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Water Supply & Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam http://binhdinhwssp.wordpress.com/ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam
The Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province aims to improve the quality of life of the population in 6 districts of Binh Dinh Province (Phu Cat, Phu My, Tuy Phuoc, Tay Son, An Nhon and Hoai Nhon) through the provision of efficient facilities for both irrigation and drinking water as well as solid waste management. Awareness-raising is one of the main components of this project. To increase knowledge on solid waste management, the project has chosen to develop a third booklet on
to make money from Solid Waste?'
This will improve the knowledge and perception of the community about the importance of solid waste, and more important, about the profit that could be made and costs that can be saved from solid waste. Although certain knowledge and concepts might be unfamiliar to some people, the authors made very short and simple explanations which are accompanied by various pictures to intrigue the readers and to convince people about the importance of a well overthought solid waste management plan. We would like to thank all persons who contributed to the completion of this edition. On this occasion, we would also like to express our gratitude and appreciation to all the people who have been very cooperative during our field work. Thanks!
Already appeared in this serie:
Part I: What is Solid Waste? Part II: What to do with Solid Waste? Part III: How to make money from Solid Waste? For the digital versions: http://binhdinhwssp.wordpress.com/
1. Introduction 2. How to make money and save costs from your waste? 2.1. Recyclable and Reusable Waste 2.2.1. Separation at the source 2.2.2. How to make money and save costs from Recyclable Waste? 2.2. Biodegradable Waste 2.1.1. Separation at the source - Food Waste - Non-Food Waste 2.1.2. How to make money and save costs from biodegradable waste? - Overview - Models (1) Household and/or community based storage and reduction bins. (2) Re-feeding model with pigs (3) Composting 3. Conclusion
In Vietnam, we are throwing away money in bins and dumpsites every day in the form of waste that could be reused, recycled or even sold. You wouldn't throw cash in the bin, so why would you throw away valuable commodities? First, we need to reduce our waste through less consumption, less packaging, more care in the production process etc. Second, we need to separate our waste at the source. Let's look at the composition of the garbage bin in Binh Dinh Province. Studies of the project revealed that the household waste in the province can be divided in three categories: biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste and recyclables.
Biodegradable waste takes up about 60% of the municipal solid waste in Vietnam, so we dedicate the majority of this booklet to the treatment of organic waste. Non-biodegradable waste on the other hand is mainly waste that will be send to the sanitary landfill. This type of waste will rather cost you money (through collection and transportation fees), than make profit for you. For this reason, we have to reduce this type of waste as much as possible. We must ensure that all these fractions of solid waste are separated at the source. Each type of solid waste needs its own treatment. Allowing the different types of waste to be in the same bin, will drastically reduce the costs you could save or the money you could make. It's for you own good (and your own money) to separate your waste at the source!
2. HOW TO MAKE MONEY FROM YOUR WASTE?
2.1. Recyclable and Reusable Waste 2.1.1 Separation at source Follow these steps: • Separate Reusables and Recyclables from the other waste at the source. • Separate the Reusables from the Recyclables. Reusables are the ones that do not need any treatment and can be reused immediately, while recyclables will need treatment before being sold again as a new product. • Separate the different fractions of recyclable waste (e.g. plastic, paper, cardboard, metal, glass...)
2.1.2. How to make money or save costs from recyclable waste? Reusables Some materials can easily be reused (e.g. one-side printed paper, plastic bottles, repair broken furniture or sell old clothes) without treatment or other steps. You can reuse these materials yourself or you can sell them on the streets or to friends and relatives to make some extra money. Recyclables The recycling business in Vietnam already works quite well because there is money to make. Scavengers are the ones that collect the recyclables and bring them to recyclable companies or middle-men. By empowering these scavengers, expanding the scope of their activities and maximizing their profitability, a lot of waste can be diverted from the landfill (and thus makes you save many collection and transportation costs!).
Scavengers collecting recyclables in Vietnam
2.2. Biodegradable Waste 2.1.1. Separation at source Follow these steps: • Separate biodegradable waste from all the other waste. • Separate the different fractions of biodegradable waste. * Food waste * Non-Food waste Food Waste Food waste includes uneaten portions of meals and trimmings from food preparation activities in kitchens, restaurants and cafeterias. It includes cooked and raw factions. Non-food Waste The non-food waste includes all other 'green' organic waste generated by a household or market such as plant and tree trimmings, residue or agricultural or other professional activity, garden waste, wood, branches, rice husks, etc.
