Tao Te Ching

A New English Version, with Foreword and Notes, by Stephen Mitchell

Harper Perennial
A Division of HarperCollins Publishers

TO VICKI
Who can find a good woman? She is precious beyond all things. Her husband's heart trusts her completely. She is his best reward. PROV. 31:10-11

Foreword

Tao Te Ching (pronounced, more or less, Dow Deh Jing) can be translated as The Book of the Immanence of the Way or The Book of the Way and of How It Manifests Itself in the World or, simply, The Book of the Way. Since it is already well known by its Chinese tide, I have let that stand. About Lao-tzu, its author, there is practically nothing to be said. He may have been an older contemporary of Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and may have held the position of archivekeeper in one of the petty kingdoms of the time. But all the information that has come down to us is highly suspect. Even the meaning of his name is uncertain (the most likely interpretations: "the Old Master" or, more picturesquely, "the Old Boy"). Like an Iroquois woodsman, he left no traces. All he left us is his book: the classic manual on the art of living, written in a style of gemlike lucidity, radiant with humor and grace and large-heartedness and deep wisdom: one of the wonders of the world. People usually think of Lao-tzu as a hermit, a dropout from society, dwelling serenely in some mountain hut, unvisited except perhaps by the occasional traveler arriving from a '60S joke to ask, "What is the meaning of life?" But it's clear from his teachings that he deeply cared about society, if society means the welfare of one's fellow human beings; his book is, among other things, a treatise on the art of government,

in fact. This is a paradigm for non-action: the purest and most effective form of action. the fuel has been completely transformed into flame. we can't tell the dancer from the dance. Until finally you arrive at non-action. This "nothing" is. the poem writes the poem. adaptability. Less and less do you need to force things. A good athlete can enter a state of body-awareness in which the right stroke or the right movement happens by itself. . endurance.whether of a country or of a child. Anyone who has seen a T'ai Chi or Aikido master doing not-doing will know how powerful this softness is. The game plays the game. Nothing is done because the doer has wholeheartedly vanished into the deed. and is synonymous with suppleness. Hence Lao-Tzu's emphasis on softness. nothing is left undone. Softness means the opposite of rigidity." which has been seen as passivity. When nothing is done. without any interference of the conscious will. literally "doing notdoing. everything. It happens when we trust the intelligence of the universe in the same way that an athlete or a dancer trusts the superior intelligence of the body. effortlessly. The misperception may arise from his insistence on wei wu wei. Nothing could be further from the truth.

not in the sense of conquering it. the more present our love becomes. She finds deep in her own experience the central truths of the art of living. and desires." The teaching of the Tao Te Ching is moral in the deepest sense. judgments. He is ready to use all situations and doesn't waste anything. This is called embodying the light. This freedom from moral categories allows him his great compassion for the wicked and the selfish. the more compassionate we can be. her mind has grown naturally compassionate. the more we let go of what we love. the clearer our insight into what is beyond good and evil. the Life. the Master doesn't see evil as a force to resist. In surrendering to the Tao. I have seen it. the Truth. the light can't shine through. Thus the Master is available to all people and doesn't reject anyone. as with a dirty window. the more we can embody the good. "I am the Tao. Unencumbered by any concept of sin. a state of self-absorption which is in disharmony with the universal process. in all humility. This is not an idea. Until finally she is able to say. in giving up all concepts. so that.Lao-Tzu's central figure is a man or woman whose life is in perfect harmony with the way things are. but simply as an opaqueness. The Master has mastered Nature. which are paradoxical only on the surface: that the more truly solitary we are. but of becoming it. What is a good man but a bad man's teacher? What is a bad man but a good man's job? . it is a reality.

" Dr. potentially. the early Chinese Zen Masters. German. and French. the freest translation is sometimes the most faithful. "We must try its effect as an English poem. essentially. to substitute "he" for "she" or vice versa. It is the great secret. because of all the great world religions the teaching of Lao-tzu is by far the most female. you should feel free. Ironically. kaleidoscopic book as the Tao Te . Of course. however intelligent you are.If you don't understand this. With great poetry. throughout the book. As to method: I worked from Paul Carus's literal version. I also consulted dozens of translations into English. But since we are all. the Master (since the Master is. "that is the way to judge of the merit of a translation. which provides English equivalents (often very quaint ones) alongside each of the Chinese ideograms." I have often been fairly literal-or as literal as one can be with such a subtle. The reader will notice that in the many passages where Lao-tzu describes the Master. I felt it would be untrue to present a male archetype. you will get lost. Johnson said. ironically. I have used the pronoun "she" at least as often as "he. us)." The Chinese language doesn't make this kind of distinction. done. as other versions have. which brought me face to face with Lao-tzu and his true disciples and heirs. in English we have to choose. But the most essential preparation for my work was a fourteenyears-long course of Zen training.

But I have also paraphrased. contracted. interpreted. played with it. expanded. until it became embodied in a language that felt genuine to me. If I haven't always translated Lao-tzu's words. . my intention has always been to translate his mind.Ching. worked with the text.

Tao Te Ching .

you see only the manifestations. .1 The tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao. This source is called darkness. The name that can be named is not the eternal Name. Free from desire. Caught in desire. Darkness within darkness. The unnamable is the eternally real. you realize the mystery. The gateway to all understanding. Naming is the origin of all particular things. Yet mystery and manifestations arise from the same source.

2 When people see some things as beautiful. Things arise and she lets them come. acts but doesn't expect. . other things become bad. Difficult and easy support each other. she forgets it. Long and short define each other. Being and non-being create each other. Therefore the Master acts without doing anything and teaches without saying anything. other things become ugly. When her work is done. When people see some things as good. She has but doesn't possess. High and low depend on each other. Before and after follow each other. things disappear and she lets them go. That is why it lasts forever.

3 If you overesteem great men. The Master leads by emptying people's minds and filling their cores. people begin to steal. . He helps people lose everything they know. by weakening their ambition and toughening their resolve. people become powerless. Practice not-doing. and creates confusion in those who think that they know. If you overvalue possessions. and everything will fall into place. everything they desire.

It is like the eternal void: filled with infinite possibilities. I don't know who gave birth to it. . It is older than God.4 The Tao is like a well: used but never used up. It is hidden but always present.

it gives birth to both good and evil. . she welcomes both saints and sinners. the less you understand. Hold on to the center. the more it produces. The Tao is like a bellows: it is empty yet infinitely capable. the more you talk of it.5 The Tao doesn't take sides. The Master doesn't take sides. The more you use it.

You can use it any way you want. it gives birth to infinite worlds. It is always present within you. .6 The Tao is called the Gteat Mother: empty yet inexhaustible.

thus it can never die. eternal. she is perfectly fulfilled. The Master stays behind.7 The Tao is infinite. Why is it infinite? It has no desires for itself. Because she has let go of herself. . thus it is present for all beings. that is why she is one with them. She is detached from all things. Why is it eternal? It was never born. that is why she is ahead.

don't try to control. live close to the ground. everybody will respect you. . be fair and generous.8 The supreme good is like water. In conflict. In work. keep to the simple. In thinking. Thus it is like the Tao. lt is content with the low places that people disdain. do what you enjoy. be completely present. When you are content to be simply yourself and don't compare or compete. which nourishes all things without trying to. In family life. In dwelling. In governing.

Do your work. then step back The only path to serenity. . Keep sharpening your knife and it will blunt.9 Fill your bowl to the brim and it will spill. Chase after money and security and your heart will never unclench. Care about people's approval and you will be their prisoner.

. acting with no expectations.10 Can you coax your mind from its wandering and keep to the original oneness? Can you let your body become supple as a newborn child's? Can you cleanse your inner vision until you see nothing but the light? Can you love people and lead them without imposing your will? Can you deal with the most vital matters by letting events take their course? Can you step back from your own mind and thus understand all things? Giving birth and nourishing. having without possessing. leading and not trying to control: this is the supreme virtue.

but non-being is what we use. but it is the emptiness inside that holds whatever we want.11 We join spokes together in a wheel. We hammer wood for a house. but it is the center hole that makes the wagon move. We shape clay into a pot. We work with being. . but it is the inner space that makes it livable.

