Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh.

Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

KITAB AT-TAWHID
The Knowledge and Recognition of the Uniqueness of Allah (swt)

Contents Week Week 1 Intentions Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Topic Pg 2 3 6 9 12 16 19 22 25 29 32 36 41

Week 2 Week 3 Week 4

Week 5 Week 6

At-Tawhid - The Oneness of Allah (swt) The merits of tawhid and the sins that it expiates The one who fulfills tawhid enters paradise without a reckoning The fear of shirk The invitation to testify to Lā ilāha illa Allāh Explaining tawhid and the testimony Lā ilāha illa Allāh Wearing bracelets/cords… etc to remove or seek protection from affliction is a form of shirk Incantations (ruqyā) and talismans (tama’im) Seeking blessings from trees, stones and other things Slaughtering for other than Allah (swt) Make no animal sacrifice for Allah in a place where sacrifice is made for other than Allah.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Student guild is an opportunity for serious students to build their knowledge of Islam Intentions: Pray to Allah (swt) not to render, what we have learnt a calamity against us but may He guide us to act according to what pleases Him. May Allah (swt) make learning a means to gain entrance to Paradise and earn His pleasure. Seek knowledge for Allah (swt), have ikhlas and do everything for the sake of Allah (swt). Intend to remove Jahl and ignorance from ourselves. Intend to pass on this knowledge to remove ignorance from others.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

KITAB AT-TAWHID
The Knowledge and Recognition of the Uniqueness of Allah (swt)

Week 1: 06/06/2011
Introduction
Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab. The book deals with the issue of tawhid al-Ilahiyah. The right of Allah (swt) to be worshipped alone. Topics deal with the explanation of tawhid, its rules, aspects that strengthen and perfect tawhid and its merits. The book also looks into issues that contravene the matter of tawhid. This is shirk. Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab wrote this book in the style of the early books of aqeedah. Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab stated that this book was written so that the believers would fear shirk and protect themselves from committing shirk.

What is Tawhid? In the Arabic language, the term ‘tawhid’ is used to ascribe uniqueness to something. In Islam, the term ‘tawhid’ is used to ascribe uniqueness to Allah (swt) in everything that is specific to Him. These are (1) His Rububiyah (Lordships), (2) His Asma’ wal Sifat (names and attributes) and (3) His Ilahiyah (right to be worshipped). These are the three categories of Tawhid.

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What is shirk? In the Arabic language, it is to associate one with another. In the religious sense, shirk is to liken the Creator to the creation. Or to liken the creation to the Creator in everything that is specific to Him. In His actions (Rububiyah), perfection (Asma’ wal Sifat) and right to be worshipped (Tawhid al - Ilahiyah). Shirk in worship is (1) Shirk al-Akbar (The Major Shirk) and (2) Shirk al-Asghar (The Minor Shirk). Also another two categories (1) Shirk al-Jalee or al-Zahir (Apparent Shirk) and (2) Shirk al –Khafie or al-Bātin (Hidden Shirk). There are some scholars that divide shirk into three categories, major shirk, minor shirk and hidden shirk. For hidden shirk, they are referring to the subtle riyaa (showoff) by beautifying one’s worship to obtain the praise of the creation.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

The Three Categories of Tawhid

[1] Tawhid al-Rububiyah (Lordship) Allah’s actions are His own and are unique to Him. No one of His creation have any share of His actions. He alone created the Heavens and the Earth. He alone has possession over them. He alone governs and controls the affairs of the universe. Allah (swt) alone provides and sustains His creation. He alone responds to the supplication of mankind. He alone grants life and death.

[2] Tawhid al Asma’ wal Sifat (Names and Attributes) Allah (swt) is unique in His names and attributes. Allah (swt) alone is characterized by absolute perfection in His names and attributes and no one is like Allah (swt) with regards to His names and attributes. Some of His names and attributes are common with His creation but He is unique in the fact that no one is perfect like Him with regards to the names and attributes. Whatever is necessitated for Allah (swt) with reference to His name or attribute is not the same for His creation when they are described by that name or attribute. The creation is described by the name or attribute with what befits their weak and dependent essence while Allah (swt) alone is characterized by absolute perfection in that name or attribute.

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[3] Tawhid al Ilahiyah (Worship) It refers to the belief and acknowledgement that Allah (swt) alone has the right to be worshipped. Similar but not completely synonymous terms are tawhid al-Ibadah and tawhid al-Uluhiyah. These terms refer to the duty of creation to single out Allah (swt) for worship. Therefore, every single act of worship must be directed to Allah (swt). Supplications, slaughter, vows, reliance, trust must only be made to/on Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Types of Shirk upon Tawhid al-Ilahiyah
Shirk al-Akbar (The Major Shirk) is to direct any act of worship to other than Allah (swt). Whether it is a Prophet, an Angel or a righteous person. A person guilty of major shirk is outside the fold of Islam. Shirk al-Asghar (The Minor Shirk) is a term attributed to any action or statement that has been given the term ‘shirk’ in the Qur’an and Sunnah. There are indications in the text that it does not take the person outside the fold of Islam. This could be wearing charms or amulets, swearing by other than Allah (swt), subtle riyaa (showing off), and beautifying one’s worship in order to receive the praise of the creation. Shirk al-Jalee or az-Zahir (Apparent Shirk) are manifestations of shirk that can be heard and seen clearly. It constitutes both shirk al-akbar and shirk al-asghar. Apparent major shirk (shirk al-akbar) could be slaughtering and making dua (supplication) to other than Allah (swt). Apparent minor shirk (shirk alasghar) could be wearing charms or amulets, swearing by other than Allah (swt). Shirk al –Khafie or al-Bātin (Hidden Shirk) constitutes both shirk al-akbar and shirk al-asghar. Hidden major shirk (shirk al-akbar) could be putting one’s reliance, trust, hope and fear on saints or dead, righteous people. Hidden minor shirk (shirk al-asghar) could be subtle riyaa (showing off) or beautifying one’s worship to receive the praise of the creation.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 1: At-Tawhid – The Oneness of Allah (swt)
This chapter deals with the obligation of worshipping Allah (swt) alone.

“And I did not create the jinn and man-kind except to worship Me.” [V51:56]
Allah (swt) describes the wisdom behind the creation of jinn and mankind. For them to perform ibadah (worship) of Allah (swt). i. Ibadah is to be subservient to Allah (swt) out of love and veneration to Him along with unconditional obedience. ii. The scholars of fiqh (jurisprudence) define ibadah as everything that Allah (swt) has commanded that does not fall into regular patterns of behavior and actions such as eating, dressing..etc. iii. It is also defined as everything that Allah (swt) has commanded that is either wajib (obligatory) or mustahab (recommended). iv. Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah defined ibadah as every statement or action, whether it is apparent or hidden, that is beloved to Allah (swt) and pleases Him. This includes the feelings of the heart, statements of the tongue and actions of the limbs. This exhibits the wujūb (obligation) of worshipping Allah (swt) alone. Therefore any act of worship directed toward other than Allah (swt) is against the purpose of creation. This is shirk and it is a great sin.

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Other verses in the Qu’ran regarding this issue: “We sent a messenger to every nation [saying] ‘Worship Allah and shun the taghut.” i. This verse explains the previous verse [V51:56]. The verse explains that the worship of Allah (swt) should have no shirk in it. ii. It consists of affirmation of all acts of worship and the right to be worshipped for Allah (swt) alone and the negation of worship directed towards false deities. iii. This is the message that all the messengers brought to their people. To actualize tawhid and abstain from shirk. “And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment.” [V17:23] i. Allah (swt) has commanded us to worship none other than Him. It corresponds to the testimony of the shahadah that there is none worthy of worship but Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Other verses in the Qu’ran regarding this issue continued: “Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him.” [V4:36] i. This verse is an affirmation for the worship of Allah (swt) alone with no partners. It is also a negation of worshipping anything else besides Allah (swt). ii. The wording for the negation of worshipping anything other than Allah (swt) is general and it refers to two issues. (1) It is general as it refers to all forms of shirk. (2) It is also general for the object of the shirk. No exceptions are made for anything. Not an angel or saint or righteous person or idol. “Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you. [He commands] that you not associate anything with Him…" [V6:151] i. This ayah (verse) is the first of the 10 legacies/bequests in Surah Al-An’am. A number of prohibitions are mentioned in these verses. ii. The first prohibition is shirk which places it as the greatest prohibition. iii. The wording is general and refers to (1) all types of shirk and (2) all objects of shirk.

