W-Handover and Call Drop Problem Optimization Guide

For internal use only

Product name WCDMA RNP Product version

Confidentiality level For internal use only

Total 202 pages

3.3

W-Handover and Optimization Guide
(For internal use only)

Call

Drop

Problem

Prepared by Reviewed by

Jiao Anqiang Xie Zhibin, Dong Yan, Hu Wensu, Wan Liang, Yan Lin, Ai Hua, Xu Zili, and Hua Yunlong Wang Chungui

Date Date

2006-03-16

Reviewed by Approved by

Date Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved Revision Records
Date Version Description Completing Problems. V2.0 W-Handover and Call Drop Author Cai Jianyong, Zang Liang, and Jiao Anqiang

2005-02-01

2.0

2006-03-16

3.0

According to V3.0 guide requirements, reorganizing Jiao Anqiang and updating V2.0 guide, focusing more on operability of on-site engineers. All traffic statistics is from RNC V1.5. The update includes: Updating flow chart for handover problem optimization Moving part of call drop due to handover problem to handover optimization part Specifying operation-related part to be more applicable to on-site engineers Updating RNC traffic statistics indexes to V1.5 Integrating traffic statistics analysis to NASTAR of the network performance analysis Optimizing some cases, adding new cases, and removing outdated cases and terms Moving content about handover and call drop to the appendix, and keeping operations related to them in the body Adding explanations to SRB&TRB and RL FAILURE. Adding HSDPA-related description HSDPA handover Zhang Hao and DT/CQT flow, definitions of traffic statistics in Li Zhen HSDPA handover, HSDPA handover problems. Adding algorithms and flows of HSDPA handover. Adding V17-related handover description as below: Changes in signaling flow for H2D HHO Changes in triggering events of H2D and D2H D2H handover in HSDPA based on traffic and timers Wang Dekai

2006-04-30 3.1

2006-10-30 3.11

Date

Version

Description Updating description of HSDPA serving cell and traffic statistics of HSDPA-DCH handover Adding call drop indexes in HSDPA DT/statistics

Author

2007-08-09 2008-12-15

3.2 3.3

Adding HSUPA-related description. Adding MBMS-related description. Yearly review

Zhang Hao WangDekai / Hu Wensu

Contents
2.1 Handover Performance Indexes 15 2.2 Call Drop Performance Indexes 18 3.1 DT/CQT Index Optimization Flow 19 3.1.1 SHO DT Index Optimization Flow 19 3.1.2 HHO CQT Flow 23 3.1.3 Inter-RAT Handover CQT Flow 26 3.1.4 DT/CQT Flow for HSDPA Handover 28 3.1.5 DT/CQT Flow for HSUPA Handover 31 3.1.6 SHO Ratio Optimization 31 3.1.7 MBMS Mobility Optimization 31 3.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow 33 3.2.1 Analysis Flow for SHO Traffic Statistics 34 3.2.2 Analysis Flow of HHO Traffic statistics 35 3.2.3 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow for Inter-RAT Handover 36 3.2.4 Traffic Statistics Analysis for HSDPA Handover 39 3.2.5 Traffic Statistics Analysis for HSUPA Handover 40 3.3 SHO Cost Optimization 42 4.1 Definition of Call Drop and Traffic Statistics Indexes 43 4.1.1 Definition of DT Call Drop 43 4.1.2 Descriptions of Traffic Statistics Indexes 43 4.2 DT/CQT Optimization Flow 44 4.2.1 Call Drop Cause Analysis 45 4.2.2 Frequently-adjusted Non-handover Algorithm Parameters 47 4.2.3 Judgment Tree for Call Drop Causes 48 4.3 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow 49 4.3.1 Analyzing RNC CDR 50 4.3.2 Analyzing Causes to Call Drop 50 4.3.3 Check Cells 51 4.3.4 Further DT for Relocating Problems 51 4.4 Optimization Flow for Tracing Data 51 4.4.1 Obtaining Single Subscriber Tracing Message 52 4.4.2 Obtaining Information about Call Drop Point 53

4.3 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Adding and Deleting Radio Link 114 .1.5 HSDPA-related Problems 97 5.1 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Adding Radio Link 110 7.4.3.7 Needlepoint Effect 74 5.8 Quick Change of Best server Signal 75 5.4.2.2 SRB 103 7.1.2 HSDPA Call Drop 98 5.5.1 SRB&TRB Reset 102 7.2 PS Inter-RAT Ping-pong Handoff 81 5.3.2 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Deleting Radio Link 113 7.1 HSDPA Handover Problems 97 5.4.1 RAB 102 7.4 Call Drop Problems 91 5.3.3.5 Analyzing Abnormal Call Drop 54 4.1.1 Ping-pong Reselection 80 5.1.3.1 Intra-frequency Ping-pong HHO due to Improperly Configured 1D Event Hysteresis 77 5.6 Performing CQT to Recheck Problems 54 4.4.3.1 SHO Problems 56 5.5.1.3 Failure in handoff from 3G to the 2G network 82 5.1.5 Pilot Pollution 65 5.3 Analyzing Call Drop due to SRB Reset 53 4.2 Uplink Interference 92 5.3 SHO Flow 110 7.3 Inter-RAT Handover Problems 80 5.2 RL FAILURE 105 7.1.4.2 Delayed Handover due to Over Great Intra-frequency Filter Coefficient 57 5.4 Redundant Neighbor Cells 62 5.4.1.2.4 Analyzing Call Drop due to TRB Reset 53 4.4 Inter-RAT Handover Call Drop 84 5.1 Over Weak Coverage 91 5.3 Abnormal Equipment 95 5.5 Optimization Process for MBMS Call Drop 54 5.1.4.6 Turning Corner Effect 71 5.2 HHO Problems 77 5.1 Over High SHO Rate due to Improper SHO Relative Threshold 56 5.1.2 Delayed Origination of Inter-frequency Measurement due to Improper Inter-frequency Measurement Quantity 78 5.3 Missing Neighbor Cell 58 5.3.6 HSUPA Problems 100 7.

