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Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso (D minor). (Scherzo) Molto' Vivace (D minor) ; (Trio) Presto (D major). 3. Adagio motto e cantabile (B-flat alternating with D and E-flat). 4. (Recit.) Presto: Allegro ma non Iroppo, etc. 5. Allegro assai (D major).
I. 2. II. I. 2. VOCAL.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Recitative (D minor). Quartet and Chorus: Allegro assai (D major). Tenor Solo and Chorus: Allegro assai vivace: alia Marcia (B-flat). Chorus.: Andante maestoso (G major). Chorus: Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato (D major). Quartet and Chorus: Allegro ma non tanto (D major). Chorus: Prestissimo (D major).

The idea of extending the Finale of a symphony by several vocal movements seems to have originated with Beethoven. No example of it is to be found in
.Nt1t8 !Jy tNt .IlMlri&_ P""lisllw.- In reprinting Mr. Grove's valuable analysis of the Ninth Symphony it bas been found expedient to abridge it somewhat .... a,nd to introduce a new trima1ation of Schiller'. Ode m place of the one used lD the Richter


4 the works of either Haydn or Mozart, and hitherto it has been followed -at least, with success - only by Mendelssohn, whose Lobgesang, or "Hymn of Praise," is an example of the same class of composition as the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven. I!1the Eroica Symphony (r804), Beethoven had shown how splendidly and appropriately a series of variations could be treated in the orchestra as the Finale to a work of the greatest grandeur, just as in Op. 26 he had shown, two years before, how the same form could be employed for the opening movement of a sonata for piano-forte solo. In the Choral Fantasia (r808) again, he had shown with what effect a chorus, in a succession of variations, could be employed for a Finale; and he was now to go a step further and employ the same means in a symphony for full orchestra. The work holds the same position among orchestral compositions that the Choral Fantasia does among those for the piano-forte; and it should be remembered not only that there is a strong resemblance between the vocal portions of the two, but that Beethoven himself actually describes the Symphony as being" in the style of the Piano-forte Choral Fantasia, but on a far larger scale." It is almost incredible to find him starting in his musical life with the same intention which he carried out only near its close. And yet we discover in a letter from Fischenich to Schiller's sister

Charlotte, written from Bonn, * the following notice of that intention, when Beethoven, at the ag~ of twenty-two, was just beginning his public career: .. I have preserved," says he, "a setting t of the Feuerfarbe for you, on which I should like your OpInIOn. It is by a young man of this place, whose musical talent is becoming notorious, and whom the Elector has just sent to Vienna to Haydn. He intends to compose Schiller's' Freude, verse by verse." This was in 1793. The musical theme to which Beethoven at last wedded the words thus fondly cherished for thirty years was, as usual with him, no sudden inspiration, but the fruit of long consideration and many a trial. Of this, his sketch-books -leaves of paper, sometimes loose, sometimes sewed together, which the great musician carried about with him, and on which he threw down his thoughts as they occurred on the instant, often in the wildest and most disorderly writing- contain many evidences, The general relation of the Choral Fantasia to the Choral Symphony has been already mentioned. A more definite connection perhaps exists in the melody of their vocal portions, the close resemblance between which has been often noticed. But it is surely more than a mere coincidence thas the melody
·Thayer, Le6n., i. 237. tPublished in 1805, as Op, 52, NO.2.

" Another point which puzzled him greatly was how to connect the vocal movement with the instrumental ones. gives an interesting description of his walking up and down the room.Seufeer eines Ungeliebtenwhich was composed by Beethoven at or shortly after the date of his first announcing his intention to compose Schiller's Freude.6 of the Finale to the Fantasia is note for note the same with a song . mixed with strange jokes."." -" Let us sing the song of the immortal Schiller. or' one so closely akin to it. '<Lasst uns das Lied des unsterblichen Schiller singen. s. hard to read and harder to understand. nicht das Ganze. w. Schindler perceived the words. and at length crying out. nor has he employed them in the order in which they stand in the poem. . and the arrangement and selection appear to have troubled him much. "I've got it. Beethoven has not used the whole of Schiller's words. I've got it!" Holding out his sketch-book. Schindler. The eventual return to the same melody. disjointed fragments" which he was trying to arrange and connect. His biographer. may have been one of those acts of "unconscious cerebration" of which many instances could be furnished in the practice of the arts.as a recitative . such as "Abgerissme Satse une Fiirste« sind Beitler u. endeavoring to discover how to do it. The note-books already cited abound with references to the c.

the words of the recitative being changed into." because he had the bore of putting on a smarter coat than usual. he calls the day" Fracetag. He stood by the side of Umlauf. How strongly is all this hesitation corroborated by Beethoven's own words to Rochli tz in 182~: " You see.7 for the Basses. . I sit and think and think and get it all settled. and it's all right. Vienna. in compliance with a request addressed to him by all the principal musicians. 1824. In a letter to Schindler. the conductor. at a concert given by Beethoven. And. but it won't come on the paper. . quoted by Lenz. but that did not keep him out of the orchestra. Once get into it." The first performance of the Symphony was on May 7. His deafness had by this time become total. and a great work troubles me immensely at the outset. though this was altered almost as soon as written down. both professional and amateur.for some time past I have not been able to write easily. not these tones! Let us sing something pleasanter and fuller of joy!" and the words of the ode itself being given first to the bass voice. at the Karnthnerthor Theatre. "0 friends. to indicate the times of the . of that city.yet the method of the connection remained the same. with the words of the ode itself following immediately for soprano solo.

