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International Design Workshops on Tourism and Architecture T i d A hit t
Elective Course for Architectural Last Year Students 6/18 June, Aycalik (Turkey)
Dr. Arch. Antonio Caperna, PhD E-mail: email@example.com
Antonio Caperna, PhD
TOWARDS AN HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN
PART ONE Architecture and context: XX century i. paradigm ii. Policies, economy and society iii. Architecture and urbanism
PART TWO Introduction to Biourbanism
globalization. etc. Philosophy / culture XVII Century Shift paradigm Scientific revolution Industrial revolution ECONOMY ENERGY CITY POLICIES Ξ UNSUSTAINABLE SYSTEM Pollution. philosophy. policy.GENERAL OVERVIEW CITY History. … . science. religion. waste. Pollution waste social and economical divide. urbanization.
like an enormous machine. Isolating and reducing the physical world to is most basic entities.The Cartesian Newtonian paradigm contends that the physical The Cartesian-Newtonian universe is governed by immutable laws and therefore is determined and predictable. and therefore controllable physical universe. ni erse . its separate parts.BIOURBANISM.WWW. . provides us with completely knowable. (De Jong) Antonio Caperna. In principle. . predictable. .ORG The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm contends that the p y physical world is made up of basic entities with distinct p properties distinguishing one element from another. principle knowledge of the world could be complete in all its details.
BIOURBANISM.relationships are not important .Ph Phenomena can b reduced t simple be d d to i l cause & effect relationships governed by linear laws . our world is: -The machine metaphor .universe as clockwork .ORG According to Descartes.WWW.possible to comprehend it thought its parts .formed by objects .
economical.Cultural. . Environmental and Architectural pattern.
the pursuit of economic growth is a sole measure of national 3.BIOURBANISM. 7 8. ideologies. 3 4. 7. success Increasing power in f I i i fewer hands h d Profit motive bottom line of corps lack of true cost accounting--environmental costs not included--it is treated t t d as public good and th exploited bli d d thus l it d Unregulated economic globalization without concern for social and environmental consequences Economic growth is measured by real rate of growth in a country's total gro th meas red b gro th co ntr 's output of goods and services or real GDP Elite powerbrokers/nations erected new politics. 6. 9.WWW. faster 1 f t economic growth “growth fetish” i th “ th f ti h” 2. 5. and institutions predicated on these ideas/principles Harnessing fossil fuels played a central role in widening int’l wealth & power .ORG Global Policy since 1950 has been an emphasis on: 1.
buildings have turned into image products detached from existential depth and sincerity” (J. Pallasmaa) . architecture has adopted the psychological strategy of advertising and instant persuasion.B I O URBANISM “Instead of an existentially grounded plastic and spatial experience.
ORG MOBILITY’S IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT 30% of the world’s energy consumption is used by the transport sector.BIOURBANISM. People spend 10% of their time in transport Mobility is critical for the functioning of our society .WWW.
Will technology be the catalyst that allows us to deal with a resource shortage? Is the rate at which our society progresses sustainable when our most important primary resource is running out? .BIOURBANISM.WWW.ORG Peak oil Source: Energy Information Administration The Th way i which cities and gadgets shall b d i in hi h iti d d t h ll be designed i th future shall d in the f t h ll be directly affected by the availability of fuels and resources.
(Illustration from NASA) (http://www.asp) .org/globalWarming/qthinice. the size of the summer polar ice cap has shrunk more than 20 percent.Since 1979.nrdc.
water. resources . unrest.BIOURBANISM. food. disease conflict .ORG What will Climate Change mean? Rising sea levels g increased flooding and drought hotter summers wetter winters more freak weather events millions of people on the move in Africa and Asia hunger.WWW. homelessness.
ORG The 20th Century Model Increased Consumption More Waste Generation Worldwide fossil fuel consumption quintupled since 1950 Freshwater consumption doubled since 1960 .BIOURBANISM.WWW.
rapid technological innovation: permits massive extraction and exploitation of resources p VII. abstraction of nature V. III. More environmental degradation than any pt in history More inequality between humans than any pt in history More complexity to problems themselves Ideology that technology is part of “progress” that will save day.ORG I. 4) economic integration: promoted through globalization (Fordism) led to mass consumerism and the “growth imperative” i ti ” . IV.WWW. complemented by elite discourse promoting consumptive behavior VIII. massive population increase: both from increased consumption of earth’s resources and our ecological footprint (straining earth’s carrying capacity) VI.BIOURBANISM. an explosion in energy use: 1 & 2 facilitate energy use. II.