6.2 Classification of HSUPA Handover 159 7.6.6.2 Inter-frequency HHO Algorithm 129 7.13 Data Configuration for Supporting Bi-directional Roaming and Handover Between WCDMA and GSM/GPRS 193 .6.3 Signaling Flow and Message Analysis of HSUPA Handover 159 7.6.4.9 Handover from GSM to WCDMA 180 7.8 Handover Between HSDPA and R99 144 7.6 DPCH Intra-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update 141 7.6.9 Handover between HSDPA and GPRS 153 7.10 Direct Retry of HSDPA 153 7.7.7.7.6.7 Direct Retry of HSUPA 173 7.4 Ordinary HHO Flow 124 7.4.7.10 Handover from WCDMA to GPRS 183 7.5 HS-PDSCH Serving Cell Update due to DPCH HHO 140 7.4 SHO Algorithm 117 7.7.3.6 Handover Between a HSUPA Cell and a GSM/GPRS Cell 173 7.12 Parameters of Handover from 3G to 2G Network 190 7.8 Switch between Channel Types 175 7.6.6.1 Intra-frequency HHO Algorithm 129 7.3 Signaling Flow and Message Analysis of HSDPA Handover 132 7.2 Classification of HSDPA Handover 131 7.5.1 Ordinary HHO (lur Interface and CELL_DCH State) 124 7.5 HHO Algorithm 129 7.6.11 Switch of Channel Type 155 7.7.7 DPCH Inter-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update 142 7.6 Concept and Classification of HSDPA Handover 131 7.7.4 SHO from a HSUPA Cell to a Non-HSUPA Cell 165 7.1 Concept of HSDPA Handover 131 7.5.7 Concept and Classification of HSUPA Handover 158 7.7.2 Inter-CN HHO Flow 126 7.7.8 Handover from WCDMA to GSM 176 7.5 SHO from a Non-HSUPA Cell to a HSUPA Cell 170 7.6.1 Basic Concepts 158 7.4 HS-PDSCH Serving Cell Update due to DPCH SHO 133 7.11 Handover from GRPS to WCDMA 187 7.

.

Figures .

after optimization 71 . 65 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. 67 Composition of pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. 68 RSCP of Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization 70 RSCP of best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. 65 The 2nd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. 66 The 3rd best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. 68 RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. 67 RSSI near Yuxing Rd. 69 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. 66 The 4th best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization 70 Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.SHO DT data analysis flow 20 Optimization flow for HHO CQT 25 Inter-RAT handover CQT flow 27 DT/CQT flow for HSDPA handover 30 Movement of the MBMS UE between PTM cells 31 Analysis flow for handover traffic statistics data 34 Voce inter-RAT outgoing handover flow 37 Flow chart for analyzing call drop 45 Judgment tree for call drop causes 48 Flow for analyzing call tracing 52 SHO relative threshold 57 Signaling flow recorded by UE before call drop 59 Scrambles recorded by UE active set and scanner before call drop 59 Scrambles in UE active set before call drop 60 UE intra-frequency measurement control point before call drop 61 Analyzing signaling of UE intra-frequency measurement control before call drop 61 Confirming missing neighbor cell without information from scanner 62 Location relationship of 2G redundant neighbor cells 64 Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd.

after optimization 71 Turning corner effect-signals attenuation 72 Turning corner effect-signal attenuation recorded by the UE 72 Turning corner effect-traced signaling recorded by the RNC 73 Needle point-signal variance 74 Call drop distribution of PS384K intra-frequency hard handover 75 Signal distribution of cell152 vs. cell88 (signal fluctuation in handover areas) 76 Reporting 1D event 77 Increasing hysteresis to reduce frequently reporting of 1D event 78 Attenuation relationship of RSCP and Ec/No 79 Indoor 3G RSCP distribution 83 Analyzing weak signals 91 Uplink interference according to RNC signaling 93 Uplink interference according to UE signaling 93 Uplink interference information recorded by UE 94 RTWP variation of the cell 89767 94 RTWP variation of the cell 89768 95 Pilot information recorded by scanner 97 UMTS QoS structure 103 SRB and TRB at user panel 103 Signaling flow for adding radio link 111 Signaling flow for deleting radio link 113 SHO signaling flow for adding and deleting radio link 115 Measurement model 117 Example 1A event and trigger delay 119 Periodic report triggered by 1A event 120 Example of 1C event 121 Example 1D event 122 Restriction from hysteresis to measurement report 122 Example of 1E event 123 Example of 1F event 123 .RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd.

Ordinary HHO flow (lur interface and CELL_DCH state) 125 Ordinary inter-CN HHO flow 127 Intra-NodeB synchronization serving cell update 134 Inter-NodeB synchronization serving cell update 136 Inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell update after radio link is added 138 Inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell update during HHO (single step method) 140 DPCH intra-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update 142 DPCH inter-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update 143 handover from HSDPA to R99 144 Intra-frequency handover from R99 to R5 144 DPCH SHO with handover from HSDPA to R99 (inter-NodeB) 146 DPCH SHO with handover from R99 to HSDPA 147 Inter-NodeB SHO with handover from HSDPA to R99 (V17) 148 Intra-frequency HHO with handover from R5 to R99 149 Intra-frequency HHO with handover form R99 to R5 149 Intra-frequency HHO with handover from R5 to R99 (V17) 150 Inter-frequency HHO from HS-PDSCH to DCH 151 Inter-frequency HHO from DCH to HS-PDSCH 152 Handover between HSDPA and GPRS 153 Flow for direct retry during setup of a service 154 Direct retry triggered by traffic 154 Switch of channel type 156 Intra-frequency SHO between two HSUPA cells 160 Signaling for HSUPA cell update triggered by a 1D event 160 Signaling for HSUPA cell update triggered by a 1D event (reported by the monitor set) 161 Intra-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 161 Signaling for intra-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 162 Inter-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 162 Signaling for inter-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 163 Inter-RNC HSUPA handover 164 .

SHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 166 Addition of an R99 cell when the service is on the E-DCH 167 Intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 168 Signaling for intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 168 Inter-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 169 Signaling for inter-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 170 SHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 171 SHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell (triggered by a 1B event) 171 Intra-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 172 Signaling for intra-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 172 Inter-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 173 Direct retry from an R99 cell to a HSUPA cell 174 Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to an R99 cell 174 Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell 175 Switch between HSUPA channel types 175 Signaling flow for handover from WCDMA to GSM 177 Tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GSM 177 Signaling flow for handover from GSM to WCDMA 180 Tracing signaling of handover from GSM to WCDMA 181 Flow of handover from WCDMA to GPRS (1) 184 Flow of handover from WCDMA to GPRS (2) 184 Tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GPRS 185 Signaling flow for handover from GPRS to WCDMA (1) 187 Signaling flow for handover from GPRS to WCDMA (2) 188 Data configuration in the location area cell table 194 Data configuration of neighbor cell configuration table 195 Configuration table for external 3G cells 197 Configuration table for GSM inter-RAT neighbor cells 198 Configuration table for 2G reselection parameters 199 Parameter configuration table for inter-RAT handover 200 .