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AHadith:
1. Narrated by Ibn Masud (r.a):

Whoever wishes to ascertain the very will of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) on which the Prophet has put his seal, let him read the Statement of Allah: "Say: Come! I will recite what your Lord has prohibited upon you: Join not anything in worship with Him... (up to)...And verily, this is My Straight Path." [V6:151153] Ibn Masud states that if the Prophet (s.a.w) had a will, it would include the prohibition of shirk. Therefore a person who truly loves the Prophet (s.a.w) would abstain from shirk. On the authority of Mu'adh bin Jabal (r.a), he said:

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I was riding behind the Prophet (s.a.w) on a donkey and he said to me "O Mu'adh, do you know what is the right of Allah on his slaves and what is the right of the slaves upon Allah?" I responded: "Allah and His Messenger know best." He continued, "The Right of Allah upon His slaves is to worship Him Alone and never to associate anything with him. The right of slaves upon Him is not to punish any person who does not associate anything with Him." I said: "O Allah's Messenger, may I not give the glad tidings to the people?" He replied: "No. Do not inform them lest they depend [solely] on it (this promise and lapse in their service to Him)” [Recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim] The Prophet (s.a.w) told the sahaba that the right of Allah (swt) from His slaves is that they worship Him alone and not associate any partners with Him in worship. This is proof of the wujūb (obligation) of tawhid. It also exhibits that a person who does not commit shirk, can hope to be exempt from the punishment of Allah (swt). The Prophet (s.a.w) prohibited Mu’adh from revealing this knowledge. Some scholars state that this is proof for the permissibility of hiding knowledge if there is evil feared from it. The Prophet 7

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq (s.a.w) feared that people would become complacent. This prohibition was not absolute or Mu’adh would not have narrated it. As anything that the Prophet (s.a.w) teaches the Ummah should be conveyed and taught to the people. However, in certain times and situations, it may not be befitting for certain hadiths or knowledge to be conveyed as misunderstanding from it may lead to undesired actions. Therefore this prohibition referred to a specific time and place and Mua’dh narrated it after the death of the Prophet (s.a.w) – i.e. at a later time – and therefore he did not disobey the Prophet (s.a.w).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 2: The Merits of Tawhid and the Sins that it Expiates
This chapter illustrates the numerous rewards, desirable benefits and merits of tawhid in order to entice and encourage us to comply with tawhid.

“They who believe and do not mix their belief with zulm those will have security, and they are [rightly] guided” [V6:82]
Zulm: It refers to shirk. Recorded by Bukhari and Muslim, Ibn Masud (r.a) mentions that this verse [V6:82] was very hard upon the sahaba when it was revealed. They asked the Prophet (s.a.w) who from amongst them does not mix faith with zulm (wrongdoing)? The Prophet (s.a.w) stated that this verse refers to shirk. As the servant of Allah (swt), Luqman (r.a) stated that there is no greater zulm (wrongdoing) than shirk. Those of the believers that refrain from all the different kinds of shirk will be granted safety in this world and will be guided. Some scholars refer to this security as tranquility in the hearts – the absence of depression, anxiety or distress on account of other than Allah (swt). The higher degree of abstinence from shirk will provide a believer with a higher degree of safety and guidance. Deficiencies in tawhid (minor shirk) would cause a believer to lose a portion of security and guidance. Major shirk results in a person leaving the fold of Islam and entering hellfire. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah is of the opinion that zulm in this ayah (verse) refers to all types of zulm. Zulm (wrongdoing) that is shirk, the zulm that a person does to himself by committing sins, wrong done to one another… etc. Therefore the relationship with zulm and rewards is inversely proportional. Some of the benefits of compliance with tawhid: A person maintains safety and security in this world. The person will be guided in this world and the next. The person who adheres to tawhid shall enter jannah (Paradise) and will be saved from hellfire. Tawhid expiates one’s sins.

The level of tawhid in each individual varies and the person with a stronger sense of tawhid has a higher degree of benefit from tawhid than the person with a weaker sense of tawhid. Therefore he will have more safety, security, guidance, more sins expiated... etc.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

AHadith:
1. Narrated Ubadah bin As-Samit (May Allah be pleased with him), that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Whoever testifies that there is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no God) except Allah Alone, Who is without (peer or) partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that 'Iesa (Jesus) is the slave of Allah, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (created) from Him, and that Paradise & Hell-fire are realities, Allah will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3252) A believer who has a sense of tawhid of Allah (swt), believes in His Messengers and believes in the afterlife will be permitted into jannah (Paradise). The hadith illustrates that a believer can enter jannah (Paradise) ‘whatever his deeds,’ even if he falls short in his obligatory acts of worship – even if he has some sins. Categories of Muslims on the Day of Judgement: i. (A) The Muslim who’s good deeds outweigh his/her bad deeds [OR] the person who repented from his/her bad deeds. He/She will enter Paradise by the will of Allah (swt). ii. (B) The Muslim whose bad deeds outweigh his/her good deeds with no taubah (repentance) performed. He/She is subject to the will of Allah (swt) and if Allah (swt) wishes, the Muslim may be punished or forgiven. The entry into Paradise in this hadith is of two types. i. (1) The entrance into Paradise that is not preceded by any punishment – those Muslims in category (A) and the ones who are forgiven in category (B). ii. (2) The entrance into Paradise that is preceded by some form of punishment in hellfire – those Muslims that Allah (swt) has chosen not to forgive from category (B). The merit of the people who adhere to tawhid is that they will eventually be granted Paradise.

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2. 'Itban (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies: 'There is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no true God) but Allah', seeking thereby nothing but Allah's Face (pleasure)." (Al-Bukhari, Muslim). The last clause – desiring the Face of Allah (swt) - is a very important statement as it excludes the munafiqeen (hypocrites). The ones that outwardly testify the oneness of Allah (swt) but inwardly, in their heart, they do not believe in it. Therefore it is vital to be truthful when declaring the tawhid of Allah (swt). This is a condition of tawhid.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 3. Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Musa (Moses) (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: 'O my Rabb, teach me something through which I can remember You and supplicate to You.' Allah answered: 'Say, O Musa, La ilaha ilIa-Allah'. Musa said: 'O my Rabb, all your slaves say these words'. Allah said: 'O Musa, if the seven heavens and all they contain besides Me and the seven earths as well, were all put in one side of a scale and La ilaha ilIa-Allah put in the other the latter would overweigh them.'" [This Hadith has been reported by Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim declared it Sahih]. Musa (a.s) asked Allah (swt) to grant him an invocation that is specific to him. The hadith exhibits that sometimes people in high positions are in need of tazkiyah (reminders) themselves about tawhid. Musa (a.s.) was reminded about the merit of tawhid. The hadith illustrates the greatness of tawhid. That there is no act of wrongdoing that can overcome or outweigh the strength and magnitude of tawhid. Tawhid outweighs everything in existence (besides Allah (swt)). Another authentic hadith, hadith al-Bitaaqah - the hadith of the ‘card,’ (Saheeh Sunan alTirmidhi, 2127) exhibits that a man with countless volumes of bad deeds, when being reckoned, was forgiven as he had one good deed. A ‘card’ with the shahadah was brought and weighed against the volumes of bad deeds and the card tipped the scale as the man’s tawhid outweighed his bad deeds. The scholars have mentioned that this leniency is not accorded to every Muslim. It is reserved for those who have very strong tawhid, who are completely dependent on Allah (swt), those who have no inclination or attachment to other than Allah (swt) and are free from the most subtle forms of shirk.

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4. At-Tirmidhi reports from Anas (May Allah be pleased with him): He heard Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) saying: "Allah the Most Exalted said: 'O son of Adam, were you to come to Me with the world full of sins, and meet Me without making anything partner to Me (Shirk), I would come to you with a similar amount of forgiveness.' " This hadith Qudsi (or sacred hadith, have a particularly important status because their meaning is entirely from Allah (swt) while the wording is that of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) himself.) states that if a believer has great magnitudes of sin, greater than the weight and volume of the whole world but does not commit any act of shirk, Allah (swt) will come to that believer with similar amounts of forgiveness.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Week 2: 13/06/2011
Chapter 3: The One Who Fulfils Tawhid Enters Paradise Without A Reckoning.
This chapter deals with a specific reward for Muslims who adhere to Tawhid at the highest level. i.e those who perfect their tawhid. It also illustrates how this can be achieved and specific characteristics of the believer who maintains a high level of tawhid.