Flavors numb the taste. The Master observes the world But trusts his inner vision. His heart is open as the sky. He allows things to come and go. . Sounds deafen the ear.12 Colors blind the eye. Thoughts weaken the mind. Desires wither the heart.

When we don’t see the self as self. Love the world as your self. . what do we have to fear? See the world as your self. What does it mean that hope is as hollow as fear? Hope and fear are both phantoms that arise from thinking of the self. Hope is as hollow as fear. then you can care for all things. What does it mean that success is as dangerous as failure? Whether you go up the ladder or down it. When you stand with your two feet on the ground. Have faith in the way things are. your position is shaky.13 Success is as dangerous as failure. you will always keep your balance.

and it can’t be heard. it returns to the realm of nothing. beyond all conception. it isn’t dark. unnamable. Approach it and there is no beginning. at ease in your own life. Reach. . but you can be it. Just realize where you come from: this is the essence of wisdom. subtle.14 Look. Seamless. and it can’t be grasped. Listen. Form that includes all forms. and it can’t be seen. it isn’t bright. You can’t know it. image without an image. Above. Below. follow it and there is no end.

Clear as a glass of water. Receptive as a valley. not expecting. she is present. Do you have the patience to wait till your mud settles and the water is clear? Can you remain unmoving till the right action arises by itself? The Master doesn’t seek fulfillment. Shapeable as a block of wood. and can welcome all things. all we can describe is their appearance. Courteous as a guest. Not seeking. Fluid as melting ice.15 The ancient Masters were profound and subtle. They were careful as someone crossing an iced-over stream. There is no way to describe it. Alert as a warrior in enemy territory. Their wisdom was unfathomable. .

You can deal with whatever life brings you. And when death comes. you naturally become tolerant. . When you realize where you come from. kindhearted as a grandmother. Immersed in the wonder of the Tao. disinterested.16 Empty your mind of all thoughts. but contemplate their return. dignified as a king. Watch the turmoil of beings. Let your heart be at peace. you stumble in confusion and sorrow. Each separate being in the universe returns to the common source. you are ready. amused. If you don’t realize the source. Returning to the source is serenity.

Next best is a leader who is loved. The Master doesn’t talk. When his work is done. one who is feared. the people are hardly aware that he exists. The worst is one who is despised. You make them untrustworthy. he acts.17 When the Master governs. Next. If you don’t trust the people. all by ourselves!” . The people say. “Amazing: We did it.

When there is no peace in the family.18 When the great Tao is forgotten. Filial piety begins. cleverness and knowledge step forth. . patriotism is born. When the body’s intelligence declines. goodness and piety appear. When the country falls into chaos.

19 Throw away holiness and wisdom. If these three aren’t enough. Throw away industry and profit. Throw away morality and justice. and people will do the right thing. Just at the center of the circle And let all things take their course. and people will be a hundred times happier. and there won’t be any thieves. .

I alone don’t care. as though they were at a parade. I alone drift about. I alone am dull. Other people are sharp. I alone am dark. my mind is so empty. avoid what others avoid? How ridiculous? Other people are excited. like an infant before it can smile. Other people have what they need. What difference between yes and no? What difference between success and failure? Must you value what others value. Other people are bright. like someone without a home.20 Stop thinking and end your problems. . I alone am expressionless. I am like and idiot. I alone possess nothing.

Other people have purpose. I drift like a wave on the ocean. I alone don’t know. I drink form the Great Mother’s breasts. . I am different from ordinary people. I blow as aimless as the wind.

that is what gives her the radiance. . It is beyond is and is not. The Tao is ungraspable. How do I know this is true? I look inside myself and see. The Tao is dark and unfathomable. How can it make her radiant? Because she lets it. the Tao is. Since before time and space were.21 The Master keeps her mind always at one with the Tao. How can her mind be at one with it? Because she doesn’t cling to ideas.

The Master. If you want to be reborn. Because he doesn’t display himself.” they weren’t using empty phrases. people can see his light. people can trust his words. Because he has no goal in mind. When the ancient Masters said. by residing in the Tao. let yourself die. If you want to become full. give everything up. If you want to be given everything. give everything up. If you want to become straight. Because he doesn’t know who he is. everything he does succeeds. sets an example for all beings. Only in being lived by the Tao Can you be truly yourself. let yourself be empty. people recognize themselves in him.22 If you want to become whole. . let yourself be partial. let yourself be crooked. “If you want to be given everything. Because he has nothing to prove.

If you open yourself to the Tao. when the clouds pass. the sun shines through.23 Express yourself completely. If you open yourself to loss. you are at one with insight and you can use it completely. Open yourself to the Tao. Be like the forces of nature: when it blows. you are at one with loss and you can accept it completely. there is only rain. you are at one with the Tao and you can embody it completely. then trust your natural responses: and everything will fall into place. when it rains. If you open yourself to insight. . then keep quiet. there is only wind.

He who has power over others can't empower himself. He who defines himself can't know who he really is. just do your job. He who tries to shine dims his own light. then let go. If you want to accord with the Tao. He who rushes ahead doesn’t go far.24 He who stands on tiptoe doesn’t stand firm. . He who clings to his work will create nothing that endures.

The universe follows the Tao. and returns to the origin of all things. . The Tao is great. Infinite. It is the mother of the universe. inside and outside. Man is great. Man follows the earth. These are the four great powers. Empty.25 There was something formless and perfect before the universe was born. Earth follows the universe. I call it the Tao. For lack of a better name. The universe is great. Earth is great. The Tao follows only itself. It is serene. Eternally present. Solitary. It flows through all things. Unchanging.

The unmoved is the source of all movement. .26 The heavy is the root of the light. she stays serenely in herself. Thus the master travels all day without leaving home. If you let restlessness move you. However splendid the views. Why should the lord of the country flit about like a fool? If you let yourself be blown to and fro. You lose touch with who you are. you lose touch with your root.

Thus the Master is available to all people and doesn’t reject anyone. However intelligent you are. He is ready to use all situations and doesn’t waste anything. you will get lost. . A good scientist has freed himself of concepts and keeps his mind open to what is. What is a good man but a bad man’s teacher? What is a bad man but a good man’s job? If you don’t understand this. This is called embodying the light. It is the great secret.27 A good traveler has no fixed plans and is not intent upon arriving. A good artist lets his intuition lead him wherever it wants.

yet keeps to the block: thus she can use all things. Know the personal. yet keep to the black: be a pattern for the world. Know the white. If you accept the world. . the Tao will be strong inside you and there will be nothing you can’t do. yet keep to the female: receive the world in your arms. The world is formed from the void. If you receive the world.28 Know the male. yet keep to the impersonal: accept the world as it is. Like utensils from a block of wood. If you are a pattern for the world. The Master knows the utensils. the Tao will be luminous inside you and you will return to your primal self. the Tao will never leave you and you will be like a little child.

a time for being at rest. The world is sacred. you’ll ruin it. She let’s them go their own way. It can’t be improved. without trying to control them. . If you tamper with it. a time for being in motion. a time for being vigorous. a time for being behind. a time for being safe. a time for being exhausted. There is a time for being ahead.29 Do you want to improve the world? I don’t think it can be done. And resides at the center of the circle. you’ll lose it. a time for being in danger. The Master sees things as they are. If you treat it like an object.

Because he is content with himself. . He understands that the universe is forever out of control. Because he accepts himself.30 Whoever relies on the Tao in governing men doesn’t try to force issues or defeat enemies by force of arms. even well intentioned. he doesn’t try to convince others. For every force there is a counterforce. the whole world accepts him. Because he believes in himself. always rebounds upon oneself. The Master does his job and then stops. and that trying to dominate events goes against the current of the Tao. he doesn’t need others’ approval. Violence.

