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INTRODUCTION

Problem solving is a planned process that needs to be carried out in order to obtain a certain solution of a problem that might be not achieved immediately. This process requires knowledge and experience as well as the application of the skills learned in the classroom. The main purpose of problem solving is to overcome certain obstacles. In order to fulfill this purpose, students need to carry out specific activities like accepting the challenge of the problem, explaining the purpose of the problem, interpreting the problem, planning the strategy to solve the problem, implementing the plan, and checking again the solution obtained.

Solving mathematics problems are activities involving problems in the form of mathematics language, including mechanical problems, puzzles, quiz and the use of mathematics skills in actual situations. Problem solving in mathematics can be referred as an organized process to achieve the goal of a problem. The aim of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles set in the problem. In order to overcome these obstacles, pupils need to analyze the information given, decide and implement strategies and methods to solve the problems. According to Lester , a prominent mathematician in the 1970s, defined problem-solving as : Problem involving a situation whereby an individual or a group is required to carry out the working solution. In doing so, they have to determine the strategy and method of problem-solving first, before implementing the working solution. The strategy of problem -solving needs a set of activities which will lead to the problem-solving process.

Wayne A. Wickelgren (1995) considered that a solution to a problem should

y

Complete specification of the givens, i.e. a unique given state from which the goal can be attained through a sequence of permissible operations. Complete specification of the set of operations to be used. Complete specification of the goals. An ordered succession or sequence of the problem states, starting with the givens and the ending with the goals through a series of successive, permissible actions or operations.

y y y

Thus, mathematics problem-solving may also be defined as a procedural activities starting with the givens of the problem, through a series of successive permissible actions or operations, and ending up with its goals. The above definition may be simplified as a sequence or permissible actions that produces a completely specified goal expression. There are three main concepts in a mathematical problem solving namely heuristic, strategy and algorithm. These three different main concepts have connection between them.

a) HEURISTIC Heuristic is a procedure in solving a problem for any class of problems. The application of heuristic in solving a problem of any kind would not guarantee that students would be able to solve the problem, yield a correct solution or tackle the problem in a similar manner.

b) STRATEGY Strategy is a procedure in solving a specific kind of a problem. When a strategy is applied in solving a problem, this would guarantee that all students would be able to solve the problem correctly but not necessarily in a similar fashion. If a strategy is fails to produce a correct solutio n, then the strategy could be regarded as a failure.

c) ALGORITHM Algorithm is a procedure in solving a specific kind of a problem too. When an algorithm is applied in solving a problem, this would guarantee that all the students would be able to solve the p roblem correctly and in the same manner.

He was born as Plya Gyrgy in Budapest, Hungary, and died in Palo Alto, California, USA. He was an excellent problem solver. Early on his uncle tried to suggest him to go into the mathematics field but he wanted to study law like his late father had. However, he became bored with a ll the study about law. He tired of that and switched to Biology. Then he getting bored again and switched to Latin and Literature, finally graduating with a degree. Yet, he tired of that quickly and went back to school and took math and physics. He found that he loved math. He was invited to teach in Zurich, Switzerland. There he worked with a Dr. Weber. One day he met the doctors daughter Stella he began to court her and eventually married her. They spent 67 years together. While in Switzerland he loved to take afternoon walks in the local garden. One day he met a young couple also walking and chose another path. He continued to do this yet he met the same couple six more times as he strolled in the garden. He mentioned to his wife how could it be possible to meet them so many times when he randomly chose different paths through the garden. He later did experiment according to the situation in the garden that he called the random walk problem. Several years later he published a paper proving that if th e walk continued long enough that one was sure to return to the starting point. In 1940 he and his wife migrate to the United States because of their concern for Nazism in Germany. He taught briefly at Brown University and then, for the remainder of his life, at Stanford University. He quickly became well known for his research and teachings on problem solving. He taught many classes to elementary and secondary classroom teachers on how to motivate and teach skills to their students in the area of problem solving.