How is tawhid perfected?
By guarding one’s worship from three things:

1. All the various forms of shirk. 2. Bi’dah (innovation) and all its different forms. 3. Disobedience to Allah (swt). Therefore, anyone who dies while not having repented from any of the above will not have achieved perfection in their tawhid. • The perfection of tawhid is of two levels.

1. The perfection that is wajib (obligatory). Achieved by guarding one’s worship from the three things required to perfect tawhid.

2. The perfection that is mustahab (recommended). Achieved by freeing one’s heart from attachment to anything/anyone other than Allah (swt) in all affairs. Making one’s heart devoted only to Allah (swt). Ensuring that one’s actions, sayings.. etc is done solely for Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Qur’an: “Indeed, Abraham was an ummah [comprehensive leader], devoutly obedient to Allah, inclining toward (hanifan) truth, and he was not of the mushrikin (those who associate others with Allah).” [V16: 120]
Allah (swt) describes Prophet Ibrahim (a.s) with the characteristics of those who perfect their tawhid. Ibrahim (a.s) is described as an ‘ummah’ which can mean i. The leader who has gathered together all of the attributes of goodness and he is the Imam (leader) who should be followed in this goodness. ii. He (a.s) was an ummah by himself as he was alone with very few followers. He was like an ummah as he alone was upon the truth in his time. Those who perfect their tawhid and are surrounded by people committing shirk are leaders and they form an ummah upon truth. Ibrahim (a.s) is also described as the one on (1) qunut and (2) hanifiyyah. These two characteristics are related to one another and are from the characteristics of those who perfect their tawhid. i. Qunut: Refers to the one who is in constant obedience to Allah (swt). ii. Hanifiyyah: It means to turn away from shirk. These two characterictics exhibit affirmation of obedience in worship to Allah (swt) alone and negation of shirk (in all its forms) and any inclination to other than Allah (swt). Another characteristic is to absolve oneself from any affiliation with the mushrikin (those who associate others with Allah).

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And He further said: " And they who do not associate anything with their Rabb (Lord)" [V23:59]
The scholars have mentioned that Allah (swt) uses the term ‘Rabb’ in this ayah (verse) since Rububiyah (Lordship) which comes from the word ‘Rabb’ necessitates Ubudiyah (worship and obedience of Allah). This verse is among many that describe the believer with perfect tawhid. The characteristic explained in this ayah is that the believer does not make any shirk with their Rabb as the word itself suggest tawhid ar-Rububiyah i.e complete worship and obedience to Allah (swt) alone. As a result, the believer that observes this principle stays away from sins, heresy or bi’dah (innovations).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Hadith
1. Husain bin Abdur-Rahman narrated: Once when I was with Sa'id bin Jubair, he asked, "Who among you did see the shooting star last night?" I answered, "I had seen it," and then explained that I was not at the prayer at the time because I had been stung by a poisonous scorpion. He said, "What did you then do?" I replied, "I sought (from someone else) Ruqyah to cure it!" He said, "What compelled you to do that?” I said, "A Hadith I heard from Ash-Sha'bi." He asked, "Which Hadith Sha'bi narrated?" I replied, "He reported from Buraidah bin Al-Husaib, who said that Ruqyah is not allowed except for the treatment of 'evil eye' ('Ain) and (poisonous) sting." He (Sa'id bin Jubair) said, "He has done well by stopping on what he has heard (i.e. to act according to the knowledge as opposed to ignorance). However Ibn Abbas narrated to us that the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said, 'All the nations were made to pass before me, and I saw a Prophet with a small group with him, and a Prophet with two or three people and a Prophet with none. Then there appeared a large group of people which I took to be my nation (Ummah). But I was told that those were of Musa and his people. Later, a larger group appeared and I was told that those were my people. Among them were seventy thousand who would enter Paradise without reckoning or punishment.' The Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) then got up and went to his house, and the people went into discussion as to who they might be. Some said, 'Perhaps they are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah.' Others said, 'May be they belong to those who were born in Islam and therefore had never ascribed anyone partner with Allah.' And while they were exchanging their views like this, the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) came out and was informed about the news. He said, 'those people are those who do not treat themselves with Ruqyah, nor do they believe in or seek bad or good omen (from birds etc.), nor do they get themselves branded (cauterized), but they put their trust (only) in their Lord.' On that 'Ukashah bin Mihsan got up and said (to Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) 'Invoke Allah to make me one of them.' He (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said, 'You are one of them.' Then another man got up and said, 'Invoke Allah to make me one of them.' He (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said, 'Ukashah has preceded you.' " The most effective ruqah performed are in the cases of an evil eye or a poisonous sting. It does not disqualify ruqyah for other purposes like for the effects of magic… etc. Ruqyah is permissible and recommended. The 70,000 who enter jannah without reckoning or punishment are the people who perfect their tawhid. This specific number is also an indication that these people who perfect tawhid are very few in number as there are/have been billions of Muslims. The four characteristics of the people who achieve perfection of tawhid are mentioned by the Prophet (s.a.w) as follows: i. They do not seek ruqyah from people. The narration that states that they do not perform ruqyah on themselves has been found to be a mistake by Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. The person who does quqyah for others are from amongst the muhsin (good people). ii. They do not act upon omens – certain occurrences such as the passing of a bird. They do not embark on a task or stop an action due to an omen/sign. iii. They do not seek/ask others to cauterize them. iv. They have tawakkul (trust and reliance) upon their Lord. This is the characteristic that summarizes all the three previous characteristics. 14

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq The scholars state that according to this hadith, those on the path of perfect tawhid have specific characteristics of not seeking ruqyah from others, not acting or believing in omens or signs, not relying on others for cauterization and having firm tawakkul trust and reliance on Allah (swt). The reason why seeking ruqah and cauterization from others and believing in omens is such a deterrent for tawhid is because these are causes for the heart to have an inclination to rely and depend on the creation that perform/exhibit these actions. These characteristics therefore act as a negation or contradiction to the perfection of tawhid and the negation of these three characteristics results in firm tawakkul (trust and reliance) upon Allah (swt). The action of Ukashah illustrates that seeking dua (supplication) from a righteous person does not contradict the principle of perfection of tawhid. This is only valid if the person asking for dua ultimately has an inclination, trust and hope towards Allah (swt), especially if the dua is answered.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 4: The Fear of Shirk.
The beauty of tawhid can only be truly appreciated by understanding the repugnance of shirk. It is intended that once a person has understood tawhid, he does not become complacent as he should fear committing shirk. A Muslim must therefore constantly seek refuge from shirk, learn about the details and different kinds of shirk and keep away from all actions that lead to shirk. Thus the believer will adhere to ikhlas (sincerity) in worship to Allah (swt) and value istighfar (seeking forgiveness) and what it necessitates.

"Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases." [4:48, 116]
Allah (swt) does not forgive shirk being associated with Him and He forgives every other thing. One of the greatest act of Mercy that a believer can aspire to attain is the Maghfirah (covering the effects of one’s sins/disobedience to Allah) of Allah (swt). The wording is general and the scholars have differed as to what forms of shirk this verse refers to. There are two opinions and it is difficult to say with complete certainty which one is correct. This creates great fear of performing any kinds of shirk. i. The verse refers to both major and minor shirk as the wording is general. It leads to great fear of shirk. Sh. Ibn Taymiyyah’s works suggest that he leans towards this opinion. This is the stronger opinion. ii. Even if minor shirk is within the category of major sins, it is like the major sins wherein a person will be punished for not making taubah (repentance) based on the will of Allah (swt). This opinion is based on the wording in the verse being used specifically for major shirk in various other instances in the Qur’an - as determined and graded by ijmaa’ (consensus) of the scholars. Therefore, this verse is also taken to be specific to major shirk only. Sh. Ibn Qayyim leans towards this opinions and some of Sh. Ibn Taymiyyah’s writings leans towards this which makes it possible that he held different opinions at different times. A person will not be forgiven for major shirk if he did not repent. The scholars are unanimous on this issue. Major shirk invalidates all righteous deeds while minor shirk only invalidates the deed associated with the minor shirk. Regarding minor shirk, the scholars differed as to whether the believer will be forgiven or not. A person that passes away without repenting from minor shirk (wearing an amulet, swearing by other than Allah (swt), committing riyaa), it will be put against his righteous deeds. If the righteous deeds do not outweigh the minor shirk, the believer will be punished in Hellfire until purified of the minor shirk then enter Paradise.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Prophet Ibrahim (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "And keep me and my sons away from worshipping al-athnaam (idols)." [V14:35]
Al-Athnaam: Any object fashioned in the form of an animate object (animal/person/sun/moon). Allah (swt) describes Prophet Ibrahim (a.s) as a man who feared shirk! Therefore we should fear shirk even more. The Prophet Muhammad used to teach his ummah to make dua. “O Allah, I seek refuge in You lest I commit shirk with You knowingly, and I seek Your forgiveness for what I do unknowingly.”