How could he rejoice in victory and delight in the slaughter of men? He enters a battle gravely. but human beings like himself. Peace is his highest value. as if he were attending a funeral. Nor does he rejoice in victory. all decent men detest them. with sorrow and with great compassion. will use them only with the utmost restraint. how can he be content? His enemies are not demons.31 Weapons are the tools of violence. if compelled. He doesn't wish them personal harm. a decent man will avoid them except in the direst necessity and. Weapons are the tools of fear. . If the peace has been shattered.

Smaller than an electron. When you have names and forms. All people would be at peace. it contains uncountable galaxies. you can avoid any danger. . Know that they are provisional. Knowing when to stop. The world would become a paradise. all things would be in harmony. When you have institutions. and the law would be written in their hearts. All things end in the Tao as rivers flow into the sea. know where their functions should end. If powerful men and women could remain centered in the Tao.32 The Tao can't be perceived.

mastering yourself is true power. you are truly rich. If you realize that you have enough. you will endure forever.33 Knowing others is intelligence. If you stay in the center and embrace death with your whole heart. knowing yourself is true wisdom. Mastering others is strength. .

It pours itself into its work. All things are born from it. It nourishes infinite worlds.34 The great Tao flows everywhere. yet it doesn't create them. it can be called great. thus it is truly great. yet it makes no claim. . It isn't aware of its greatness. yet it doesn't hold on to them. it can be called humble. Since it is merged with all things and hidden in their hearts. Since all things vanish into it and it alone endures.

35
She who is centered in the Tao can go where she wishes, without danger. She perceives the universal harmony, even amid great pain, because she has found peace in her heart. Music or the smell of good cooking may make people stop and enjoy. But words that point to the Tao seem monotonous and without flavor. When you look for it, there is nothing to see. When you listen for it, there is nothing to hear. When you use it, it is inexhaustible.

36
If you want to shrink something, you must first allow it to expand. If you want to get rid of something, you must first allow it to flourish. If you want to take something, you must first allow it to be given. This is called the subtle perception of the way things are. The soft overcomes the hard. The slow overcomes the fast. Let your workings remain a mystery. Just show people the results.

37
The Tao never does anything, yet through it all things are done. If powerful men and women could center themselves in it, the whole world would be transformed by itself, in its natural rhythms. People would be content with their simple, everyday lives, in harmony, and free of desire. When there is no desire, all things are at peace.

Therefore the Master concerns himself with the depths and not the surface.38 The Master doesn't try to be powerful. and when no one responds he rolls up his sleeves and uses force. there is ritual. there is morality. The ordinary man is always doing things. Ritual is the husk of true faith. The kind man does something. the beginning of chaos. When the Tao is lost. thus he is truly powerful. He dwells in reality. The moral man does something. yet something remains undone. The ordinary man keeps reaching for power. He has no will of his own. The Master does nothing. . there is goodness. and leaves many things to be done. The just man does something. with the fruit and not the flower. yet he leaves nothing undone. When goodness is lost. thus he never has enough. and lets all illusions go. yet many more are left to be done. When morality is lost.

The Master views the parts with compassion. content with the way they are. endlessly renewed. because he understands the whole. . creatures become extinct. endlessly repeating themselves. the equilibrium crumbles.39 In harmony with the Tao. His constant practice is humility. He doesn’t glitter like a jewel but lets himself be shaped by the Tao. the earth becomes depleted. the sky is clear and spacious. When man interferes with the Tao. all creatures flourish together. the earth is solid and full. the sky becomes filthy. as rugged and common as a stone.

Yielding is the way of the Tao.40 Return is the movement of the Tao. All things are born of being. . Being is born of non-being.

. he half believes it.41 When a superior man hears of the Tao. When a foolish man hears of the Tao. true clarity seems obscure. he laughs out loud. Thus it is said: The path into the light seems dark. the direct path seems long. the path forward seems to go back. true power seems weak. the greatest wisdom seems childish. true purity seems tarnished. Yet it nourishes and completes all things. the greatest art seems unsophisticated. he immediately begins to embody it. true steadfastness seems changeable. The Too is nowhere to be found. half doubts it. If he didn't laugh. When an average man hears of the Tao. it wouldn't be the Tao. the greatest love seems indifferent.

embracing his aloneness. Ordinary men hate solitude.42 The Too gives birth to One. all things achieve harmony. Three gives birth to all things. realizing he is one with the whole universe. . AIl things have their backs to the female and stand facing the male. One gives birth to Two. When male and female combine. Two gives birth to Three. But the Master makes use of it.

Teaching without words. That which has no substance enters where there is no space.43 The gentlest thing in the world overcomes the hardest thing in the world. This shows the value of non-action. performing without actions: that is the Master's way. .

rejoice in the way things are. you will never be happy with yourself. Be content with what you have.44 Fame or integrity: which is more important? Money or happiness: which is more valuable? Success or failure: which is more destructive? If you look to others for fulfillment. When you realize there is nothing lacking. If your happiness depends on money. the whole world belongs to you. you will never truly be fulfilled. .

The Master allows things to happen.45 True perfection seems imperfect. yet it is perfectly itself. True art seems artless. True straightness seems crooked. She shapes events as they come. yet it is fully present. True fullness seems empty. . She steps out of the way and lets the Tao speak for itself. True wisdom seems foolish.

When a country goes counter to the Tao.46 When a country is in harmony with the Tao. warheads are stockpiled outside the cities. . no greater misfortune than having an enemy. no greater wrong than preparing to defend yourself. There is no greater illusion than fear. the factories make trucks and tractors. Whoever can see through all fear will always be safe.

.47 Without opening your door. achieves without doing a thing. sees the light without looking. the less you understand. Without iooking out your window. The more you know. The Master arrives without leaving. you can see the essence of the Tao. you can open your heart to the world.

nothing is left undone. True mastery can be gained by letting things go their own way. every day something is dropped. every day something is added. In the practice of the Tao. until finally you arrive at non-action. Less and less do you need to force things.48 In the pursuit of knowledge. It can't be gained by interfering. . When nothing is done.

This is true goodness. The Master's mind is like space. She works with the mind of the people. They look to her and wait. She trusts people who are trustworthy. She also trusts people who aren't trustworthy. She is good to people who are good. She is also good to people who aren't good. She treats them like her own children.49 The Master has no mind of her own. This is true trust. People don't understand her. .

and he has nothing left to hold on to: no illusions in his mind.50 The Master gives himself up to whatever the moment brings. He doesn't think about his actions. therefore he is ready for death. He holds nothing back from life. as a man is ready for sleep after a good day's work. He knows that he is going to die. they flow from the core of his being. no resistances in his body. .

lets circumstances complete it. That is why love of the Tao is in the very nature of things. takes on a physical body. unconscious. free. maintains them. cares for them. comforts them. guiding without interfering. perfect. nourishes them.51 Every being in the universe is an expression of the Tao. The Tao gives birth to all beings. acting without expecting. . protects them. takes them back to itself. That is why every being spontaneously honors the Tao. It springs into existence. creating without possessing.

This is called practicing eternity. Knowing how to yield is strength. If you close your mind in judgments and traffic with desires. If you keep your mind from judging and aren't led by the senses. your heart will be troubled.52 In the beginning was the Tao. trace back the manifestations. To find the origin. When you recognize the children and find the mother. All things issue from it. your heart will find peace. . you will be free of sorrow. Use your own light and recurn to the source of light. Seeing into darkness is clarity. all things return to it.

. yet people prefer the side paths.53 The great Way is easy. Stay centered within the Tao. Be aware when things are out of balance. when government officials spend money on weapons instead of cures. It is not in keeping with the Tao. when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible while the poor have nowhere to turn – this is robbery and chaos. When rich speculators prosper while farmers lose their land.