In 1945 he published the book how to Solve It which quickly became his most prized publication. It sold over one million copies and has been translated into 17 languages. In this text he identifies four basic principles.

This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned, yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they dont understand it fully, or even in part, polya taught teachers to ask students questions such as:

y y y y y

Can you state the problem in your own words? What are you trying to find or do? What information do you obtain from the problem What are the unknown? What information, if any is missing or not needed?

Polya mentions (1957) that there are many reasonable ways to solve the problems. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. You will find choosing an appropriate strategy incr easingly easy. A partial list of strategies is included:

y y y y y y y

Guess and check Make an orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation

Also suggested:

y y y y y y y y

Look for a pattern Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Working backward Use a formula Be creative Use your head/noggin

This step is usually easier than devising the plan. In general (1957), all you need is care and patience, given that you have necessary skills. Persist with the plan that you have chosen. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another. Dont be misled this is how mathematics is done, even by professionals.

y y y

Use the strategy you selected and work the problem. Check each step of the plan as you proceed. Ensure that the step are correct.

Plya mentions (1957) that much can be gained by taking the time to reflect and look back at what you have done, what worked and what didn't. Doing this will enable you to predict what strategy to use to solve future problems, if these relate to the original problem.

y y y y

Reread the question Did you answer the question asked? Is your answer correct? Does your answer seems reasonable

Based on Polyas model, Lester (1978) suggested six stages to solve a problem, and eventually became a problem solving model which is now known as Lester Model. These six stages are as follows :

1. Awareness the problem 2. Understanding of the problem 3. Objective analysis 4. Planning of strategies 5. Implementation of strategies 6. Procedures and evaluation of the soluti on

Routine and non-routine are one type of problems that we learn in this semester in Basic Mathematics. As we all know, a problem is a task for which the person confronting it want or need to find a solution and must make an attempt to find a solution. From our discussion and previous lesson that we already learn in classroom, we conclude that routine problem problems are those that merely involved an arithmetic operation with the characteristics can be solved by direct application of previously learned algorithms and the basic task is to identify the operation appropriate for solving problem, gives the facts or numbers to use and presents a question to be answered. In other word, routine problem solvi ng involves using at least one of four arithmetic operations and/or ratio to solve problems that are practical in nature. Routine problem solving concerns to a large degree the kind of problem solving that serves a socially useful function that has immediate and future payoff. The critical matter knows what arithmetic to do in the first place. Actually doing the arithmetic is secondary to the matter. For non-routine problem, it occurs when an individual is confronted with an unusual problem situation, and is not aware of a standard procedure for solving it. The individual has to create a procedure. To do so, we must become familiar with the problem situation, collect appropriate information, identify an efficient strategy, and use the strategy to solve the problem. Non-routine problem are also those that call for the use of processes far more than those of routine problems with the characteristics use of strategies involving some non-algorithmic approaches and can be solved in many distinct in many ways requiring different thinking process.

This problem solving also serves a different purpose than routine problem solving. While routine problem solving concerns solving problems that are useful for daily living (in the present or in the future), non -routine problem solving concerns that only indirectly. Non-routine problem solving is mostly concerned with developing students mathematical reasoning power and fostering the understanding that mathematics is a creative Endeavour. From the point of view of students , non-routine problem solving can be challenging and interesting. It is important that we share how to solve problems so that our friends are exposed to a variety of strategies as well as the idea that there may be more than one way to reach a solution. It is unwise to force other people to use one particular strategy for two important reasons. First, often more than one strategy can be applied to solving a problem. Second, the goal is for students to search for and apply useful strategies, not to train students to make use of a particular strategy. Finally, non-routine problem solving should not be reserved for special students such as those who finish the regular work early. All of us should participate in and be encouraged to succeed at non -routine problem solving. All students can benefit from the kinds of thinking that is involved in non -routine problem solving.

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2.5.1Making a list

First, in order to solve the problem by using a method that is making a list. Making a list is a systematic method of organizing information in rows or columns. By putting given information in an ordered list, you can clearly analyze this information and then solve the problem by completing the list. Example, when looking for a pattern or rule in a problem, when we listing the problem, the data can be easily generated and organized the information. We can also do a listing result from a guess and test method.