AHadith:
1. It is narrated in the Hadith that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "What I fear most for you is the minor shirk." When asked about it, he said, "Ar-Riyaa (showing off)." Riyaa is of two types. i. Riyaa of the munafikeen (hypocrites). They disbelief in Islam inwardly but practice Islam outwardly. Allah (swt) says that the hypocrites worship just to fool people. This form of riyaa takes one out of the fold of Islam. ii. Riyaa of a believing Muslim. This includes beautifying one’s worship (lengthening ruku and sujood) in order to receive praises from others. The deed associated with this minor shirk becomes invalid. Minor shirk is the most subtle and a person might not realize that they are practicing it. The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) described it as being like a black ant crawling on a black rock on a moonless night! Minor shirk is a serious sin and disease. A believer should not be complacent by comparing it to major shirk because major shirk removes the person from Islam and a believer avoids it with determination but minor shirk invalidates righteous deeds!

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2. Ibn Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Whoever dies while calling upon others along with Allah, enters the Hell-fire." (Al-Bukhari) The act of calling upon others in this hadith is described with a general term. It could refer to supplication or worship in general. It is a clear proof that anyone who worships/supplicates to other than Allah (swt) will have Hell as their abode.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 3. Muslim reports from Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Whoever meets Allah (on the Day of Judgment) not having associated anyone with Him (in worship), shall enter Paradise; and whoever meets Him having committed any shirk will enter the Hell-fire." The wording is general for the type and object of shirk. Therefore whoever does not commit major or minor shirk and realizes that even the greatest pious person has no comparison with Allah (swt) and should not be depended on, will enter Paradise. Whoever dies with any form of shirk is threatened with the Fire.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Week 3: 20/06/2011
Chapter 5: The Invitation to Testify to Lā ilāha illa Allāh.
From the perfection of Tawhid is to call others to Tawhid. To call others into singling out Allah (swt) for worship.

"Say you (O Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him): 'this is my way; I invite (call) unto Allah (i.e. to the Oneness of Allah –Islamic Monotheism) (with sure knowledge), I and whosoever follows me with sure knowledge. And Glorified and Exalted is Allah (above all that they associate as partners with Him), and I am not of the polytheists.'“ [V12: 108]
In this ayah (revealed verse) there is a reminder of ikhlas (sincerity) as doing daw’ah (spreading the message and calling to the path of Allah) is purely for the sake of pleasing Allah (swt) and not to amass followers. The main occupation of the Messengers is to call to the worship of Allah (swt). The most beloved to Allah (swt) are those who responded to the call of Allah (swt) and then called others to the path of Allah (swt). Da’wah is from the best of actions and statements. Daw’ah should be done upon knowledge and certainty and one should not do daw’ah when in a state of ignorance - so as not to say about Islam and Allah (swt) what he knows not. Whoever wants to follow in the path of the Messenger Muhammad (s.a.w) should call people towards tawhid and towards worshipping Allah (swt) alone.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

AHadith
1. Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: When Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) sent Mu'adh (May Allah be pleased with him) to Yemen, he said, "You will come upon the People of the Book, let your first act be to call them to testify that -There is nothing worthy of worship in truth but Allah." When a person is giving daw’ah, he should be aware of the religious condition/beliefs of the person receiving the daw’ah. (Whether they are people of the book/disbelievers/atheist..etc). This is because disbelievers do not have sophisticated arguments while the people of the book have their own books, proofs and arguments. The Prophet (s.a.w) advised Mu’adh to be aware of and prepare himself in order to do daw’ah effectively. Daw’ah of tawhid has priority over all other types of daw’ah. To acknowledge and profess that there is no god to be worshipped except Allah (swt). Unlike the belief that the first step to daw’ah is to rationally prove that there is a god (belief of the Ahlul Kalam, Mu’tazilah, Ashari, Mathuridiyya). The belief of the existence of Allah (swt) is already engraved in the fitrah (natural inclination) of a person and the first wajib (obligatory) act is to worship Him alone. And in another version of this tradition (it is said): "To single out Allah Alone in the worship, i.e. actualize the Oneness (Tauhid) of Allah-if they obey you in this, inform them that Allah has prescribed for them to offer 5 prayers (Salat) every day and night. If they obey you in this, then inform them that Allah has imposed upon them the duty of Sadaqah (Alms Zakat) to be levied from their rich and distributed to the poor, If they obey you in this, then be careful not to take the best of their properties (as payment of alms - Zakat), and safeguard yourself against the supplication of those who have suffered injustice because there is no veil between his supplication and Allah," [Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 1389/1425 and Muslim] The daw’ah to Islam is the daw’ah to tawhid and this form of daw’ah takes priority over other forms of daw’ah. Once the receiver of daw’ah accepts tawhid, it is then necessary to teach them the obligations of prayer and zakat. The kind treatment of reverts should be observed and that the supplication of a people who are oppressed is answered by Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 2. Sahl bin Sa'd (May Allah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Khaibar, Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) asserted, "Tomorrow I shall indeed give the flag to a person who loves Allah and His Messenger and is loved by Allah and His Messenger. Allah will grant victory under his leadership." The people spent the night absorbed in discussing as to whom might the flag be given! In the morning they came eagerly to Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) each of them hoping to be given the flag. Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) asked, "Where is Ali bin Abi Talib?" They replied, "He is suffering from an eye ailment." He was sent for and brought. Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) then spat in his eyes and prayed for him, where upon he was cured as if he had no previous pains. Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) then gave him the flag and said, "Advance with ease and gentleness until you arrive in their midst, then call them to Islam and inform them of their duties to Allah in Islam. By Allah, if He may guide through you a single man to Islam then it is better for you than the red camels." [AlBukhari and Muslim] This hadith testifies to the great status of Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a) as Allah (swt) and His Messenger Muhammad (s.a.w) love Ali (r.a) and he loves them. It is an exhibition of the zeal with which the sahaba loved goodness and Islam and they wished to be the person that is loved by Allah (swt) and His Messenger Muhammad (s.a.w). The daw’ah to Islam is the da’wah to tawhid. The merit of daw’ah to tawhid is that if one person is guided due to this daw’ah, it is better for the dai’ie (person giving daw’ah) than any worldly gain. Having red camels at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w) was a sign of status and luxury.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 6: Explaining tawhid and the testimony Lā ilāha illa Allāh
This chapter deals with explaining tawhid and the shahadah (testimony) of Lā ilāha illa Allāh.

[A] The shahadah (Lā ilāha illa Allāh) comprises of 3 things:
(1) Firm Belief – of what one is testifying to. It includes having knowledge and certainty. (2) Professing on the tongue. (3) Proclamation of the testimony to others.