Tables Handover performance indexes and reference values 15 HSDPA handover performance indexes and reference value 16 HSUPA handover performance indexes and reference value 16 CDR index and reference value 18 SHO failure indexes 35 HHO failure indexes 35 Traffic statistics indexes of CS inter-RAT handover preparation failure 37 Traffic statistics indexes of PS inter-RAT outgoing handover failure 38 Types of CDR indexes 44 Thresholds of EcIo and Ec 45 Traffic statistics indexes for analyzing causes to call drop 50 Relationship between the filter coefficient and the corresponding tracing time 58 2G handover times 63 Best servers and other cells 67 Timers and counters related to the synchronization and asynchronization 105 Timers and counters related to call drop at lub interface 108 Flow of serving cell update triggered by different events in SHO 133 Scenarios of handover between HSDPA and R99 (V17) 145 Handover between two HSUPA cells 159 Handover between a HSUPA cell and a non-HSUPA cell 164 Parameters of handover from 3G to 2G 191 W-Handover and Call Drop Problem Optimization Guide Key words: .

call drop. Acronyms and abbreviations: Acronyms Abbreviations AMR CHR CDR DCCC RAN RNP SRB TRB SHO HHO PCH CN O&M MNC and Full Spelling Adaptive MultiRate Call History Record Call Drop Rate Dynamic Channel Configuration Control Radio Access Network Radio Network Planning Signaling Radio Bearer Traffic Radio Bearer Soft Handover Hard Handover Physical Channel Core Network Operation and maintenance Mobile Network Code . it analyzes common problems during network optimization.Handover. aiming at network optimization of handover success rate and call drop rate. details the specific network operation flow. In addition. and optimization Abstract: This document.

MCC LAC CIO HSUPA E-DCH E-AGCH E-RGCH Mobile Country Code Location Area Code Cell Independent Offset High Speed Uplink Packet Access Enhanced uplink Dedicated Channel E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel E-DCH Relative Grant Channel .

The CDR optimization includes all related to call drop except handovercaused call drop. testing methods. It will be updated upon the update of RNC counters. and frequently asked questions (FAQs). The following sections are updated: y y y y Traffic Statistics Analysis for HSDPA Handover Handover Between HSDPA and R99 Direct Retry of HSDPA Switch of Channel Type Actually handover is closely relevant to call drop. so the algorithms related to HSUPA are based on RNC V18. they will be highlighted. If some RRM algorithms are based on V17 RNC. Therefore handover-caused call drop is arranged in handover success rate optimization part. troubleshooting methods.1 Introduction This document aims to meet the requirements by on-site engineers on solving handover and call drop problems and making them qualified during network optimization. HSUPA is introduced in V18 RNC. Handover failure probably leads to call drop. It describes the methods for evaluating network handover and call drop performance. related parameters. . The RRM algorithms and problem implementation in this document are based on V16 RNC. This document serves to network KPI optimization and operation and maintenance (O&M) and helps engineers to locate and solve handover and call drop problems. The appendix provides fundamental knowledge. This document does not include usage of related tools. and data processing tools about handover and call drop. This document includes the following 12 chapters: y y y y y y y 1Introduction 2Handover and Call Drop Performance Indexes 3Handover Index Optimization 4CDR Index Optimization 5FAQs Analysis 6Summary 7Appendix The traffic statistics analysis is based on RNC V1.5 counter. principles.

80% DT&Stat. 99% Voice VP PS 64K UL64K/DL DT&Stat.2 Handover and Call Drop Performance Indexes 2. Handover performance indexes and reference values Index Service Statistics method Reference value SHO rate success CS&PS DT&Stat. 2. 85% PS UL64K/DL 144K PS UL64K/DL 384K Inter-frequency Voice DT&Stat.1 Handover Performance Indexes According to RNA KPI baseline document. 90% 85% Intra-frequency HHO success rate DT&Stat. 1.1 lists the handover performance indexes and reference values. DT&Stat. 75% DT&Stat. 92% .

85% Inter-RAT handover success rate DT&Stat. 90% PS UL64K/DL 144K PS UL64K/DL 384K Voice out handover DT&Stat. 90% DT&Stat. HSDPA handover performance indexes and reference value Index Service Reference value HSDPA-HSDPA intraPS (HSDPA) frequency serving cell update HSDPA-HSDPA interPS (HSDPA) frequency serving cell update 99% 92% .HHO rate success VP PS 64K UL64K/DL DT&Stat. 87% DT&Stat. 92% 35% 40% 2. 95% PS handover out SHO ratio SHO cost N/A N/A DT&Stat.1 lists the HSDPA handover performance indexes and reference value. 2. DT Stat.

Index Service Reference value HSDPA-R99 handover HSDPA-R99 handover intra-frequency PS (HSDPA) 99% inter-frequency PS (HSDPA) 90% Success rate of R99-to-HSDPA PS (HSDPA) cell handover HSDPA-to-GPRS handover inter-RAT 85% PS (HSDPA) 92% Note: The HSDPA handover KPIs are to be updated after formal issue by WCDMA&GSM Performance Research Department. and deleting) Success rate of inter-cell SHO serving cell update in HSUPA Success rate of DCH-toE-DCH reconfiguration in SHO mode (including replacing and deleting) PS (HSUPA) ± ± PS (HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) . HSUPA handover performance indexes and reference value Index Service Reference value Success rate of inter-cell SHO in HSUPA (including adding. replacing. 3.

Decide the specific value according to project requirements or contract requirements of commercial network .Index Service Reference value ± Success rate of E-DCHto-DCH reconfiguration in SHO mode (including replacing and deleting) Success rate of inter-cell intra-frequency HHO in HSUPA Success rate of intrafrequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a nonHSUPA cell Success rate of DCH-toE-DCH reconfiguration in single-link mode (the second step of inter.or intra-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell) Success rate of inter-cell inter-frequency HHO in HSUPA Success rate of interfrequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a nonHSUPA cell Success rate of HSUPAto-GPRS inter-RAT handover Note: PS(HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) ± PS (HSUPA) PS (HSUPA) 92% The HSUPA handover KPIs are unavailable and to be updated after formal issue by WCDMA&GSM Performance Department.

so engineers use call drop rate of PS temporarily.2 lists the CDR index and reference value.2 are only for reference.&CQT DT&Stat.5% Reference value Voice VP PS planned coverage rate CDR DT&CQT 3% PS (UL DCH full coverage rate/DL HSDPA) PS PS (UL HSUPA/DL HSDPA) DT 3% Stat.2 Call Drop Performance Indexes 2. .&CQT full 2% 2. 10% DT 3% The values listed in 2. The call drop rate of HSDPA is not defined yet.2. CDR index and reference value Index Service Statistics method DT&Stat. Decide the specific value according to project requirements or contract requirements of commercial network. 4.