Example of question :

Ali and his entire friend are will be going to the school camping in Hutan Simpan.His teacher ask Ali to list out the thing that are need to bring when they go to the camping. List out possible things that Ali and his friend need to bring during the camping.

1. Ali and his want to go to the camping. 2. Their teacher asks Ali to list out things to bring.

Step 2 : Plan the answer

1. Find out the things that is need for camping 2. List the basic and personal things. 3. List the things according to the type

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List the things that is need for camping No 1 Personal things Shirt /Trousers /Track suit 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Bags Water Bottle Medicine Shoes Gloves Knife Watch Compass Tent Cap Matches Map Torchlight Candle Rope Mat Water Fuel Matches Cooking Utensil Wood/Gas stove Plate Glass Basic things Food

1. Determine whether the list is relevant. 2.The things is suitable for the purpose

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Finding a pattern is a strategy whereby you can observe given information such as pictures, numbers, letters, words, colours, or sounds. By observing each given element, one at a time in consecutive sequence, you can solve the problem by deciding what the next element and elements will be in the pattern. By using this method also, we can estimate the answer and using it as information so solve the problem.

Example: Find the next three terms of each sequence by using constant differences.

A. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,

1.Determine the constant different 2.Determine the pattern of the common different

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A. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,

11

13

15

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

1. 15 -13 = 2 2. 13 - 11= 2 3. 13 9 = 2 All of the remaining is 2,therefore the pattern and the common different is 2.

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In the other hand, making a chart or table is a very good strategy whereby information is organized in a clear, readable format; we can see the result clearly and see it more reliable. By analyzing information in a clear, concise chart, you can interpret information and see what the problem is and how it can be solved. Oftentimes, after placing given information in a chart or table, a guide can be detected this makes the problem easy to solve. For example rather than you listing a very long information that is same and keep repeating is better to using a table or chart to make it easier to interpret.

Example question:

In the farm of Pak Hassan, there are about 32 legs of animal, it consist of buffalo and duck. How many animal are Pak Hassan have if at least the number of both animal is 2.

1.To calculate the number of cow and duck. 2.At least 2 number each of the animal.

1. Using the table to solve the problem 2. Applying multiply and addition.

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The possibly number for Pak Hassan animal in his farm is,

Buffalo (4 legs) 5 2 3 6 7

Duck (2 legs) 6 12 10 4 2

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5 2 3 6 7

20 8 12 24 28

6 12 10 4 2

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2.5.4Using Diagram

The other method that may be using to solve a problem, making a drawing is an excellent strategy by which you can visualize the problem you are asked to solve by making a drawing of the given information. This strategy is especially exceptional if you are unable to visualize the problem in your mind. Example, we draw the situation of an event, we can see the situation clearly, such a mapped problem we need to show the route to go to a placed, so to solve it we need to draw the route to see it clearly.

Example of question:

I have 4 shirts one is red, one yellow, one white, and one blue. I have 2 pairs of pants that are black and khaki and one skirt that is dark blue. I can wear all these with all 4 shirts. How many different outfits do I have?

1.To find many different outfit from 4 different shirt and 2 trousers 1 skirt

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Step

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it

l t l it i t

l l t l

it it i t

ll

l t l

it

it i t

it

it

it

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The deduction method is considered a more complex way than any other methods of problem solving, as it depends on the pupils acquired experiences to solve the mathematics problem. In the deduction approach, the pupils not only require to analyze the problem, but also have to remember and apply the relevant formulae, laws or theorems based on the analysis of the problem.

Guessing in solving mathematics problems involves rational thinking and acquired experiences related to the problem to be solved. It does not involve wild guesses or simply using trial and error to solve the problem. On the other hand, i t relies in certain forms of testing to confirm the suggested solution.