Whoever embraces the Tao will not slip away.54 Whoever is planted in the Tao will not be rooted up. Let it be present in your family and your family will flourish. Let it be present in your country and your country will be an example to all countries in the world. Let it be present in the universe and the universe will sing. Let the Tao be present in your life and you will become genuine. How do I know this is true? By looking inside myself. . Her name will be held in honor from generation to generation.

its muscles are weak. without desire. It doesn't know about the union of male and female. so intense is its vital power. thus his spirit never grows old. He never expects results. He is never disappointed. It can scream its head off all day. thus he is never disappointed. but its grip is powerful. yet it never becomes hoarse. The Master's power is like this. so complete is its harmony. yet its penis can stand erect. . Its bones are soft.55 He who is in harmony with the Tao is like a newborn child. He lets all things come and go effortlessly.

Be like the Tao. untie your knots. soften your glare.56 Those who know don't talk. block off your senses. Close your mouth. This is the primal identity. honored or brought into disgrace. settle your dust. It gives itself up continually. benefited or harmed. . blunt your sharpness. That is why it endures. It can't be approached or withdrawn from. Those who talk don't know.

57 If you want to be a great leader. and the good becomes common as grass. and people become prosperous. The more subsidies you have. . The more weapons you have. I let go of economics. Let go of fixed plans and concepts. and people become honest. and the world will govern itself. you must learn to follow the Tao. the less self-reliant people will be. the less secure people will be. the less virtuous people will be. I let go of all desire for the common good. The more prohibitions you have. and people become serene. I let go of religion. Stop trying to control. Therefore the Master says: I let go of the law.

Try to make people moral. Try to make people happy. . the higher the ideals. and you lay the groundwork for vice. but supple. the people are depressed and crafty. Radiant. the people are comfortable and honest. Straightforward. but easy on the eyes. When the will to power is in charge.58 If a country is governed with tolerance. but doesn't pierce. the lower the results. Thus the Master is content to serve as an example and not to impose her will. She is pointed. If a country is governed with repression. and you lay the groundwork for misery.

he can care for the people's welfare as a mother cares for her child. Tolerant like the sky. . Because he has let go.59 For governing a country well there is nothing better than moderation. supple like a tree in the wind. firm like a mountain. all-pervading like sunlight. he has no destination in view and makes use of anything life happens to bring his way. The mark of a moderate man is freedom from his own ideas. Nothing is impossible for him.

Not that it isn't there. Center your country in the Tao and evil will have no power. Give evil nothing to oppose and it will disappear by itself. . but you'll be able to step out of its way.60 Governing a large country is like frying a small fish. You spoil it with too much poking.

he admits it.61 When a country obtains great power. If a nation is centered in the Tao. Humility means trusting the Tao. it becomes like the sea: all streams run downward into it. it will be a light to all nations in the world. he corrects it. he realizes it. The more powerful it grows. . A great nation is like a great man: When he makes a mistake. if it nourishes its own people and doesn't meddle in the affairs of others. Having admitted it. He thinks of his enemy as the shadow that he himself casts. thus never needing to be defensive. He considers those who point out his faults as his most benevolent teachers. Having realized it. the greater the need for humility.

That is why everybody loves it. when you seek. when a new leader is chosen. Offer instead to teach him about the Tao. the good man's treasure. . Honors can be bought with fine words. you find. but the Tao is beyond all value. don't offer to help him with your wealth or your expertise. you are forgiven. being one with the Tao. respect can be won with good deeds. and no one can achieve it. Why did the ancient Masters esteem the Tao? Because.62 The Tao is the center of the universe. the bad man's refuge. Thus. and when you make a mistake.

accomplish the great task by a series of small acts. Confront the difficult while it is still easy.63 Act without doing. thus problems are no problem for her. Think of the small as large and the few as many. The Master never reaches for the great. work without effort. she stops and gives herself to it. She doesn't cling to her own comfort. When she runs into a difficulty. . thus she achieves greatness.

He has nothing. Therefore the Master takes action by letting things take their course. Forcing a project to completion. The giant pine tree grows from a tiny sprout. you fail. Prevent trouble before it arises. He remains as calm at the end as at the beginning. you ruin what was almost ripe. What is brittle is easy to break.64 What is rooted is easy to nourish. Trying to grasp things. . thus has nothing to lose. you lose them. Put things in order before they exist. The journey of a thousand miles starts from beneath your feet. What is small is easy to scatter. Rushing into action. What is recent is easy to correct.

Thus he can care for all things.What he desires is non-desire. He cares about nothing but the Tao. . what he learns is to unlearn. He simply reminds people of who they have always been.

65 The ancient Masters didn't try to educate the people. The simplest pattern is the clearest. When they know that they don't know. avoid being clever or rich. If you want to learn how to govern. but kindly taught them to not-know. people are difficult to guide. people can find their own way. . you can show all people the way back to their own true nature. Content with an ordinary life. When they think that they know the answers.

you must learn how to follow them. and no one feels manipulated. The whole world is grateful to her. Humility gives it its power. . no one can compete with her. and no one feels oppressed. She goes ahead of the people.66 All streams flow to the sea because it is lower than they are. The Master is above the people. If you want to lead the people. If you want to govern the people. Because she competes with no one. you must place yourself below them.

And to those who put it into practice. But to those who have looked inside themselves. Compassionate toward yourself. Simple in actions and in thoughts. These three are your greatest treasures. you reconcile all beings in the world. Patient with both friends and enemies. this loftiness has roots that go deep. you return to the source of being. . I have just three things to teach: simplicity. compassion. this nonsense makes perfect sense. Others call it lofty but impractical. patience. you accord with the way things are.67 Some say that my teaching is nonsense.

In this they are like children and in harmony with the Tao. The best general enters the mind of his enemy. Not that they don't love to compete. . but they do it in the spirit of play.68 The best athlete wants his opponent at his best. All of them embody the virtue of non-competition. The best leader follows the will of the people. The best businessman serves the communal good.

Rather than advance an inch it is better to retreat a yard. Thus you destroy your three treasures and become an enemy yourself." This is called going forward without advancing.69 The generals have a saying: "Rather than make the first move it is better to wait and see. When two great forces oppose each other. There is no greater misfortune than underestimating your enemy. the victory will go to the one that knows how to yield. Underestimating your enemy means thinking that he is evil. . pushing back without using weapons.

My teachings are older than the world. . you'll fail.70 My teachings are easy to understand and easy to put into practice. How can you grasp their meaning? If you want to know me. and if you try to practice them. look inside your heart. Yet your intellect will never grasp them.

Thus she is truly whole.71 Not-knowing is true knowledge. She has healed herself of all knowing. The Master is her own physician. First realize that you are sick. then you can move toward health. Presuming to know is a disease. .

72 When they lose their sense of awe. When they no longer trust themselves. He teaches without a teaching. so that people will have nothing to learn. Therefore the Master steps back so that people won't be confused. people turn to religion. . they begin to depend upon authority.

. accomplishes without a plan. Its net covers the whole universe. It overcomes without competing. it doesn't let a thing slip through. arrives without being summoned. And though its meshes are wide.73 The Tao is always at ease. answers without speaking a word.

When you handle the master carpenter's tools. Trying to control the future Is like trying to take the master carpenter's place. If you aren't afraid of dying. . Chances are that you'll cut your hand.74 If you realize that all things change. there is nothing you will try to hold on to. there is nothing you can't achieve.

Trust them. leave them alone. Act for the people's benefit. people go hungry. people lose their spirit. When the government is too intrusive.75 When taxes are too high. .

. dead. The hard and stiff will be broken. they are brittle and dry. Thus whoever is stiff and inflexible is a disciple of death. dead.76 Men are born soft and supple. they are stiff and hard. The soft and supple will prevail. Plants are born tender and pliant. Whoever is soft and yielding is a disciple of life.

