carried it forward to bump and deflect from course t h e remaining three stages. They fired normally, but failed to carry the satellite into orbit. The flight l a s t e d 659 seconds, on a p a r t h northeast from Cape Canaveral. The satellite carried instrumentation designed to measure the Van A l l e n r a d i a t i o n b e l t . (U)

S W R Y OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR

Name
VANGUARD
Vanguard Test Vehicle

Date -

TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TMNSFEKED TO NASA ( A l l launchings w e r e from Cape Camveral) (continued) Launch Intntl Vehicl e Desig Pa d ~ m a r k s / ~ e s t sl u

. .

I 8A

6 Dec 57

Vanguard TV-3

The f i r s t attempt by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) t o o r b i t a t e s t s a t e l l i t e using a Vanguard rocket with a l l t h r e e stages powered was unsuccessful when a mechanical failure in the propulsion s y s tern caused i t to burst into flames t w o seconds after it was f i r e d , after l i f t i n g about six inches off the pad. (Previous Vanguard p r o j e c t launchings at: Cape Canaveral were launch v e h i c l e development tests, not orbital attempts.) (U)
The second t r i a l f i r i n g of a Vanguard test s a t e l l i t e f a i l e d a s defects i n t h e f i r s t stage engine control system caused the rocket to veer to t h e r i g h t and break i n t o about 60 seconds a f t e r launching, 4 miles up, The rocket w a s destroyed by the range s a f e t y o f f i c e r . (U)

Vanguard T e s t Vehicle (Backup)

5 Feb 58

Vanguard W- 3 BU

--

S W R Y OF IAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA (A11 launchings were from Cape Canaverall (continued)
bunch

Name Vanguard 1

Date -

Vehi cle
TV-4

fntntl. Desig

Pa d 18A

17 Mar 58 Vanguard

1958
Beta I
(Ca sing) 1958

Beta 2 (Satellite)

Vanguard I, the second U . S . S a t e l l i t e , an aluminum test sphere 6 . 4 inches in diameter and weighing 3 , 2 5 p o ~ n d s , w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y launched i n t o orbit, together w i t h i t s 50-pound carrier rocket casing, j u s t "two years, s i x months and e i g h t days a f t e r initiation of the: p r o j e c t from scratch", a s pointed o u t by J o b P . Hagen, NRZl program director. I n i t i a l perigee was 409 miles, and apogee was 2453 miles, at an inclination to the equator o f 34.26 degrees. Geodetic observations of i t s s t a b l e o r b i t determined that Earth i s s l i g h t l y pear-shaped. Although not a c t u a l l y instrumented, t w o t r a n s m i t t e r s were c a r r i e d and temperatures could be deduced f o r m changes in their radio frequencies Satellite transmitted d a t a until May 1964 and is s t i l l in orbit. (S)

Vanguard Test Vehicle

28 Apr 58

Vanguard TV-5

--

Attempt t o o r b i t an instrumented satellite 20 inches in diameter and weighing 21.5pounds, using a Vanguard test v e h i c l e . Satellite instruments were intended to record X-rays, tempera t u x e s , and meteor d a t a . Failure of the t h i r d s t a g e engine Lo ignite due t o faulty w i r i n g in t h e ignition c i r c u i t resulted in the launch vehicle being unable t o a t t a i n orbital speed. Satellite burned up on re-entry; launch vehicle impacted 1,500 miles down range. (U)

S W R Y OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA (All launchings were from Cape Canaveral)

(continued) Name Date 27 May 5 8

Launch Vehicle
Vanguard

Tntntl
Desig.

Pa; d
1$A

Remarks/Results
F i r s t attempt t o orbit an instrumented satellite using a nontest, operational Vanguard launch vehicle. S a t e l l i t e instruments included meteor detectors, solar r a d i a t i o n measurers, and thermometers. Liftoff was normal, and a l l vehicle stages f i r e d . However, fmproper burnout of second s t a g e resulted i n too steep a climb angle and fa Flure to a c h i w e arbit, Reached an altitude of 2,440 miles and burned up on re-entry between Antigua and Africa, 5,000 miles away. Satellite radio returned some data (U)

Vanguard
Satellite La lmch Vehicle

--

SLV-1

Vanguard Satellite Munch Vehicle

26 Jun 58

Vanguard S EV- 2

--

Second orbital attempt using a product i o n Vanguard launch v e h i c l e . Satellite instrumentation was the same a s f o r A p r i l 28 a t t e m p t , L i f t o f f was normal, b u t second stage engine cut off prematurely due to low t h r u s t chamber pressure. Launch vehicle demonstrated structural integrity when tankage w i t h stood pressures exceeding d e s i g n v a l u e s .

