Tao Te Ching Complete | Laozi | Tao

Tao Te Ching

A New English Version, with Foreword and Notes, by Stephen Mitchell

Harper Perennial
A Division of HarperCollins Publishers

TO VICKI
Who can find a good woman? She is precious beyond all things. Her husband's heart trusts her completely. She is his best reward. PROV. 31:10-11

Foreword

Tao Te Ching (pronounced, more or less, Dow Deh Jing) can be translated as The Book of the Immanence of the Way or The Book of the Way and of How It Manifests Itself in the World or, simply, The Book of the Way. Since it is already well known by its Chinese tide, I have let that stand. About Lao-tzu, its author, there is practically nothing to be said. He may have been an older contemporary of Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and may have held the position of archivekeeper in one of the petty kingdoms of the time. But all the information that has come down to us is highly suspect. Even the meaning of his name is uncertain (the most likely interpretations: "the Old Master" or, more picturesquely, "the Old Boy"). Like an Iroquois woodsman, he left no traces. All he left us is his book: the classic manual on the art of living, written in a style of gemlike lucidity, radiant with humor and grace and large-heartedness and deep wisdom: one of the wonders of the world. People usually think of Lao-tzu as a hermit, a dropout from society, dwelling serenely in some mountain hut, unvisited except perhaps by the occasional traveler arriving from a '60S joke to ask, "What is the meaning of life?" But it's clear from his teachings that he deeply cared about society, if society means the welfare of one's fellow human beings; his book is, among other things, a treatise on the art of government,

the fuel has been completely transformed into flame. Softness means the opposite of rigidity. This "nothing" is. . and is synonymous with suppleness. without any interference of the conscious will. adaptability. effortlessly. Nothing could be further from the truth. This is a paradigm for non-action: the purest and most effective form of action. Nothing is done because the doer has wholeheartedly vanished into the deed. the poem writes the poem. literally "doing notdoing. in fact. nothing is left undone. Less and less do you need to force things. endurance. everything. The misperception may arise from his insistence on wei wu wei. When nothing is done. The game plays the game.whether of a country or of a child. A good athlete can enter a state of body-awareness in which the right stroke or the right movement happens by itself. It happens when we trust the intelligence of the universe in the same way that an athlete or a dancer trusts the superior intelligence of the body. Until finally you arrive at non-action." which has been seen as passivity. Hence Lao-Tzu's emphasis on softness. Anyone who has seen a T'ai Chi or Aikido master doing not-doing will know how powerful this softness is. we can't tell the dancer from the dance.

as with a dirty window. She finds deep in her own experience the central truths of the art of living. "I am the Tao. This is not an idea. in all humility. a state of self-absorption which is in disharmony with the universal process. This is called embodying the light. The Master has mastered Nature. but simply as an opaqueness. Until finally she is able to say. not in the sense of conquering it. the Truth. the more compassionate we can be. the clearer our insight into what is beyond good and evil. it is a reality.Lao-Tzu's central figure is a man or woman whose life is in perfect harmony with the way things are. Thus the Master is available to all people and doesn't reject anyone. in giving up all concepts. which are paradoxical only on the surface: that the more truly solitary we are. This freedom from moral categories allows him his great compassion for the wicked and the selfish. and desires. the more present our love becomes. judgments. the more we let go of what we love. her mind has grown naturally compassionate. Unencumbered by any concept of sin. What is a good man but a bad man's teacher? What is a bad man but a good man's job? . but of becoming it. I have seen it." The teaching of the Tao Te Ching is moral in the deepest sense. the Life. the light can't shine through. the more we can embody the good. the Master doesn't see evil as a force to resist. In surrendering to the Tao. He is ready to use all situations and doesn't waste anything. so that.

however intelligent you are. But the most essential preparation for my work was a fourteenyears-long course of Zen training. German. "We must try its effect as an English poem. which brought me face to face with Lao-tzu and his true disciples and heirs. which provides English equivalents (often very quaint ones) alongside each of the Chinese ideograms. throughout the book. Ironically. in English we have to choose.If you don't understand this. As to method: I worked from Paul Carus's literal version. the freest translation is sometimes the most faithful." The Chinese language doesn't make this kind of distinction. I have used the pronoun "she" at least as often as "he. potentially. ironically. I felt it would be untrue to present a male archetype. essentially. and French." Dr. With great poetry. But since we are all. kaleidoscopic book as the Tao Te . because of all the great world religions the teaching of Lao-tzu is by far the most female. as other versions have. It is the great secret. to substitute "he" for "she" or vice versa. the Master (since the Master is. I also consulted dozens of translations into English. us)." I have often been fairly literal-or as literal as one can be with such a subtle. Johnson said. The reader will notice that in the many passages where Lao-tzu describes the Master. Of course. you should feel free. the early Chinese Zen Masters. you will get lost. "that is the way to judge of the merit of a translation. done.

played with it. until it became embodied in a language that felt genuine to me. my intention has always been to translate his mind. worked with the text. contracted. expanded. If I haven't always translated Lao-tzu's words.Ching. interpreted. But I have also paraphrased. .

Tao Te Ching .

you realize the mystery.1 The tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. The unnamable is the eternally real. Free from desire. This source is called darkness. you see only the manifestations. The gateway to all understanding. Caught in desire. The name that can be named is not the eternal Name. Darkness within darkness. Yet mystery and manifestations arise from the same source. Naming is the origin of all particular things. .

When her work is done.2 When people see some things as beautiful. Before and after follow each other. Being and non-being create each other. acts but doesn't expect. When people see some things as good. Things arise and she lets them come. other things become ugly. . She has but doesn't possess. High and low depend on each other. other things become bad. Difficult and easy support each other. Therefore the Master acts without doing anything and teaches without saying anything. she forgets it. Long and short define each other. That is why it lasts forever. things disappear and she lets them go.

If you overvalue possessions. Practice not-doing. . and everything will fall into place. The Master leads by emptying people's minds and filling their cores. people become powerless. people begin to steal. by weakening their ambition and toughening their resolve. and creates confusion in those who think that they know. everything they desire. He helps people lose everything they know.3 If you overesteem great men.

It is like the eternal void: filled with infinite possibilities. . I don't know who gave birth to it. It is hidden but always present. It is older than God.4 The Tao is like a well: used but never used up.

The Tao is like a bellows: it is empty yet infinitely capable. Hold on to the center.5 The Tao doesn't take sides. the less you understand. the more you talk of it. she welcomes both saints and sinners. the more it produces. . it gives birth to both good and evil. The more you use it. The Master doesn't take sides.

6 The Tao is called the Gteat Mother: empty yet inexhaustible. You can use it any way you want. It is always present within you. . it gives birth to infinite worlds.

Why is it eternal? It was never born. she is perfectly fulfilled. She is detached from all things. that is why she is one with them. .7 The Tao is infinite. thus it is present for all beings. thus it can never die. that is why she is ahead. Why is it infinite? It has no desires for itself. Because she has let go of herself. The Master stays behind. eternal.

In thinking. do what you enjoy. In governing. Thus it is like the Tao. In conflict. In dwelling. don't try to control. be completely present. which nourishes all things without trying to. lt is content with the low places that people disdain. In family life. be fair and generous. live close to the ground.8 The supreme good is like water. everybody will respect you. When you are content to be simply yourself and don't compare or compete. . In work. keep to the simple.

Chase after money and security and your heart will never unclench. then step back The only path to serenity. .9 Fill your bowl to the brim and it will spill. Care about people's approval and you will be their prisoner. Keep sharpening your knife and it will blunt. Do your work.

. having without possessing. leading and not trying to control: this is the supreme virtue.10 Can you coax your mind from its wandering and keep to the original oneness? Can you let your body become supple as a newborn child's? Can you cleanse your inner vision until you see nothing but the light? Can you love people and lead them without imposing your will? Can you deal with the most vital matters by letting events take their course? Can you step back from your own mind and thus understand all things? Giving birth and nourishing. acting with no expectations.