Ungber (the lady referred to). which was repeated again and again. which is given in several forms in the books. acted like an electric shock on all present. who had sung the contralto part. with a prologue which is not an introduction. and seemed as if it would never end..various movements. heard nothing of it all. was told to the writer euctlyas above by Madame Sabatier." The Symphony starts in an entirely different manner from any other of the nine. turned him or induced him to turn round and face the people. during bar visit to London in I~ . though placed in the midst of this confluence of music. till Fraulein Ungher. and yet introduces the principal subject of the move-· ment. properly speaking. and a volcanic explosion of sympathy and admiration followed. and was not even sen_ sible of the applause of the audience at the end of his great work. At the close of the Symphony. The tempo is the same from the beginning. The master.Tbis anecdote. an incident occurred which must have brought the tears to many an eye in the room. and beating the time. but continued standing with his back to the audience. and the sudden conviction thereby forced on everybody that he had not done so before because he could not hear what was going on. • His turning round. who were still clapping their hands and giving way to the greatest demonstrations of pleasure .

Neither C-sharp nor C-natural are present. to give them more consistency.9 allegro ma non troppo. -----. The Second Violins and 'Cellos sound the accompaniment. as the" third" of the chord is left out. sempre fJfJ f ----------~---• BAss." No. un poco maestoso. avoiding the" third. with the Horns in unison. whether major or minor is uncertain. but with that of A. and Basses are heard successively whispering their way through them from the top of the treble staff to the bottom of the bass. Tenors. however.1. . . not with the chord of D. It begins. while the First Violins. All is pianiss£mo. still.

what at first sight may not be apparent to everyone. and so. It is now easy to see.10 This is repeated. the same with the great subject itself. which really forms the principal. but the phrase is hurried twice. except for the mysterious vagueness which they acquire' . the second time more hurried than the first. in fact. at last. Tenors. with the difference that the First Violins begin on the upper A instead of on the E. but with a very Beethovenish difference. and Basses are. after a bar's interval. and then the phrase is given a third time. we are launched into that tremendous unison of the Orchestra in the successive intervals of the chord of D minor. and that a clarinet is added to the accompaniment. the Wind instruments coming in one by one. that the first broken phrases of the First Violins. and the whole increasing in force bar by bar. The intervals remain the same. subject or animating spirit of the movement.

Each consists of the intervals of a common chord descending through a couple of octaves.II from the suppression of the" third.-- ~ of what Beethoven intends to do with the rhythm and intervals of the semiquavers which are contained . And then we have an indication (ttt ex U11gzee leonem)- ~"&.." and the secret manner of their entrance.No. ~?E Drtii~A==r:¥OJ· perhaps as a remote preparation for the entrance of the" second subject" in that key. the great subject-passage is given in B-flat.. '-~_j~&c. however' (to proceed with our analysis). This time.3. No.4. as it is shortly after the conclusion of the last extract. This is even more apparent when the prologue is repeated in the key and on the chord of D.

according to a favorite habit. a thing which I am not aware of his having done in any other of his Symphonies.12 in that great phrase (see a. No. The second subject is as strong a contrast to the first as can be desired or devised:- . ben marcato and forte in the whole orchestra. But.2).showing at the" same time how it can be made to imitate at a bar's interval. in a more florid form. the "second subject" should have been in F. and he immediately returns into D minor. the relative major of D minor.and at length arriving at the "second subject" in the key of B-flat... he plainly signifies his intention of not going back for some considerable time to D minor. which he immediately repeats. by altering the signature to two flats. and gives us this vigorous new phrase. but Beethoven has chosen otherwise.he has no present intention of remaining there. though for a moment in B-flat. Having reached the key of Bflat. notes for which a very remarkable and important role is destined. According to the usual rule.

Oboes.'13 No. and continues with bolder phrases.accompaniment in semiquaver arpeggios. divided between the Flutes.latter portion the Strings maintain an interesting . and Clarinets. It begins with a legato phrase. An in\ ) / . '1. in three members of two bars each. also distributed between the various members of the Wind band (not altogether unlike the second subject in the first Allegro of the Eroica). while to the .

not in B-flat. 37). 4ter Thiel. en passant. not only that so many of the melodies in the Symphony should consist of consecutive notes.14 dication of the restlessness implied in the hurrying already noticed is visible here again in the change of the phrase in the last four bars of the quotation. but in . and that this curious identification is adopted by Lenz as "a thematic reference of the most striking importance. to be "identical" with the theme of the Finale (No. After which. who calls attention to the "form and figure" of the "announcement" of the "vocal portion of the work." But it is certainly very remarkable.. G minor. the following stormy phraseJ is started by the Violins in E-flat." (Lenz. but that in no less than four of them the notes should run up a portion of the scale and clown again. that this subject is maintained by Seroff. and the more rapid repetition of the arpeggios in the accompaniment. The second subject has a codetta in the Wind~ instruments. vindicating the unity of the entire work. But to return.) This is too strong a statement. p. 179. seeming to point to a consistent condition in Beethoven's mind throughout this work. 1874. It may be mentioned. Beethoven. as is also that of a writer in the Orchestra of May I. which finishes it.( " I . and placing the whole in a perfectly new light. eine Kunst-Studie. a Russian critic.

though never in the same way. repeated by the Clarinet and Bassoons in the same. 2.. . Tutti.. . 5. the phrase is accompanied in contrary motion. ff Tutti..- ryttW~S ~+< Ft± f ~c=--£iJF Wfit ~ ' No.9.' . and Flute in C minor. .15 . By this bridge. In' each case. VIOL. ~". we are landed fortissimo on an episode.. j~ J A wC • the march-like rhythm of which (bars I. and lastly by the Strings again in D minor. Bassoon. 6) plays a large part in the subsequent portions of the movement. by the Clarinet.