77 As it acts in the world. go against the direction of the Tao. They take from those who don't have enough and give to those who have far too much. Those who try to control. the Tao is like the bending of a bow. . the bottom is bent up. She acts without expectation. The top is bent downward. who use force to protect their power. succeeds without taking credit. and doesn't think that she is better than anyone else. The Master can keep giving because there is no end to her wealth. It takes from what is too much and gives to what isn't enough. It adjusts excess and deficiency so that there is perfect balance.

. Because he has given up helping. Therefore the Master remains serene in the midst of sorrow. the gentle overcomes the rigid. he is people's greatest help. Evil cannot enter his heart. but few can put it into practice.78 Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water. nothing can surpass it. Yet for dissolving the hard and inflexible. True words seem paradoxical. The soft overcomes the hard. Everyone knows this is true.

. there is no end to the blame. Therefore the Master fulfills her own obligations and corrects her own mistakes. She does what she needs to do and demands nothing of others. If you blame someone else.79 Failure is an opportunity.

Since they dearly love their homes. There may be an arsenal of weapons.80 If a country is governed wisely. And even though the next country is so close that people can hear its roosters crowing and its dogs barking. There may be a few wagons and boats. People enjoy their food. But these don't go anywhere. but nobody ever uses them. They aren't interested in travel. They enjoy the labor of their hands and don't waste time inventing labor-saving machines. they are content to die of old age without ever having gone to see it. Its inhabitants will be content. spend weekends working in their gardens. take pleasure in being with their families. . delight in the doings of the neighborhood.

. The Tao nourishes by not forcing. the Master leads. The more he does for others. men who need to prove their point aren't wise. the wealthier he is. the happier he is. Wise men don't need to prove their point.81 True words aren't eloquent. By not dominating. The more he gives to others. eloquent words aren't true. The Master has no possessions.

Hence Po Chu-i. But their words are (in the traditional Buddhist metaphor) fingers pointing at the moon. you can't see the moon. teaching the un-teachable. “He who talks doesn’t know he knows doesn’t talk”: that is what Lao-tzu told us. No way. poet and stand-up comedian. what then?" .Notes CHAPTER 1 Describing the indescribable. pointing the way to the way – what does Lao-tzu think he is doing here? It can’t be done. How meticulous the great Masters had to be! A monk asked Ma-tsu. 'Mind is Buddha'?" Ma-tsu said. "When the crying has stopped. in a book of five thousand words." The monk said. "Why do you teach. wrote. "To stop a baby from crying. They have to be blabbermouths. If he was the one who knew. how could he have been such a blabbermouth? That’s the problem with spiritual teachers. if you watch the finger.

"Then I teach. as Bankei said. the truth is right before our eyes. for complicated minds. drastic measures are needed. Sir. "I would tell him. "How about someone who isn't attached to either?" Ma-tsusaid. Lao-tzu lived for a long time in the country of Chou. and yet. Where is the way to the Way? What a question! Still. the guard said. “and what if you me t a man unattached to all things: what would you tell him?" Ma-tsu said.Ma-tsu said.'” The monk said. According to the oldest biography. the deeper it is. "Since you are going away.' " The monk said. he answers. He uses them as he would use gardening tools." In fact. right under our noses. He who knows doesn't talk. not Buddha. When someone asks. could you write a book to teach me the art of living?" Thereupon Lao-tzu wrote his book about the Tao. 'Not beings. 'Not mind. When he reached the frontier. . but seeing its decline he departed. and departed. the farther you enter into it. but it is an accurate description of the way in which true teaching happens. "I would just let him experience the great Tao. Lao-tzu's book was written as a response. but words are no hindrance for him. so simple that every child understands it. out of grandmotherly kindness. This is legend.

She doesn't struggle to make money. She is like an actress who loves her role. She goes her own way. She never has to make a decision. yet she accepts help gratefully and has no pride in walking alone." because the less we obstruct it. She is not elated by praise." Other possible renderings: "The way that can be weighed / is not the eternal Way. yet as easy as touching your nose when you wash your face. The gateway to all understanding: In order to understand. She doesn't give even moment's thought to right or wrong. the more radiant we are." "The force that can be forced / is not the eternal Force. yet as ordinary as sunlight. It is also called "light. we have to remain in the darkness of not-knowing. Thus they are effortless. "The tao that can be tao-ed [one meaning of Tao. This source is called darkness: Because none of our senses can perceive it. Impossible to know." You realize the mystery: Infinitely marvelous.The tao that can be told / is not the eternal Tao: The text reads. yet she enjoys spending it when it comes to her. . not discouraged by neglect. CHAPTER 2 acts without doing anything: Her actions are appropriate responses. being 'co express'] / is not the eternal Tao. decisions arise by themselves. She embodies compassion. yet she doesn't try to be compassionate. The Tao is writing the script.

which seems to be an interpolation from chapter 56. and desires. That is why it lasts forever: Not in rime and space but in quality. judgments. filling their cores: He fills them with a sense of their original identity. toughening their resolve: Their innermost intention. Thus they can return to a state of joy. Thus they can return to a state of childlike simplicity. and arrogance vanish by themselves. they find that greed. weakening their ambition: When they have no false self to nourish or defend. Her face is more eloquent than any scripture could be. CHAPTER 3 emptying people's minds: He empties them of concepts. CHAPTER 4 Following Ch'en Ku-ying.teaches without saying anything: The way she buys oranges or ties her shoelaces is a teaching. I have deleted the second stanza of the Chinese text. . They develop enough self-reliance to give up the idea of self. hatred.

It is older than God: There is no God when there is nothing but God. they treat all things like straw dogs.” Straw dogs were ritual objects. she understands that at any moment they are capable of the most astonishing spiritual transformations. The Master sees all beings arising from the same source. Why should she pin them motionless with a judgment of "good" or "bad"? CHAPTER 6 First stanza: Literally. "The spirit of the valley never dies. The point here is not that the Tao is cruel to things. "The . And since people are in constant flux.” as the master “treats all people like straw dogs. and returning to the source. CHAPTER 5 The Tao doesn't take sides. venerated before the ceremony but afterward abandoned and trampled underfoot. The gate of the mysterious female is the root of heaven and earth. nor that the Master is ruthless with people. "Heaven and earth are impartial. | it gives birth to both good and evil: Literally." Chu Hsi said. working out their karma (usually with great suffering). It is called the mysterious female. but that they are impartial.

This creative principle is the most marvelous thing in the universe. clarity expresses itself in love. . which reflects all faces. Actually. She is neither behind nor ahead. is home. that is why she is ahead: She is like a turtle: wherever she is.female is one who receives something and.” Detachment results in clarity. exactly as they are. creates. "It is easy to keep things at a distance. Her heart is like a mirror. Any time is now. eternal: Here is everywhere. but exactly even with all things. without judgment. with it. it is hard to be naturally beyond them." CHAPTER 7 The Tao is infinite. She is detached: Bunan said. The Master stays behind.

The amniotic fluid is the state of total nourishment and unconditional love. it overflows into everything. . founder of Continuum to comment on this verse." supple as a newborn child's: Emilie Conrad Da'oud's comment: . then step back: When you do your work wholeheartedly. And the idea that we ever leave the amniotic fluid is a misconception. it moves everywhere. It is always present for us and contains everything we could possibly want. "Can you concentrate your chi [vital energy] until it becomes. In fact. Water is the source of all life. we are that fluid of love. CHAPTER 9 Do your work. into its own life. just as a parent lets a child go. We are fundamentally water: muscled water. you are glad to let it go. She said. . CHAPTER 10 Can you let your body become: Literally.CHAPTER 8 The supreme good is like water: I asked my friend and teacher Emilie Conrad-Da'oud. life's matrix and fecundity.