. in while CQT is proper.1.3 Handover Index Optimization 3.1 shows the SHO DT data analysis flow.1 DT/CQT Index Optimization Flow DT and CQT are important to network evaluation and optimization.1. DT/CQT KPIs act as standards for verifying networks. HHO. and to locate cross-cell coverage. and inter-RAT handover. 3. The following sections describe the DT/CQT index optimization flow in terms of SHO. to locate missing neighbor cells. Overall DT helps to know entire coverage. HHO and inter-RAT handover are used in coverage solutions for special scenarios.1 SHO DT Index Optimization Flow 3.

This prepares for further location and analysis. SHO-caused call drop might occur or SHO might fail. RNC CHR. . related signaling tracing. Obtaining When and Where the Problem Occurs During the test. so record the location and time for the problem occurrence. and RNC MML scripts. SHO DT analysis flow data Inputting Analysis Data Perform DT.2. Collect DT data.

Missing neighbor cell causes call drop. y Check the active set Ec/Io recorded by UE before call drop and Best Server Ec/Io recorded by Scanner. Confirm it by measurement control (search the messages back from call drop for the latest intra-frequency measurement control message. Check the neighbor cell list of this measurement control message) UEs might report detected set information. The cause might be intra-frequency missing neighbor cell if all the following conditions are met: The Ec/Io recorded by UE is bad. If the pilot RSCP is greater than a threshold. but no one is strong enough to be primary pilot. the pilot is a strong pilot. Pilot Pollution Pilot pollution is defined as below: y Excessive strong pilots exist at a point. the pilot y . . y y y y y If the UE reconnects to the network immediately after call drop and the scramble of the cell that UE camps on is different from that upon call drop. For redundant neighbor cells. Redundant neighbor cells impacts network performance and increases the consumption of UE intra-frequency measurement. which is measured by RSCP. confirm the following content: y Definition of strong pilot Whether a pilot is strong depends on the absolute strength of the pilot.Missing Neighbor Cell During the early optimization. For intrafrequency neighbor cells. If this problem becomes more serious. According to the definition. missing neighbor cell is probable. No Best Server scramble is in the neighbor cell list of measurement control. the necessary cells cannot be listed. Namely. Definition of "excessive" When judging whether excessive pilots exist at a point. use the following methods to confirm intra-frequency missing neighbor cell. see 5. the cause must be missing neighbor cell. The Best Server Ec/Io is good. Therefore pay attention to redundant neighbor cells when analyzing handover problems. call drop is usually due to missing neighbor cell. when setting rules for judging pilot pollution. Check whether the Best Server scramble recorded by Scanner is in the neighbor cell list of intrafrequency measurement control before call drop. If corresponding scramble information is in the monitor set before call drop.

is larger y Improper Configuration of SHO Algorithm Parameters Solve the following two problems by adjusting handover algorithm parameters. the UE reports the 1a or 1c measurement report of neighbor cells before call drop. The UE cannot receive active set update message. When the RNC sends active set update message. If the strength different of the strongest pilot and the No. y Delayed handover According to the signaling flow for CS services. After this the RNC receives the event and sends the active set update message. Namely. According to the signaling flow.number is the judgment criteria. the pilots at a point are excessive. pilot pollution exists if all the following conditions are met: y The number of pilots satisfying than . standards for pilot pollution are: y . y Definition of "no best server strong enough" When judging whether a best server strong enough exist. the UE powers off the transmitter due to asynchronization. Namely. the UE might also fail to receive active set update message or perform TRB reset before handover. Delayed handover might be one of the following: y y Turning corner effect: the Ec/Io of original cell decreases sharply and that of the target cell increases greatly (an over high value appears) Needlepoint effect: The Ec/Io of original cell decreases sharply before it increases and the Ec/Io of target cell increase sharply for a short time. For PS services. no best server strong enough exists in the point. . y Based on previous descriptions. the judgment The number of pilots satisfying than 3. which the UE fails to receive. strong pilot is smaller than a threshold. the Ec/Io of original cell signals decreases sharply. the judgment criteria is the relative strength of multiple pilots. If the pilot number is more than a threshold. and . After UE reports measurement message. is more y Set . the UE fails to receive active set update command (physical channel reconfiguration command for intra-frequency HHO) due to the following cause.

The period for each cell to be the best server is short. Meanwhile analyze traced message. perform DT again and collect DT data. For help. The Ec/Io for each cell is bad. consult customer service engineer for abnormal equipment and transport layer on alarm console. adjust engineering parameters of an antenna so that a best server forms around the antenna. Adjustment and Implementation After confirming the cause to the problem. For handover problems caused by pilot pollution. According to the signaling flow. Reperforming Drive Test and Locating Problems If the problem is not due to previous causes. the 1A event is immediately reported. Construct a new site to cover this area if conditions permit. The RSCP of the best server is strong. Two or more cells alternate to be the best server. Consequently the UE fails because it cannot receive the active set update command. The sum of initially measured value and CIP. No primary pilot cell exists. For abnormal equipment. cooperate with customer service engineers. The larger the parameter is. locate the SHO problem by checking the failure message. For call drop caused by delayed handover. adjust engineering parameters of other antennas so that signals from other antennas becomes weaker and the number of pilots drops. Supplement data from problem analysis. the easier the . as measurement result.y Ping-pong Ping-pong handover includes the following two forms Handover y y The best server changes frequently. adjust antennas to expand the handover area. The sum of CIO and measured value is used in event evaluation process. or increase CIO to enable handover to occur in advance. Abnormal Equipment Check the alarm console for abnormal alarms. If the interference is from two sectors of the same NodeB. combine the two cells as one. Multiple cells exist with little difference of abnormal RSCP. set the handover parameters of 1a event. contact local customer service engineers for confirm abnormal equipment. If alarms are present on alarm console. when a cell is deleted. is used to judge intra-frequency handover of UE and acts as cell border in handover algorithm. adjust the network by using the following pertinent methods: y y y For handover problems caused by pilot pollution.