CBLLOS.. '-" I ~'7 ce= Fi_LE _:I which. :d_ it l tJ ~ ~_t .. is dissolved into an astounding passage of semiquavers for all the Strings (except the Basses) in unison and sempre pt'ant'sst'mo. J _J_ E) I ~ J j" -~r ..a. ua . after a short existence of four bars. I. Q J 1 j tJ VIOLAS.J -. 11. VIOL. I 1-:= . and of the most beautiful effect:No. however. FL.No 10 f\ ~ VIOL it . . f\ .. leading into an episode entirely different and distinct from anything that has come before it.16 Out of it grows a broad melody in the key of B major.

here given in the Drum.9.·17 The G-flat and G-natural with which the members of the passage alternately commence seem to be entirely accidental to the chords which follow them. in the rhythm of No. Beethoven remains almost entirely in' B-flat. From here to the end of the first division of the movemeht. in which the whole Orchestra ranges in unison up and down through the intervals of the common chord of the key. as the conclusion is approached. . He closes this portion of his work with a loud passage of eight bars. and it will be observed that here again the phrases are hurried. and perhaps it is this fact that is the secret of the peculiar tender. 9:- . poignant effect that they produce. The passages repose on the figure quoted in NO.

-. But it aureI'y ought to be B.. So he makes a transition...-. Beethoven doubtless having an eye to the unusual length which his Finale was to stretch to. A..-.. as usual. ·This group stands as above in the printed scores.~ . E. l8B.. If U ICi ... namely. .18· and here once more we encounter the same restless hurrying already spoken of. A. The A-fiat which Beethoven has added to the phrase on its second and also its third occurrence-No.. like the others. At the repetition of the passage (in E-f1at).""7 t q . D. another variation is given in the new edition... after the working-out.. . which is in fact only the theme itself in reversed order. in his own wonderful way from B-fiat to A. and met by the equally simple pizzicato Bass. Surely there is nothing in the whole range of music more noble than the effect of this great theme sweeping down through its simple natural intervals from top to bottom of the scale. The first division is not repeated.. FE. J!1 '- t =J · ! 6£" s cU ~• eoo~ etc. and proceeds at once with the working-out. And now We see how nobly this great composer and poet could treat a subject after his own heart.. . \ =s= . draws a double bar through the score.. restores the signature to one fiat.

that which was above being played below.that is to say. This passage. above. .has an astonishingly passionate effect. But Beethoven is still too restless to remain even in this noble a. and No.. almost in inverse proportion to their significance. as a mother sometimes loves a puny child.-with other variations suggested by the ingenuity of the composer. is repeated three times in "double counterpoint. founded entirely on these two bars of his original subject :- ~Haffiir t: r The Second Violins and Basses have the working of the subject. Something appears at last to decide him. and he goes off into a lengthened passage. which he seems to love.that in semiquavers." . and the octavo passage of the Violins.nd dignified frame of mind. and he brings it to an end. while the First Violin indulges in savage leaps from its lowest G to the same note two octaves higher. six bars in length. as he did the prologue. 14.this time in C minor.. with impatient sforzandos. the instruments ci1ange their parts among themselves. that which was below. There are three subjects.and again introduces his four semiquavers. that in quavers. .

he gives it in A minor. ifWith this.20 each of the three is made to do duty in different positions and parts of the scale. the semiquavers are consigned to the Basses. He returns to it once more. and arrives at the resumption of the original subject (No. At length.7). forty bars to work off this mood. the 'Cellos. But the charm of the little semiquaver phrase is still too much for him. who retain them for twenty bars.a word he never uses without special meaning .between the First and Second Violins. gives it with one grand burst of the whole Orchestra. he seems to recollect that there are other materials at command. and at the end of it he seems more than ever alive to the capabilities of his little subject for expressing the thoughts which are in his mind. and with an effect of which the hearer may judge for himself. turning to the second half of the second subject (No. after having made so thorough a treatment . and. and now the phrase appears as a "Cantabile" . But the mood has softened. he completes the due circle of the form.. in all. treating it partly as before and partly in double counterpoint.. It takes Beethoven. as if resolved to dismiss it forever from his thoughts. the melody in the Basses and the arpeggios in the Treble. and at length. accompanying with the quaver portion of the theme. At length. trying it this time mixed with inversions. with great ingenuity.2) in its entirety.