There is no self-consciousness in the newborn child. Later on, the mind wanders into self-images, starts to think Should I do this? Is this moment right? and loses the immediacy of the moment. As self-consciousness develops, the muscles become less supple, less like the world. But the young child is pure fluidity. It isn't aware of any separation, so all its movements are spontaneous and alive and whole and perfect. If an adult body becomes truly supple, though, there is a quality to its movement that the child's doesn't have, a texture of experience, a fourth dimension of time. When we watch a seventy-year old hand move, we feel, "Yes, that hand has lived." All the bodies it has touched, all the weights it has lifted, all the heads it has cradled are present in its movement. It is resonant with experience; the fingers curve with a sense of having been there. Whereas in a child's hand there's a sense of just arriving. The child's movement is pristine and innocent and delightful, but a truly supple adult movement is awesome, because all life is included in it.

Until you see nothing but the light: That is, until your heart is at peace. The great modern Indian sage Ramanna Maharshi said,
There is no greater mystery than this, that we keep seeking reality though in fact we are reality. We think that there is something hiding our reality and that this must be destroyed before reality is gained. How ridiculous! A day will dawn when you will laugh at all

your past efforts. That which will be on the day you laugh is also here and now.

Can you love people and lead them / without imposing your will: Emilie Conrad-Da'oud's comment:
The more supple your body is, the less dictatorial you'll be. The military stance is the most invasive stance that you can possibly take. Its opposite – the boneless, wishy-washy posture of someone who doesn't stand for anything – is just as unhealthy. Suppleness is really fluidity. It transcends strength and weakness. When your body is supple, it feels like there's no barrier in you, you can flow in any direction, your movement is a complete expression of yourself.

by letting events take their course: Literally, "by becoming the female." The Ho-shang Kung commentary says, "In arranging one's life properly, one should be as calm and flexible as a woman."

CHAPTER 11 non-being is what we use: The true teacher realizes that there is nothing to teach; that's why he can teach anyone who wants to learn. The true lover realizes there is no one to love; that's why he is available to anyone who needs him. The Master realizes that there is nowhere to stand; that's why he can stand anywhere.

CHAPTER 12 Colors blind the eye, etc.: We need space in order to see, silence in order to hear, sleep in order to carry on with our wakefulness. If the senses are too cluttered with objects, they lose their acuteness and will eventually decay. Desires wither the heart: Once it has let go of desires the heart naturally overflows with love, like David’s cup in Psalm 23. His inner vision: There is no inside or outside for him. He reflects whatever appears, without judgment, whether it is a flower or a heap of garbage, a criminal or a saint. Whatever happens is all right. He treats his own anger or grief just as he would treat an angry or grieving child: with compassion. Open as the sky: The sky holds sun, moon, stars, clouds, rain, snow, or pure azure. Because it doesn't care which of these appear, it has room for them all.

CHAPTER 13 Keep your balance: The trick is to go up or down the ladder with your feet on the ground. Bravo! Bravisimo !! See the world as your self: The outer mirrors the inner.

no mind. When we step out of consciousness. to comment on this verse. and it can't be seen: Another way of saying this "Look. and it's right before your eyes. it becomes shit water. If we put salt into the water. But originally the water is clear. When our mind/heart beco~ transparent." but "step back from them. shit. obvious like the moon. can it . No thinking. it becomes sugar water. desires. expectations – everything that obscures and narrows reality. it becomes salt water. CHAPTER 16 Empty our mind: This doesn't mean "suppress your thought. without grasping or rejecting." CHAPTER 15 till your mud settles: "Mud" stands for concepts. The mind is originally empty. and only when it remains empty. No mind. Zen Master Seung Sahn.CHAPTER 14 Look. the light of the Tao shines through. no problem. Lin Ching-hsi said. sugar. Our mind is like a glass of clear water. we step into the Tao. He said. judgments." Insight into the Tao has nothing to do with the intellect or its abstractions. the water is clear: I asked my old teacher. The Master's life pure and placid: predictable like the seasons.

nor does it retain the thing after it is gone. He is always genuine. The mind should be as open as this. The Master doesn't talk. it never refuses to show a thing. without prejudice. which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work. he acts: His words are in perfect harmony with his actions. whether they are beautiful or ugly. It should be like a river gorge with a swan flying overhead. Another example: A mirror will reflect all things perfectly. CHAPTER 18 . all the systematic thinking of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. the river has no desire to retain the swan. Does this sound anti-intellectual? But listen to Einstein: The scientist's religious feeling takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law. in comparison with it. CHAPTER 17 One of several chapters that are as relevant to child rearing as to government. without any omission.respond to natural things. yet the swan's passage is traced by its shadow.

that state of mind is called the Tao. The Master doesn't have these categories. "What is the Tao?" Nan-ch'uan said." Chao-chou said. he just acts naturally. CHAPTER 20 yes and no: Chao-chou asked Nan-ch’uan. CHAPTER 19 Throw away holiness and wisdom: When some folks are called saints. "The more you try to approach it. Whereas a good father has no intention of being good. When one fellow is called wise. in her presence everyone feels at home. not from the heart. no one is wise or holy.the great Tao: Jayata said to Vasubandu. the farther away you'll be:' "But if I don't get close. This goodness is as insecure as Job's and can be as self-satisfied as Little Jack Horner's. for her. "How can I approach it?" Nan-ch'uan said." goodness and Piety appear: When the Tao is forgotten. how can I understand it?" . others imagine that there is something they need to know. "If you have nothing to ask for in your mind. "Everyday mind is the Tao. thus. people act according to rules. other folks think of themselves as sinners.

if bad happens. because Original Mind is perfect and complete in itself. please don't lose it. When I am hungry. One is simply free from unreality and delusion. Where is the room in it for yes or no?” I alone don't care: If good happens. "It's not a question of understanding or not understanding. But when you reach the unattainable Tao. that's all. I eat. good. limitless and serene. not understanding is indifference. I am like an idiot: First you erase the blackboard then you can write something new. After enlightenment one is still the same as one was before. After you have had this recognition. it is like pure space.The Master said. Paichang said. when I am tired sleep. Understanding is delusion. good. The ordinary person's mind is the same as the sage's. . I am different from ordinary people: I am more ordinary.

CHAPTER 21 before time and space: Philo said. He doesn't know. who gauge everything by number. Because he doesn't know who he is: From the standpoint of personality.” CHAPTER 22 If you to become whole. Only in being lived by the Tao: This is what Paul of Tarsus meant by. Months and years and all periods of time are concepts of men. ." Or. you can't let go of yourself. there is nowhere to stand and no self to know. "Today means boundless and inexhaustible eternity.: Unless you accept yourself. but Christ in me. but the true name of eternity is Today. rather than be used by it. that is what allows him to use his personality for people’s benefit. etc. "Not I. "I'm not sneezing! It's sneezing me!" CHAPTER 23 Trust your natural responses: Trust the intelligence of the body. in a more lighthearted vein. he just is. the little boy who when his mother got annoyed and said "Stop sneezing!" answered. But from the standpoint of his true self. he knows very well who he is.

CHAPTER 24 power over others: The other is the self. When we understand this, we are able to use power wisely. CHAPTER 25 mother of the universe: As chapter 51 says, "The Tao gives birth to all beings, / nourishes them, maintains them, / cares for them, comforts them, protects them, / takes them back to itself." These are the four great powers: Ho-hum.

CHAPTER 26 without leaving home: She never loses touch with who she really is. In the midst of joy or anger or sorrow she remains imperturbable.

CHAPTER 27 This is one of the most important chapters in the Tao Te Ching.

First stanza: I have been very free here, because the central point – openness to reality, openheartedness – needs to be made as clearly as possible. The original text reads:
A good walker leaves no traces or tracks. A good speaker makes no slips or errors. A good calculator needs no counting-sticks or tallies. A good locksmith uses no bolts or keys, yet no one can open. A good binder uses no ropes or cords, yet no one can loosen.

available to all people: Because he is not attached to his own ideas. You will get lost: In moral judgments. The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil is the Tree of Death.