[B] The words of the shahadah (Lā ilāha illa Allāh):
Lā: A particle of absolute negation. It negates worship of all other than Allah (swt). Ilāh: Linguists - The one who inspires bewilderment in the minds of others. It causes others to be bewildered by the essence, the modality of His (swt) attributes, the fear of His (swt) attributes and the nature of His (swt) essence. By Ibn Abbas (r.a) - The one who is the object of worship or who is deified by worship. This is the correct meaning of ‘Ilah.’ Ashari sect - Believe the word ‘ilah’ to be the one who is capable of creation a.k.a The Creator. This opened the doors of shirk as it necessitates a limitation of tawhid to tawhid ar-Rububiyah and the disbelieving Arabs would not have had a problem professing to tawhid as they acknowledged a Creator. Therefore is an incorrect definition of ‘ilah’ in the shahadah as the shahadah proclaims more than that. Lā ilāha illa Allāh: The word ‘ilah’ is a noun or subject that corresponds to the particle of negation (or the ‘ism’ -‘Lā’). There is a predicate that is associated with the word ‘ilah.’ It is not articulated, rather it is assumed. The Arabs make an absolute negation to a noun if its predicate was well known. There is a word after ‘ilah’ which is assumed and not articulated. It is the word ‘haqq’ - Lā ilāha haqq illa Allāh (There is no true god but Allah – there is none that deserves worship than Allah). The mushrikin (disbelievers) of Makkah did not profess the shahadah ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh’ as they realized that it necessitated the rejection of worship of all others than Allah (swt). It comprises of negation of the worship of anything besides Allah (swt). It declares the affirmation of the right of Allah (swt) to be worshipped alone.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Qur’an “Those whom they invoke seek means of access to their Lord, [striving as to] which of them would be nearest, and they hope for His mercy and fear His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is ever feared." [V17:57]
Allah (swt) worship/supplicate/praises those who seek their needs from Allah (swt) alone. The term ‘wasilah’ is explained by Ibn Abbas (r.a) as ‘need.’ Their ‘Rabb’ (Lord) possesses the qualities of ‘Rububiyah’ (Lordship) such as responding to supplications. The verse explains that from tawhid (worshipping Allah (swt) alone) is to seek all of one’s needs from Allah (swt) alone.

"And (remember) when Abraham (May Allah be pleased with him) said to his father and his people: 'Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. Except Him, Who did create me and verily, He will guide me.' And he made it (i.e. La ilaha illaAllah) a Word lasting among his offspring that they may turn back (i.e. to repent to Allah or receive admonition)." [V43:26-28]
Ibrahim (a.s) absolved himself from the idols that his people used to worship. This is the negation of worship of all false idols/objects of worship. Ibrahim (a.s) affirmed worship for his Creator alone. Both the negation and affirmation correspond to the shahadah ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh.’ Ibrahim (a.s) made this kalima (words) an ongoing statement for those that came after him. The salaf explained that these ‘kalima’ (words) are the words of the the shahadah ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh.’

"They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah." [V9:31]
The Jews and Christians worshipped their rabbis and monks by obeying them when they made halaal that which Allah (swt) made haram and vice versa. Tawhid of ibadah (worship) is to put the obedience of Allah (swt) over the obedience of anyone else. This is a manifestation of shirk of obedience.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

"And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah but those who believe love Allah more (than anything else.)." [V2: 165]
Love is an aspect of worship and if one loves anything more than or equal to Allah (swt), they have committed shirk. This is a manifestation of shirk of love. This verse explains tawhid in the sense that absolute love should be directed to Allah (swt) alone.

AHadith
1. It is reported that the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "He who professed ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh’ (that there is no God to be worshipped but Allah) and made a denial of everything which the people worship besides Allah, his property and blood become inviolable, and his affair rests with Allah." [Sahih Muslim] The shahadah ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh’ necessitates the rejection of worship of everything other than Allah (swt). Whoever states ‘Lā ilāha illa Allāh’ becomes Muslim and has the rights of a Muslim.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Week 4: 27/06/2011
Chapter 7: Wearing bracelets/cords..etc to remove or seek protection from affliction is a form of shirk.
This is a form of minor shirk. The Shaykh commences with minor shirk as these acts do not possess sophisticated arguments to defend their continual practice. They are easily demonstrated as shirk with simple, clear and precise arguments. They should thus be rejected by the believer without much hesitation or thought. Why is this minor shirk? One who wears these amulets or thread is in danger of his heart becoming attached to these objects. The person relies on these objects and believes that they are needed to remove or ward off affliction. A means to achieving an end. Therefore, the person has put his trust on something that has not been prescribed by the laws of Allah (swt). According to the scholars, it is not permissible to take an object as a means unless one of these two conditions are fulfilled: i. There is a text in the Qur’an and sunnah that sanctions its use. ii. That it is something widely known to be effective in alleviating affliction provided that its effect is something observed and not some form of supernatural phenomenon. Some scholars hold the principle that whoever establishes a means to an end which Allah (swt) has not sanctioned through His shari’ah nor can it be observed, has committed shirk. In certain situations, wearing an amulet or cord can be a form of major shirk when the person believes that the object not only provides a means to an end, but it is effective by itself in warding against or removing affliction. He has given the characteristic of ‘rububiyyah’ (lordship) to an insignificant object. In general, all forms of minor shirk can be made into major shirk depending on the situation.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Qur’an Say: "Then have you considered what you invoke besides Allah? If Allah intended me harm, are they removers of His harm; or if He intended me mercy, are they withholders of His mercy?" Say, "Sufficient for me is Allah; upon Him [alone] rely the [wise] reliers." [V39:38]
The verse is linked to the verse that came before it which mentions that the mushrikin (disbelievers) would testify that Allah (swt) created the heavens and the earth (Rububiyyah Lordship). [However they still prescribed partners to Him] Allah (swt) then uses their acknowledgement of Allah’s ‘Rububiyyah’ (Lordship) against them as they used to ascribe worship to others along with Allah (swt). They performed shirk in ‘uluhiyah’ (worship). Therefore, if they understood the concept of Allah’s ‘Rububiyyah’ (Lordship), their turning to their amulets, idols and cords is completely wrong and false. This verse deals with major shirk. This verse is used when discussing a matter which is minor shirk since: i. One of the main themes of the verse is to establish the futility and falsehood of turning to, relying on and attaching oneself to other than Allah (swt). Once this concept is established, it is much easier to identify the falsehood and error in attachment to something insignificant as an amulet, bracelet or cord. ii. To exhibit that none can bring about benefit or harm other than Allah (swt). Therefore once it is proven that worshipping Angels/saints/prophets/sun/moon have no effect at all in bringing benefit and warding or curing harm, it is easier to accept that far more insignificant objects like amulets, bracelets or cords have no effect.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

AHadith
1. Imran bin Husain (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: The Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) once saw a man with a brass bracelet on his hand and asked him, "What is this?" The man replied, "To overcome the weakness of body." He said, "Remove it, for, it can only add to your weakness. Should death overtake you while you are wearing it, you would never succeed." [This Hadith was recorded by Ahmad (bin Hanbal) (May Allah be pleased with him) with a good chain of narrators.] The Prophet (s.a.w) rebuked a sahaba for relying on a bracelet and stated that the sahaba would become weaker. People who have weak tawhid have weak resolve as they attach and turn to things that have no effect or use. A merit of having a strong sense of tawhid is that a person does not turn to or develop and attachment to things that are futile and insignificant. The Prophet’s statement ‘you would never succeed.’ i. If it was major shirk, where the object is deemed to be exclusively and independently responsible for preventing/removing affliction, the person would be outside the fold of Islam and entered into Hellfire unless sincere repentance is done. ii. If it was minor shirk, where the object is deemed to be a means of preventing/removing affliction, the person would lose a stage from the stages of success. (ex. Not getting immediate entrance to Paradise – punishment comes first…etc). Therefore the form of shirk depends on the type of belief ascribed to the act. 2. He also recorded a Marfu’ (direct to the Prohet) Hadith; Uqbah bin Aamir (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "Whoever wears a talisman or an amulet would never see his wish fulfilled by Allah. And whoever hangs a sea shell would never get peace and rest.” The Arabs would use talismans to fulfill wishes and hang sea shells to obtain tranquility. The Prophet (s.a.w) supplicated to Allah (swt) against these people in order for them not to obtain what they intended by their practicing of minor shirk. In another version the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) is reported to have said: "Whoever wears a talisman has committed Shirk (polytheism)."