See (a) (a) and (b) (b) :- .in full harmony.. I). Nor is this all. Its purpose is accomplished.. it is true. F or this. its mission fulfilled. it is now given with the fullest force of the Orchestra and the loudest clamor of the Drum and in the most unmistakable D major. he prepares by a repetition of the prologue (No. But in how different a style from that in which it first crept on our notice! Instead of that vagueness and mystery which made it so captivating. its triumph assured. No need now for concealment or hesitation. but not a mere unison as before. with a Bass ascending in contrary motion. and all possible noise.21 of the several parts.in D minor. And so it merges into the great descent of the main subject. To give greater weight to the main features of the subject. it is lengthened out by the insertion of two bars in the middle and two bars at the end.

and important modifications in the distribution of the instruments.22 (b) sf The ben marcato phrase (No. and on a pedal D. with corresponding changes of key. so dignified and noble and passionate in its . The second subject (No. or coda. six times over. which is so immense in its proportions. At length. 'And now begins a peroration. the repetition of the first portion of the movement is concluded. but with a difference. and then the various passages and episodes already enumerated. not as before in B-flat.7) follows on this.6) is next given. in D major. but in D minor.

but treated at much greater length than before and with constant variety. But. This coda begins with the descending phrase of the first subject (No. 14) are once more brought forward and worked between the Horns and Oboe. harmonized as before by pizzicato Basses in contrary motion. before finishing. the independence and impatience which characterize him throughout life. He will now show a side of himself which he has hitherto . then by the Strings themselves in unison. he has something to tell us entirely different from all he has already said. The earlier portions of this movement paint.-quoted as No.2). over a holding A in the Strings. and which had now increased to an almost morbid degree .8. a great 'deal is made of the stormy phrase. and much of the tenderness and yearning. Then the stormy phrase recurs with an astonishing passage in contrary motion in the Violins. The two favorite bars which formed so prominent a feature in the working-out (No.. Beethoven is dealing with previous materials. Next. in unmistakable colors. which go to make up that individual being who was called Beethoven. So far. and then the ritardando twice given. with the holding A in the Horns.23 sentiment. But this the former symphonies do also in their degree. and so crowded with beauties of every sort as almost to put out of mind even the noble music we have already heard. They show all the nobility and vigor.

J@JjQJlJ pt_ ~ This passage . his heart can be a prey to pangs as bitter and as unassuageable as those which wrack the fondest woman. The Strings begin a passage consisting of repetitions of the following phrase of two bars:- [@t\. And this he does as no one but himself ever could do. and gradually increases in tone through sixteen bars. like the somewhat analogous one in the first movement of the Seventh Symphony. 16..in the touching accents of Oboes.which.4J@JIUljJ il~~W No. and Flutes-is heard the following most affecting wail:- . may be regarded as a "pedal point" on Dcommences pz"anz"ssimo.d we shall see that. He will reveal to us the secret of his inmost grief. Clarinets. great and noble and stupendous as he is.24 kept veiled. ar. till it reaches a double forte . while over it . [ A.

and is usually the representative member of the entire composition.e quickly returns. the ingratitude and rascality of his nephew.through his deafness. in every sense of the word.Was ever grief at once more simply. and more touchingly told? Those sorrows which wounded the great' composer during so many of the last years of his life. it is only for a moment. they were real enough to Beethoven. Possibly so. his bodily sufferings. We almost seem to see the tears on his noble cheek.*. are here beheld in all their depth and bitterness. But. His independenc. except by a few jeering words in his letters. and the movement ends with the great subject in its most emphatic and self-reliant tone. * his sensitiveness.. The opening Allegro of the Ninth Symphony is no exception to this rule. It gives the key to the work. if Beethoven thus succumbs to emotion. Great as • It is DO avail to say that these griefs were often imaginary. but . The opening movement is almost always the most important portion of a Symphony. the slights of friends. the neglect of the world.sorrows on which he kept silence. more fully. his poverty.

and original.all these things make the opening Allegro of the Ninth Symphony a thing quite apart from all the others.and it is impossible to exaggerate them. with the strange tone of melancholy and yearning. It is . the manner in which they grow out of the principal one. the number of. and the persistence with which they are forced on the notice.. interesting. Even the first Allegro of the" Eroica. Everything seems to combine to make it the greatest * of them all. and the consequent difficulty of grasping the composer's ideas.are the beauties of the second and third movements. In many respects. the remarkable dignity of some portions and the constant evident restlessness of others. the extraordinary severity. and force of the main subject... and leaves grow out of a tree. it is still the opening Allegro that one thinks of when the Ninth Symphony is mentioned. the incessant alternations (as in no other work) of impatience and tenderness. must yield to this. at once the last and the greatest orchestral work and the most personal legacy of its great author. . The mysterious introduction which takes one captive at once. . twigs. and impressive as are the various portions of the Finale.Though not the longest. simplicity. notwithstanding the increasing conviction that they must be grasped." with all its grandeur and all its beauty. it differs from other first movements of Beethoven.the subsidiary themes. as the branches.

It may be well to say that no connection need be looked for between the first three movements of the Choral Symphony and the" Ode to Joy" which inspired its Finale.27 startling to think how much the world would have missed if Beethoven had not written his Ninth Symphony. the Scherzo .here. that the foregoing imperfect analysis has been attempted. in fact. The second movement of the Symphony is the Molto uiuace . with the train of thought and feeling suggested by the Ode. It is in the hope of elucidating some of the difficulties of the movement. Bee: thoven's own. and embodied in the latter half of the work. The very title of the work. but we should not have known how far they could be surpassed. for the first time in the nine sym- . and especially the first movement of it." but it is a " Symphony with Final Chorus on Schiller's Ode to Joy."-" Sinfonie mit Schluss-Chor tiber Schiller's Ode an die Freude. and it is not necessary to attempt to reconcile either the opening Allegro. the Scherzo (so called). The eight others would still have been the greatest works in the world." The first three movements might have had another Finaie . It is not a" Symphony on Schiller's Ode to Joy. and thus leaving the hearer more free to realize the total effect. though not so entitled. is conclusive on this point. or the Adagio.