CHAPTER 28 Know the male, / yet keep to the female: Keeping to the receptive allows the creative to arise. Actually, the creative and the receptive are complementary sides of the same process.

CHAPTER 29 Do want to improve the world: Ramana Maharshi said,
Wanting to reform the world without discovering ones true self is like trying to cover the world with leather to avoid the pain of walking on stones and thorns. It is much simpler to wear shoes.

It can't be improved: This is the Sabbath mind, as in the first chapter of Genesis: when God, from a state of perfect repose, looks at the world and says, “Behold, it is very good." Actually, this "it can't be improved" is the greatest possible improvement. Compare chapter 35: "She perceives the universal harmony, / even amid great pain, / because she has found peace in her heart." CHAPTER 30 doesn't try to force issues: He lets the issues resolve themselves. out of control: Out of the control of his own, tiny personal, conscious self. CHAPTER 31 Peace is his highest value: Peace means wholeness. CHAPTER 32 Smaller than an electron: Neither small nor large. Neither here nor there. Neither past nor future nor present. Also (as long as we're discussing this) all of the above.

CHAPTER 33

Or. I don't need to master others. The tongue has no bone." The light simply is. without flavor: Zen Master Seung Sahn's comment: The Great Way has no gate. I know others. It acts without any conscious plan or purpose. When I master myself. CHAPTER 34 It doesn’t create them: It is more like a mother than like an artisan. and is God. In complete stillness. defects in your character. they eventually wither away. Clear water has no taste. they continue. but when allowed to be present in your awareness. God doesn't say 'Let there be light. giving birth rather than making. as Blake said from a slightly different .true wisdom: When I know myself. thus she can give herself fully to the pain. CHAPTER 35 Peace in her heart: She is centered in the peace. a stone girl is dancing. CHAPTER 36 If you want to shrink something: For example. When suppressed or ignored.

perspective.” CHAPTER 37 If powerful men and women / could center themselves in it: They can! CHAPTER 38 The Master does nothing: He has no goal in mind. He's just along for the ride. But you can find it. . No regrets. He enjoys the flowers. doesn't think that he is doing anything. as he enjoys the fruits. yet he leaves nothing undone: No expectations. there is no distinction between depths and surface. Fruit in autumn. When the Tao is lost: You can never lose the Tao. No residue. flowers in spring. Therefore the Master concerns himself / with the detpth and not the surface: In the depths. "The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom.

Ouch CHAPTER 40 Being is born of non-being: "Non-being" means beyond the categories of being and non-being.CHAPTER 39 Lets himself be shaped by the Tao: As a piece of marble lets itself be shaped by the sculptor. As Jesus of Nazareth said. A good father loves all his children equally. it is no longer the Tao. and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust.) One gives birth to Two: Oy! . "Love your enemies [i. so that the statute inside can be revealed. whether they turn out to be thieves or carpenters or Messiahs.. CHAPTER 41 The greatest love seems indifferent: Because it has no preferences. (When it's called the Tao. Hammer and chisel are necessary agents. treat them with generosity and compassion]. it is no longer the Tao.e. so that you may be children of your father in heaven: for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good." CHAPTER 42 The Tao gives birth to One: When it's called One.

What others have taught. widowers. he uses it with integrity. . the Master accepts whatever comes to him.” Last stanza: I have improvised here. he uses it as pure energy.: Literally. . "The ten thousand things carry (at there backs] the yin and embrace (in front] the yang. . Success . . : Examples: water and rock. etc. I teach also: 'The violent will not die a natural death.' I will make this the father of my teaching CHAPTER 43 gentlest . through the blending of the energy [chi] of these two. If money comes. If fame comes. The text reads: People hate to be orphans. love and hostility. All things have their backs to the female.: But why be caught in these dichotomies? Once he has surrendered to the Tao. CHAPTER 44 Fame or integrity. / hardest. Therefore sometimes you gain by losing.Two gives birth to Three: Where will it end? Three gives birth to all things: I knew it! Now once more from the top. sometimes you lose by gaining. with feeling. they achieve harmony. starvelings. etc. Yet kings and princes take these names as their titles.

CHAPTER 45 True perfection: A cracked coffee cup. it can't be gained. True mastery can be gained: Actually. CHAPTER 48 every day something is dropped: Gratefully. "We have nothing to fear but fear itself.and failure are equally irrelevant to him. for example. True mastery is letting things take their course. CHAPTER 46 Whoever can see through all fear: This is the only real defense. . “Not even that.” I would say. because his heart rests in the Tao. The sound of traffic outside your window.” CHAPTER 47 The more you know: The more you know without knowing yourself. President Roosevelt said. True fullness: Attention.

in comparison with the rigid thought. CHAPTER 50 There are a number of passages in the Tao Te Ching where a much narrower consciousness is at work than in the rest of the book. Three in ten are companions of life. I have included literal translations in these notes. What I have done instead is to make improvisations on the passage's theme. She also trusts people who aren't trustworthy: Like a parent whose child has broken a rule. Or perhaps the old fellow had indigestion on the days he wrote them. These passages may be interpolations (several show a concern with immorality. but she is permeable. The text here reads: Coming in is life. For those who are curious.CHAPTER 49 The Master has no mind of her own: She has a strong will and a strong character. magical Taoism did). three in ten are companions in . always taking care to remain within the consciousness and language of the main body of the text. But since my job was to recreate the essential mind of Lao-tzu. Of course. as the later. if a parent is genuine. I could not in good conscience include them in this version. And her mind is so subtle that. it seems to be pure space. the child will be genuine too.and desirestructures of other people. going out is death.

And three in ten are moving from life to the place of death. having made a long trip to see her. and is untouched by the sword when he enters a battle. One day a fellow Buddhist. There is a wonderful Japanese story (adapted here from Zenkei Shibayama Roshi's A Flower Does Not Talk) which portrays this attitude: A hundred and fifty years ago there lived a woman named Sono. Why is this? Because they live life too intensely. I have heard that he who knows bow to preserve his life meets neither rhinoceros nor tiger when he travels by land. asked.death. the soldier finds no place in him to thrust his sword. "What can I do to put my heart at rest?" She said. Why is this? Because in him there is no place of death. The rhinoceros finds no place in him to drive its horn. the tiger finds no place in him to sink its claws. What is your original face? The moon is shining everywhere. and whenever . whose devotion and purity of heart were respected far and wide. "Every morning and every evening. going out empty handed. he has nothing left: Zen Master Seung Sahn's comment: Coming in empty handed. CHAPTER 51 spontaneously honors the Tao: Honoring the Tao means respecting the way things are.

What should I do now?" Sono immediately said. and yet nothing in my life has changed. Just let go of your preferences: and everything will be perfectly clear. 'Thanks for everything. He has nothing to hide.' " On hearing these words. I have no complaint whatsoever. for a whole year. CHAPTER 52 Trace back the manifestations: Where do you come from? CHAPTER 53 The Great Way is easy: Zen Master Seng-ts'an said.'" The man did as he was instructed. the man was able to open his spiritual eye.anything happens to you. . crestfallen. I'm still the same selfish person as before. The great Way is not difficult if you don't cling to good and bad. "I've said your prayer over and over. He returned to Sono. nothing to defend. " 'Thanks for everything. keep on saying. but his heart was still not at peace. CHAPTER 54 genuine: The mark of a genuine person is straightforwardness. and returned home with a great joy. I have no complaint whatsoever.