We work with being. but it is the center hole that makes the wagon move. We shape clay into a pot. but it is the inner space that makes it livable. We hammer wood for a house. but non-being is what we use. but it is the emptiness inside that holds whatever we want. .11 We join spokes together in a wheel.

Thoughts weaken the mind. He allows things to come and go.12 Colors blind the eye. Desires wither the heart. . Flavors numb the taste. His heart is open as the sky. Sounds deafen the ear. The Master observes the world But trusts his inner vision.

What does it mean that hope is as hollow as fear? Hope and fear are both phantoms that arise from thinking of the self. Have faith in the way things are. Hope is as hollow as fear. What does it mean that success is as dangerous as failure? Whether you go up the ladder or down it. what do we have to fear? See the world as your self. your position is shaky. When we don’t see the self as self. then you can care for all things.13 Success is as dangerous as failure. you will always keep your balance. When you stand with your two feet on the ground. Love the world as your self. .

subtle. You can’t know it. unnamable.14 Look. Above. at ease in your own life. Listen. and it can’t be seen. beyond all conception. but you can be it. . and it can’t be grasped. Approach it and there is no beginning. Seamless. it isn’t bright. it isn’t dark. follow it and there is no end. it returns to the realm of nothing. image without an image. Below. Form that includes all forms. Reach. and it can’t be heard. Just realize where you come from: this is the essence of wisdom.

she is present.15 The ancient Masters were profound and subtle. There is no way to describe it. Fluid as melting ice. They were careful as someone crossing an iced-over stream. all we can describe is their appearance. Receptive as a valley. Not seeking. and can welcome all things. Shapeable as a block of wood. Their wisdom was unfathomable. Clear as a glass of water. not expecting. Alert as a warrior in enemy territory. Do you have the patience to wait till your mud settles and the water is clear? Can you remain unmoving till the right action arises by itself? The Master doesn’t seek fulfillment. . Courteous as a guest.

Watch the turmoil of beings. Immersed in the wonder of the Tao. disinterested. you stumble in confusion and sorrow. kindhearted as a grandmother. You can deal with whatever life brings you.16 Empty your mind of all thoughts. . you naturally become tolerant. And when death comes. amused. Let your heart be at peace. If you don’t realize the source. dignified as a king. Returning to the source is serenity. Each separate being in the universe returns to the common source. When you realize where you come from. you are ready. but contemplate their return.

When his work is done. The people say.17 When the Master governs. he acts. Next best is a leader who is loved. Next. “Amazing: We did it. You make them untrustworthy. The worst is one who is despised. one who is feared. the people are hardly aware that he exists. The Master doesn’t talk. If you don’t trust the people. all by ourselves!” .

When the country falls into chaos.18 When the great Tao is forgotten. When there is no peace in the family. When the body’s intelligence declines. . cleverness and knowledge step forth. goodness and piety appear. Filial piety begins. patriotism is born.

and people will be a hundred times happier. .19 Throw away holiness and wisdom. and there won’t be any thieves. If these three aren’t enough. Throw away morality and justice. Throw away industry and profit. and people will do the right thing. Just at the center of the circle And let all things take their course.

Other people are bright. . I alone don’t care. like someone without a home. Other people have what they need. I alone drift about. I alone possess nothing. my mind is so empty. as though they were at a parade. I alone am expressionless. Other people are sharp.20 Stop thinking and end your problems. I alone am dark. like an infant before it can smile. I am like and idiot. avoid what others avoid? How ridiculous? Other people are excited. I alone am dull. What difference between yes and no? What difference between success and failure? Must you value what others value.

I alone don’t know. I drink form the Great Mother’s breasts.Other people have purpose. . I blow as aimless as the wind. I drift like a wave on the ocean. I am different from ordinary people.

21 The Master keeps her mind always at one with the Tao. How can it make her radiant? Because she lets it. Since before time and space were. that is what gives her the radiance. It is beyond is and is not. How can her mind be at one with it? Because she doesn’t cling to ideas. . The Tao is ungraspable. How do I know this is true? I look inside myself and see. The Tao is dark and unfathomable. the Tao is.

Because he doesn’t display himself. If you want to become straight. sets an example for all beings. If you want to be reborn. let yourself die. Because he has nothing to prove. give everything up. . by residing in the Tao.” they weren’t using empty phrases. let yourself be empty. If you want to become full. Because he has no goal in mind. everything he does succeeds. The Master. Because he doesn’t know who he is.22 If you want to become whole. people can see his light. give everything up. people can trust his words. If you want to be given everything. let yourself be partial. “If you want to be given everything. people recognize themselves in him. let yourself be crooked. When the ancient Masters said. Only in being lived by the Tao Can you be truly yourself.

you are at one with insight and you can use it completely. then trust your natural responses: and everything will fall into place. then keep quiet. there is only wind. the sun shines through. . If you open yourself to the Tao. If you open yourself to loss. when it rains. you are at one with loss and you can accept it completely. when the clouds pass. you are at one with the Tao and you can embody it completely. Open yourself to the Tao. there is only rain. Be like the forces of nature: when it blows.23 Express yourself completely. If you open yourself to insight.

He who has power over others can't empower himself. He who defines himself can't know who he really is. . If you want to accord with the Tao. He who tries to shine dims his own light. just do your job. He who rushes ahead doesn’t go far. then let go. He who clings to his work will create nothing that endures.24 He who stands on tiptoe doesn’t stand firm.

and returns to the origin of all things. Earth is great. Unchanging. Infinite. It is the mother of the universe. For lack of a better name.25 There was something formless and perfect before the universe was born. The Tao is great. Solitary. The Tao follows only itself. The universe is great. It is serene. inside and outside. Earth follows the universe. Eternally present. . It flows through all things. I call it the Tao. Man is great. These are the four great powers. Empty. The universe follows the Tao. Man follows the earth.

The unmoved is the source of all movement. Thus the master travels all day without leaving home. . you lose touch with your root. Why should the lord of the country flit about like a fool? If you let yourself be blown to and fro. You lose touch with who you are. If you let restlessness move you. However splendid the views. she stays serenely in herself.26 The heavy is the root of the light.

He is ready to use all situations and doesn’t waste anything. A good artist lets his intuition lead him wherever it wants. What is a good man but a bad man’s teacher? What is a bad man but a good man’s job? If you don’t understand this. you will get lost. Thus the Master is available to all people and doesn’t reject anyone. . A good scientist has freed himself of concepts and keeps his mind open to what is. It is the great secret. However intelligent you are. This is called embodying the light.27 A good traveler has no fixed plans and is not intent upon arriving.

the Tao will never leave you and you will be like a little child. The world is formed from the void. yet keeps to the block: thus she can use all things. yet keep to the female: receive the world in your arms. . If you accept the world. the Tao will be luminous inside you and you will return to your primal self. the Tao will be strong inside you and there will be nothing you can’t do. Like utensils from a block of wood. yet keep to the impersonal: accept the world as it is.28 Know the male. yet keep to the black: be a pattern for the world. If you are a pattern for the world. The Master knows the utensils. Know the white. If you receive the world. Know the personal.

The Master sees things as they are. There is a time for being ahead. If you tamper with it. And resides at the center of the circle. a time for being at rest. She let’s them go their own way. The world is sacred. If you treat it like an object. a time for being safe. a time for being behind. a time for being vigorous. a time for being exhausted.29 Do you want to improve the world? I don’t think it can be done. you’ll lose it. a time for being in motion. . a time for being in danger. without trying to control them. you’ll ruin it. It can’t be improved.

Because he believes in himself. Because he is content with himself. he doesn’t try to convince others. Because he accepts himself. Violence.30 Whoever relies on the Tao in governing men doesn’t try to force issues or defeat enemies by force of arms. . The Master does his job and then stops. For every force there is a counterforce. He understands that the universe is forever out of control. the whole world accepts him. always rebounds upon oneself. even well intentioned. he doesn’t need others’ approval. and that trying to dominate events goes against the current of the Tao.