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Working backwards refers to the application of the inverse method in solving mathematics problems. Examples of using inverse method are : 13 8 = ? 18 3 = ? 256 = X x X = X ? + 8 = 13 ? x 3 = 18

Simplify the problem refers to transformation of the word sentences into simpler and concise mathematical language. For example : What must be added to the product of three and four in order to get the sum of 28?

In order to solve the above problem, we have to transform the question in the form of mathematical expression or equation. 3 x 4 + X = 28 By expressing the question by means of the above algebraic equation, the solution would be very much simpler and easier.

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Using experiment in problem solving involves the application of the practical method and the use of concrete materials.

Sometimes the objective of the problem required the solution of its subgoal to achieve.

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Question 1

Kevin has a bag of apples. He gives half of them to Fred. Fred eats two and then has four left. How many apples did Kevin have at the start?

Solution 1.1 :

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find how many apples did Kevin have at start if he g ives half of his bag of apples to Fred then Fred eats two of them and has four left.

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can solve the problem by drawing the diagram . Then you use the diagram to solve the question.

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3.

Y i .

EP A

. S t

VE t K i i , . t t t, f l i i i t

2 l f fK l i

Kevin

Fred l ft

A 2

l t

f l ft f

l l t t l

f fK f

i i l

lt t 2 i l K i

fK

i .

S , l f f ,t

tt

t ti

2.

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Solution 1.2

working backward

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find how many apples did Kevin have at start if he gives half of his bag of apples to Fred then Fred eats two of them and has four left.

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can solve the problem by use the method of working backward . Then you use the method to solve the question.

3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN Kevin - has a bag of apple - gives half to Fred Fred - eat 2 apples - left 4 apples

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Question 2

40 members of Sicile Youth Club go on a trip to a Malaysian Tourism Center . They go in minibuses that can each seat up to 15 people s. It costs RM30 for each minibus and RM150 for the group to have use of the Malaysian Tourism Center. How much will the trip cost per person?

Solution 2.1

make a list

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? How much did everyone of the Sicile Youth Club cost per person?

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can make a list to help you find all the different ways.

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3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN When you make your list, you list list all the information you obtained from the question.

4. SOLVE 40 members trip to Malaysian Tourisme Center Each minibus set up for 15 peoples and cost for RM 30 RM 150 - for the group used Malaysian Tourisme Center

Cost per person Cost per Person 40 members = cost for minibus + cost for used Malaysian Tourism Center

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Solution 2.2

make a table

1. UNDERSTAND What you need to find? How much did everyone of the Sicile Youth Club cost per person?

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can make a table from the information given in the question. List all the information in the table so you are able to solve it.

fees

Number of item

cost

Used for

1 1

RM 30 RM 150

15 peoples 40 peoples

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4. SOLVE From the table above and the question given, we are already known the number of members of club is 40 peoples.

fees

number of item

cost

minibus

RM 30

Used for

Total cost

40 peoples

RM 30 x 3 = RM 90 RM 150 x 1 = RM 150

RM 150

40 peoples

RM 90 + RM 150

TOTAL COST

= RM 240

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Question 3

Rulers cost RM 0.45 each. Pens cost RM 1.20 each. Danielle bought four rulers and a bunch of pens. She paid with a RM 50 note and received RM 0.20 change. How many pens did she buy?

Solution 3.1 :

Deduction method

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find how many pens did Danielle buy if she received RM 0.20 money change when she paid RM 50. 2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can used the information given to solve the problem by using the unitary method under a deduction approach. 3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN List the information obtained from the question. Cost for a ruler = RM 0.45 Rulers did she buy = 4 So, cost for 4 rulers is : RM 0.45 x 4 = RM 1.80

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Cost for a pen = RM 1.20 How many pens did Danielle buy = Z

To find the total price did Danielle paid for pens, Z = RM 50.00 RM 1.80 RM 0.20 = RM 48.00

So, to find how many pens did Danielle buy, The total price for a bunch of pens price for a pen RM 48.00 RM 1.20 = 40

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Solution 3.2

1. UNDERSTAND What you need to find? You need to find how many pens did Danielle buy if she received RM 0.20 money change when she paid RM 50.