Then.-he has writ- .. like all Beethoven's other orchestral" Scherzos.phonies .. the Oboe accenting the first note of each bar. It has been called "'a miracle of repetition without monotony". and. observe. he opens this .. for it is not only founded upon..put second. No. .-at ten a Sclll. First • In his Piano-forte Sonatas.with a prelude of twelve bars. it may almost be said to consist of one single phrase of three notes." Ii dnu t. at intervals of four bars.. 3. accompanied by the Clarinet. which is said to have come suddenly into Beethoven's mind as he stepped out of his house into the night brilliant with stars.ps.at' once the longest and greatest of his Scherzos . Op. and truly it is so. in triple time. the 'Cello. 3'. After four bars. That there may be no mistake as to his intention. least in the Sonata. almost wholly in consecutive notes) in the Second Violin. the Viola answers "in the fourth below" in strict imitation. in which the phrase in question is given four times successively in the four intervals of the chord of D minor:- The movement then starts pianissimo (and. It is in the same key with the Allegro.

. . crea.!. • . f\ VIOL. each ~ith its strict response :No._. _-.. J. . j . ~.J ) { f\ ==I _. ~.. --+ &:c. FAG.~. _ _ _ _' _ _ : _ _ _ ====- I. 20. )~ f\ PP ~ ~'---t.. j -t---'--l-- ) t. .J f\ -+ + CELLO VIOUPP -l+: - -'~~=m=T-= . I~' ~:IFtf+f.$#4f~=5 . . and is followed by another very . and Double Bass follow. 19.. 'If-' ? - F' This is given twice. d 1-* 1 4· 4~ 1 1 . -:.. I . OBOE. . -- -G! 1FL. 2..-1---~-.. .. tJ PP I ~i - -- !"" I r I· The second motif is a delicious crescendo in the Wind instruments (note the harmonies at" and").29 Violin. accompanied in the Strings by the incessant octave figure :No.

.. and with a pause of three bars we arrive at the end of the first portion of the Scherzo.J " 8n.. J l I t. After the repetition. the tone diminishes to pianissimo. VIOL. ftc. . 8fJa alta. .1. .. -< t. .. ftc. . also given out by the Wind.J " t. cJ " ------.._ s-. I After this. ... ..... ll_ WIIIJI.. •.30 melodious phrase.!. of which we can only quote a few of the commencing bars:No. 2'. a connecting .l!laa. This portion is then repeated. and accompanied as before by the Strings:No... 21. .... .. fFTFfETtfttrrFirrrlrrEmr# WIlm..J And this again is soon succeeded by a long and tuneful passage.

through A-flat. and in common time of four crotchets. though in this case called simply a Presto. puts the composer's direction at defiance by coming in four times at intervals of three bars. of . we. In the original MS. and. In this key. And here.31 link or "inter-chapter" of eight bars brings us into E-flat. and the second portion of the movement. "ritmo di tre battute. G-flat." the phrases being three bars long. under the same form as before. E major. and the fifth time making the interval four. and how it is made to serve for melody. in the rhythm of three beats. In the course of this. and every other purpose. The pianissimo is maintained almost throughout. into B minor. encounter a great deal of modulation. 19) starts off with great drollery in the Bassoons. it will not escape notice how the Drum. filling-up. The rhythm of three bars is succeeded by a "rhythm of four bars. Cflat. by which we reach the Trio. with characteristic audacity. as Beethoven has marked the score." containing some charming effects of the Horns and Trumpets. A and F-sharp. We then have another" interchapter" of twenty-four bars. It is wonderful with what persistence the original figure is maintained. The second portion of the Scherzo is repeated. the original theme (No. and this part of the work contains some truly splendid music. and pass from E-flat. This Presto is in the key of D major. accompaniment. D-flat.

. iv. The Trio brings in the Wind witha subject of eight bars. . made sixteen by repetition." (~I. and...32 the Symphony. ·nus . it appears as in the printed scores. TIlOHB. in . 1 I I . 23. 01l0E8 AND CUll. n B. PI ~- • . Sclwiflnl. This first theme. it is in two crotchets. gil). The Bass Trombone wakes up from its long sleep and utters its first notes. in the fair copy corrected by his own hand. a high. and dedicated to the King of Prussia. to welcome it:- { .. performance of the Symphony at Leipzig._-fL-FAG. which is a slight modification of the old commonplace melody on which" Non Nobis" is the note that Mendelssohn brought out more prominently than before at hi.... ff _. but Beethoven afterwards changed this. ~FoIt=::: " ~ No..84" and which Schumann notices as having" given a new life to the passage.D fortissimo.

The Horse and his Rider. The theme then shifts to the Bassoons. 26. running up the scale crescendo with a delicious eagerness.No. and the accompaniment (in its turn a theme. now' above and now below the theme.. divided between the Strings in turns. with the melody which before accompanied it as a Bass." and is simple almost to rusticity. and a most charming one) to the Oboes. the first motif reappears in the Horns. is succeeded by a charming motif in the Violas and 'Cellos. as if rejoicing in the freedom of the major key after so much minor:- After this. . and which Handel employs in .33 is founded.

