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Table of contents: 1.Abstract 2.Overview of DIP 3.Origination of DIP: 4.Fundamental steps in DIP 5.Image Processing and Analysis Transformations: 6.Fingerprint Recognition System: ABSTRACT As the world witnesses a proliferation of web-enabled services and companies, everybody's collective focus is on how current systems will handle issues like identification, authentication, authorization and other security related issues. As more interactions take place electronically, it becomes increasingly important to have an electronic verification of a person’s identity. Digital image processing is a rapidly evolving field with growing application in science and engineering. Image processing holds the possibility of developing the ultimate machine that could perform the visual functions of all living beings. Many theoretical as well as technological breakthroughs are required before we could build such a machine. In the mean time there is an abundance of image processing applications that can serve mankind with the available and anticipated technology in the near future. This paper mainly focuses on the security applications – Authentication in the field of biometrics. One such application is FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION which is given main importance in this paper. 7.General Block Diagram 8.Features of a Fingerprint: 9.Stags involved in Fingerprint recognition. 10.Project Implementation: 11.Conclusion
The process of acquiring an image of the area containing the text. describing the characters in a form suitable for computer processing. y). extracting (segmenting) the individual characters.Levels 0 and 1 Image Analysis --. In 1964 Ranger 7 transmitted the images of moon. This capability was increased to 15 levels in 1929. segmentation) Level 2: Image-to-parameter transformation (feature selection) Level 3: Parameter-to-decision transformation (recognition and interpretation) Image Processing --.Levels 2 and 3 ➢ Fundamental steps in Digital image processing : . Computer Vision/Animation? This mainly involves “creating images” or “visual effects” from a given description. compression) Level 1: Image-to-image transformations (enhancement. When x. quantization. pre-processing that image. Image processing and analysis is mainly concerned with “interpreting” a given Image.Recognition.Levels 1 and 2 Computer/Robot Vision --. f(x. where x and y are spatial (plane) co-ordinates. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. y and the amplitude values of f are all finite.The early Bartlane systems were capable of coding images in five distinct levels of gray. ➢ Origination of DIP: First application of digital images was in the newspaper industry when pictures were sent by submarine cable between London and New York. discrete quantities. then the image is a digital image. Image Processing and Analysis Transformations: Level 0: Image representation (acquisition. restoration.What is Digital image processing? An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function.DIP ventured in to space program. and recognizing those individual characters are the scope of digital image processing. and the amplitude of f at any pair of co-ordinates(x. sampling. y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point.
blur. Fingerprints have a long history of use in police forensic science. the authentication by fingerprint is the most convenient biometric element to identify a person. Because of this. A verification system authenticates a person’s identity by comparing the captured biometric characteristic with her own biometric template(s) pre-stored in the system. noise) Partition image into objects or constituent parts Extracting pertinent features (or Discretization/Digitization Quantization Compression Image enhancement and restoration Image Segmentation Feature Selection descriptors) from an image that are important for differentiating one class of objects from another Assigning labels to an object based on information provided by descriptors Assigning meaning to an ensemble of recognized object. . Image Representation Image Interpretation Fingerprint Recognition System: Fingerprint identification is perhaps the oldest of all the biometric techniques. A large variety of solutions are already available and the technology is mature. An identification system recognizes an individual by searching the entire template database for a match.The fundamental steps in digital image processing is represented below Image Acquisition Capturing visual data by an imaging sensor Convert data into discrete form Compress for efficient storage/transmission Improving image quality (low contrast. Fingerprint technology can be used to authenticate a person versus a pin code when entered for an ATM/online debit transaction or a signature for a credit card transaction.