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can make a table from the information given in the question. List all the information in the table so you are able to solve it.

item

Price / item

ruler pen

RM 0.45 RM 1.20

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4. SOLVE From the table above and information gain in the question : Danielle bought 4 rulers. She also bought a bunch of pens which i labels as Z. She paid with 50 note and receive money change RM 0.20.

item ruler

quantity 4

pen

RM 1.20

So, RM 50.00 RM 0.20 = RM 49.80 RM 49.80 RM 1.80 = RM 48.00 To find the Z Quantity of pens = RM 48.00 RM 1.20 = 40. Therefore, Danielle bought 40 pens which cost her RM 48.00 for the pens.

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Question 1

Find how many marbles in all the 4 boxes, if each box contains 5 marbles.

Solution:

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find how many marbles in 4 boxes if in each box contains 5 marbles.

2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can draw diagrams to show the information. Then you can use the picture to find the answer.

3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN Draw 4 boxes which contain 5 marbles each.

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4. SOLVE Using the draw diagrams, write: 1 box has 5 marbles 4 boxes have 4 x 5 marbles = 20 marbles So, the total number of the marbles in the 4 boxes is 20.

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Question 2

0150150

to complete this multiplication:

x2=

Solution :

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to fill in the blank using the numbers given and then multiply by 2 to find suitable answer. 2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can guess and check to find three numbers that can be multiplied by 2 to get best answer to fill in the blank.

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3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN First guess : First three number : 501 501 x 2 = 1002 Second guess : First three number : 550 550 x 2 = 1100

4. CHECK First guess: 501 x 2 = 1002 1002, digit 2 in this number are not listed to complete the multiplication. So these numbers does not work! Second guess : 550 x 2 = 1100 1100, all the digit in this number are listed to complete the multiplication. So these numbers do work!

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Question 3

What would be the number represent Y in the following sequence of numbers? 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, Y

Solution :

Find a pattern

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find the following number in the sequence as the numbers given are 2, 5, 10, 17, 26. 2. PLAN How can you solve the problem? You can find a pattern. Look at the numbers. The new number depends upon the number before it. You need to find the difference between the sec ond number and the first number and so on. 3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN 5 3 5 10 7 17 9 Y 11

26

52=3 10 5 = 5 17 10 = 7 26 17 = 9 Y 26 = 11

40

4. CHECK

2 3

5 5

10 7

17 9

26 11

37

To check the answer in the sequence above either right or wrong, you must: 53=2 75=2 97=2 11 9 = 2 All the differences are the same which is equal to 2. Therefore, 37 is the right answer after number 26 in the sequence because the differences show the same pattern of number.

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Question 4

In how many ways can a 20 cents coin be converted into coins of 10 cents, 5 cents and 1 cent?

Solution:

Construct a table

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to convert 20 cents into 10, 5, 1 cents but not all denominations need to be used.

2. PLAN How to solve the problem? Table can be used to record all possibilities in solving the problem.

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From the above table, there are 9 possibilities of converting 20 cents into combinations of 10, 5, and 1 cents.

4. CHECK Check every row so that the total sum for each row is 20 cents.

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Question 5

Find the area of a buildings plan as shown in diagram below.

Solution:

1. UNDERSTAND What do you need to find? You need to find the area of the buildings plan. 2. PLAN Break the plan up into a few small rectangles A, B, and C.

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3. CARRY OUT THE PLAN Find the area of region A = 7 x 7 = 49cm Find the area of region B = 4 x 3 = 12cm Find the area of region C = 6 x 8 = 48cm Find the total area of A, B, and C = 49 cm + 12cm + 48cm = 109cm 4. CHECK Check each of the above steps: addition and multiplication are correct.