2.1.2. How to make money and save costs from biodegradable waste? In Binh Dinh Province, there are several useful methods on how to deal with your biodegradable waste. Each method accounts for a specific type of waste. Here you find an easy-to-follow table on three methods: All food waste, including a small amount of non-food waste: • Household and/or community based storage and reduction bins (1) Food waste • Re-feeding model with animals (2) Non-food waste: • Composting (3) (1) Household or community based mesophilic bins) What? Mesophilic storage bins are brick storage bins in which the volume and weight of biodegradable waste is reduced by natural processes (bacteria, fungi, larvae or worms). These bins have aeration holes on the sides, as the mesophilic bacteria and fungi require oxygen. Which Waste? All kinds of biodegradable waste, including food preparation waste (nut, fruit, vegetables,
seeds, peelings, eggshells, poultry, meet or fish), table scraps and bouquets of flowers. However, only small
amounts of garden waste (large amounts should be composted) should go in this bin.
How? The mesophilic storage bins can be set up in every household or community. They are very easy to use, only a certain amount of stirring is required (once a week) and the bin needs to be cleaned out once a year. The lasting content can then be collected, shredded and fed to red worms or used as an organic fertiliser. In Binh Dinh Province, tests have shown that the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) Larvae is present. This larvae can reduce the amount of biodegradable waste in your bin in a very short period of time. These larvae are some of the most voracious eaters within the natural world as they can effect as much as 20-fold reduction in the weight and volume of food waste in a period of less than 24hours.
BSF Larvae in Binh Dinh Province
If you want you can collect these BSF Larvae. However, collecting the BSF Larvae with the mesophilic bin might be difficult. You can get yourself a biopod, which is a big plastic bin accompanied by a small bucket right next to it.
The biopod is especially developed to collect the BSF, as they will crawl out and end up immediately in the small bucket. The biopod is very easy to use, but a certain amount of stirring is required (once a day) and the bin needs to be cleaned depending on the usage.These BSF Larvae can be sold to farmers or fish farmers to feed to their chicken, shrimps, fish etc. Caution: Do not collect all of the BSF, as you will need a few to perpetuate so that they stay around. Benefits: − You divert a lot of waste away from the garbage can − You reduce the costs for collection and transport − You reduce the landfill waste − You can make money by selling the BSF Larvae
(2) Re-feeding to animals What? The most economical way to deal with food waste is to feed it to animals while it is still fresh.
Which Waste? Only food waste can be used as animal feed. Furthermore, the food waste should be fresh. Once it starts to decompose, it should not be used as food for animals anymore. How? To avoid disease transmission, the food waste should be cooked for 2 hours before feeding to the animals. If you are a farmer, you can use your own food waste. If not, you can make informal or formal arrangements concerning waste separation and collection with markets, households or restaurants. Benefits: − If you are a farmer, feeding kitchen waste is cheaper than feeding commercial feed. Pig Farming for example with commercial feed is not always profitable because of high feed cost, but a farm using food waste will always be profitable. − If you are not a farmer: you divert a lot of waste away from the garbage can, you reduce the costs for collection and transport and you reduce the landfill waste.
(3) Composting What? Under the influence of water, air and heat, biodegradable non-food waste (and a small amount of food waste) can form compost. This compost is to be used as enhancer of soil quality. Which Waste? Composting is seen as the best solution for all biodegradable non-food waste, such as leaves, grass clippings, garden plants, weeds, hay, flowers, wood ash, tea leaves, shredded paper. Further, some small amount of kitchen waste is adviced such as vegetables and fruit scraps, eggshels or table scraps. Do not compost meat, bones, fish waste or diseased plants. How? Composting does not happen at the household level in Binh Dinh Province because there is a lot of waste that has to be shredded before it can be composted. One household will not have enough waste to justify the purchase or rental of a shredder. The best way to deal with this in Binh Dinh Province is for scavengers to collect this type of waste, shred it and compost with Top Tex Fleece at a small decentralised facility.
Benefits: − You divert a lot of waste away from the garbage can. − You reduce the costs for collection and transport − You reduce the landfill waste. − You are creating rich humus for lawn and garden. This adds nutrients to your plants and helps retain moisture in the soil. − You can sell this compost.
Composting with Top Tex Fleece
Solid Waste in Vietnam can be divided into three broad categories: biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste and recyclables. In order to be able to make profit out of your waste, it is extremely necessary to separate your waste at source. Each type of waste needs its own treatment. There does not exist a single technology or magic bullet that will do the job for all your waste. Biodegradable Waste takes up about 60% of the municipal waste, which is the reason why we devoted a large part of this booklet to the different treatments of this group. On top of this, there is great potential in this group to make a lot of money and/or save many costs. The models proposed in this booklet - Mesophilic bins, biopod, re-feeding to animals and composting - are of good use in Binh Dinh Province. Each model has its advantages, disadvantages and specific way of treatment. Follow these steps and you will make your city a cleaner place. In case you are not sure which model is best for you waste, do not hesitate to contact us for more information.
My Waste, My Responsibility
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