When they are too aggressive. CHAPTER 56 Those who know don't talk: They don't talk for the sake of talking. to know the eternal is to have insight. Those who talk don't know: This is ignorance. Non-Tao soon ends. Free from all worries. doesn't need to know. The infant cries all day long without straining its throat. The Master's power is like this. This is non-Tao. or to prove something. To improve upon life is ominous. to control the chi by the mind is aggressiveness. doesn't know why things happen. .: I have improvised here. things decay. it acts without thinking. It clenches its fist all day long without cramping its hand. unaware of itself. They talk only if it's appropriate (and if they feel like talking).CHAPTER 55 Like a newborn child: Chuang-tzu said. or to display themselves. It stares all day long without weakening its eyes. etc. not the openness of not-knowing. The text reads: To know harmony is to know the eternal.

This is called having deep roots and a strong stem. He who has no limits can possess a country. He who accumulates a reserve of te overcomes all obstacles. nothing is better than moderation. Only he who is moderate can prepare in advance. He who possesses the mother of a country can keep it for a long time. He who overcomes all obstacles has no limits. People have long been confused about this. long life and enduring vision. CHAPTER 58 Second stanza: I have improvised here.CHAPTER 57 the world will govern itself: Just as Nature regulates itself without any need of our bright ideas. the good becomes the monstrous. . the Tao as it informs things and acts in the world]. The text reads: In governing people and serving heaven. He who prepares in advance accumulates a reserve of te [virtue or power. disaster is hidden in prosperity. The text reads: Prosperity rests on disaster. CHAPTER 59 I have improvised here. Who knows the line that separates them? The normal becomes the perverted.

No harm. the other conquers by being naturally lower. the good man's treasure: It is like the magic purse. Therefore the one conquers by placing itself lower. conquers the male. the female of the universe. A large country wants nothing more than to gather people and nourish them. It is the meeting-point of the universe. CHAPTER 62 The Tao is the center of the universe: The center is everywhere. by tranquility. Since both get what they want. he can spend it freely. The female. . A small country by being in a lower position can conquer a large country. The text reads: A large country is like the lower part of a river. A small country wants nothing more than to enter and serve the people.CHAPTER 60 step out of its way: It will be like a sword cutting the air. the large country should take the lower position. CHAPTER 61 I have improvised here. Therefore a large country by placing itself in lower position can conquer a small country. and there is always more. By tranquility she takes the lower position.

no one can achieve it: Because there is no "it. CHAPTER 63 When she runs into a difficulty: A difficulty is like a letter with her address on it. and with all your strength." ." Offer instead / to teach him about the Tao: Better yet. CHAPTER 64 He cares about nothing but the Tao: Which is not to say that he doesn't love his wife. Thus he can step outside his idea of himself. If the president or the pope or a border guard has a question.the badman's refuge: It doesn't judge him. their marriage is radiant with love. This is the meaning of the Biblical verse "You shall love the Unnamable your God with all your heart. The Master simply responds to circumstances in the appropriate way. he will be glad to answer it. Otherwise. But he sees them in the proper perspective. don’t offer. of eternity. he minds his business and leaves everything to the Tao. planet. children. friends. country. And since he and his wife love the Tao even more than they love each other. There is always another chance. with all your soul.

this is fatal. CHAPTER 67 Second stanza: I have improvised here. The text reads: I have three treasures which I preserve and treasure. Heaven . The first is compassion.) CHAPTER 66 The Master is above the people: Not that she feels superior but that. prominent without humility.CHAPTER 65 kindly taught them to not-know: The ancient Masters taught them the supreme value of Don't-know Mind. But to be brave without compassion. the third is daring not to be first in the world. the second is frugality. Whoever has frugality can be generous. generous without frugality. and fertile with possibilities. (Another name for it is Beginner’s Mind. open. which is forever fresh. Whoever dares not to be first in the world can become the leader of the world. Whoever has compassion can be brave. no one can compete with her: She sees everyone as her equal. She can see more. looking from a higher vantage point. Whoever shows compassion in defense will stand firm. Whoever shows compassion in battle will conquer. The whole world is grateful to her: Even those who think they are ungrateful.

CHAPTER 68 I have improvised here. A skillful fighter isn't violent. This is called the Te of not competing. A skillful conqueror isn't competitive. CHAPTER 69 Underestimating your enemy: Even thinking of him as an enemy is dangerous. look inside your heart: And keep looking. This is called the power to use men's abilities. Since ancient times it has been the best way. animals are perfect disciples." May the best man (as they say) win.helps and protects those with compassion. use 'opponent. CHAPTER 70 easy to put into practice: Grasses and trees have no trouble with it. This called complying with heaven. CHAPTER 71 . too. A skillful employer places himself below others. The text reads: A skillful officer isn't warlike. until the sights and the sounds disappear by themselves. Keep listening. If you need a word.

All his neighbors offered their condolences. he nips their adoration in the bud and points them to their inner messiah. "We are close to waking up when we dream that we are dreaming. "How do you know that this isn't good fortune?" After a few months the horse returned with a barbarian horse of excellent . the Master puts everyone else at ease. people will have nothing to learn: They just need to unlearn." CHAPTER 72 Therefore the Master steps back: He doesn't act as guru or messiah.First realize that you are sick: Novalis said. but his father said. When people start to treat him like a holy man. what is advantageous or harmful. and thus spiritually immature. CHAPTER 74 Trying to control the future: Thinking that you know what is good or bad. because he doesn't want to keep people dependent on him. CHAPTER 73 The Tao is always at ease: At ease with herself. The Huai Nan Tzu tells a story about this: A poor farmer's horse ran off into the country of the barbarians.

All the ablebodied young men were conscripted. CHAPTER 76 disciple of life: The less rigid. and the barbarians invaded the frontier. "How do you know that this isn't a disaster?" The two horses bred. and nine-tenths of them died in the war. All his neighbors offered their congratulations. Thus good fortune can be disaster and vice versa. CHAPTER 77 and don’t think that she is better: She is simply more transparent. but his father said. The farmer's son spent much of his time riding them. but his father said. and the family became rich in fine horses. "How do you know that this isn't good fortune?" Another year passed. All his neighbors offered the farmer their condolences.stock. one day he fell off and broke his hipbone. Who can tell how events will be transformed? CHAPTER 75 leave them alone: Offer them the gift of not being dependent on you. the readier for life or death. CHAPTER 78 .

When he misses the mark. a computer. CHAPTER 80 without ever having gone to see it: Not that they are lacking in appropriate curiosity. / the happier he is: Because he is doing it for himself. CHAPTER 79 The Master has no possessions: These no-possessions may include a house. brings people to the point where they can help themselves. like a good parent. But they have their priorities straight. . True words seem paradoxical: Only when the mind is cluttered with untruth. The more he does for others. A true philanthropist. a car.he is people's greatest help: The greatest help is wholeheartedly trusting people to resolve their own problems. a room full of books. he turns and seeks the reason for his failure in himself. CHAPTER 79 If you blame someone else: Confucius said. and an electric toothbrush. In the archer there is a resemblance to the mature person.

When he can give himself completely his wealth is infinite.The more he gives to others. / the wealthierhe is: The less he holds on to. . the more he can give himself to others.

I would like to express my deep gratitude to that prince among agents. 1967) was particularly useful. Liou Kia-Hway's Tao To King (Gallimard. Jane Hirshfield. Jacob Needleman. John Tarrant. and Comments by Ch'en Ku-ying (Chinese Materials Center. For his considerable share in the making of this book. 1981) furnished help on textual matters and commentaries. Of the many translations that I consulted.Acknowledgments Lao Tzu: Text. Occasionally I have borrowed a phrase from the translation of Gia-fu Feng and Jane English (Vintage. 1972). . and Robert Aitken Roshi read the manuscript and made helpful suggestions. my friend Michael Katz. Notes.

Vicki Chang.About the Translator Stephen Mitchell was born in Brooklyn. His books include The Selected Poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. The Book of Job. Parables and Portraits. The Enlightened mind. the University of Paris. an acupuncturist and healer in northern California . and Yale. New York. and studied at Amherst. The Enlightened Heart. He lives his wife. in 1943. and The Gospel According to Jesus.

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