Composed and Published by:
Water Supply & Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam http://binhdinhwssp.wordpress.com/ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam



The Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province aims to improve the quality of life of the population in 6 districts of Binh Dinh Province (Phu Cat, Phu My, Tuy Phuoc, Tay Son, An Nhon and Hoai Nhon) through the provision of efficient facilities for both irrigation and drinking water as well as solid waste management. Awareness-raising is one of the main components of this project. To increase basic knowledge on solid waste management, the project has chosen to develop a second booklet on 'What to do with Solid Waste?' . This will improve the knowledge and perception of the community about the importance of solid waste separation, collection, treatment and recycling. Consequently, local people will be well aware of their responsibilities and show the appropriate behaviour towards solid waste treatment. Although certain knowledge and concepts might be unfamiliar to some people, the authors made very short and simple explanations which are accompanied by various pictures to intrigue the readers and to convince people about the importance of a well overthought solid waste management plan. We would like to thank all persons who contributed to the completion of this edition. On this occasion, we would also like to express our gratitude and appreciation to all people who have been very cooperative during our field work. Thanks!


Already appeared in this serie:
Part I: What is Solid Waste? Part II: What to do with Solid Waste? Part III: How to make money from Solid Waste?

For the digital versions: http://binhdinhwssp.wordpress.com/



CHAPTER I: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 1.1 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Separation at the source The 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) Strategy Biodegradable Waste Treatment Non-biodegradable Waste Treatment 1.4.1. Non-biodegradable waste collection and transport 1.4.2. 1.4.3. Sanitary Landfill Why a sanitation fee?




1.1. SEPARATION AT THE SOURCE Studies in the project revealed that household waste in Binh Dinh Province can approximately be divided into three broad categories: • 15% Recyclable waste • 60% Biodegradable waste • 25% Non-biodegradable waste Every part of this waste should be treated in its own manner, which means that separating your waste at source is absolutely necessary!


1.2. THE 3R (REDUCE, REUSE & RECYCLE) STRATEGY The 3R (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle) Strategy is a solution to reduce the final waste disposal volumes and create a clean environment.

Reducing your waste means to buy less and use less (e.g. saying no to plastic bags, taking shorter showers or buying less packaged materials). Reusing materials is when elements of discarded items are used again (e.g. reusing plastic bottles, repair broken furniture or sell old clothes). Recycling is a series of steps in which a used material is remanufactured and sold again as a new product (e.g. metal, paper, carton, wood, plastic and glass). Currently, the recyclable materials in Vietnam are collected spontaneously by the scavengers. This collection will cost you nothing and the scavengers can make an income by selling it to middlemen or recycling companies.




The composition of solid waste in Vietnam includes a large rate of biodegradable substance (60%), of which a large part is collected by farmers or scavengers to be refed to animals. For most livestock, sanitation (e.g. by cooking for 2 hours) of the biodegradable waste is necessary for reasons of food safety. Other biodegradable waste should also be treated locally, through composting, Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae production, vermiculture or many more. Composting is a biological process in which biodegradable waste (especially garden waste) is broken down by bacteria, fungus, and other organisms. The end result is compost which is used to enrich or feed the soil to enhance the growth of plants.

The Black Solder Fly Larvae is a larvae that reduces the amount of your biodegradable waste in a very short period of time. The larvae appear naturally in a mesophilic bin (a brick storage bin with aeration holes on 9

the sides) one month after you have set up your mesophilic

Mesophilic bin

These larvae are some of the most voracious eaters within the natural world as they can effect as much as 20fold reduction in the weight and volume of food waste in a period of less than 24hours. They can eat any type of fresh putrescent waste, even meat and dairy products. Tests carried out in Binh Dinh Province have proven that there is a big amount of these larvae present in the region.

BSF larvae in Binh Dinh Province


Vermiculture or worm farming is a composting process conducted by worms. The worms consume biodegradable matter to produce a stable humus and the end product is suitable as soil enhancer. 1.4. NON-BIODEGRADABLE WASTE TREATMENT 1.4.1 Solid waste collection and transport After source separation of the waste, it is usually only the non- reusable, non-recyclable or non-biodegradable waste which is left over and will be collected and transported for treatment elsewhere (only 25%). The solid waste collection is the component of solid waste management which results in the passage of waste material from the source of production to either the point of treatment or final disposal (such as the landfill). Full equipment is needed to bring the waste from the first collection point to the next or final station. Handcarts, pushcarts, trucks and dumper-trucks are all necessary to ensure that the waste is collected properly, but also storage equipment (such as bags, bins, reservoirs, depots etc.) is indispensable.


1.4.2 Sanitary landfill After the collection of solid waste, it will be transported to sanitary landfills, which are preferably located outside the centres.

A sanitary landfill is a controlled disposal of solid waste built according to the hygienic regulations (build water sewerage channel, wastewater-collecting system, line and waterproof walls and bottom etc). Non-sanitary landfills or dumpsites are usually unhygienic, they have no waste water treatment system and all solid waste is disposed in the environment. On regular timings there will be burying and burning of the waste, which causes severe pollution and is very harmful to all living organisms. 12

However, as the sanitary landfill is more preferable than the non-sanitary landfill, it must be remembered that if an up-to-date treatment of solid waste is carried out, this will intensify that an up to date management of municipal solid waste will emphasise solid waste recycling, reusing, reducing and composting, and minimise the use of landfills. 1.4.3 Why a sanitation fee? The sanitation fee is the expenditure that individuals, households, administrative units, enterprises or factories will have to pay to supplement the expenditures invested in non-biodegradable waste collection, transport and treatment in the local area. This fee can remain low if you separate your waste at the source, as this would imply that the majority of your waste is treated locally which means that it does not need to be taken to the landfill.


The start of a proper municipal solid waste treatment plan is the separation at source of your waste. Biodegradable Waste (60%) can be treated at the source (composting, vermiculture, BSF Larvae etc.). Recyclables (15%) will be collected by scavengers who sell it to recycling companies or middlemen and the Nonbiodegradable Waste (25%) will be collected by state or private companies and then send to the sanitary landfill for treatment. For the collection and treatment of non-biodegradable waste a sanitation fee will be asked from the population, because this is very expensive to organise and maintain. Therefore, to reduce these costs (for you and your government) it is absolutely necessary to separate the recyclables and biodegradable waste and treat them in a different, local and more appropriate manner (through reusing, reducing , recycling, composting or other suitable treatments). A short summary of the different steps will make the whole process clear. 1. 2. 3. Separate your solid waste at source (biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste and recyclables) Recycle or Reuse your Waste Threat your Biodegradable Waste locally 14


Collect Non-Biodegradable solid waste at one point (e.g. in a bin or at rendez-vous points). A private or state company will collect it there and transport it to a sanitary landfill.


My Waste, My Responsibility


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