If the cell does not support SHO. HHO helps to carry out balanced load between carriers and seamless proceeding. For details. If the parameter is small. and 1B delay trigger time. such as indoor coverage. y Balanced load HHO It aims to realize balanced load of different frequencies. For call drop caused by Ping-pong handover. Optimization Flow of HHO CQT 3. .y y SHO is and UEs in SHO state increases. For needle effect or turning corner effect. HHO might occur.2 HHO CQT Flow HHO Types HHO includes the following types: y Intra-frequency HHO The frequency of the active set cell before HHO is the same as that of the cell after HHO. adjust the antenna to form a best server or reduce Ping-pong handover by setting the handover parameter of 1B event. y Inter-frequency HHO The frequency of the active set cell before HHO is different from that of the cell after HHO. Its judgment depends on balanced load HHO.1. For detailed adjustment. setting CIO to 5 dB is proper.1. so CQT are used.2 shows the optimization flow for HHO CQT. The 1D event of intra-frequency measurement events determines intra-frequency HHO. which enables deleting a cell in active set to be more difficult. and handover controlled by PS service rate threshold of handover cell. the SHO is more difficult. 3. Start compression mode to perform inter-frequency measurement according to UE capability before inter-frequency HHO. HHO caters for cross-RNC intrafrequency handover without lur interface. which might affects receiving quality. 1B hysteresis. HHO judgment for selecting cell depends on period measurement report. but this increases handover ratio. see SHO-caused call drop of FAQs Analysis. which consumes resources. The following section details the optimization flow for inter-frequency CQT. increase the 1B event threshold. limited resources at lur interface. Inter-frequency coverage usually exists in special scenarios.

When setting "interfrequency measurement quantity". the cell is defined as in the carrier coverage center. If intra-frequency neighbor cells lie in all direction of the cell. Delayed HHO usually occurs outdoor. After call drop. HHO problems usually refer to delayed handover and Ping-pong handover. the UE does not measure or report inter-frequency neighbor cells. Measure the quality of inter-frequency or inter-RAT cell by compression mode. the UE re-camps on the inter-frequency neighbor cell. Compression mode starts if the CPICH RSCP or Ec/Io meets the conditions. RSCP is usually the triggering condition.1. so call drop occurs when the UE is moving. The compression mode starts before inter-frequency or inter-RAT handover. If no intra-frequency cell lies in a . check that the cell is at the carrier coverage edge or in the carrier coverage center. When call drop occurs. The parameter "inter-frequency measurement quantity" decides to use CPICH Ec/No or Ec/Io as the measurement target for inter-frequency handover. Optimization flow for HHO CQT Adjustment The optimization flow for HHO is similar with that of SHO and the difference lies in parameter optimization. There are three solutions: y Increase the threshold for starting compression mode. Confirming inter-frequency missing neighbor cell is similar to that of intra-frequency.

but CPICH Ec/No can better reflect the actual communication quality of links and cell load. For Ping-pong HHO problems. The RNC can distinguish CS services from PS services for inter-frequency measurement. . The mobility of MS leads to quality deterioration of the current cell.3 Inter-RAT Handover CQT Flow Flow Chat 3. for the cell at the carrier coverage edge. compression mode starts. the quality of target cell (inter-frequency or inter-RAT) is usually measured and obtained. The intra-frequency HHO optimization is similar to that of inter-frequency.1. Decrease the hysteresis and delay trigger time of 1D event according to local radio environment to guarantee timely handover. use CPICH RSCP as inter-frequency measurement quantity. In compression mode. the CPICH Ec/No can still reach ±12 dB or so.3 shows the inter-RAT handover CQT flow. Therefore the requirements on starting threshold are: before call drop due to the quality deterioration of the current cell. 3. In the cell at the carrier coverage edge. According to simulation. the CPICH Ec/No changes slowly due to the identical attenuation rate of CPICH RSCP and interference. the signals of the target cell must be measured and reporting is complete. The stopping threshold must help to prevent compression mode from starting and stopping frequently.1. If the RSCP is smaller than ±95 dBm. In the cell in the carrier coverage center. solve them by increasing HHO hysteresis and delay trigger time. when UE moves along the direction where no intra-frequency neighbor cell lies. If the RSCP is greater than ±90 dBm. Adjust RSCP accordingly for special scenarios. Therefore. using CPICH RSCP as inter-frequency measurement quantity to guarantee coverage is more proper. Decrease the target frequency handover trigger threshold of interfrequency coverage. Therefore use CPICH Ec/No as inter-frequency measurement quantity in the carrier coverage center (not the cell at the carrier coverage edge). and RSCP as inter-frequency measurement quantity in the cell at the carrier coverage edge. when CPICH RSCP is smaller than the demodulation threshold (±100 dBm or so). Now the inter-frequency handover algorithm based on CPICH Ec/No is invalid. y y Increase the CIO of two inter-frequency cells.direction of the cell. the cell is defined as at the carrier coverage edge. compression mode stops.

Inter-RAT handover CQT flow Data Configuration Inter-RAT handover fails due to incomplete configuration data. y y y y y y y y y . The configuration includes: Mobile country code (MCC) Mobile network code (MNC) Location area code (LAC) GSM cell identity (CELL ID) Network color code (NCC) Base station color code (BCC) Frequency band indicator (FREQ_BAND) Frequency number Cell independent offset (CIO) Guarantee the correctness of the previous data and GSM network.1. so pay attention to the following data configuration. y GSM neighbor configuration is complete on RNC.