BIOURBANISM. 2. the place where it appears. to human feeling as an objective matter. There is the issue of context—a building grows out of. aesthetics—dismissed as subjective in much contemporary science—lies at the core of architecture. 3. that cannot be separated from the main task of serving functional needs. and must complement. course. as the goal and outcome of all processes. There is the issue of design and creation . if it does not connect. 7. 4 There is the issue of human feeling: since of course no building can be considered since.WWW. . There are issues of value.processes capable of generating unity. There is the issue of emerging beauty of shape. Thus. land 6. 4. 5.ORG essential problems of architecture 1. There is the vital issue of social agreement regarding decision making in regards to a complex system: this arises naturally when hundreds of people need to make decisions together – often the case in the human environment environment. somehow. There is the issue of ecological and sustainable and biological connection to the land.
glo-cal e-gov e-democracy P2P urbanism City form Green Buildings Renewable energies Grid energy system ENERGY BIO NETWORK HUMAN ORIENTED DESIGN Reinforcement of life systems URBANISM Biophilia Hypothesis Participatory Design Morphogenetic Design Environmental Psychology Neurophysiology Sensory Urbanism Change of Patterns Cultural Economical Educational SHIFT PARADIGM Complex approach .BIOURBANISM: A GENERAL OVERVIEW Policy Democratic (Bottomup) processes Societal.
guarantee an optimum of systemic efficiency and for the quality of life of the inhabitants. and Ecology in an essential manner. considering it as a hypercomplex system. . Thermodynamics. which are not predictable except through a dynamical analysis of the c a e ot p ed ctab e e cept t oug dy a ca a a ys s o t e connected whole. according to its internal and external dynamics and their mutual interactions. but also in the content of the results (hence the prefix “Bio”). Biourbanism recognizes “optimal forms” defined at different scales (from the purely physiological up to the ecological levels) which. and to Integrated Systems Sciences like Statistical Mechanics. The similarity of p gy y approaches lies not only in the common methodology. Salingaros.ORG BIOURBANISM MANIFESTO Antonio Caperna. all influencing each other in a non-linear manner. properties.WWW. Alessia Cerqua.BIOURBANISM. and thus fail to enhance life in any way. This interaction results in emergent p ope t es. which do not fit into an individual’s evolution. Operations Research. Stefano Serafini Biourbanism focuses on the urban organism. through morphogenetic processes. Nikos A. This approach therefore links Biourbanism to the Life Sciences. because the city represents the living environment of the human species. Alessandro Giuliani. hostile environments. interactions The urban body is composed of several interconnected layers of dynamic structure. A design that does not follow these laws produces anti-natural.
the geometry of social action.). for example. etc.ORG BIOURBANISM MANIFESTO The aim of Biourbanism is to make a scientific contribution towards: (i) the development and implementation of the premises of Deep Ecology on social-environmental grounds. (iii) managing the transition of the fossil fuel economy towards a new organizational model of civilization. and f (iv) deepening the organic interaction between cultural and physical factors in urban reality (as.WWW. fluxes and networks study.BIOURBANISM. (ii) the identification and actualization of environmental enhancement according to the natural needs of human beings and the ecosystem in which they live. .
WWW. processes and relationships in a wide variety of phenomena related to the nature and dynamics of change . principles and influences from a number of other bodies of knowledge.BIOURBANISM. including chaos theory fractal geometry cybernetics y complex adaptive systems postmodernism systems thinking Discovery of similar patterns.ORG SHIFT PARADIGM Complexity science is a science of understanding changeù A loosely bound collection of ideas.
g. markets. individuals. markets societies. societies populations economies. economies nations. communities.WWW. which collectively parts have a range of dimensions Parts share an physical or symbolic environment / space Action by any part can affect the whole E. families.ORG Complex systems Collection of parts. planets . populations.BIOURBANISM. cities.
BIOURBANISM.ORG … it includes a passage from: the part to the whole structure to process objective science to epistemology building to network as metaphor for knowledge truth to approximate descriptions Shifting Attitudes about the Environment Things versus Relations between Things Economy and Ecology versus Integration Techno-development versus Eco-development .WWW.
Complexity also means that systems need to be understood at different scales y y Communities Atom Organisms Molecule Tissue Cell Organs .