. Weapons are the tools of fear.31 Weapons are the tools of violence. if compelled. How could he rejoice in victory and delight in the slaughter of men? He enters a battle gravely. but human beings like himself. how can he be content? His enemies are not demons. Nor does he rejoice in victory. will use them only with the utmost restraint. He doesn't wish them personal harm. all decent men detest them. If the peace has been shattered. Peace is his highest value. a decent man will avoid them except in the direst necessity and. with sorrow and with great compassion. as if he were attending a funeral.

All people would be at peace. . and the law would be written in their hearts. All things end in the Tao as rivers flow into the sea.32 The Tao can't be perceived. The world would become a paradise. it contains uncountable galaxies. When you have names and forms. Smaller than an electron. all things would be in harmony. Knowing when to stop. you can avoid any danger. When you have institutions. Know that they are provisional. If powerful men and women could remain centered in the Tao. know where their functions should end.

knowing yourself is true wisdom.33 Knowing others is intelligence. you are truly rich. you will endure forever. If you realize that you have enough. . If you stay in the center and embrace death with your whole heart. Mastering others is strength. mastering yourself is true power.

. All things are born from it. It isn't aware of its greatness. yet it doesn't hold on to them. Since all things vanish into it and it alone endures. Since it is merged with all things and hidden in their hearts. It pours itself into its work. it can be called great. yet it doesn't create them. it can be called humble.34 The great Tao flows everywhere. thus it is truly great. yet it makes no claim. It nourishes infinite worlds.

35
She who is centered in the Tao can go where she wishes, without danger. She perceives the universal harmony, even amid great pain, because she has found peace in her heart. Music or the smell of good cooking may make people stop and enjoy. But words that point to the Tao seem monotonous and without flavor. When you look for it, there is nothing to see. When you listen for it, there is nothing to hear. When you use it, it is inexhaustible.

36
If you want to shrink something, you must first allow it to expand. If you want to get rid of something, you must first allow it to flourish. If you want to take something, you must first allow it to be given. This is called the subtle perception of the way things are. The soft overcomes the hard. The slow overcomes the fast. Let your workings remain a mystery. Just show people the results.

37
The Tao never does anything, yet through it all things are done. If powerful men and women could center themselves in it, the whole world would be transformed by itself, in its natural rhythms. People would be content with their simple, everyday lives, in harmony, and free of desire. When there is no desire, all things are at peace.

Ritual is the husk of true faith. Therefore the Master concerns himself with the depths and not the surface. the beginning of chaos. He dwells in reality. and leaves many things to be done. and when no one responds he rolls up his sleeves and uses force. there is ritual. When morality is lost. When the Tao is lost. thus he never has enough. yet he leaves nothing undone. The ordinary man is always doing things. The ordinary man keeps reaching for power. yet something remains undone. When goodness is lost. The kind man does something. with the fruit and not the flower. yet many more are left to be done. The just man does something. and lets all illusions go. He has no will of his own. The moral man does something.38 The Master doesn't try to be powerful. The Master does nothing. . there is morality. thus he is truly powerful. there is goodness.

His constant practice is humility. the earth is solid and full. creatures become extinct. the sky is clear and spacious.39 In harmony with the Tao. the equilibrium crumbles. the earth becomes depleted. When man interferes with the Tao. the sky becomes filthy. endlessly repeating themselves. The Master views the parts with compassion. as rugged and common as a stone. endlessly renewed. because he understands the whole. all creatures flourish together. content with the way they are. He doesn’t glitter like a jewel but lets himself be shaped by the Tao. .

. Being is born of non-being. All things are born of being. Yielding is the way of the Tao.40 Return is the movement of the Tao.

the path forward seems to go back. true steadfastness seems changeable. Yet it nourishes and completes all things. Thus it is said: The path into the light seems dark. the greatest love seems indifferent. When an average man hears of the Tao. If he didn't laugh. half doubts it. When a foolish man hears of the Tao. The Too is nowhere to be found. the greatest wisdom seems childish. true clarity seems obscure. the direct path seems long. the greatest art seems unsophisticated. he immediately begins to embody it. it wouldn't be the Tao. true power seems weak. true purity seems tarnished. he half believes it.41 When a superior man hears of the Tao. . he laughs out loud.

AIl things have their backs to the female and stand facing the male. embracing his aloneness. Two gives birth to Three. . One gives birth to Two. realizing he is one with the whole universe. Ordinary men hate solitude. When male and female combine. Three gives birth to all things. all things achieve harmony. But the Master makes use of it.42 The Too gives birth to One.

. This shows the value of non-action.43 The gentlest thing in the world overcomes the hardest thing in the world. That which has no substance enters where there is no space. Teaching without words. performing without actions: that is the Master's way.

. If your happiness depends on money. When you realize there is nothing lacking. Be content with what you have. the whole world belongs to you. you will never be happy with yourself.44 Fame or integrity: which is more important? Money or happiness: which is more valuable? Success or failure: which is more destructive? If you look to others for fulfillment. rejoice in the way things are. you will never truly be fulfilled.

True wisdom seems foolish.45 True perfection seems imperfect. yet it is fully present. True straightness seems crooked. True fullness seems empty. The Master allows things to happen. True art seems artless. yet it is perfectly itself. . She steps out of the way and lets the Tao speak for itself. She shapes events as they come.

no greater wrong than preparing to defend yourself. Whoever can see through all fear will always be safe. There is no greater illusion than fear. .46 When a country is in harmony with the Tao. no greater misfortune than having an enemy. the factories make trucks and tractors. When a country goes counter to the Tao. warheads are stockpiled outside the cities.

. you can open your heart to the world. the less you understand. achieves without doing a thing. The more you know. you can see the essence of the Tao. The Master arrives without leaving. sees the light without looking.47 Without opening your door. Without iooking out your window.

every day something is dropped. It can't be gained by interfering. nothing is left undone. True mastery can be gained by letting things go their own way. Less and less do you need to force things. When nothing is done. every day something is added. . In the practice of the Tao. until finally you arrive at non-action.48 In the pursuit of knowledge.

People don't understand her. They look to her and wait. The Master's mind is like space. This is true goodness. She is also good to people who aren't good. This is true trust.49 The Master has no mind of her own. . She works with the mind of the people. She is good to people who are good. She trusts people who are trustworthy. She treats them like her own children. She also trusts people who aren't trustworthy.

. as a man is ready for sleep after a good day's work.50 The Master gives himself up to whatever the moment brings. He doesn't think about his actions. they flow from the core of his being. and he has nothing left to hold on to: no illusions in his mind. He knows that he is going to die. He holds nothing back from life. therefore he is ready for death. no resistances in his body.

cares for them. acting without expecting. maintains them. lets circumstances complete it. That is why every being spontaneously honors the Tao. creating without possessing. protects them. . nourishes them. takes on a physical body. takes them back to itself.51 Every being in the universe is an expression of the Tao. The Tao gives birth to all beings. guiding without interfering. free. unconscious. That is why love of the Tao is in the very nature of things. perfect. comforts them. It springs into existence.

52 In the beginning was the Tao. you will be free of sorrow. all things return to it. This is called practicing eternity. Seeing into darkness is clarity. your heart will find peace. . To find the origin. Knowing how to yield is strength. If you close your mind in judgments and traffic with desires. your heart will be troubled. trace back the manifestations. All things issue from it. Use your own light and recurn to the source of light. If you keep your mind from judging and aren't led by the senses. When you recognize the children and find the mother.

Stay centered within the Tao. When rich speculators prosper while farmers lose their land. when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible while the poor have nowhere to turn – this is robbery and chaos. yet people prefer the side paths. Be aware when things are out of balance. It is not in keeping with the Tao.53 The great Way is easy. when government officials spend money on weapons instead of cures. .

