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USES OF ETHICAL THEORIES: Ethical theories have 3 important issues: (1) Understanding moral dilemmas (2) Justifying professional

obligations and ideals (3) Relating ordinary and professional morality Resolving Moral Dilemmas Ethical theories are useful in understanding moral dilemmas. Even though the theories cannot substitute for good moral judgements in solving complex moral problems. Uses are: (i) Ethical theories aid in identifying the moral considerations or reasons that constitute a dilemma. Thus, virtue ethics construes the Applegate dilemma , Utilitarianism construes ,Duty ethics, Right ethics (ii) Ethical theories provide a more precise sense of what kinds of information are relevant to solving moral dilemmas. (iii) Sometimes the theories offer ways to rank the relevant moral considerations in order of importance, and thereby provide at least rough guidance in solving moral problems. (i) The special importance of rights to life (ii) The importance of duties to protect the vulnerable public (iii) Degree of immorality involved in death and risk

(iv) The theories help us identify the full moral ramifications of alternative courses of action (v) The theories augment the precision with which we use moral terms and provide frameworks for moral reasoning (vi) The theories strengthen our ability to reach balanced and insightful judgements. Justifying moral obligations Ethical theories can be used to justify the general obligations of engineers of engineers and others involved in technological development. Why do engineers have obligations to protect the safety of the public affected by their products and projects? What justification can be given for our earlier claims that engineers have these obligations?

This question has wide relevance to engineering ethics. Safety is involved in most of the thorny issues in engineering ethics. Medical ethics centers on the professional s role in promoting health within the bounds of patient autonomy Legal ethics centers on the advocacy of clients rights within the bounds set by law Figure and its explanation Page No:72