1979. 1993. creativity. anger.. capacity to concentrate and focus (Ulrich. 1991) a ety. Hartig. relax muscle rate. . Mang. 1993) heart rate blood pressure. spiritual transcendence (Besthorn& Saleeby.ORG RECENT STUDY Stress (Ulrich. a ge .WWW. . & Evans. g. ea . 1993) Enhances feelings of awe. g. 1991) immune system functioning (Parsons.BIOURBANISM. pressure tension. fear. . aggression and anxiety. agg ess o a d increased feelings of well begin are common responses to natural settings ( (Ulrich. mystery. 2003) . (Ulrich et al. increase alpha waves that associated with relaxation. 1991) Interaction in natural environments also increase problem solving. Katcher& Wilkins.
ORG Morphogenetics Design Process (MDP) .WWW.BIOURBANISM.
but also articulates new structures. And the process is clearly coded according to simple chemical operations at the molecular scale – but operations that quickly become vastly complex and interactive at larger scales.ORG MORPHOGENESYS The process can be seen clearly in embryogenesis where the whole embryogenesis.BIOURBANISM.WWW. organism is going through a continuous transformation that preserves the whole. Comparison of bat and mouse limb embryogenesis – a process of stepwise differentiation of wholes with new parts – but always preserving the whole .
buildings.WWW.BIOURBANISM. computer programs. . and cities share the same general rules governing a complex hierarchical system. neighbourhoods.ORG fractals in typical Ethiopian village architecture … organisms.
BIOURBANISM. chiostro Granada : Alhambra . cathedral.WWW.ORG Gloucester.
1994.BIOURBANISM.ORG Traditional urban geometry is characterized by fractal interfaces (Batty and Longley. Frankha ser 1994) The simplest definition of a fractal is a structure that shows complexity at any magnification Cobweb Aerial view of Chinese town .WWW. Bovill. 1994). 1996. Frankhauser.
Rome .ORG Musei Vaticani.BIOURBANISM.WWW.
BIOURBANISM.ORG Metabolic Network Nodes: chemicals (substrates) Links: bio-chemical reactions Neuronal Network Music Internet .WWW.
Stefano Serafini. Geeta Mehta. and Emanuele Strano . Salingaros. Nikos A. Federico Mena-Quintero.WWW. Michael Mehaffy.BIOURBANISM. Agatino Rizzo.ORG P2PURBANISM P2P urbanism Definition prepared by the “Peer-to-peer Urbanism Task Force” consisting of Antonio Caperna.
. relax muscle rate. (Ulrich et al. ea .WWW.BIOURBANISM. increase alpha waves that associated with relaxation. . g. 1993. Hartig. agg ess o a d increased feelings of well begin are common responses to natural settings ( (Ulrich. 1993) Enhances feelings of awe. a ge . 1991) Interaction in natural environments also increase problem solving. 1979. fear. pressure tension. & Evans. aggression and anxiety. creativity. g. 1991) a ety. spiritual transcendence (Besthorn& Saleeby. Mang. mystery. 1991) immune system functioning (Parsons.. 1993) heart rate blood pressure. 2003) . capacity to concentrate and focus (Ulrich.ORG RECENT STUDY Stress (Ulrich. Katcher& Wilkins. anger. .
ORG BIOPHILIA is the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms “Wilson and other Biophilia theorists assert that human beings not only derive specific aesthetic benefits from interacting with nature but that the nature. genetically determined need to deeply affiliate with natural setting and life-forms. human species has an instinctive.BIOURBANISM. 2003) .” (Besthorn& Saleeby.WWW.
An intersection between psychology and biology the p y gy gy connection is genetic – it resides in the common parts of our DNA .WWW.ORG What is Biophilia? “For human survival and mental health and fulfillment.BIOURBANISM. we need the natural setting in which the h h human mind almost certainly evolved and in i d l i l l d di which culture has developed over these millions of years of evolution ” evolution.
BIOURBANISM.ORG BENEFIT FROM BIOPHILIC DESIGN What role does Green Space play in the Urban Environment? a o do pa p ay U ba o • Environmental • Psychological • Neurophysiological • Physical Health • Social .WWW.
Photos courtesy of Legacy Health System . as i ) well as representational and symbolic depictions of nature (e g pictures) (e.g.WWW.. natural li h i ( l lighting. pictures).BIOURBANISM. including direct contact (e.g..ORG • Contact with nature has been found to enhance healing and recovery g y from illness and major surgical procedures. vegetation).