Let it be present in the universe and the universe will sing.54 Whoever is planted in the Tao will not be rooted up. Let it be present in your country and your country will be an example to all countries in the world. Let it be present in your family and your family will flourish. How do I know this is true? By looking inside myself. Let the Tao be present in your life and you will become genuine. Her name will be held in honor from generation to generation. Whoever embraces the Tao will not slip away. .

55 He who is in harmony with the Tao is like a newborn child. but its grip is powerful. so intense is its vital power. He is never disappointed. yet its penis can stand erect. thus his spirit never grows old. without desire. so complete is its harmony. It doesn't know about the union of male and female. It can scream its head off all day. He lets all things come and go effortlessly. its muscles are weak. . He never expects results. The Master's power is like this. thus he is never disappointed. Its bones are soft. yet it never becomes hoarse.

It gives itself up continually. Close your mouth. block off your senses. Be like the Tao. honored or brought into disgrace. . It can't be approached or withdrawn from. untie your knots. soften your glare. blunt your sharpness. Those who talk don't know. This is the primal identity. benefited or harmed. That is why it endures.56 Those who know don't talk. settle your dust.

the less virtuous people will be. the less self-reliant people will be. Stop trying to control. and the good becomes common as grass. the less secure people will be. and people become prosperous. and people become serene. I let go of religion. The more prohibitions you have. The more weapons you have. Let go of fixed plans and concepts. . and the world will govern itself. The more subsidies you have. Therefore the Master says: I let go of the law. I let go of economics. you must learn to follow the Tao. I let go of all desire for the common good. and people become honest.57 If you want to be a great leader.

58 If a country is governed with tolerance. the lower the results. Radiant. the higher the ideals. Try to make people moral. Try to make people happy. Thus the Master is content to serve as an example and not to impose her will. but easy on the eyes. and you lay the groundwork for misery. and you lay the groundwork for vice. . but supple. If a country is governed with repression. When the will to power is in charge. but doesn't pierce. Straightforward. the people are comfortable and honest. She is pointed. the people are depressed and crafty.

The mark of a moderate man is freedom from his own ideas. he can care for the people's welfare as a mother cares for her child. supple like a tree in the wind.59 For governing a country well there is nothing better than moderation. he has no destination in view and makes use of anything life happens to bring his way. Nothing is impossible for him. Because he has let go. firm like a mountain. all-pervading like sunlight. Tolerant like the sky. .

. Give evil nothing to oppose and it will disappear by itself. Center your country in the Tao and evil will have no power. You spoil it with too much poking. but you'll be able to step out of its way.60 Governing a large country is like frying a small fish. Not that it isn't there.

he admits it. He considers those who point out his faults as his most benevolent teachers. the greater the need for humility. he realizes it. Humility means trusting the Tao. if it nourishes its own people and doesn't meddle in the affairs of others. . If a nation is centered in the Tao. The more powerful it grows. Having admitted it. He thinks of his enemy as the shadow that he himself casts. it becomes like the sea: all streams run downward into it. he corrects it. thus never needing to be defensive.61 When a country obtains great power. it will be a light to all nations in the world. A great nation is like a great man: When he makes a mistake. Having realized it.

. Offer instead to teach him about the Tao. you are forgiven. Thus. respect can be won with good deeds. the bad man's refuge. don't offer to help him with your wealth or your expertise. being one with the Tao.62 The Tao is the center of the universe. Honors can be bought with fine words. you find. Why did the ancient Masters esteem the Tao? Because. and no one can achieve it. but the Tao is beyond all value. and when you make a mistake. the good man's treasure. when you seek. That is why everybody loves it. when a new leader is chosen.

63 Act without doing. accomplish the great task by a series of small acts. thus problems are no problem for her. Confront the difficult while it is still easy. . thus she achieves greatness. work without effort. The Master never reaches for the great. she stops and gives herself to it. She doesn't cling to her own comfort. When she runs into a difficulty. Think of the small as large and the few as many.

What is brittle is easy to break. He has nothing. you lose them. thus has nothing to lose. What is small is easy to scatter. you ruin what was almost ripe. Therefore the Master takes action by letting things take their course. What is recent is easy to correct.64 What is rooted is easy to nourish. Trying to grasp things. . Put things in order before they exist. you fail. He remains as calm at the end as at the beginning. The giant pine tree grows from a tiny sprout. Rushing into action. Forcing a project to completion. The journey of a thousand miles starts from beneath your feet. Prevent trouble before it arises.

What he desires is non-desire. what he learns is to unlearn. He cares about nothing but the Tao. . He simply reminds people of who they have always been. Thus he can care for all things.

people can find their own way. If you want to learn how to govern. avoid being clever or rich. When they think that they know the answers. but kindly taught them to not-know. you can show all people the way back to their own true nature. Content with an ordinary life. The simplest pattern is the clearest. people are difficult to guide. . When they know that they don't know.65 The ancient Masters didn't try to educate the people.

no one can compete with her. The Master is above the people.66 All streams flow to the sea because it is lower than they are. and no one feels oppressed. If you want to govern the people. you must learn how to follow them. you must place yourself below them. If you want to lead the people. Humility gives it its power. Because she competes with no one. The whole world is grateful to her. . She goes ahead of the people. and no one feels manipulated.

Compassionate toward yourself. you reconcile all beings in the world. But to those who have looked inside themselves. Patient with both friends and enemies.67 Some say that my teaching is nonsense. this loftiness has roots that go deep. These three are your greatest treasures. Simple in actions and in thoughts. compassion. . you accord with the way things are. And to those who put it into practice. you return to the source of being. this nonsense makes perfect sense. I have just three things to teach: simplicity. patience. Others call it lofty but impractical.

but they do it in the spirit of play. The best businessman serves the communal good. . Not that they don't love to compete. The best leader follows the will of the people. All of them embody the virtue of non-competition. The best general enters the mind of his enemy. In this they are like children and in harmony with the Tao.68 The best athlete wants his opponent at his best.

. There is no greater misfortune than underestimating your enemy. the victory will go to the one that knows how to yield. When two great forces oppose each other. Rather than advance an inch it is better to retreat a yard. Thus you destroy your three treasures and become an enemy yourself." This is called going forward without advancing. pushing back without using weapons. Underestimating your enemy means thinking that he is evil.69 The generals have a saying: "Rather than make the first move it is better to wait and see.

How can you grasp their meaning? If you want to know me. and if you try to practice them.70 My teachings are easy to understand and easy to put into practice. Yet your intellect will never grasp them. look inside your heart. you'll fail. . My teachings are older than the world.

She has healed herself of all knowing. Presuming to know is a disease.71 Not-knowing is true knowledge. The Master is her own physician. . First realize that you are sick. then you can move toward health. Thus she is truly whole.

When they no longer trust themselves. . He teaches without a teaching. so that people will have nothing to learn. Therefore the Master steps back so that people won't be confused.72 When they lose their sense of awe. they begin to depend upon authority. people turn to religion.

73 The Tao is always at ease. answers without speaking a word. accomplishes without a plan. Its net covers the whole universe. . it doesn't let a thing slip through. arrives without being summoned. It overcomes without competing. And though its meshes are wide.

there is nothing you can't achieve. If you aren't afraid of dying. When you handle the master carpenter's tools.74 If you realize that all things change. Chances are that you'll cut your hand. . there is nothing you will try to hold on to. Trying to control the future Is like trying to take the master carpenter's place.