SUMMARY OF LAUNCHING PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA ( A l l launching6 were from Cape Canaveral) (cant inued)

Launch

Name
Vanguard Satellite Launch Vehicl e

Date -

Vehicle

Intntl Desig

Pad 18A

~emarks/Results Following an a b o r t i v e attempt on September 17, in which t h e v e h i c l e l i f t e d about one inch off the launch p e d e s t a l , then s e t t l e d back into position when uneven release of ground-disconnect p l e g s transmitted a spurious shutdown signal to the f i r s t stage engine, Vanguard SLV-3 was launched on this date, L i f t o f f was normal, and a l l s t a g e s f i r e d . However, second s t a g e low performance, possibly due to ~orrosive particles partially clogging f u e l tank p i p i n g , r e s u l t e d in t h e satellite n o t a t t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t speed to maintain an o r b i t . Although not v e r i f i e d by tracking data, the satellite may have made a t Least one complete orbit at an a l t i t u d e of 265 miles before falling into the Indian Ocean, approximately 9,200 miles from the launchi n g site. The satellite contained instruments to measure c l o u d cover, and carried a tape recorder to store d a t a f o r e l a t e r release an cormand f r a a ground station.

26 Sep 58 Vanguard

--

SLV-3

cu>

S W R Y OF LAUNCHINGS PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1958 BY SPACE PROJECTS LATER TRANSFERRED TO NASA ( A 1 1 launchings were from Cape Canaveral) (continued)

Name -

Date

Launch Vehicle

Intntl Desig

Pad
1 7A

Remarks/Results

Pioneer

17 Aug 5 8 Thor-Able-

--

The first a t t e m p t by the Air Force B a l l i s t i c Missile D i v i s i o n to launch a l u n a r probe, using the three s t a g e Thor-Able launch vehicle, was unsuccessful, due to a failure in t h e f i r s t stage engine. L i f t o f f was normal, but an explosion r i p p e d the v e h i c l e apart after 77 seconds of f l i g h t , a t an a1 titude of about 1 0 miles, The mission had been designed to put 40 pounds of instruments in an orbit around the Moon, to take pictures of t h e backside. In addition to t h e scanning devices, the probe contained a magnetometer, a meteorite counter, and thermometers. Bad t h e mission been s u c c e s s f u l , the probe would have been given the designation of Pioneer. (U)

KSC HISTORICAL REPORT APPENDIX B

CKRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (ETR)

This chronological listing is designed to serve a s a quick reference f o r those individuals who want to know the nmber of NASA launchings from the ETR in any p a r t i c u l a r year or combination of y e a r s . Although this information c a n be obtained from the S u m r y itself, it would be necessary to compile it by referring to t h e various Program sections of the document.

APPENDIX B CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (ETR) YEAR -

1958 -( 4 )
October I1
October 22

Pioneer I
Bea con
Pioneer 11

Thor-A 1e b
Jupiter
C

November 8

Thor-Able

Decmber 6

Pioneer I11

J W O 1X

1959 - (11)
February 17

Vanguard I1
Pioneer IV

Vanguard SLV-4

March 3
April 13 June 22

Juna 11

Vanguard
Vanguard
Explorer Explorer VI

Vanguard SLV-5
Vanguard SLV-6
Juno 11
Thor-Abl e

July 16
August 7
August 14

Beacon

Juna II

September 9

Big J o e Vanguard I11


Explorer VII

Atlas-Big Joe
Vanguard SLV- 7
Juno I1

September 18

October 13

November 26

Pioneer

Atlas-Able

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS ( m E (continued)

YEAR 1960 -(12)


March 11

NAME -

Pioneer V
Explorer

Thar-Able
Juno I1

March 23
April 1 May 13
July 29
August 12

Tiros I

Thor-Able
Delta
Mercury- A t l a s

Echo
Mercury
Echo I

Delta
A t las-Able

September 25
November 3

Pioneer

Explorer VZII
Mercury

Juno I1

Novmber 21

Mercury-Redstone
Delta
A t 19s-Abl e

November 23
December 15

Tiros I1
Pioneer

December 19

Mercury

Mercury-Redstone

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (ETR) (continued)