• Contact with nature has been linked to cognitive functioning g g on tasks requiring concentration and memory. • Healthy childhood maturation and development has been correlated with contact with natural features and settings. g • The human brain responds functionally t sensory patterns f ti ll to tt and cues emanating from the natural environment. environment
• Communities with higherq quality environments reveal y more positive valuations of nature, superior quality of life, greater f lif neighborliness, and a stronger sense of place than communities of lower environmental quality. q y These findings also occur in poor urban as well as more affluent and suburban ffl t d b b neighborhoods.
Neurophysiology is the study of nervous system function
Understand how our brain interact with urban i t t ith b environment in psychological,
biological, emotional term
Urban environment as communication system
in physical, sensorial, psychological and biological term
ORG Environmental Gardens & green space can account for 30-50% of city space and help mitigate many of the environmental problems associated with the built environment Urban ‘Heat Island’ effect Concrete & other building material absorb heat “Heat wave” in 2003 thought to cause 35.000 premature deaths in central Europe Turf 25oC cooler than Asphalt Parks can be 5. air temp 10oC cooler –(Moog-Soulis. 2002) 10% increase in city Greenspace–reduce temps by 4oC –(Gill et al.9oC cooler at night than suburbs ‘Leafy’ suburb 2-3oC cooler than new suburb –(Wolf 2004) p yg p . 2007) .BIOURBANISM. p Trees in school playgrounds –surface temp 25oC cooler.WWW.
BIOURBANISM. one example of sustainable architecture that uses dram atically less energy by imitat ing the successful strategies of indigenous natural syste ms. h have b been d developed b l d by various species of termites. h however.WWW. uses the s ame heating and cooling pri nciples as a local termite mo und . The building. the countr y's largest commercial and s hopping complex.ORG Building emulate nature The most astonishing ventilation syste ms.
BIOURBANISM.ORG BEST PRACTICES .WWW.
ORG access to open and/or moving water p / g These more conventional water features are also accessible to the majority.WWW.BIOURBANISM. majority are easier to maintain and cleaner than the traditional paddling pool. .
WWW.BIOURBANISM. Wine) (e g Biomass production Dust reduction Heavy metal reduction Thermal insulation Energy savings Noise reduction Biodiversity Evapotranspiration cooling .ORG Vegetable Façade • • • • • • • • • Edable fruits (e.g.
BIOURBANISM. with plants arranged according to their respective regional origins.ORG Vegetable Façade COPENHAGEN (DK) . Reflecting a burgeoning trend toward living facades in urban contexts. with Mangor & Nagel Arkitektirma. an essential step toward the preservation of local ecologies.WWW. . the vegetative. Designed by architect Johanna Rossbach. custom-fitted screen celebrates the old continent's biodiversity.In central Copenhagen a living map of Europe has appeared on the facade of the European Environment Agency (EEA) offices. the forward-thinking project stresses the use of indigenous species when choosing to 'green' the urban environment.
6 million y g y g p p gallons of runoff from carrying pollutants into the ecosystem each year (about 98% of all storm water).BIOURBANISM. .ORG By absorbing rainwater. the new Academy’s living roof will prevent up to 3. Reclaimed water from the City of San Francisco will be used to flush the toilets. reducing the use of potable water for wastewater conveyance by 90% 90%.WWW.
ORG Folding Bamboo Houses .BIOURBANISM.WWW.
ORG ufficio nei boschi realizzato dagli architetti Jose Selgas e Lucia Cano Architects .WWW.BIOURBANISM.
BIOURBANISM. Fair Street Housing.WWW. London. United Kingdom .ORG Vertical Garden.
Firenze .BIOURBANISM. The Sonic Garden Lab at "Castello del Bisarno“.WWW.ORG A sensory garden: A self-contained area that concentrates a wide range of sensory experiences.
ORG Restoration of Angelo Mai’s Garden By y Katarzyna Urbanowicz Kalina Dobija – Dziubczynska .BIOURBANISM.WWW.
Courtyard and garden .Angelo Mai.
Angelo Mai. Map of diagnosis .
PATTERNS schemes and trees of the main pattrens .
PLAN SECTIONS A-A B-B .
water circulates using the differences of the ground levels (with a pomp in one place) WATER CIRCULATION This part of the garden is more natural and created as an organic labirynth with kind of ‘theme rooms .all the pools and fountains are connected. theme rooms’ LABIRYNTH .
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SEAT SPOTS .
PhD .THE POOL WITH ‘GLASS BALLS’ CENTER 2’ Antonio Caperna.