75 When taxes are too high. leave them alone. people go hungry. . Trust them. people lose their spirit. When the government is too intrusive. Act for the people's benefit.

they are brittle and dry. Whoever is soft and yielding is a disciple of life. dead. The hard and stiff will be broken. Plants are born tender and pliant. Thus whoever is stiff and inflexible is a disciple of death. dead. they are stiff and hard. The soft and supple will prevail. .76 Men are born soft and supple.

who use force to protect their power.77 As it acts in the world. succeeds without taking credit. and doesn't think that she is better than anyone else. The Master can keep giving because there is no end to her wealth. She acts without expectation. . The top is bent downward. It adjusts excess and deficiency so that there is perfect balance. go against the direction of the Tao. They take from those who don't have enough and give to those who have far too much. Those who try to control. the bottom is bent up. the Tao is like the bending of a bow. It takes from what is too much and gives to what isn't enough.

nothing can surpass it. . Therefore the Master remains serene in the midst of sorrow. True words seem paradoxical. The soft overcomes the hard. Because he has given up helping.78 Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water. but few can put it into practice. he is people's greatest help. Yet for dissolving the hard and inflexible. the gentle overcomes the rigid. Everyone knows this is true. Evil cannot enter his heart.

. If you blame someone else. Therefore the Master fulfills her own obligations and corrects her own mistakes. She does what she needs to do and demands nothing of others.79 Failure is an opportunity. there is no end to the blame.

There may be an arsenal of weapons. There may be a few wagons and boats. They enjoy the labor of their hands and don't waste time inventing labor-saving machines. spend weekends working in their gardens. Its inhabitants will be content. . And even though the next country is so close that people can hear its roosters crowing and its dogs barking. Since they dearly love their homes.80 If a country is governed wisely. But these don't go anywhere. they are content to die of old age without ever having gone to see it. People enjoy their food. delight in the doings of the neighborhood. take pleasure in being with their families. but nobody ever uses them. They aren't interested in travel.

the Master leads. The Tao nourishes by not forcing. eloquent words aren't true. The Master has no possessions. . Wise men don't need to prove their point. the happier he is. The more he does for others. men who need to prove their point aren't wise. By not dominating.81 True words aren't eloquent. the wealthier he is. The more he gives to others.

wrote." The monk said. in a book of five thousand words. They have to be blabbermouths. “He who talks doesn’t know he knows doesn’t talk”: that is what Lao-tzu told us. "Why do you teach. teaching the un-teachable. No way. if you watch the finger. what then?" . poet and stand-up comedian. Hence Po Chu-i. But their words are (in the traditional Buddhist metaphor) fingers pointing at the moon. If he was the one who knew. pointing the way to the way – what does Lao-tzu think he is doing here? It can’t be done. "To stop a baby from crying. How meticulous the great Masters had to be! A monk asked Ma-tsu. how could he have been such a blabbermouth? That’s the problem with spiritual teachers. you can't see the moon.Notes CHAPTER 1 Describing the indescribable. 'Mind is Buddha'?" Ma-tsu said. "When the crying has stopped.

the deeper it is. He uses them as he would use gardening tools. Lao-tzu lived for a long time in the country of Chou. He who knows doesn't talk. . 'Not mind. out of grandmotherly kindness. as Bankei said. he answers. but it is an accurate description of the way in which true teaching happens. "I would tell him.'” The monk said. "Then I teach.' " The monk said. Sir. and departed. Lao-tzu's book was written as a response. When someone asks. the farther you enter into it. “and what if you me t a man unattached to all things: what would you tell him?" Ma-tsu said. but words are no hindrance for him. This is legend. 'Not beings. "Since you are going away." In fact. "I would just let him experience the great Tao. not Buddha.Ma-tsu said. the truth is right before our eyes. "How about someone who isn't attached to either?" Ma-tsusaid. and yet. so simple that every child understands it. right under our noses. but seeing its decline he departed. the guard said. for complicated minds. According to the oldest biography. could you write a book to teach me the art of living?" Thereupon Lao-tzu wrote his book about the Tao. When he reached the frontier. drastic measures are needed. Where is the way to the Way? What a question! Still.

The gateway to all understanding: In order to understand. She goes her own way. She embodies compassion. She is like an actress who loves her role. being 'co express'] / is not the eternal Tao. This source is called darkness: Because none of our senses can perceive it." because the less we obstruct it. the more radiant we are. not discouraged by neglect." Other possible renderings: "The way that can be weighed / is not the eternal Way. CHAPTER 2 acts without doing anything: Her actions are appropriate responses. It is also called "light." "The force that can be forced / is not the eternal Force. She doesn't struggle to make money. She doesn't give even moment's thought to right or wrong. yet as easy as touching your nose when you wash your face. we have to remain in the darkness of not-knowing. . yet she accepts help gratefully and has no pride in walking alone. Thus they are effortless." You realize the mystery: Infinitely marvelous. She never has to make a decision.The tao that can be told / is not the eternal Tao: The text reads. yet she enjoys spending it when it comes to her. Impossible to know. decisions arise by themselves. yet as ordinary as sunlight. yet she doesn't try to be compassionate. "The tao that can be tao-ed [one meaning of Tao. The Tao is writing the script. She is not elated by praise.

Thus they can return to a state of childlike simplicity. judgments. Thus they can return to a state of joy. CHAPTER 3 emptying people's minds: He empties them of concepts. toughening their resolve: Their innermost intention. they find that greed. Her face is more eloquent than any scripture could be. hatred. and desires. filling their cores: He fills them with a sense of their original identity. That is why it lasts forever: Not in rime and space but in quality. CHAPTER 4 Following Ch'en Ku-ying.teaches without saying anything: The way she buys oranges or ties her shoelaces is a teaching. I have deleted the second stanza of the Chinese text. . They develop enough self-reliance to give up the idea of self. and arrogance vanish by themselves. weakening their ambition: When they have no false self to nourish or defend. which seems to be an interpolation from chapter 56.

but that they are impartial. she understands that at any moment they are capable of the most astonishing spiritual transformations.It is older than God: There is no God when there is nothing but God. It is called the mysterious female. and returning to the source.” Straw dogs were ritual objects. | it gives birth to both good and evil: Literally. Why should she pin them motionless with a judgment of "good" or "bad"? CHAPTER 6 First stanza: Literally. venerated before the ceremony but afterward abandoned and trampled underfoot." Chu Hsi said. The Master sees all beings arising from the same source. they treat all things like straw dogs.” as the master “treats all people like straw dogs. "The . nor that the Master is ruthless with people. working out their karma (usually with great suffering). CHAPTER 5 The Tao doesn't take sides. And since people are in constant flux. "The spirit of the valley never dies. The point here is not that the Tao is cruel to things. The gate of the mysterious female is the root of heaven and earth. "Heaven and earth are impartial.

The Master stays behind. "It is easy to keep things at a distance. eternal: Here is everywhere. with it. creates. clarity expresses itself in love. exactly as they are. She is detached: Bunan said.” Detachment results in clarity. without judgment. which reflects all faces. that is why she is ahead: She is like a turtle: wherever she is.female is one who receives something and. She is neither behind nor ahead. is home. but exactly even with all things. Any time is now. This creative principle is the most marvelous thing in the universe." CHAPTER 7 The Tao is infinite. Actually. . Her heart is like a mirror. it is hard to be naturally beyond them.

life's matrix and fecundity. founder of Continuum to comment on this verse. .CHAPTER 8 The supreme good is like water: I asked my friend and teacher Emilie Conrad-Da'oud. She said. Water is the source of all life. you are glad to let it go. into its own life. In fact." supple as a newborn child's: Emilie Conrad Da'oud's comment: . we are that fluid of love. it moves everywhere. CHAPTER 10 Can you let your body become: Literally. "Can you concentrate your chi [vital energy] until it becomes. CHAPTER 9 Do your work. We are fundamentally water: muscled water. it overflows into everything. then step back: When you do your work wholeheartedly. just as a parent lets a child go. . And the idea that we ever leave the amniotic fluid is a misconception. It is always present for us and contains everything we could possibly want. The amniotic fluid is the state of total nourishment and unconditional love.