26... the Horns gradually joining with a substratum of harmony. J~ _J_J d. OBO£.-- cJ ~ . The whole of this passage is well known..________ --------------___ is as anxiously watched for and as keenly enjoyed as probably any passage in the whole of Beethoven's . J 1 d ~ I I:C.+-~ . ~'-i*...L ~ . and the delicate temporary modulation into FNo. { .34 fl .

and Trumpets in low register (somewhat unusual with Beethoven). Berlioz is not far wrong when he classes it with the effect produced by the fresh morning air and the first rays of the rising sun in May: In the Coda . in key. nobly beautiful than anything that even this great masterwho knows so well how to search the heart and try the spirit and elevate the soUl.has accomplished elsewhere in his symphonies. this long but most interesting and exhilarating movement comes to a close. It consists of two distinct pieces .which are heard alternately. The delicious effect of the peculiar tones of -.35 \works. and then.the Oboe in this place must be heard to be understood. and in effect more calmly. Adagio molto e cantabile: A prelude of two bars introduces this .the whole Orchestra comes into play. and retires.after the repetition of the first portion of the Trio . with the grand clang of Horns and Trombones. until the one yields as it were to the superior charms of the other. and in speed . The slow movement is absolutely original in form. After this. with short allusion to the Trio. purely. is truly splendid.distinct in tune. The first of the two is in B-tlat and in common time. and the effect of the great crescendo and diminuendo. the Scherzo is repeated throughout.

. and always fresh. and tender melody.- harmonized in the same style. quite original. sweet.broad. The two choirs of the Orchestra. are kept distinct. and the effect of the echo of the last few notes of each strain by the Clarinet and Horns is exceedingly beautiful. The melody is given out on the Strings alone. String and Wind. in four separate strains.

ends.twenty-two bars in length . accompanied by the Basses and Bassoons and the upper portion of the Wind:- .37 After the Strings have completed the melody. with an arpeggio accompaniment in the Strings. and the Second Violins and Tenors give out the following melody in unison. the speed quickens to Andante moderato. The time then changes to 3-4. and the first portion of the movement . the last two strains are taken up by the Wind. and the key to D.

On the repetition. The Andante is eighteen bars long. in semiquaver figures. but now in the key of G. by the First Violins. incomparable manner. after Beethoven's own noble. the Andante returns. and arrive at a most beautiful section of the movement. We now return to the Adagio. and the treatment of the Wind and the other Strings in the first portion is entirely different from what it was before. with a deep Horn as Bass. The effect of the opening is so strange and so beautiful that we give a skeleton of the first few bars. and it gives place at once to the Adagio. in its old key. After each section of the tune has been completed. This done. The tune is now varied. Note the G-flat (*) and the extraordinary effect produced by the distance between the melody and the bass:- . the First Violins (a.On the repetition of this tune (on a pedal A. 28) is strengthened and made more prominent. the First Violin accompanies it with an independent melody of great charm (see (a) in quotation). The melody (in E-flat) is given by the Clarinets and Bassoons. and occasional pizzicato notes distributed over the Strings. the accompanying melody in. but it is taken by the Flutes and reed instruments. No. The tune remains unaltered. and with the same accompaniment. the Clarinets and their companions echo the concluding notes as before. in the 'Cellos).

qI cl5?] J'-.$fL' ••• .- . { -- .. -6- ~ Here is a melody.__:_" ._ '--"' j 0 I&DSh '--- '-......... It is not a repetition of the former Adagio.39 No._-. ---- . but. .. 30. ~.ibj No.... . whatever it be. increased by the peculiar tones 'of the Horn which delivers it:- =1- -_ ~~=d¥fFmcw . if possible.. the tender beauty of which is. 29. f\ . nor can it be called a variation.Ii ~ J '--- This section of the movement is only sixteen bars long....-- b-'" 1L' oft --&Ie• ~ . 4TH HOaN. .

and_elegance:- I ~g9f No. as before. Further on is a passage in which the Fourth Horn runs in semiquavers up and down the scale of C-flat.~ . We quote a couple of spetimens:__ 1~"=Jhm4Bi1l@i. !! _.rer'Eftfir. a feat of no ordinary difficulty for that much-tried instrument. not always successfully accomplished. 31.. of extreme beauty. I I '_-U ~:$:x ~fr:t tf'rrc. like other trials of life.. dignity.J and- . the time 12-8.i]1 r r T.~. • - . ______ r--~ In the course of this variation. and./L--::a::. -+-i==~+-~:.it is most beautiful. ]!if. the Horn has again some difficult feats to accomplish.L .-the key B-flat. and the figure a semiquaver one..aGEEtEE J "#~* No. -cres. These sixteen bars lead into the second variation proper of the original mclody. 32.

. 33). VIOL.~~mwiWj' . where the A-flatpp __ ------~ I~" !~ . _~_ PW& But Beethoven has amply repaid this most human instrument for any such trials by the lovely part which he has given him in this Adagio. is almost more striking and more beautiful than the body of the movement itself.CQOBlf' VIOL. 11 . 30). The Coda of the Adagio. or the delightful accompaniment triplets which we give further on (No.jifu FFE'i'FJEJ! if -::-. The Fourth Horn was in his good graces all through the movement .either those already quoted (No.. We cannot resist quoting the beginning. like the Coda of the opening Allegro. and a Horn-player might well choose to have engraven on his tomb the beautiful notes which are given to his instrument..