THE POOL WITH ‘GLASS BALLS’ CENTER 2’ Antonio Caperna. PhD .
PhD .WATER WALL CENTER 3’ Antonio Caperna.
there is quite a big but also very shallow pool.THE POOL WITH WOODEN-BLOCK-PATHS On the north boundary. The pool has two levels and is finished with kind of steps. PhD . Many stones or wooden blocks which finish over the water surface create paths on h hf h h f h the water and let people choose thair own way of passing. Antonio Caperna.
THE POOL WITH WOODEN-BLOCK-PATHS .
ROOF TERRACES .
PhD .COFFEE – BOOKSHOP TERRACE Antonio Caperna.
COFFEE – BOOKSHOP TERRACE Antonio Caperna. PhD .
com Caperna A. g g ( . Nikos A. Neis.it . Journal of Urban Design. [ [Earlier version p published electronically by Resource for Urban Design Information in 1997 y y g Salingaros. S.uniroma3. Journal of Urban Design. and West. pp Salingaros. Oxford University Press).. Salingaros. H. Michael and Longley. I. (1987) A New Theory of Urban Design (New York. Vol. Salingaros. 638-643. (in press) Alexander.biourbanism. S. Nikos A. y ) Alexander. Nikos A. ) Salingaros. www. A. and King. C. Paul (1994) Fractal Cities (London.. Anninou. 3 pp. Carl (1996) Fractal Geometry in Architecture and Design (Boston. 53-71. Batty. 8 pp. 909-923. Fiksdahl-King.pism. Nikos A. Introduction to The Pattern Language..archimagazine. ( ) y g ( . ICT per un Progetto Urbano Sostenibile. . M. Bovill. Caperna A. Architectural Research Quarterly. 149-161. 4 pp..References Alexander. Bruce J. Ishikawa. www.it p p g http://www.tesionline. M.org http://www.. (2000) "Structure of Pattern Languages". I. (1999) "A Universal Rule for the Distribution of Sizes". Silverstein. (1977) A Pattern Language (New York. Birkhäuser). and Angel. Oxford University Press).. Vol. Physics Essays. 29-49. 4 pp. (1998) "Theory of the Urban Web". Jacobson. Christopher (2000) The Nature of Order (New York. Vol.. Vol. (1999) "Urban Space and its Information Field". Nikos A. Vol. Academic Press). Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 26 pp. Oxford University Press). C. (1995) "The Laws of Architecture from a Physicist's Perspective"..
Joseph P. Algorithmic Sustainable Design. Zbilut. Progettare la città a misura d’uomo. Paris: Seuil. 1st November 2010. Berkeley. The Latent Order of Complexity. Emanuele Strano. 1991. . 1968. Washington: Island Press. Solingen: Umbau Verlag. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. Michael Mehaffy. Antonio Lima-de-Faria. La Méthode: La Nature de la Nature. Ludwig von Bertalanffy. Complexity.References Nikos Salingaros. Milena De Matteis. Berlin. «A Definition of P2P (Peer-To‐Peer) Urbanism». General System Theory. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Tools for Thought. Origins of architectural pleasure. CA: Center for Environmental Structure. Waddington. Kellert. Esquisse d’une Sémiophysique. Antonio Caperna. . London – New y York – Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Grant Hildebrand. Alessandro Giuliani. Conrad H. . AboutUsWiki. . 2010. Berkeley. 1993. CA: University of California Press. Stephen R. ( ) . and the Human Sciences). Gregory Bateson. Peer to Peer Urbanism (September 2010). Nikos Salingaros. the P2P Foundation. Geeta Mehta. Heinrich Böll Foundation. 2010. Wilson (eds. Christopher Alexander. 1999. Stefano Serafini. Twelve Lectures on Architecture.). Agatino Rizzo. DorfWiki. Edward O. Stefano Serafini (eds. Paris: InterEditions. . L’alternativa ecologica del Gruppo Salìngaros: una città p bella e p g pp g più più giusta. 1979. 1977. Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory. Cresskill. 1977. 2002-2005. Federico Mena--Quintero. 2007. Simplicity. 4 vol.. g g p Edgar Morin. The Biophilia Hypotesis. Evolution without Selection. Form and Function by Autoevolution. NJ: Hampton Press. 1988. The Nature of Order.. Rome: SIBU. René Thom. New York: George Braziller. .). . Presented by Nikos Salingaros at the International Commons Conference.
BIOURBANISM.ORG WWW.ORG .BIOURBANISM.WWW.
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