There is no self-consciousness in the newborn child. Later on, the mind wanders into self-images, starts to think Should I do this? Is this moment right? and loses the immediacy of the moment. As self-consciousness develops, the muscles become less supple, less like the world. But the young child is pure fluidity. It isn't aware of any separation, so all its movements are spontaneous and alive and whole and perfect. If an adult body becomes truly supple, though, there is a quality to its movement that the child's doesn't have, a texture of experience, a fourth dimension of time. When we watch a seventy-year old hand move, we feel, "Yes, that hand has lived." All the bodies it has touched, all the weights it has lifted, all the heads it has cradled are present in its movement. It is resonant with experience; the fingers curve with a sense of having been there. Whereas in a child's hand there's a sense of just arriving. The child's movement is pristine and innocent and delightful, but a truly supple adult movement is awesome, because all life is included in it.

Until you see nothing but the light: That is, until your heart is at peace. The great modern Indian sage Ramanna Maharshi said,
There is no greater mystery than this, that we keep seeking reality though in fact we are reality. We think that there is something hiding our reality and that this must be destroyed before reality is gained. How ridiculous! A day will dawn when you will laugh at all

your past efforts. That which will be on the day you laugh is also here and now.

Can you love people and lead them / without imposing your will: Emilie Conrad-Da'oud's comment:
The more supple your body is, the less dictatorial you'll be. The military stance is the most invasive stance that you can possibly take. Its opposite – the boneless, wishy-washy posture of someone who doesn't stand for anything – is just as unhealthy. Suppleness is really fluidity. It transcends strength and weakness. When your body is supple, it feels like there's no barrier in you, you can flow in any direction, your movement is a complete expression of yourself.

by letting events take their course: Literally, "by becoming the female." The Ho-shang Kung commentary says, "In arranging one's life properly, one should be as calm and flexible as a woman."

CHAPTER 11 non-being is what we use: The true teacher realizes that there is nothing to teach; that's why he can teach anyone who wants to learn. The true lover realizes there is no one to love; that's why he is available to anyone who needs him. The Master realizes that there is nowhere to stand; that's why he can stand anywhere.

CHAPTER 12 Colors blind the eye, etc.: We need space in order to see, silence in order to hear, sleep in order to carry on with our wakefulness. If the senses are too cluttered with objects, they lose their acuteness and will eventually decay. Desires wither the heart: Once it has let go of desires the heart naturally overflows with love, like David’s cup in Psalm 23. His inner vision: There is no inside or outside for him. He reflects whatever appears, without judgment, whether it is a flower or a heap of garbage, a criminal or a saint. Whatever happens is all right. He treats his own anger or grief just as he would treat an angry or grieving child: with compassion. Open as the sky: The sky holds sun, moon, stars, clouds, rain, snow, or pure azure. Because it doesn't care which of these appear, it has room for them all.

CHAPTER 13 Keep your balance: The trick is to go up or down the ladder with your feet on the ground. Bravo! Bravisimo !! See the world as your self: The outer mirrors the inner.

If we put salt into the water." CHAPTER 15 till your mud settles: "Mud" stands for concepts. When our mind/heart beco~ transparent. without grasping or rejecting. Zen Master Seung Sahn. it becomes salt water. But originally the water is clear. Our mind is like a glass of clear water. judgments. can it . The Master's life pure and placid: predictable like the seasons. to comment on this verse." but "step back from them. and it can't be seen: Another way of saying this "Look." Insight into the Tao has nothing to do with the intellect or its abstractions. obvious like the moon. No thinking.CHAPTER 14 Look. Lin Ching-hsi said. it becomes sugar water. no mind. CHAPTER 16 Empty our mind: This doesn't mean "suppress your thought. and it's right before your eyes. we step into the Tao. When we step out of consciousness. expectations – everything that obscures and narrows reality. the water is clear: I asked my old teacher. desires. and only when it remains empty. no problem. the light of the Tao shines through. sugar. shit. it becomes shit water. No mind. The mind is originally empty. He said.

The Master doesn't talk. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work. it never refuses to show a thing. nor does it retain the thing after it is gone. the river has no desire to retain the swan.respond to natural things. which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that. Does this sound anti-intellectual? But listen to Einstein: The scientist's religious feeling takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law. CHAPTER 17 One of several chapters that are as relevant to child rearing as to government. CHAPTER 18 . He is always genuine. yet the swan's passage is traced by its shadow. in comparison with it. Another example: A mirror will reflect all things perfectly. whether they are beautiful or ugly. It should be like a river gorge with a swan flying overhead. all the systematic thinking of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. without any omission. The mind should be as open as this. without prejudice. he acts: His words are in perfect harmony with his actions.

he just acts naturally. "If you have nothing to ask for in your mind. "How can I approach it?" Nan-ch'uan said." goodness and Piety appear: When the Tao is forgotten. When one fellow is called wise. The Master doesn't have these categories." Chao-chou said. that state of mind is called the Tao. This goodness is as insecure as Job's and can be as self-satisfied as Little Jack Horner's. "The more you try to approach it. people act according to rules. other folks think of themselves as sinners. Whereas a good father has no intention of being good. "Everyday mind is the Tao. not from the heart. CHAPTER 19 Throw away holiness and wisdom: When some folks are called saints. thus. in her presence everyone feels at home. CHAPTER 20 yes and no: Chao-chou asked Nan-ch’uan. no one is wise or holy. how can I understand it?" . others imagine that there is something they need to know. the farther away you'll be:' "But if I don't get close.the great Tao: Jayata said to Vasubandu. "What is the Tao?" Nan-ch'uan said. for her.

But when you reach the unattainable Tao. I am different from ordinary people: I am more ordinary. good. After you have had this recognition. when I am tired sleep. Where is the room in it for yes or no?” I alone don't care: If good happens. I am like an idiot: First you erase the blackboard then you can write something new. not understanding is indifference. because Original Mind is perfect and complete in itself. please don't lose it. The ordinary person's mind is the same as the sage's. . that's all. Understanding is delusion. Paichang said. it is like pure space. good. I eat. When I am hungry. limitless and serene. After enlightenment one is still the same as one was before. One is simply free from unreality and delusion. if bad happens.The Master said. "It's not a question of understanding or not understanding.

"I'm not sneezing! It's sneezing me!" CHAPTER 23 Trust your natural responses: Trust the intelligence of the body. in a more lighthearted vein.” CHAPTER 22 If you to become whole. "Not I. rather than be used by it. etc.CHAPTER 21 before time and space: Philo said. He doesn't know. you can't let go of yourself." Or.: Unless you accept yourself. Because he doesn't know who he is: From the standpoint of personality. Months and years and all periods of time are concepts of men. . he knows very well who he is. there is nowhere to stand and no self to know. that is what allows him to use his personality for people’s benefit. who gauge everything by number. but the true name of eternity is Today. But from the standpoint of his true self. "Today means boundless and inexhaustible eternity. Only in being lived by the Tao: This is what Paul of Tarsus meant by. the little boy who when his mother got annoyed and said "Stop sneezing!" answered. but Christ in me. he just is.

CHAPTER 24 power over others: The other is the self. When we understand this, we are able to use power wisely. CHAPTER 25 mother of the universe: As chapter 51 says, "The Tao gives birth to all beings, / nourishes them, maintains them, / cares for them, comforts them, protects them, / takes them back to itself." These are the four great powers: Ho-hum.

CHAPTER 26 without leaving home: She never loses touch with who she really is. In the midst of joy or anger or sorrow she remains imperturbable.

CHAPTER 27 This is one of the most important chapters in the Tao Te Ching.

First stanza: I have been very free here, because the central point – openness to reality, openheartedness – needs to be made as clearly as possible. The original text reads:
A good walker leaves no traces or tracks. A good speaker makes no slips or errors. A good calculator needs no counting-sticks or tallies. A good locksmith uses no bolts or keys, yet no one can open. A good binder uses no ropes or cords, yet no one can loosen.

available to all people: Because he is not attached to his own ideas. You will get lost: In moral judgments. The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil is the Tree of Death.