an octave lower than the ordinary instrument (employed also in the Finale to the C minor Symphony. The last ethereal notes of this beautiful dream have hardly escaped to the skies before it is rudely broken in upon by a horrible clamor or fanfare. presto. It is repeated with even aggravated roughness. including the Contra-fagotto. and here introduced into the score for the remainder of the work). Another passage of four bars. to which the composer has affixed this direction. Again the Basses .espresso !!c. is too beautiful for words. "Selon le caractere d'un recitatif. given with all the force of the Wind instruments and Drums. shortly after the last quotation. but to no purpose. the whole of the Coda is a gem of the purest lustre.first in quavers and then in semiquavers.. A dignified recitative by the Double Basses. or Double Bassoon. indeed. for no more solemn or beautiful dirge was ever uttered." seems to rebuke this demoniacal uproar.-with the response of the Flute. mais z'n tempo. with a transition into D-flat. might be aeaded Vanitas Vanitatum . and G-flat (*) have an effect truly magical. But. And the resumption of the florid figures by the Violin.

as if to see if in either of them he might find material for the Finale in the traditional manner. think of the astonishing boldness and originality.- and then the Basses and the whole Orchestra welcome the new-comet with every mark of applause. who apparently impersonate the master himself. and almost caressing in its manner. the prediction of which has just been welcomed. and the recitative which su~ceeds it is softer in tone. the result of years and years of search. and are immediately rejected by an almost angry recitative of the Double Basses.43 interpose. and worthy of all the pains that have been lavished on it j for a nobler or more enduring tune surely does not exist. The first bars of the first movement sound. And here. we have the theme. And now the Finale begins in earnest. just before we enter upon this grand melody. we hear a fresh motif in D major. and then a remarkable passage occurs in which Beethoven passes in review each of the preceding three movements. and yet the perfect pro- . The first bars of the Scherzo are also dismissed with some show of impatience. At last. The heavenly opening of the Adagio alone has power to soften his resolution. First.

~ dTP Ie g-j r Ie eFj r laRJ j I .how very simple it is! . not a single chromatic interval. as if unwilling to forsake them for a field less peculiarly his own. and out of fifty-six notes only three not consecutive.t1Uegro assai.. while we are still listening to the simple tune itself.-- er 'P r r r If e r Ir=.. "When an idea occurs to me. E I Ij -- ~Trlj e j elF r ___ tlr7tf? I era.. " r always hear it in some instrument or other. before the variations begin." And. in giving out with the Band a theme which was to be varied by the Chorus! The master still lingers among his beloved instruments. ~---~~ftftt a? r r I r7t rA And note.the plain diatonic scale. IT .never in the voice.:::>_ ~.44 priety in so great a master of the Orchestra." said he. here at last is the theme of the Finale: No. now. ~!j~O CELLOS & BAIISD. .. The same thing is the case with the melody of the vocal Finale to the Cho- . 36.

Next. and lastly it is given by the . See the working-out of the Finale' of that noble work.. 37. stealing upon the ear piano in the Double Basses and 'Cellos alone. The tune begins soft.No. VIOLAS AND CBLLOS. with an independent Bass. the melody in the Adagio of the Grand Trio in B-flat. immediately after the double bar. the Adagio of the Fourth Symphony. the independent counterpoint being maintained by the same instruments as before. Schubert could not escape the spell of this grand tune in his Ninth. and a separate counterpoint for the Bassoon.- But to return to Beethoven. 1\ . BAS8B8.45 ral Fantasia. and others of Beethoven's noblest and most enduring tunes. the First Violins take the tune. Symphony. Then it is taken up by 'Cellos and Violas.

and A . This melody. 40.-" Es ist bestinunt.an . in the four strangely unrelated keys of A major. a ritornel. E-flat minor. No.· Then comes a Coda melody.- obviously formed out of a phrase of the principal tune. and. a vague and wistful phrase of one bar.impression which is strengthened by the repetition of the phrase four times." .No.- ~ffl&E SIt sEfJ to the rhythm of which Beethoven returns with great effect in the accompaniment to one of the vocal pieces. 1~li rTt t r rTr as if he were uncertain or unwilling to proceed further in his task. poco ritenente. 38. then an accompaniment figure. containing new features: first. closely following this. is identical (except the CDatma1) with the opening of his lovely VoUulild. • Nor could Mendelssohn avoid the influence of this part of the SJ1llphony lID)' more than Schubert could. B minor.whole power of the Orchestra.. No. 89.

out of the chaos emergeslike Venus rising from the sea .47 And now. each to other. Custom sternly rends apart : All mankind are friend and brother Where thy soft wing fans the heart. On thy holy ground we come. thou spark of heavenly brightness.the human voice. this time. With which exhortation. Thou canst bind all. 35). in his own words and through the Bass singer. Quartet and Chorus: Allegro assai (D major) :Joy. I. The whole of the following six numbers are formed on the great melody so recently played (No. and allows his music to be interrupted by the horrible cry which we have twice already heard. that he may carry out consistently the plan which he had conceived for introducing Schiller's poem. Daughter from Elysium I Hearts on fire. these tones no longer I Rather let us raise together now our voices. we enter the vocal portion of the Symphony. and Beethoven addresses us. ." But. in a noble strain of florid recitative: o friends and brothers. The rebuke of the prophet finds articulate speech.the opposite to all that is embodied in the" Ode to • Joy. and which might well be an impersonation of . or on motifs formed out of it or upon it. Beethoven again suddenly dismisses his irresolution. with step of lightnesS. And sing more joyfully.