The cell GCI format is: MCC + MNC + LAC + CI.4 DT/CQT Flow for HSDPA Handover . The best cell changes upon Physical channel reconfiguration. Select LAI as LAI type. The signals fluctuate frequently so call drop occurs. Improperly configured LAC causes call drop (solve it by checking data configuration). so the data configured in two networks are inconsistent. the UE fails to hand over back or to report inter-RAT measurement report. Causes The causes to call drop due to 3G-2G inter-RAT handover are as below: y y y y y y y After the 2G network modifies its configuration data. The data includes: Downlink frequency Primary scramble Main indicator MCC MISSING NEIGHBOR CELL LAC RNC ID CELL ID y y y y y y y y According to the strategies of unilateral handover of inter-RAT handover. it does not inform the 3G network of modification. Excessive inter-RAT cell are configured (solve it by optimizing number of neighbor cells).1. A frequently-used solution is increasing CIO. Add data of WCDMA neighbor cells on GSM BSS. For example. Select GCI as LAI type. Missing neighbor cell causes call drop. The format of location area identity (LAI) is MCC + MNC + LAC.y y Add location area cell information near 2G MSC to location area cell list of 3G MSC. increasing the threshold to hand over to GSM. Select Near VLR area as LAI class and add the corresponding 2G MSC/VLR number. Handset problems causes call drop. increasing the threshold for starting and stopping compression mode. if the data configuration is complete. the inter-RAT handover problems are due to delayed handover. Select Near VLR area as LAI class and add the corresponding 2G MSC/VLR number. 3.

such as weak coverage. If there is similar problem with R99 network. with HS-PDSCH serving cell update Intra-frequency and inter-frequency HHO of DPCH. Simplify the flow). with HSPDSCH serving cell update According to different technologies used in the serving cell before and after handover. perform CQT (in specified point or small area). check whether the R99 network causes HSDPA service problems. the HSDPA handover includes: y y SHO or softer handover of DPCH. perform DT to know the network conditions.Type According to the difference of handover on DPCH in HSDPA network. Flow When a problem occurs.1. . 3. handover between HSDPA and R99. HSDPA handover includes: y y y Handover in HSDPA system Handover between HSDPA and R99 cells Handover between HSDPA and GPRS cells Methods For HSDPA service coverage test and mobility-related test (such as HHO on DPCH with HSPDSCH serving cell update. and inter-RAT handover). missing neighbor cell. check R99 network. solve it (or.4 shows the DT/CQT flow for HSDPA handover. For location of HSDPA problems and non-mobility problems.

Now the baseline value is 0s. the cause might be improper configuration of HSDPA parameters. When the R99 network is normal. whether the HSSCCH power is low. Engineers mainly check the words of cell and whether the power is adequate.1. if the handover of HSDPA subscribers is still faulty. but lead to abnormal handover and lowered the user experience. The handover flow for HSDPA is greatly different from that of R99. Whether the protection time length of HSDPA handover is proper. Engineers can check the following aspects: y y y Whether the HSDPA function of target cell is enabled and the parameters are correctly configured. DT/CQT flow for HSDPA handover The problems with handover of HSDPA subscribers are usually caused by the faulty handover of R99 network. These parameters might not directly cause call drop in handover. Whether the threshold for R99 handover is proper. so the handover of R99 service may succeed while the HSDPA handover . Set it by running SET HOCOMM. such as missing neighbor cell and improper configuration of handover parameters.

the radio network controller (RNC) V18 supports only the broadcast mode of the multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS). . For details. Whether the protection time length of D2H handover is proper. Set it by running SET HOCOMM. For example. and updates the cell in active set.7 MBMS Mobility Optimization Currently. the reconfiguration fails. the MBMS user equipment (UE) moves only between point-to-multipoint (PTM) cells.6 SHO Ratio Optimization This part is to be supplemented. reconfigures service bearer to DCH. when the UE reports 1b event. If the signals of the original cell deteriorate quickly now. in H2D handover. it triggers RB reconfiguration in the original cell. 3.1. For locating HSUPA problems and the problems unrelated to mobility. perform DT to know the network conditions. 3.1.1. For the test of HSUPA service coverage and mobility-related tests (such as the test of success rate of HSUPA serving cell update). Now the baseline value is 2s. 3.y may fail. perform CQT (in specified spot or area).5 DT/CQT Flow for HSUPA Handover The DT/CQT flow for HSUPA handover is similar to that for HSDPA. refer to DT/CQT Flow for HSDPA Handover.

2. If they are consistent. The UE first moves to the target cell and then sends a CELL UPDATE message to notify the serving radio network controller (SRNC) that the cell where the UE stays is changed. the original radio bearer is retained. The MBMS mobility optimization. Movement of the MBMS UE between PTM cells The movement of the MBMS UE between PTM cells is similar to the movement of UE performing PS services in the CELL-FACH state. which guarantees that the UE obtains better quality of service at the edge of cells. covers the following aspects: y y Optimize cell reselection parameters to guarantee that the UE can be reselected to the best cell in time. The UE receives an MBMS control message from the MCCH in the target cell and determines whether the MBMS radio bearer to be established is consistent with that of the neighboring cell. The SRNC returns a CELL UPDATE CONFIRM message. . The UE performs the handover between cells through cell reselection and obtains a gain through soft combining or selective combining between two cells to guarantee the receive quality of the service. Guarantee that the power of the FACH in each cell is large enough to meet the coverage requirement of the MBMS UE at the edge of the cells.

y y Guarantee that the transmission time difference of the UE between different links meets the requirement of soft combing or selective combining*. The SCCPCH is decoded and the transmission blocks are combined in the RLC PDU phase . The UE supports two combining modes: Soft combining: The transmission time difference between the current cell and the neighboring cell is within (one TTI + 1) timeslots and the TFCI in each transmission time interval (TTI) is the same. Guarantee that the power. and that the MBMS service is successfully established. codes. transmission. Selective combining: The transmission time difference between the current cell and the neighboring cell is within the reception time window stipulated by the radio link controller (RLC). The UE can simultaneously receive the same MBMS service from two PTM cells and combine the received MBMS service. and CE resources of the target cell are not restricted or faulty.

3. The handover traffic statistics data is includes RNC-oriented data and cell-oriented data. The analysis flow for SHO. In addition. it is the major index to evaluate network performance. HHO.2 shows the analysis flow for handover traffic statistics data. and HSDPA handover is similar. RNC ±oriented data reflects the handover performance of entire network.3. but the traffic statistics indexes are different from them.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow The traffic statistics data is important to network in terms of information source. inter-RAT handover. while cell-oriented data helps to locate problematic cells. .

Analysis flow handover traffic statistics data for 3. If they are not qualified. y y Check the SHO success rate of entire network and cell in busy hour. The SHO air interface process is active set update process. Sort the SHO (or softer handover) failure times of the cell by TOP N and locate the cells with TOP N failure times. SHO includes SHO preparation process and SHO air interface process.3.1 Analysis Flow for SHO Traffic Statistics The SHO success rate is defined as below: SHO success rate = SHO successful times/SHO times According to the flow. List the specific . analyze the problematic cells in details.2. The SHO preparation process is from handover judgment to RL setup completion.