CHAPTER 28 Know the male, / yet keep to the female: Keeping to the receptive allows the creative to arise. Actually, the creative and the receptive are complementary sides of the same process.

CHAPTER 29 Do want to improve the world: Ramana Maharshi said,
Wanting to reform the world without discovering ones true self is like trying to cover the world with leather to avoid the pain of walking on stones and thorns. It is much simpler to wear shoes.

It can't be improved: This is the Sabbath mind, as in the first chapter of Genesis: when God, from a state of perfect repose, looks at the world and says, “Behold, it is very good." Actually, this "it can't be improved" is the greatest possible improvement. Compare chapter 35: "She perceives the universal harmony, / even amid great pain, / because she has found peace in her heart." CHAPTER 30 doesn't try to force issues: He lets the issues resolve themselves. out of control: Out of the control of his own, tiny personal, conscious self. CHAPTER 31 Peace is his highest value: Peace means wholeness. CHAPTER 32 Smaller than an electron: Neither small nor large. Neither here nor there. Neither past nor future nor present. Also (as long as we're discussing this) all of the above.

CHAPTER 33

a stone girl is dancing. God doesn't say 'Let there be light. When suppressed or ignored. they continue. they eventually wither away. Clear water has no taste. I don't need to master others. It acts without any conscious plan or purpose. I know others. When I master myself. Or. without flavor: Zen Master Seung Sahn's comment: The Great Way has no gate. In complete stillness. The tongue has no bone. and is God. thus she can give herself fully to the pain. CHAPTER 35 Peace in her heart: She is centered in the peace. CHAPTER 34 It doesn’t create them: It is more like a mother than like an artisan." The light simply is. CHAPTER 36 If you want to shrink something: For example. giving birth rather than making. as Blake said from a slightly different .true wisdom: When I know myself. defects in your character. but when allowed to be present in your awareness.

He's just along for the ride. No residue. "The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom. flowers in spring. yet he leaves nothing undone: No expectations. He enjoys the flowers.” CHAPTER 37 If powerful men and women / could center themselves in it: They can! CHAPTER 38 The Master does nothing: He has no goal in mind. doesn't think that he is doing anything. No regrets.perspective. But you can find it. Fruit in autumn. there is no distinction between depths and surface. . When the Tao is lost: You can never lose the Tao. Therefore the Master concerns himself / with the detpth and not the surface: In the depths. as he enjoys the fruits.

) One gives birth to Two: Oy! .. (When it's called the Tao. As Jesus of Nazareth said. A good father loves all his children equally. so that you may be children of your father in heaven: for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good. Ouch CHAPTER 40 Being is born of non-being: "Non-being" means beyond the categories of being and non-being." CHAPTER 42 The Tao gives birth to One: When it's called One. and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. CHAPTER 41 The greatest love seems indifferent: Because it has no preferences. so that the statute inside can be revealed. Hammer and chisel are necessary agents. treat them with generosity and compassion].e. whether they turn out to be thieves or carpenters or Messiahs. it is no longer the Tao.CHAPTER 39 Lets himself be shaped by the Tao: As a piece of marble lets itself be shaped by the sculptor. "Love your enemies [i. it is no longer the Tao.

he uses it with integrity. love and hostility.: Literally. The text reads: People hate to be orphans. : Examples: water and rock. they achieve harmony. All things have their backs to the female. / hardest. Therefore sometimes you gain by losing. etc. CHAPTER 44 Fame or integrity. If money comes.' I will make this the father of my teaching CHAPTER 43 gentlest . with feeling.” Last stanza: I have improvised here. starvelings.Two gives birth to Three: Where will it end? Three gives birth to all things: I knew it! Now once more from the top. "The ten thousand things carry (at there backs] the yin and embrace (in front] the yang. Yet kings and princes take these names as their titles. etc. the Master accepts whatever comes to him. I teach also: 'The violent will not die a natural death. If fame comes. . . through the blending of the energy [chi] of these two. widowers. . sometimes you lose by gaining. What others have taught. .: But why be caught in these dichotomies? Once he has surrendered to the Tao. Success . he uses it as pure energy.

"We have nothing to fear but fear itself. CHAPTER 45 True perfection: A cracked coffee cup. President Roosevelt said. .” CHAPTER 47 The more you know: The more you know without knowing yourself.” I would say. “Not even that. because his heart rests in the Tao. True mastery is letting things take their course. True fullness: Attention. for example. CHAPTER 48 every day something is dropped: Gratefully. True mastery can be gained: Actually. CHAPTER 46 Whoever can see through all fear: This is the only real defense. The sound of traffic outside your window. it can't be gained.and failure are equally irrelevant to him.

Of course. always taking care to remain within the consciousness and language of the main body of the text. For those who are curious. But since my job was to recreate the essential mind of Lao-tzu. The text here reads: Coming in is life. if a parent is genuine. I have included literal translations in these notes. I could not in good conscience include them in this version. These passages may be interpolations (several show a concern with immorality. CHAPTER 50 There are a number of passages in the Tao Te Ching where a much narrower consciousness is at work than in the rest of the book. What I have done instead is to make improvisations on the passage's theme. going out is death. Or perhaps the old fellow had indigestion on the days he wrote them.CHAPTER 49 The Master has no mind of her own: She has a strong will and a strong character. She also trusts people who aren't trustworthy: Like a parent whose child has broken a rule. it seems to be pure space. three in ten are companions in . Three in ten are companions of life. as the later. the child will be genuine too.and desirestructures of other people. but she is permeable. in comparison with the rigid thought. And her mind is so subtle that. magical Taoism did).

And three in ten are moving from life to the place of death. "What can I do to put my heart at rest?" She said. There is a wonderful Japanese story (adapted here from Zenkei Shibayama Roshi's A Flower Does Not Talk) which portrays this attitude: A hundred and fifty years ago there lived a woman named Sono.death. and is untouched by the sword when he enters a battle. One day a fellow Buddhist. the tiger finds no place in him to sink its claws. the soldier finds no place in him to thrust his sword. he has nothing left: Zen Master Seung Sahn's comment: Coming in empty handed. Why is this? Because in him there is no place of death. having made a long trip to see her. The rhinoceros finds no place in him to drive its horn. CHAPTER 51 spontaneously honors the Tao: Honoring the Tao means respecting the way things are. "Every morning and every evening. I have heard that he who knows bow to preserve his life meets neither rhinoceros nor tiger when he travels by land. Why is this? Because they live life too intensely. whose devotion and purity of heart were respected far and wide. and whenever . asked. What is your original face? The moon is shining everywhere. going out empty handed.

anything happens to you. " 'Thanks for everything.' " On hearing these words. What should I do now?" Sono immediately said. nothing to defend. but his heart was still not at peace. I'm still the same selfish person as before. for a whole year. . Just let go of your preferences: and everything will be perfectly clear. I have no complaint whatsoever. keep on saying. and returned home with a great joy. "I've said your prayer over and over. the man was able to open his spiritual eye. He returned to Sono. crestfallen. 'Thanks for everything. and yet nothing in my life has changed. I have no complaint whatsoever. The great Way is not difficult if you don't cling to good and bad.'" The man did as he was instructed. He has nothing to hide. CHAPTER 54 genuine: The mark of a genuine person is straightforwardness. CHAPTER 52 Trace back the manifestations: Where do you come from? CHAPTER 53 The Great Way is easy: Zen Master Seng-ts'an said.