YEAR -

LAUNCH VEXICLE

1961 - (18)
January 31
February 21
Mercury

Mercury-Redstone
Mercury-At l a s

Mercury

February 24

Explorer
Mercury

Juno I1 Mercury-Redstone

March 2 4
March 25

Explorer X
Mercury

Delta
Mercury-Atlas

April 25
A p r i l 27

Explorer XI

Juno I1 Mercury Redstone


Juno 11

May 5

Freedom 7 (Shepard)

May 24

Explorer
Tiros 111
L i b e r t y Bell CGrissod

July 12
July 21
August 15

Delta
Mercury-Redstone

Explorer XI1 Ranger I :


Mercury

De1 ta
Atlas-Agena

August 23

September 13

Mercury-Atlas
Saturn C - 1

October 2 7
November 1

Saturn (SA-1)
Mercury

Mercury- Scout

November 18
November 29

Ranger I1
Mercury

Atlas-Agena
Mercury-Atlas

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCBINGS (ETR)


(continued)

YEAR 1962 - (22)


January 15

NAME -

Echo (Suborbital)

Thor
A t l a s-Agena

January 26

Ranger 111

February 8 February 20
March 7

Tiros IV
Friendship 7 (Glenn)

Delta
Mercury-Atlas

OSO 1
Ranger IV
Saturn (SA-2)

Delta Atlas-Agena
Saturn C-1

April 23
A p r i l 25
A p r i l 26

Ariel I

Delta

May 8 May 24

Centaur
Aurora 7 (Carpenter)

Atlas-Centaur Mercury-Atlas

June 19
July 10

Tiros V Telstar I
Echo (Suborbital)

Delta
Delta
Thor
A tlas-Agena

July 18
July 22
August 27

Mariner I

Marines I1
T i r o s VI Explorer XIV

Atlas-Agena

September 18
October 2

Delta
Delta

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (ETR)


(continued)

YEAR 1962 (continued)

NAME

LAUNCH VEHICLE

October 3
October 18
October 27

Sigma 7 (Schirra)
Ranger Y

Mercury-Atlas
A t l a s-Agena

Explorer XV

Delta

November 16
December 13

Saturn (SA- 3 )

Saturn C-1

Relay I

Delta

1963 - (10)
February 14
Syncom I

Delta

March 28
April 2
May 7

Saturn ( S A - 4 )

Saturn 1
Delta

Explorer X V I I
T e l s t a r I1 Faith 7 (Cooper)

Delta
Mercury-At l a s
Delta

May L5
June 19

Tires V I I

July 26
Novanber 26

Syncom 11
Explorer X V I I I

Delta
Delta

November 2 7
December 21

Centaur
Tiros V I I I

Atlas-Centaur

Delta

CIERONOLOGI CAL LIST1NG OF MAJOR NASA LAU'MCHINGS (ETR) (continued)

YEAR -

NAME -

LAUNCH VEHICLE

1964 - (17)
January 21 January 29
January 30

Relay I1
Saturn (SA-5)

Delta
Saturn 1

Ranger VI
Beacon-Explorer A
Gemini 1

Atlas-Agena

March 19
April 8

Delta
Gemini-Titan I1
Atlas

April 14
May 28 June 30
July 28
August 1 9

Fire I
Saturn (SA-6)
Centaur

Saturn 1
Atlas-Centaur
Atlas-Agena

Ranges VII
S y n c m III
OGO

TAD (Thrust Augmented D e l t a )


Atlas-Agena

September 4
September 18

Saturn (SA- 7)

Saturn 1

October 3

Explorer XXI
Mariner I11

Delta Atlas-Agena

November 5
November 28

Mariner IV

Atla s-Agena
Atlas-Centaur
Delta

December 11
December 2 1

Centaur
Explorer XXVI

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCBINGS (ETR)


(conth u e d )

NAME

LAUNCH VEHICLE

January 19 January 22
February 3

Gemini 2

Gemkni-Titan I1
Delta
Delta
Saturn L
A t Las-Agena

Tiros IX

OSO 11
Sa turn/Pega sus I (SA- 9)

February 16
February 17

Ranger VIII

March 2
March 21
March 23
April 6
May 22

Centaur
Ranger IX
Gemini 3 (Grissom and Young)

A t l a s-Centaur

Atlas-dgena
Gemini-Titan II

Intelsat I (Early Bird I)

TAD
Atlas D

Fire I1
S a t urnlPega sus I1 ( S A- 8)

May 25

Saturn 1
Delta

May 29 June 3
July I J u l y 30
August

Explorer XXVIII
Gemini 4 (McDivitt and White)
Tiros X

Gemini-Titan I1

Delta
Saturn 1
A t l a a-Centaur

~aturn/Pegasus111 {SA-10)