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 3. Ibn Abi Hatim reported about Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him): He saw a man with a piece of twine on his hand (as a protection or cure from fever) so he cut the twine and read the verse: "Most of them believe in Allah and still practice Shirk (polytheism)." [V12: 106] Hudhaifah (r.a) took action against an act of wrongdoing by his own hand. This is the most profound form of rebuke. The verse deals with major shirk even if the matter was minor shirk for reasons stated in the explanation of (V39:38) above.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 8: Incantations (ruqyā) and talismans (tama’im).
Unlike the previous chapter which states that it is from shirk to depend on a bracelet or a thread/cord, this chapter deals with incantations and talismans that are not shirk. The sahaba differed on a few of these issues. Therefore, not every incantation or talisman is shirk. Ruqyā (incantation): It comprises of the recitation of some words and blowing on the person that ruqyā is done upon. It is usually done to bring about some effect on one’s body or soul. There are forms of ruqyā that constitute shirk and others that are prescribed and permissible. The Prophet (s.a.w) had ruqyā performed on him by the Angel Jibriil (a.s) and ‘Aisha (r.a.). There are authentic hadith wherein the Prophet (s.a.w) stated that there is nothing wrong with ruqyā as long as it does not comprise of shirk.

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Ruqyā that is permissible (by ijmaa’ – consensus) The ruqyā must satisfy these three conditions: 1. The ruqyā that are from the Qur’an, sunnah or they include the names and attributes of Allah (swt). 2. They are in the Arabic language that is clearly understood. 3. The people involved in the ruqyā (person performing ruqyā and the person on whom ruqyā is being performed) should not believe that they bring about effect in and of themselves. The ruqyā is only effective with the permission of Allah (swt). Ruqyā that comprises of shirk: Incantations (ruqyā) that seek assistance from other than Allah (swt) – jinn, idols. The recitation or chanting the names of evil devils, evil jinn or idols… etc

Ruqyā that does not fall into the category of permissible ruqyā or shirk: They could be in other than the Arabic language or does not come from Qur’an or sunnah... etc There is a difference of opinion amongst the scholars on whether these types of ruqyā may be used or whether they are effective. Talismans (tama’im. Singular - tammimah): It is anything that is worn, hung or displayed to protect from affliction – evil eye – or to bring about some form of cure. Using a talisman is an act of minor shirk and it can lead to the level of major shirk if one believes that the talismans themselves have any power.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

AHadith:
1. Narrated Abu Bashir Al-Ansari (May Allah be pleased with him): He was in the company of Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) on one of his journeys, Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) sent a messenger ordering: "There shall not remain any necklace of bowstring or any other kind of necklace round the necks of camels except it is cut off' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] The Arabs would place necklaces or bowstrings on camels believing that they would ward off the evil eye. The Prophet (s.a.w) ordered these necklaces to be cut to show that this practice is not permissible in the shari’ah and it is a form of shirk.

2. Ibn Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that he heard Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) saying: "Ar-Ruqyā, At-Tama'im and At-Tiwalah are all acts of Shirk (polytheism)," [Musnad Ahmad; Abu Dawud] Incantations, talismans and love spells are all shirk.

3. Abdullah bin Ukaim narrated the following Marfu’ (it can be traced directly to the Prophet (s.a.w) hadith: "Whoever uses, attaches or wears a talisman to himself, will have that talisman put in charge of him" [Ahmad & Trimidhi] If a person depends on Allah (swt), Allah (swt) will help him and grant him success. If a person relies on other than Allah (swt), on a talisman – something worthless and insignificant compared to Allah (swt) – he will not have the protection of Allah (swt). The recompense fits the deed.

The author explains that at-Tama'im (talismans) is the act of putting an amulet around the necks of children to save them from the effects of evil eye. If the amulet contains the verses of the Qur'an or Allah's Names or Attributes then it is allowed by some sahaba and disallowed by some. Ibn Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him) was among those who disapproved it and this is the stronger opinion. In general, tama’im are not allowed and this is the opinion of the majority of the scholars. The proof is the general hadith wherein ‘incantations, talismans and love spells are all shirk.’ Exempt from this are all those ruqyā which do not constitute shirk as the Prophet (s.a.w) stated that “there is nothing wrong with ruqyā as long as it does not constitute shirk.” The sahaba differed with regards to talismans that contain verses of the Qur’an or Allah’s Names and Attributes. In cases where the sahaba differ, the rule is to go back to the basic principle that they are not permissible even if this practice is not exactly shirk as the ayah of the Qu’ran and Allah’s Names and Attributes are not created. 30

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Issues with adorning oneself or one’s surroundings with talismans that have ayah of Qur’an or Allah’s Names and Attributes: i. ii. There is uncertainty with what verse or incantation is wrapped up in the talisman as it’s not open and clear. The person wearing the talisman may become attached to and dependent on wearing the talisman and then to the talisman itself. This is a deterrent to tawhid and may lead to shirk. It may lead to disrespect and dishonoring the ayah of the Qur’an as people go to places such as the bathroom where it is not befitting to take the ayah of the Qur’an.

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Therefore it is the stronger opinion and the correct opinion that all forms of talismans are prohibited. The author states: Ar-Ruqyā (incantations) is also called charms. An exception is given to those with no traces of shirk. Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) has permitted it in case of being bitten by poisonous insects, disturbed under the effect of an evil eye, or fever. AtTiwalah (bewitchment – love spells) is something done by those who claim they can cause a woman to be more beloved by her husband or vice-versa. This is a form of magic and magic constitutes shirk. 4. Ahmad reported the tradition of Ruwaifi' (May Allah be pleased with him) who said that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said to him: "O Ruwaifi', it may be that you will live a longer time after me, so inform people that whoever ties a knot in his beard, places any string or cord around the neck (as a charm), or cleans himself (after toilet) with animal dung or bone, then Muhammad (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) has disowned him (has nothing to do with him)." The Prophet (s.a.w) absolves himself from a person who utilizes talismans and charms. It shows that the action is a major sin.

5. Sa'id bin Jubair (he is a tabi’ie) said: "Whoever cut an amulet or talisman from anyone, it would be equal to liberating a slave." It was Waki', who recorded it and he reported from Ibrahim Nakh'i that they used to dislike every type of amulets and talismans whether that contained the verses of Qur'an or anything else. [They were the companions of Abdullah bin Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him)] If the statement of Sa’id means that the reward for a person who removes a talisman or a charm is the reward of emancipating a slave, it requires more proof from the Prophet (s.a.w). This condition exists since Sa’id is from the tabi’ie generation (after the sahaba). It could mean that it is similar to freeing a slave as the person with the talisman is freed from the attachment to the talisman. This meaning is correct and Allah (swt) knows best. This does not require addition proof as it is just striking a similarity. However, if the sahaba mentioned it, it can be accepted as an Islamic ruling. 31

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Week 5: 04/07/2011
Chapter 9: Seeking blessings from trees, stones and other things.
This chapter was included by the author shaykh ibn ‘Abd al- Wahhab to exhibit that seeking barakah (blessings) from a created object such as a tree or a stone contravenes tawhid. It is shirk. It may be minor or major shirk depending on the aqeedah (creed) held by the person seeking blessings from these created things. Barakah: It refers to the presence or the abundance of goodness in and around something or the potential for something to increase in goodness. The term ‘tabarruk’ refers to the seeking of these blessings. Barakah comes from Allah (swt) and Allah (swt) alone puts barakah into whatever He wills from His creation. No other thing or creation has this ability to place barakah in anything. Proof in the Qur’an: Surah Saffat; Allah (swt) states “It is We who has blessed him and Ishaaq.” Surah Maryam; regarding Isa (a.s) “And He made me blessed.”

Proof in sunnah: In an authentic hadith narrated by Ibn Mas’ud and recorded by Imam Bukhari; In one of the expeditions with the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) the sahaba had insufficient water to make wudu.’ They took a vessel with little water to the Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) and in placing his hands inside the vessel, the amount of water increased. The Prophet (May peace and blessings be upon him) stated “Come and take from this blessed water, all blessing is from Allah (swt).”