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5. REFECTION

SITI SALWA BT SAMSUDIN 910810-06-5600

First and foremost, I want to give my special thanks to my God, my parents, my lecturer, Mrs Zalina bte Muhamed, and all my groups members, Firdaus and Arifah. I have been asked by my lecturer to complete a task about problem -solving. I chose to make a group of three members in order to make this assignment. As a part of this group, I had been given a different task. This was to make the assignment easier to be completed. Another problem that I had faced to finish this task was the uses of English as the medium in this assignment. Im weak in English, so, its hard to me to understand the question given. After I understand the question, I had to face another p roblem that is to answer it in English. So, I always bring English dictionary in everywhere I go. Sometimes, I call my friends to ask about the words that Im not understand. My friends kindly helped me to explain me about the words. Beside this assignment, I have another four assignments that still be unfinished. Thats sometime drive me crazy and blur. But it just for a while. I still manage to solve the problems and succeeded to complete my assignment. Without the helps from my lecturer and team members, I would not be able to finish this assignment. Thanks to all of them. Last but not least, thanks to God, finally I have done my assignment.

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REFLECTION

ARIFAH HANANI BT HJ WAN AHMAD 911211-03-6212

Thanks to God because He has gave me the st rength to finish this assignment even though I with my team members facing a few problems in the process to accomplish this assignment. At first, I got confused about the task given because the explanation given by our lecturer, Madam Zalina was a little b it confusing me. However, when my team members and I sat together and discussed the task, we finally understood what we would do with the task. For more confirmation, our lecturer once again gave us a clear briefing about this task. I was relieved because the information about mathematics problem -solving are available in many books in library and in the internet. Since those information were easy to find and collect, so our progression in doing the assignment going very well. Through this assignment, now I could differentiate the routine and non -routine problems and could use the Polyas problem -solving method to solve problem-solving questions. In addition, I could learn the value of teamwork and cooperation between team members. Last but not least, I would like to thanks to my entire team member for their great cooperation and intention to finish this assignment.

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REFLECTION

MUHAMAD FIRDAUS BIN MAT KISANA 911217-08-6245

First and foremost, praise to The Almighty God for giving us good health and safety while finishing this math assignment for this semester. We have face many problems when do this assignment. First, I do not know what to do and write. We always make group discussion in order to complete our task. Find the information using internet also give us obstacle. The obstacles that we must face is we found that when using this way, we got many pages tha t related to this topic but, to find the accurate and suitable page, we must read all pages. Not only that, when we found the information, it give problem in downloading them. But, all of that not break up our spirit to finish the assignment. We also read more books to find research about the topic. A lthough, we had got articles from internet but we also use books to gain more knowledge. Not only that, this assignment gives us a lot of knowledge and grows the positive attitude in our heart such as working as a group. Besides that, we wish we can read t he notes once and immediately understand and grabbed the point easily. We also hope that we could express better in understanding problem solving. Although we face many obstacles in completing this task, we felt very satisfied and really thankful. We also feel very relief and happy when finish this assignment and hope this assignment will satisfy our lecturer and get better result in coming exam.

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6. BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS :

Noor, S. S., & Sazeli, A. G., (2008). Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools : Theories and Practices. Tanjung Malim. Perak: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. Mok, S., S., (2003). A Mathematics Course for Diploma of Education. Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd. Subang Jaya. Selangor. Dan, G. (2002). 200 Super-Fun, Super- Fast Math Story Problems. New York : Scholastic. Mok, S. S., (2004). Teacher Education Series, A Primary Education Course in Mathematics for Post Graduate Diploma (K.P.L.I). Subang Jaya, Selangor : Kumpulan Budiman Sdn.Bhd.

INTERNET :

http://pred.boun.edu.tr/ps/ps3.html http://www.geocities.com/polyapower/ http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/George_P%C3%B3lya www.lexington1.net/technology/instruct/ppts/mathppts/Numeracy%20&%20Concepts /Problem%20Solving%20II.ppt www.instruction.greenriver.edu/reising/ Problem%20Solving%20Strategies.ppt www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_sorenson/documents/EDPThinkingand problemsolvin g.ppt www.lessonplanet.com/search?keywords=problem+solving+-math&rating=3 - 31k www.math.twsu.edu/history/Men/polya.html

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