11

Centaur

August 21

Gemini 5 (Cooper and Conrad)


OSO-C

Gemfni-Titan I1
Delta

August 25

B- 7

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA UUNCHINGS (Em) (continued)


YEAR
1965 (continued)

NAME

LAUNCH VEHICLE

October 25

G e m i n i Target Vehicle

A t l a s - Agena

November 6
December 4
December 15
December 16

Explorer XXIX
Gemfni 7 (Borman and Lovell)

TA D

G e m i n i - T i t a n PI Gemini-Titan I1

Gemini 6 (Schirra and Stafford)


Pioneer VI

TAD

1966 - 130)
February 3 February 26
February 28

E s s a I (TOS) Ap0110 1 (AS-201)

Delta
Saturn 1B

E s s a 11 (TOSS
Gemini Target Vehicle Gemini 8 (Armstrong and Scott)

Delta
A t l a s - Agena

March 16
March 16
April 7

Gemini-Titan 11 Atlas-Centaur
A t l a s-Agena

Centaur
OAO

April 8

May 17
May 25

Gemini Target Vehicle ( f a i l e d )


Explorer X X X I I
Surveyor I

Atlas-Agena

Delta
Atlas-Centaur
Atlas

May 30

June 1
June 3

Gemini T a r g e t V e h i c l e (ATDA)
Gemini 9 ( S t a f f o r d and Cernan)

Gemini-Titan I1

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (Em) ( continued}

YEAR 1966 (continued)

LAUNCH VEHICLE

June 6
July 1

OGO 111
Explorer XXXIII

Atlas-Agena

TAD

July f
July 18 July 18
August 10

Ap01l0 2 (AS-203)
G e m i n i Target Vehicle

Uprated Saturn I (1B)

A t l a s- Agena Gemini-Titan I1
A t l a s-Agena

Gemini 10 (Young and Collins)

Lunar Orbiter I
Pioneer VII

August 1 7
August 25

TAD

A ~ o I I o3

(AS-202)

Uprated Saturn 1
A t l a s-Agena

September 12

Gemini Target Vehicle

September 12
September 20

Gemini I1 (Conrad and Gordon) Surveyor

Gemini-Titan I1

Atlas-Centaur

October 26

Intelsat 1 1 - A ( P a c i f i c )
Centaur Lunar O r b i t e r I1

TAD
Atlas-Centaur
Atlas-Agena

October 26
November 6
Novmber 11 November 11
December 6

Gemini T a r g e t Vehicle
Gemini 12 (Love11 and Aldrin)

A t la s- Agena

G e m i n i - T i t a n 11 Atlas-Agena

ATS-1
Biosatellite I

December 14

TAD

CHRONOLOGTCAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (Em) ( eont inued)

YEAR 1967 - (19)


January 11

NAME -

M bC VEHICLX UJ H

I n t e l sa t 11-B ( P a c i f i c )
Lunar Orbiter 111 OSO I11
Intelsat I1 ( A t l a n t i c )
ATS-11

TAD
A t l a s - Agena

February 4

March 8
March 22
April 5

Delta

TAD
A t l a s - Agena

April 17
May 4
June 14

Surveyor 111 Lunar Orbiter IV

Atlas-Centaur
A t las-Agena

Mariner V
Surveyor IY

Atlas-Agena

July 14
J u l y 19
August 1

Atlas-Centaur

Explorer XXXV

TAD
Atlas-dgena

Lunar Orbiter V B f ~ ~ a t e l l i tI1 e


Surveyor V

September 7
Septwber 8

TAD
Atlas-Centaur
TAD

September 27
October 18

Intglaat I1 ( P a c i f i c - 2 )
OSQ

IV

Delta Atlas-Agena
Atlas-Centaur

November 5
Novmber 7

ATS-IIP

Novmber 9

Saturn V

December 13

Pioneer VIIT and TI'S-1 B-10

Delta

CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF MAJOR NASA LAUNCHINGS (ETR)

(continued)

YEAR 1968 -16)


January 7

NAME -

LAUNCH VEHICLE

Surveyor VJI

Atlas-Centaur

January 22

Apollo 5 ( A S - 2 0 4 )
OGO

Saturn IB
Atlas-Agena

March 4
April 4
August 10

Apollo 4 (AS-502)
ATS- IV

Saturn V
Atlas-Centaur

September 18

Intelsat I11

TAD

T o t a l launchings, October 1, 1958

September 30, 1968

172