2 Analysis Flow of HHO Traffic statistics The HHO traffic statistics includes outgoing HHO success rate and incoming HHO success rate: y y Outgoing HHO Success Rate Times/Outgoing HHO Times Incoming HHO Success Rate Times/Incoming HHO Times = = Outgoing Incoming HHO HHO Success Success Upon HHO failure. The RNC guarantees serial processing upon flow processing.2 lists the HHO failure indexes. pay attention to indexes related to internal NodeB. If locating specific causes from traffic statistics is impossible. 3. This scenario seldom exists in commercial networks. The traffic statistics data provides the trend and possible problems. No response from UE The RNC fails to receive response to active set update command for adding/deleting links. 1.1 lists the detailed traffic statistics indexes to SHO (or softer handover) failure and analysis.1. It occurs in areas with weak coverage and small handover area. Further location and analysis of problems involves DT and CHR to the cell. SHO failure indexes Failure causes Configuration nonsupport Analysis The UE thinks the content of active set update for RNC to add/delete links does not support SHO. For details. This is a major cause to SHO (or softer handover) failure. This cause is due to the problematic UE.3. between NodeBs. 3. . 3.2.2. analyze the corresponding CHR. This scenario seldom exists in commercial networks.2. DT is usually performed on problematic cells and signaling flow at the UE side and of RNC is traced. and between RNCs.indexes of failure causes. Synchronization reconfiguration nonsupport The UE feeds back that the SHO (or softer handover) for RNC to add/delete links is incompatible with other subsequent processes. y Perform DT to re-analyze problems. Invalid configuration The UE thinks the content of active set update for RNC to add/delete links is invalid. see 3. RF optimization must be performed in the areas.

.3 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow for Inter-RAT Handover The inter-RAT handover success rate includes voice inter-RAT handover success rate and PS inter-RAT handover success rate. Other causes Analyze the problem further based on CHR logs. Cell update Cell update occurs upon outgoing HHO. Internal NodeB/Between NodeBs/Between RNCs HHO failure Configuration nonsupport PCH failure The UE thinks it cannot support the command for outgoing HHO. This is a compatibility problem of UE. 3. The cause is probably weak coverage and strong interference. because it is incompatible with HHO. Synchronization reconfiguration nonsupport The UE feeds back HHO is incompatible with other consequent processes due to compatibility problems of UE. Invalid configuration The UE thinks the command for outgoing HHO as invalid. with the reason value Successful Relocation.2. Voice Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Attempt Times: during CS inter-RAT outgoing. or Normal Release. These two processes lead to outgoing HHO failure.2. HHO failure indexes Failure cause HHO preparation failure Analysis Radio link setup failure Analyze RL setup failure. Voice Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Rate = Voice Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Times/Voice Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Attempt Times Voice Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Times: when the RNC sends a RELOCATION REQUIRED message. when the RNC receives an IU RELEASE COMMAND message. Other causes Analyze the problem further based on CHR logs.

If CS inter-RAT handover fails. check the failure statistics indexes listed in 3. Voice Inter-RAT Success Rate Outgoing Handover The voice inter-RAT outgoing handover includes handover preparation process and implementation process.3 shows the voice inter-RAT outgoing handover flow. with the reason value Successful Relocation.2. When the RNC receives the IU RELEASE COMMAND message replied by CN. 1.2. count it as inter-RAT outgoing handover success according to the SRNC cell being used by UE. if the current CS service is AMR voice service. or Normal Release.PS Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Rate = PS Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Times/PS Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Implementation Times PS Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Success Times: the RNC sends a CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message to UE. Traffic statistics indexes of CS inter-RAT handover . PS Inter-RAT Outgoing Handover Implementation Times: when the RNC receives an IU RELEASE COMMAND message. 3. Voce inter-RAT outgoing handover flow During CS inter-RAT outgoing handover process. count it as an inter-RAT handover preparation.3. when the RNC sends a RELOCATION REQUIRED message to CN. 1.

so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS . It occurs easily after adjustment of 2G networks. so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. Finally the CN sends a release message. so you must check the parameter configuration. Unknown target RNC It corresponds to incorrect configuration of MSC parameters without information like LAC of target cell. y The previous two cases. so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing.preparation failure Failure cause Analysis RNC-level inter-RAT outgoing handover preparation failure Expiration of waiting for SRNS relocation command The CN does not respond the corresponding command for handover preparation request. SRNS expiration relocation It corresponds to incorrect configuration of CN. Unavailable resource It corresponds to incorrect configuration of MSC parameters or unavailable BSC resources. This includes the following two cases: y SRNS cancellation relocation The inter-RAT handover request occurs during signaling process like location update. so the CN sends a release message. so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. To solve this problem. Cell-level inter-RAT outgoing handover preparation failure SRNS expiration relocation The CN parameter configuration or the corresponding link connection is problematic. because the CN parameter configuration or the corresponding link connection is problematic. are normal nesting flows. it receives the release command from CN. so the flow is not complete before location update is complete. The subscribers that are calling hang UE before handover preparation. despite incomplete handover. After the RNC requests handover preparation. Other causes Analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. SRNS relocation failure in target CN/RNC/system It corresponds to incorrect configuration of CN or BSS nonsupport.

You must check the indexes listed in 3. so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. PCH failure The 2G signals are weak or the interference is strong so the UE fails to connect to the network. PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Rate After the RNC sends the CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message. Other causes Analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. so the UE is incompatible with the handover command.signaling tracing. so you must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. 1. SRNS relocation failure in target CN/RNC/system It corresponds to incorrect configuration of CN or BSS nonsupport. the PS interRAT outgoing handover fails if it receives the CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE message. RNC-level/CELL-level inter-RAT outgoing handover failure Configuration nonsupport The UE fails to support the handover command in the network. Other causes Analyze the problem further according to CHR logs and CN/BSS signaling tracing.3. SRNS relocation nonsupport in target CN/RNC/system The BSC fails to support some parameters of inter-RAT handover request. Traffic statistics indexes of PS inter-RAT outgoing handover failure Failure cause Analysis RNC-level/CELL-level PS inter-RAT outgoing handover preparation failure .2.