Some people have wrongly assumed that it is permissible to seek barakah in this manner from any righteous person after the Prophet (s.a.w). However, only the Prophets (May peace be upon them) are blessed with this form of physical transfer of barakah. The three condtions of tabarruk (Seeking barakah): 1. Have firm belief that Allah (swt) alone is the one who provide barakah to whomever He wills of His creation. 2. The presence of barakah in a place, time, individual or food should be ascribed by the Qur’an and sunnah. 3. The manner in which the barakah is sought should be sanctioned by the Qur’an and sunnah. Tinuviel 2011 32

Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Barakah cannot be sought physically from other than the Prophets as: There is no comparison in the merit of any righteous person and the Prophets. One can never be certain of the righteousness of anyone after the Prophet (s.a.w) unless there is clear evidence in the text of the Qur’an and sunnah establishing their righteousness ex. The sahaba and the tabi’ien. True righteousness is determined by the condition and actions of the heart and these can never be observed. After the death of the Prophet (s.a.w) none of the sahaba went to Abu Bakr (r.a.) or Umar (r.a) to seek barakah in this way. The Prophet (s.a.w) made testimony that they were the righteous from the people of Jannah and none of the other sahaba sought barakah from them. Seeking barakah physically from someone who is perceived to be righteous could lead the person to delusion and pride and it is to their detriment. The Prophet (s.a.w) prohibited praising people to their face as it could lead to their downfall through delusion and pride. Tabarruk ‘seeking barakah’ in this way is far worse than praising in this way. This form of tabarruk is specific to the Prophets.

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Forms of barakah: 1. Physical: Sought by touching. Ex. Touching the Prophet (s.a.w) to transfer blessings physically. 2. Spiritual: Sought by worship. Ex. Blessings Allah (swt) put in sacred places – in Masjid al-Haram can be obtained by worship. Placement of barakah and how to attain them: Allah (swt) puts barakah in: Certain places (Masjid al-Haram, Masjid al-Aqsa, Masjid an-Nabawi, Hajar Aswad). This form of barakah is obtained by acts of worship in these places and not by physical contact with the structures or ground. The barakah of Hajar Aswad is obtained by emulating the practice of the Prophet (s.a.w) in kissing it. Certain times (days/months of the year, night… etc). In the month of Ramadan, the barakah refers to the abundant rewards that is obtained in this month. These forms of barakah are obtained through worship and acts of worship. Lail-at-ul-Qadr is in Ramadan. In certain individuals. The barakah of a Muslim is found in his worship of Allah (swt). The scholars have barakah in their knowledge. This barakah is obtained spiritually by emulating the practices of righteous people in goodness and seeking knowledge from the scholars. The barakah of the Prophets (May peace be upon them) are of a physical kind and can be obtained by touching them, eating food that have been in their mouth, their sweat... etc. Certain types of food. Ex. Olives, as olive trees are described as blessed in the Qur’an. The black seed, honey, zam zam. Barakah in these items of food refer to the benefits in these foods which are far superior to other food. Barakah in these food are sought by consuming them.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Major shirk in seeking blessings from objects: If a person believes that on touching or stroking the tree/object/Masjid structure, the object in itself has the ability to grant/pass barakah. If a person believes that a sprit resides by the tree/object/Masjid structure and by seeking blessings by touching the tree, the sprit acts as an intermediary between the person and Allah (swt). Major shirk takes a person out of the fold of Islam.

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Minor shirk in seeking blessings from objects: Occurs when the person believes that the blessings (barakah) are from Allah (swt) but the object is a mere means for attaining that barakah.

Qur’an "Have you then considered AI-Lat and Al-'Uzza (the two idols of the pagan Arabs).” "And Manat (another idol of the pagan Arabs) the other third?” [V53:1920]
The word ‘Al-Lat’ can be pronounced in two ways. In the first qira’at (recitation), it refers to a white rock kept in Ta’if that people would worship. In the other recitation, it refers to a man who would prepare food for the pilgrims to Makkah and after his death, people used to worship his grave. Al-‘Uzza was a tree between Ta’if and Makkah and Manat was a rock that people would worship. Whoever performs tabarruk of trees and rocks in the manner of the mushrikin, they are guilty of major shirk. This ayah also censures minor shirk as the sahaba often used general ayah such as this one to negate both major and minor forms of shirk.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Hadith:
1. At- Tirmidhi reported and declared as Sahih (authentic), that Abu Waqid Al-Laithi (May Allah be pleased with him) said: We went out with Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) on the campaign to Hunain while we had just left disbelief (Kufr) for Islam. The Mushrikin (disbelievers) had a Sidra (lote-tree) where they would retreat with devotion and they would hang their weapons there, called Dhat Anwat. When we passed a Sidra, we asked, "O Messenger of Allah, won't you make for us another Dhat Anwat just like their Dhat Anwat?" Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said, "Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great)! By the One (Allah) Who holds my soul in His Hand, verily these are the ways of earlier nations, you have said exactly as Bani Israel said to Musa (May Allah be pleased with him): 'Make for us a god just as their gods.'" He said: "'Verily you are a people who know not.' [V7:138]. Certainly you will follow the ways of those who went before you." The mushrikin (i) venerated the tree, (ii) they made it a place to retreat for worship and (ii) they hung their weapons on the tree hoping that the tree would bless them. They believed that the tree made the weapons more powerful and effective in battle. This is clearly a major shirk. The sahaba requested for a similar object that would bless their weapons. They did not believe that the barakah came from the object through worship of the object but they held the object as a means to tabarruk. This is minor shirk. The Prophet (s.a.w) did not order these companions to renew their Islam as it was minor shirk and they did not apostate from the religion due to this act. Therefore they did not intend to worship the object, they intended to use it as an intermediary to obtain barakah from Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Week 6: 11/07/2011
Chapter 10: Slaughtering for other than Allah (swt)
Slaughter/Sacrifice • It is an act of worship which must be performed for Allah (swt) alone. Not for a Prophet, Angel, idol or a deceased righteous person. Slaughter should only be directed and devoted to Allah (swt).

Conditions for tawhid in slaughter 1. The person performing the slaughter must intend to slaughter for Allah (swt) alone. 2. The person may only invoke Allah’s name ‘ ’ (Bismillah - In the name of Allah) while slaughtering. Taking the name of other than Allah (swt) whether it is a Prophet, Angel, idol or righteous person is haram and goes against tawhed. • The term ‘ ’ (Bismillah - In the name of Allah) is an invocation, it is istiaada (seeking assistance) of Allah (swt). The 4 scenarios of slaughter 1. When performing the slaughter, the person (i) intends the pleasure of Allah (swt) and (ii) takes the name of Allah (swt). This is an act of tawhid and worship to Allah (swt) and this has been commanded. • If a person slaughters for Allah (swt) alone, and he takes the name of Allah (swt) but his intention behind the slaughter is for worldly purposes ex. Feeding his family, getting meat, entertaining guests… etc. This is permissible as long as the two conditions of tawhid in slaughter is fulfilled. 2. The person carrying out the slaughter says ‘ ’ (Bismillah - In the name of Allah) when he makes the slaughter but he intends the slaughter to please other than Allah (swt) – Prophet, Angel, idol or person (taking the animal to the grave of the deceased to please the deceased). This is an act of shirk in ibadah (worship). 3. The person takes the name and devotes the slaughter to other than Allah (swt). This is shirk in ibadah (worship) and istiaada (seeking assistance). This is an act of major shirk. 4. The person intends to please Allah (swt) however he takes the name of other than Allah (swt). This is shirk.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Qur’an "Say: Verily my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims." [V6:162 – 163]
Referring to tawhid al - Uluhiyah Allah (swt) commanded the Prophet (s.a.w) to proclaim that his prayers, slaughter… is for Allah (swt) alone. This proves that (i) slaughter is an act of worship and that (ii) it can only be directed to Allah (swt). If a sacrifice is directed to other than Allah (swt), the individual has committed shirk. Allah (swt) emphasizes tawhid al – Uluhiyah by stating that He is the ‘Lord of the Worlds’ and that He has ‘no partner.’

Referring to tawhid ar – Rububiyah (matters of life and death) The Prophet (s.a.w) declared that his life and death are for Allah (swt). It exhibits that Allah (swt) controls every aspect of his life and death. Ex. When he is born, when he gets sick, when he is cured, the trials and tribulations in his life and his time of death. It is categorized as tawhid ar – Rububiyah as Allah (swt) alone controls our life and death. Tawhid ar – Rububiyah necessitates tawhid al – Uluhiyah.

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The statement of the Prophet (s.a.w) ‘I am the first of the Muslims.’ The statement has two interpretations and they are both correct: 1. The Prophet (s.a.w) is the first of his Ummah to submit to Allah (swt) as a Muslim. 2. It could also mean that The Prophet (s.a.w) is at the forefront of the creation who is most prepared to submit to and obey Allah (swt).

"Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)" [V108:2]
It is from surah Al-Kauthar which refers to abundance and the spring in Jannah (Paradise). Allah (swt) is alone in providing His creation with goodness and abundance and therefore He alone is worthy of worship. He alone is worthy of sacrifice. This surah proves the wujub (obligation) of devoting one’s sacrifice to Allah (swt) alone. It is therefore and act of worship and worship cannot be directed to other than Allah (swt).

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq

Hadith:
1. Muslim reports that Ali bin Abi Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) said: "Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) informed me about four Judgments (of Allah): (1) Allah's curse is upon the one who slaughters (devoting his sacrifice) to anything other than Allah; (2) Allah's curse is upon the one who curses his own parents; (3) Allah's curse is upon the one who shelters a heretic (who has brought a Bid'ah in religion); (4) Allah's curse is upon the one who alters the landmarks (who changes boundary lines)." La’na [curse – removal from the Mercy of Allah (swt)] The Prophet (s.a.w) informs three of three sins that causes a person to be far removed from the Mercy of Allah (swt) – La’na. Any text in the Qur’an and sunnah that mention an action incurring the ‘removal of a person from Allah’s Mercy’ (La’na) is from the major sins. Allah’s Mercy is of 2 types: i. General: Affects all of mankind whether they are believers, righteous, unbelievers or sinners. ii. Specific: Allah’s Mercy reserved for the dutiful slaves of Allah (swt) which includes entry to Paradise and help and aid in the world. The Arabic wording La’na can be translated/applied in two senses. Therefore the Prophet (s.a.w) is either making a (i) statement informing the people about Allah’s curse or he (s.a.w) is making an (ii) invocation or a supplication for Allah (swt) to curse the person. i. If it is a statement of the Prophet (s.a.w) (and he is always truthful), the consequences for the person is dire. ii. If the Prophet (s.a.w) is making a dua against the person, the Prophet’s dua’s are, in general, granted by Allah (swt). Permissibility of cursing specific individuals: According to the most correct opinion, it is not permissible to invoke upon Allah (swt) for his La’na (curse) on any individual whether he is a disbeliever or a believer. The only individual who is exempt from this prohibition is the person that has been explicitly identified by the Qur’an and sunnah as being a resident of Hell. The four major sins. (1) Slaughtering for other than Allah (swt). This is shirk and a major sin. The person is giving away the right of Allah (swt) to someone else. (2) Cursing one’s parents. This is a major sin. This is one of the worst forms of disrespect to his parents. (3) Shelters a muhdith (innovator/fugitive of the Islamic state/a person who introduces a sin into a society). (4) A person who misappropriates other’s lands by either physically placing fences beyond boundaries or corrupt officials fiddling with title deeds from bribes. 38

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 2. Ahmad reports that Tariq bin Shihab narrated that Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: "A man entered Paradise because of a fly, and a man entered Hell-fire because of a fly." They (the Companions) asked, "How was that possible O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "Two men passed by the people who had an idol by which they would not allow anyone to pass without making sacrifice to it. They ordered one man to make a sacrifice. He said, 'I have nothing to present as an offering.' The people told him, 'Sacrifice something, even if it be a fly.' So he presented a fly (to their idol). They opened the way for him, and thus he entered the Hell-fire. They said to the other man, 'Sacrifice something.' He said, 'I will never sacrifice anything to any other than Allah, Most Majestic and Glorious.' So they struck his throat and killed him; and he, therefore, entered Paradise." (Ahmad) About the hadith This is an account of two individuals from before the time of the Ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). There is a difference of opinion amongst scholars on the authenticity of this hadith. The main issues with this hadith are: i. ii. The narrator Tariq bin Shihab did not hear this directly from the Prophet (s.a.w). There is a dispute on whether Tariq bin Shihab was a sahabi (companion of the Prophet (s.a.w) or if he was a tabi’ie (from the first generation after the Prophet’s death). If he was a sahabi, it would be accepted regardless of whether he heard it from the Prophet (s.a.w) or not since they would gather accounts from other sahaba who are trustworthy. However, a tabi’ie who does not mention the sahabi that the hadith is transmitted from, the hadith is considered to be a weak hadith. In the chain of narration, there is a mudallis who is a person who overlooks or skips one of the narrators in the chain of narration in order to conceal the identity of the person/teacher he heard the hadith from. Imam Ahmad and Ibn Abi Shayba narrated this hadith from Tariq bin Shihab and the chain of narration ends at a sahabi ‘Salman al-Farsi.’ Generally a chain of narration that ends at a sahabi is accepted as the sahaba in general do not speak about matters of the Unseen unless specifically mentioned to them by the Prophet (s.a.w). However Salman al-Farsi generally narrates from the Israeliaats and there is a probability that this hadith did not come from the Prophet (s.a.w). - Other scholars state that the actual matn (text) of the hadith is problematic. It apparently contradicts the Qur’anic principle that a person that commits shirk under duress is excused from the act as long as he does not believe it in his heart.

iii.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq - In response, other scholars state that the Arabic wording ‘Qarrib’ used means ‘to draw close’ and therefore, an offering was made but seeking the nearness and pleasure of the idol inwardly and outwardly – resulting in shirk. - Other ulama state that there was no duress at all since the men did not have to pass the idol as the hadith did not mention that they were threatened or forced to pass the idol. They could have turned back. Therefore there was no coercion and the man put the idol before his deen. As for the second person, he was not killed for his refusal to make an offering, he was killed for what he said which was perceived as an insult to the idol.

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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq Kitab at-Tawhid: By Sh. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab.

Chapter 11: Make no Animal Sacrifice for Allah in a place where sacrifice is made for other than Allah.
This chapter deals with slaughter made only for the sake of Allah (swt) but it is made in a location where slaughter is made for other than Allah (swt). It can refer to a specific spot or the area surrounding the specific spot. This act is impermissible as it outwardly conforms to the actions of the mushrikin (disbelievers) and it could lead to deviated intentions and delusion - shirk.

Qur’an "Never stand you there in. Verily, the mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety is more worthy that you stand therein (to pray). In it are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who make themselves clean and pure [i.e. who clean their private parts with dust (i.e. to be considered as soap) and water from urine and stools, after answering the call of nature]." [V9:108]
Allah (swt) prohibited the Muslims from praying in Masjid Iraan which was built by the mushrikin near Masjid Qub’aa. They built this Masjid as a space to plot and plan against the believers and to cause dissention and divide the believers. Praying in such a place is impermissible. Therefore, even if the worship is pure and directed solely towards Allah (swt) outwardly and inwardly, it is not to be performed in a place of sin. Worship is prohibited in any place that would conform, appease, support or benefit the mushrikin in their wrongdoing against the Muslims. Therefore, since slaughter is a form of worship, it is prohibited in these areas as well, especially where the mushrikin perform their own slaughter to their false deities.

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Issue: The Prophet (s.a.w) and the sahaba had prayed in a Church. Prayer is allowed in a Church since the ibadah (worship) of the Muslim is completely distinct from the ibadah of the believer. There is no conformity with the Christian way of worship and there is no avenue for the Muslim to be lead into the mode of worship of the Christians. However, the act of slaughter has an outward conformity and resemblance with the slaughter of the non-Muslim.

Hadith:
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Student Guild Semester 2: Kitab at Tawhid. Taught by Sh. Nabeel Shahzad Ul-Haq 1. Thabit bin Dahhak (May Allah be pleased with him) said: A man made a vow to sacrifice a camel at a place called Buwanah, so he asked the Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) a about it. He said, "Did the place have any idol which is worshipped, of the idols of Jahiliyah?" They answered, "No". The Prophet (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) asked again, "Did the disbelievers hold any of their recurring festivities there?" They answered, "No." Allah's Messenger (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) then said, "Fulfill your vow. Verily there is no fulfilling of a vow made in disobedience to Allah, nor one that is beyond a person's capacity." [Reported by Abu Dawud on the conditions of verification of Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

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The Prophet (s.a.w) allowed the slaughter only after checking that the place of slaughter was free from any mushrik religious traditions. The slaughter was only permissible after verifying that the location would not have anything that could lead to shirk. Islam is very careful about matters that could relate to shirk and they are eliminated at every possible juncture.

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