CHAPTER 55 Like a newborn child: Chuang-tzu said. it acts without thinking. Non-Tao soon ends. To improve upon life is ominous. unaware of itself. to control the chi by the mind is aggressiveness.: I have improvised here. etc. CHAPTER 56 Those who know don't talk: They don't talk for the sake of talking. This is non-Tao. They talk only if it's appropriate (and if they feel like talking). doesn't know why things happen. The text reads: To know harmony is to know the eternal. Those who talk don't know: This is ignorance. doesn't need to know. . The Master's power is like this. It stares all day long without weakening its eyes. things decay. or to display themselves. not the openness of not-knowing. Free from all worries. or to prove something. It clenches its fist all day long without cramping its hand. When they are too aggressive. The infant cries all day long without straining its throat. to know the eternal is to have insight.

CHAPTER 59 I have improvised here. The text reads: In governing people and serving heaven. Who knows the line that separates them? The normal becomes the perverted. disaster is hidden in prosperity.CHAPTER 57 the world will govern itself: Just as Nature regulates itself without any need of our bright ideas. He who prepares in advance accumulates a reserve of te [virtue or power. He who overcomes all obstacles has no limits. . long life and enduring vision. People have long been confused about this. He who accumulates a reserve of te overcomes all obstacles. This is called having deep roots and a strong stem. the Tao as it informs things and acts in the world]. CHAPTER 58 Second stanza: I have improvised here. the good becomes the monstrous. He who possesses the mother of a country can keep it for a long time. The text reads: Prosperity rests on disaster. Only he who is moderate can prepare in advance. He who has no limits can possess a country. nothing is better than moderation.

the female of the universe. the large country should take the lower position. he can spend it freely. and there is always more. the other conquers by being naturally lower.CHAPTER 60 step out of its way: It will be like a sword cutting the air. the good man's treasure: It is like the magic purse. . By tranquility she takes the lower position. CHAPTER 62 The Tao is the center of the universe: The center is everywhere. by tranquility. Therefore a large country by placing itself in lower position can conquer a small country. The text reads: A large country is like the lower part of a river. A small country wants nothing more than to enter and serve the people. Therefore the one conquers by placing itself lower. A large country wants nothing more than to gather people and nourish them. It is the meeting-point of the universe. A small country by being in a lower position can conquer a large country. conquers the male. The female. No harm. Since both get what they want. CHAPTER 61 I have improvised here.

he will be glad to answer it. And since he and his wife love the Tao even more than they love each other. their marriage is radiant with love. There is always another chance.the badman's refuge: It doesn't judge him. If the president or the pope or a border guard has a question. But he sees them in the proper perspective." . friends. CHAPTER 63 When she runs into a difficulty: A difficulty is like a letter with her address on it. CHAPTER 64 He cares about nothing but the Tao: Which is not to say that he doesn't love his wife. children. The Master simply responds to circumstances in the appropriate way. he minds his business and leaves everything to the Tao. planet. no one can achieve it: Because there is no "it. This is the meaning of the Biblical verse "You shall love the Unnamable your God with all your heart. country. with all your soul." Offer instead / to teach him about the Tao: Better yet. Thus he can step outside his idea of himself. don’t offer. of eternity. Otherwise. and with all your strength.

CHAPTER 65 kindly taught them to not-know: The ancient Masters taught them the supreme value of Don't-know Mind. Heaven . open. She can see more. Whoever has frugality can be generous. generous without frugality. But to be brave without compassion. the second is frugality. and fertile with possibilities. prominent without humility. this is fatal. (Another name for it is Beginner’s Mind. The first is compassion. looking from a higher vantage point. CHAPTER 67 Second stanza: I have improvised here.) CHAPTER 66 The Master is above the people: Not that she feels superior but that. Whoever dares not to be first in the world can become the leader of the world. no one can compete with her: She sees everyone as her equal. Whoever has compassion can be brave. Whoever shows compassion in battle will conquer. The whole world is grateful to her: Even those who think they are ungrateful. the third is daring not to be first in the world. Whoever shows compassion in defense will stand firm. which is forever fresh. The text reads: I have three treasures which I preserve and treasure.

Keep listening." May the best man (as they say) win. The text reads: A skillful officer isn't warlike. A skillful employer places himself below others. If you need a word. look inside your heart: And keep looking. A skillful conqueror isn't competitive.helps and protects those with compassion. animals are perfect disciples. CHAPTER 70 easy to put into practice: Grasses and trees have no trouble with it. This is called the power to use men's abilities. use 'opponent. A skillful fighter isn't violent. CHAPTER 68 I have improvised here. This called complying with heaven. CHAPTER 71 . Since ancient times it has been the best way. This is called the Te of not competing. until the sights and the sounds disappear by themselves. CHAPTER 69 Underestimating your enemy: Even thinking of him as an enemy is dangerous. too.

" CHAPTER 72 Therefore the Master steps back: He doesn't act as guru or messiah. the Master puts everyone else at ease.First realize that you are sick: Novalis said. he nips their adoration in the bud and points them to their inner messiah. CHAPTER 74 Trying to control the future: Thinking that you know what is good or bad. "How do you know that this isn't good fortune?" After a few months the horse returned with a barbarian horse of excellent . because he doesn't want to keep people dependent on him. what is advantageous or harmful. and thus spiritually immature. CHAPTER 73 The Tao is always at ease: At ease with herself. When people start to treat him like a holy man. All his neighbors offered their condolences. people will have nothing to learn: They just need to unlearn. The Huai Nan Tzu tells a story about this: A poor farmer's horse ran off into the country of the barbarians. but his father said. "We are close to waking up when we dream that we are dreaming.

"How do you know that this isn't a disaster?" The two horses bred. and nine-tenths of them died in the war. and the barbarians invaded the frontier.stock. and the family became rich in fine horses. but his father said. Who can tell how events will be transformed? CHAPTER 75 leave them alone: Offer them the gift of not being dependent on you. CHAPTER 76 disciple of life: The less rigid. All his neighbors offered the farmer their condolences. The farmer's son spent much of his time riding them. one day he fell off and broke his hipbone. Thus good fortune can be disaster and vice versa. the readier for life or death. CHAPTER 77 and don’t think that she is better: She is simply more transparent. but his father said. All his neighbors offered their congratulations. CHAPTER 78 . All the ablebodied young men were conscripted. "How do you know that this isn't good fortune?" Another year passed.

In the archer there is a resemblance to the mature person. . CHAPTER 79 The Master has no possessions: These no-possessions may include a house. brings people to the point where they can help themselves. like a good parent. But they have their priorities straight. he turns and seeks the reason for his failure in himself.he is people's greatest help: The greatest help is wholeheartedly trusting people to resolve their own problems. a room full of books. and an electric toothbrush. CHAPTER 80 without ever having gone to see it: Not that they are lacking in appropriate curiosity. The more he does for others. True words seem paradoxical: Only when the mind is cluttered with untruth. a car. a computer. A true philanthropist. CHAPTER 79 If you blame someone else: Confucius said. When he misses the mark. / the happier he is: Because he is doing it for himself.

the more he can give himself to others.The more he gives to others. . When he can give himself completely his wealth is infinite. / the wealthierhe is: The less he holds on to.

Jacob Needleman.Acknowledgments Lao Tzu: Text. 1972). and Robert Aitken Roshi read the manuscript and made helpful suggestions. Notes. Liou Kia-Hway's Tao To King (Gallimard. my friend Michael Katz. 1967) was particularly useful. I would like to express my deep gratitude to that prince among agents. Of the many translations that I consulted. For his considerable share in the making of this book. Occasionally I have borrowed a phrase from the translation of Gia-fu Feng and Jane English (Vintage. 1981) furnished help on textual matters and commentaries. John Tarrant. . Jane Hirshfield. and Comments by Ch'en Ku-ying (Chinese Materials Center.

About the Translator Stephen Mitchell was born in Brooklyn. His books include The Selected Poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. and studied at Amherst. an acupuncturist and healer in northern California . the University of Paris. The Enlightened mind. The Enlightened Heart. and Yale. The Book of Job. in 1943. He lives his wife. and The Gospel According to Jesus. Parables and Portraits. Vicki Chang. New York.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful