Composed and Published by

:
Water Supply & Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam http://binhdinhwssp.wordpress.com/ Provincial Centre for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (PCerwass) in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam http://www.cerwass.org.vn/

FOREWORD
The Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (WSSP) in Binh Dinh Province aims to improve the quality of life of the population in 6 districts of Binh Dinh Province (Phu Cat, Phu My, Tuy Phuoc, Tay Son, An Nhon and Hoai Nhon) through the provision of efficient facilities for both irrigation and drinking water as well as solid waste management. Awareness-raising is one of the main components of this project. To increase basic knowledge on water supply management, the project has chosen to develop a first booklet on 'Water

is Life'.

Although certain knowledge and concepts might be unfamiliar to some people, the authors made very short and simple explanations which are accompanied by various pictures to intrigue the readers. We would like to thank all persons who contributed to the completion of this edition. On this occasion, we would also like to express our gratitude and appreciation to the local people who have been very cooperative during our field work. Thanks!

TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Introduction 2. Importance of water to human life 3. Scarcity of Water 4. Polluted Water 5. Sources of Polluted Water 6. Water and Diseases 7. Clean Water 8. Tapwater: What, How, Fee, Why?

1. INTRODUCTION

Clean, fresh and safe water is essential for our health and our day-to-day living.

Estimates about the usage of water vary, but approximately 80 liters (including cooking, drinking, sanitation, bathing, ...) are needed per person per day.

An average person needs to drink at least 8 glasses (about 2 liters) of clean drinking water a day to survive.

Not having enough safe drinking water or having contaminated drinking water, poses a threat to all living organisms and especially humans.

2. IMPORTANCE OF WATER TO HUMAN LIFE
We can survive several weeks without food, but only a few days without water. A constant supply of water is needed for a wide range of activities, such as breathing, sweating and urinating. Water is absorbed by our body to compensate for water losses through skin, lung, kidney, etc. Water supplies necessary substances for the development of our body such as iodine, flour, zinc, iron, etc. Water helps to discharge the unwanted and poisonous substances from the body. Water helps humans struggle against the heat. The climate of places where there are many rivers or lakes is often cooler.

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3. SCARCITY OF WATER
Almost all of the world’s water (97%) is found in oceans and seas. This water is salted and thus not easy to use for our daily needs. A very small amount (about 2.8%) of the world’s water is fresh water, but most of it is not available for us. It is either frozen or trapped ground water or found in the atmosphere as water vapour.

Frozen water

Evaporated water

A very, very small amount, about 0.3%, is found in rivers and lakes - this is fresh water we can use. Just a drop in the bucket.

4. WHAT IS POLLUTED WATER?
Water Pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives (in) it. Water with colour and dust Water with a bad smell Water with microorganism

Polluted water

5. SOURCES OF POLLUTED WATER
• Using toilets along the river

SOLUTION: * Not urinate and defecate near water resources * Construct septic toilet for households, not letting feces polluting underground water

Dumping garbage and discharge waste water into river or around water resources.

SOLUTION: Not dump waste or dead animals into rivers or other water resources.

Washing or taking bath close to water resources will pollute the water.

SOLUTION: Not taking water bath or shower in the water resources. • Waste water of the factories without treatment which is discharged directly into the river.

SOLUTION: Urge factories to deal with their waste water in an appropriate way and not dump their waste water into the water resources.

Underground water contaminated by fuel, fertilizer, pesticide used in the field or other chemical substances penetrating through soil.

SOLUTION: Be careful while using these chemical substances. Try not to use them if not necessary and don't spoil them.

Protecting water resources is the responsibility of everyone

6. WATER AND DISEASES
The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of all sickness and disease in the world is a result of poor quality water and sanitation. According to the United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF), it is estimated that Vietnam has more than 20,000 citizens, mainly children, that die each year of diseases caused by unhygienic and dirty water. Contaminated water contains germs and bacteria that can often not be seen with the naked eyes, but they can cause the spread of water-related diseases like diarrhoea, typhoid, cholera, hepatitis A, salmonella, schistosoma, guinea worm...
Hepatitis A Diarrhoea

Salmonella

Worms

...

7. WHAT IS CLEAN WATER?
Clean water is water without bacteria or germs which are harmful for humans’ health. This water is safe to drink, to cook with, to wash, to clean vegetables etc.

8. TAPWATER: WHAT, HOW, FEE AND WHY
WHAT IS TAP WATER? Tap water is filtered and disinfected water which comes from an indoor tap or spigot. It is clean water without any bacteria or germs and it does not have any smell or strange color.

HOW DOES IT WORK? It is part of a larger indoor Water Treatment Factory or Station which requires a complex supportive infrastructure including a stable water source, pumping station, piping and water filtration to keep the water safe.

WHAT IS A WATER FEE? A certain amount of money that households pay monthly to have access to tapwater. The amount of money depends on how much water you use. This fee is necessary to support the costs of water filtering, cleaning, operation and maintenance, depreciation of facilities. WHY PAY FOR TAPWATER? • • • Using tap water improves your health Reduces the risk of water-borne diseases The water is readily accessible for cooking, washing, cleaning and drinking at home.

Water is Life. Use Clean Water.

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