General Block Diagram ENROLLMENT Capture Process Store No Match VERIFICATION/ IDENTIFICATION Compar e Capture Process Access Granted Or Denied Match Features of a Fingerprint: A fingerprint is composed of valley and ridge lines. The core is located by a square while the delta is located by a triangle as shown below diagram. The general shape of this pattern may be classified according to 5 classes as shown in the figure below. A verification system either rejects or accepts the submitted claim of identity (Am I whom I claim I am?). The second set of features of a fingerprint are cores and deltas. They follow a pattern. Core & Delta Minutiae .
of pixels (ii)Lowpass Filtering: To smooth the high frequency regions of the print lowpass filtering is necessary . mean (µmn) is defined by . rk. (iii)Binarization: Binarization is the process in which the gray scale image is converted into a binary image by thresholding and is defined as 1 Binarized pixel value= 0 otherwise if pixel value > mean Where.The features that can distinguish a fingerprint are called the minutiae. For this purpose WEINER LOWPASS FILTERING is used. L-1) is a discrete function defined by P (rk) = nk/n Where. Minutiae are points at the ending ridges and at the bifurcation when one ridge splits up in two ridges.no. as well as the angle of the general direction of the ridge characterize minutiae when performing fingerprint analysis. Stages involved in Fingerprint Recognition: The stages involved in fingerprint recognition are ➢ Pre-processing: (i)Histogram Equalization: To increase the contrast of the captured image histogram equalization is necessary. The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range (0.Kth gray level nk. Both X-Y coordinates.
we can generate a one pixel wide skeleton image. thinning is performed. i=mA ∑ ∑ j) (AB Gs ) μmn A. B .end points and branch points from the skelitonized image and storing it in a separate template for matching. mn j=nB = (n+1)B-1 (m+1)A-1 (i.mean of region (m x n)th sub-image . Based on some neighbourhood technique to remove any undesirable artifacts.size of sub image To reduce the complexity in processing the binarized Gs (i. (i.original image (iv)Thinning: image.) refining the skeleton. It is a process of reducing the width of the ridges in the fingerprint image to one pixel wide (skeleton image) by morphological thinning operation. transforming the skeleton into a state from which valid minutia information can be extracted. p8 p1 p2 p7 p0 p3 p6 p5 p4 • • If p0 & p6 =1 then make p7 & p5=0 If p0 & p8 =1 then make p7 & p1=0 Feature Extraction: Extracting the minutiae .Hilditch algorithm can be used. .e.μ Where. the following operation is performed. ➢ Post-processing: (i)Connectivity: To make the thinned image as a perfect single pixel width image with continuity in the ridge flow connectivity is performed. -Based on spatial domain method. j) . -By using some thinning rules. consider each pixel with its neighbors. Consider a 3 X 3 sub-image from thinned image with center pixel as the region of interest.
for k=i:i+7 for l=j:j+7 if J(k. T=thinning(o).l)>mean. end. Project Implementation: The following program is executed using MATLAB 6. branch points and pores are removed from the templates by comparing it with the original image. o(k. Conclusion: . mean=mean/64. end. stored during enrollment and the live template obtained from the user attempting to be recognized. K = wiener2(I2.imshow(con). end.l)=0.[4 3]). ● Filtering: Invalid end points. using minutiae location and orientation. The sample coding and the result thus obtained are shown below.5. I2=histeq(I). for i=1:8:256 for j=1:8:256 mean=0.• • End point extraction:If the pixel considered has only one neighbour –considered as end point and stored in a template. SAMPLE CODING: I = imread('fingerprint image'). end.l). Branch point extraction:If the pixel considered has exact three neighbours – considered as branch point and stored in the separate template. end. figure. for k=i:i+7 for l=j:j+7 mean=mean+J(k. end. Matching: Matching consists of comparing the reference template. end. Thus reducing the error rate.l)=1. con=m_connect(T). J=double(K). else o(k.
Lin Hong and Rude Bolle. Online fingerprint verification.While authentication to computer systems usually accomplished through something you have or you know. This variability means that biometrics are not reliable enough on their own to act as identifiers. biometrics using image processing technique is. but in conjunction with other. must be employed. or feature extraction.Computer Vision Applications which uses Digital Image Processing will completely replace the human vision in the near future. References: Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing by Anil K. something you are.elseiver.29 www. Vol. such as passphrases and PINs.com/locate/patrec www. Jain Anil K Jain. IEEE trans on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. especially the smartcard based solutions seem to be very promising.citeseer.com . more traditional forms of access control. and thus novel means of data analysis. offers a more secure method of identification. biometric data is intrinsically variable. Whether analyzing a physiological trait or behavioral characteristic. they provide a considerable layer of security. Proper design and implementation of the biometric system can indeed increase the overall security.
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