The wealth of melody in these latter accompaniments. is truly extraordinary. Meanest worm hath sense of pleasure. . but towards the end in a more florid shape.He whom happy fate has granted Friend to have and friend to be. Uv - IDg tblDp are drInJt -1Di'. On her rosy way we go. Friend in death. by the Oboes and Clarinets.- ftj IU snSUJ Ie t? ffGI Joy • • • •• all No. After the Bass Solo. beautifully accompanied. at first with the melody in crotchets. Before God the Seraph stands. aye true to friends. 41. wine-crowned leisure. the Chorus and Quartet join in. Kisses gave she. Nature's breasts for all do flow: Good and evil. all unthinking. in independent counterpoint. who in his heart's sure keeping Counts but one true soul his own.oh. Faithful wife who never wanted. Who cannot. Joy all living things are drinking. throughout the number. . Mingle in our jubilee j Yea. This begins with a Bass Solo on the tune itself. let him weeping Steal away and live alone.

It begins with a long orchestral introduction. Chorus in longer notes. etc. and all other appacatus of pomp. Piccolo.. etc. This is a showy military movement. Flute.p~ The number finishes with ten bars of. Brothers.with Big Drum.) :- Joyous as yon orbs in gladne. for the • . with a jubilant accompaniment in the Strings r-s- 8empre. thou spark. 2.evidently alluding to the "heroes" and the "victory" in the poem. Tenor Solo and Chorus: Allegro assai vivace: alia Marcia (B-flat.49 ~DU'&IUaEI ?ture's b_ for all do lIow. Triangle. Cymbals. Joy.l8 Speed along their paths on high.. come I away with sadneIa I Let us on to victory.

Adagio ma non troppo. on the following variation of the theme in 6-8 :- C r ·1 . and Bassoons). 3. Oboes. and lastly a Chorus in D. It opens with the subject for the Tenors and . supported by a chorus of men's voices. o'er yon azure fold Is a loving Father's dwelling. This movement is throughout choral. all ye millions I Here's a kiss to all the world.. ye millions? Feel ye your Creator near? Search beyond that boundless sphere High among the star pavilions.• 50 Wind only (Contra-fagotto very prominent). Chorus: Andante maestoso (G major) :Oh. embrace now.. containing some beautiful points (especially an episode for Horns.- Then follows the Tenor Solo. and is as distinctly religious in character as the last was military. ma divoto (G major) :Why on bended knees. Brothers. then a long Orchestral interlude in B-flat and B minor..

The second portion opens with a passage of interlude." The accompaniments are wonderfully original and beautiful throughout. sempre ben marcato (D major):Joy. Oboes. thou spark. full of mystery and devotion. in which the Wood instruments. with grand accompaniment (No.. especially at the words.brace on. now.No. Oh. ~ ye mU . The Flutes. . etc. kIBB tor aU the world. OO~Q ff r em a 1& .51 Basses in unison.A1idar&U maeBto8o.. 39). answered by the full Chorus. r F~ I all ••• .. embrace now. 'Cellos. finely sustained by the solemn tones of the Bass Trombone. all ye millions. and Clarinets seem to wing their way up among the stars themselves.Chorus: Allegro energico. " High among the star pavilions. . 44. 4. Beethoven has produced an effect which is not easily forgotten. by keeping the voices and instruments in the upper registers.. and Violas produce a beautiful effect. and.Hons! Here'. etc. This is a most impressive movement.-.

ll :J d .. • ·J · VIOL __ thou spark I •a I f· -em ...nMS..__ Iy... The very brilliant accompaniment for the Violins is afterwards transferred to the Basses. ter from E - ~ . Quartet and Chorus: Allegro ma non tanto (D major):Joy... ( )~ ~ I T!lUIlP. . . f\ ~ ----:-.. . l'io. ~fI_. 5. 45 f\ .IUonal •••• Ilffi-. daogh fI . and the theme of the last Chorus. tJ -- -. each to other. I _. thou spark of heavenly brightness.. And it starts thus:- ~~ r» . which we now discover to have a most intimate relation with the main theme. etc.. ---...J now . . p.11 bright . Thou canst bind all. etc.. Joy. .. :4 --.52 Beethoven does not intend his hearers to remain in this mood of mystic devotion. It is formed on two motifs. brace J . The next movement is a Chorus of extraordinary energy and spirit. I 1. J y8 <.-the original tune (in triple time). ._ -- I ~I Jut- .. of heav'n -5>- I . ~ -:=> nml • ~+f. · a.

spontaneous ·little themes :- Thou • • • canst bind all. Further on. and not unlike one of Mozart's gay. "Thou canst bind all. though related to the original one. and treated in close imitation :- The motif to the words.. in which the original theme is at once "diminished" (given in shorter notes).er. the Soprano and Tenor (and after- . each to otb . is new." etc.53 This opens with four bars of introduction...

and entirely altered in character. embrace now. No. 6. of the most elaborate kind.. 49. but in shorter notes. embrace now.54 wards the Alto and Bass) move in strict "canon with one another: - tt . all ye millions. all ye mu-uons r lIere's a kin for all tile world. . ten bars of increasingly rapid Allegro connect this number with the last movement. This is on a theme closely related to No. PJwtiuimo. Oh. t Et t: @r. Chorus: Prestissima (D major):Oh. nl8.. etc. rr Jlr CIf riC rr I '1 No.. 52.. 48. and beautiful in effect..-. I~'# ~ I 80prcra0. The noisy military instruments here reappear in the score :- . At the close of the Cadence. .J The movement contains a " Cadence" for the Solo voices. J.

the sudden introduction of four bars maestoso makes a remarkable effect. schoner Gotterfunken I GCStterfunkenI . and the Chorus ends' with a mighty shout:Tochter aus Elysium. Freude.55 Near the close. after which the pres#ssimo returns.

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