because the UE is incompatible with the command.4 Traffic Statistics Analysis for HSDPA Handover HSDPA switch includes y y y y y H-H (HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH) intra-frequency serving cell update H-H inter-frequency serving cell update HSDPA-R99 intra-frequency switch HSDPA-R99 inter-frequency switch HSDPA-GPRS switch Success rate of H-H intra-frequency serving cell update = (Times of successful update of serving cell)/(attempt times update of serving cell) When the RNC sends UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message.2. if the serving cell is updated. The traffic statistics indexes are defined as below: y y Success rate of H-H inter-frequency serving cell update = Times of successful outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HSDSCH/Times of requested outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HSDSCH to HS-DSCH When the RNC sends UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message. Transport layer cause The corresponding transport link is abnormal. so the handover fails. and the inter-frequency HHO is from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH. engineers count the attempt times of serving cell in the original serving cell. 3. engineers count the times of successful outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH. PCH failure The 2G signals are weak or the interference is strong. When the RNC receives the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECFG COMPLETE message. and the inter-frequency HHO is from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH. . When the RNC receives the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECFG COMPLETE message from UE. if the serving cell changes. the RNC counts the times of requested outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH. the RNC counts the times of successful update of serving cells in the original serving cell when the UE is in the SHO mode not in the HHO mode.Configuration nonsupport The UE fails to support the handover command of the network. The value is synchronization failure. Radio cause network layer The UE is probably incompatible. Other causes You must analyze the causes according to CN and BSS signaling tracing. so the UE fails to access the network. The UE detects that the sequence number of SNQ in the AUTN message is correct.

so this index is unavailable. When the RNC receives the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECFG COMPLETE message from the UE. the RNC counts the successful times of outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell.y Success rate of H-H inter-frequency serving cell update = successful times of outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HSDSCH/attempt times HHO from DCH to HS-DSCH in the cell When the RNC sends the UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message. Success rate of R99-to-H intra-frequency SHO = successful times of switch from DCH to HS-DSCH in multi-link mode in the cell/attempt times switch from DCH to HS-DSCH in multi-link mode in the cell. if the switch is the inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH. if the switch is the intra-frequency switch from HS-DSCH to DCH. if the switch is the inter-frequency switch from HS-DSCH to DCH. the RNC counts the attempt times of inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell. When the RNC receives the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECFG COMPLETE message from the UE. the RNC counts the previous indexes in the HSDPA serving cell. if the RNC decides to switch the channel in the cell. Success rate of R99-to-H The RNC algorithm is unavailable now. the RNC counts the attempt times inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell. y Success rate of H-to-R99 intra-frequency SHO = successful times of switch from HS-DSCH to DCH in multi-link mode in the cell/attempt times switch from HS-DSCH to DCH in multi-link mode in the cell. the RNC counts the successful times of outgoing intra-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell. y Success rate of H-to-R99 intra-frequency HHO = successful times of outgoing intra-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell/attempt times outgoing intra-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell. y Success rate of H-to-R99 inter-frequency switch update = successful times of outgoing HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell/attempt times outgoing inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH in the cell When the RNC sends the UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message. the RNC counts the successful times of inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH in the cell. In the DCCC or RAB MODIFY process. Success rate of H-to-R99 inter-frequency switch update The RNC algorithm is unavailable now. When the RNC sends the UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message. According to the channel state of the UE before and after reconfiguration. it sends the UE the RF RECONFIGURATION message. . so this index is unavailable. if the switch is the intra-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to DCH. if the switch is the inter-frequency HHO from HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH.

Success rate of inter-frequency HHO serving cell update between HSUPA cells = successful times of inter-frequency HHO serving cell . Success rate of intra-frequency HHO from E-DCH to DCH from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell = successful times of intrafrequency HHO from E-DCH to DCH/attempt times of intrafrequency HHO from E-DCH to DCH. Success rate of reconfiguration from E-DCH to DCH in the cell (including adding and replacing) = successful times of handover from E-DCH to DCH in SHO mode/attempt times of handover from E-DCH to DCH in SHO mode. 3. In the DCCC or RAB MODIFY process. According to the channel state of the UE before and after reconfiguration. The causes to failure and analysis methods will be summarized later. Success rate of reconfiguration from DCH to E-DCH in the cell (SHO. the RNC counts the attempt times of switch from DCH to HS-DSCH in the HSDPA serving cell.y Success rate of R99-to-H switch = successful times of switch from DCH to HS-DSCH in the cell/attempt times of switch from DCH to HS-DSCH in the cell In the DCCC or RAB MODIFY process.2. it sends the UE the RF RECONFIGURATION message. Success rate of SHO serving cell update between HSUPA cells = successful times of SHO serving cell update/attempt times of SHO serving cell update. if the RNC receives the RB RECONFIGURATION COMEPLTE message from UE. intra-frequency HHO. replacing. if the RNC decides to switch the channel in the cell. and the reconfiguration enables UE to switch from the DCH to HSDSCH in the same cell. y Success rate of H-to-GPRS handover update The traffic statistics does not include the index. Success rate of intra-frequency HHO serving cell between HSUPA cells = successful times of intra-frequency HHO serving cell between HSUPA cells/attempt times of intra-frequency HHO serving cell between HSUPA cells. the RNC counts the successful times of switch from DCH to HSDSCH in the HSDPA serving cell. and inter-frequency HHO) = successful times of handover from DCH to E-DCH/attempt times of handover from DCH to E-DCH.5 Traffic Statistics Analysis for HSUPA Handover The traffic statistics indexes for HSUPA are defined as below: y y y y y y y Success rate of SHO between HSUPA cells (including adding. and deleting) = attempt times of active set update/complete times of active set update. and the index will be supplemented later.

y update between HSUPA cells/attempt times of inter-frequency HHO serving cell update between HSUPA cells. Successful times of inter-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell = successful times of inter-frequency HHO from EDCH to DCH/request times of inter-frequency HHO from E-DCH to DCH. .

.3.3 SHO Cost Optimization To be supplemented.

4 CDR Index Optimization

4.1 Definition of Call Drop and Traffic Statistics Indexes
4.1.1 Definition of DT Call Drop
According to the air interface signaling recorded at the UE side, during connection, DT call drop occurs when the UE receives: y y y

Any BCH message (system information) The RRC Release message with the release cause Not Normal. Any of the CC Disconnect, CC Release Complete, CC Release message with the release cause Not Normal Clearing, Not Normal, or Unspecified.

4.1.2 Descriptions of Traffic Statistics Indexes
A generalized CDR consists of CN CDR and UTRAN CDR. RNO engineers focus on UTRAN CDR, so the following sections focus on KPI index analysis at UTRAN side. The related index at UTRAN side is the number of RAB for each service triggered by RNC. It consists of the following two aspects: y

y

After the service is set up, the RNC sends CN the RAB RELEASE REQUEST message. After the service is set up, the RNC sends CN the IU RELEASE REQUEST message. Afterwards, it receives the IU RELEASE COMMAND sent by CN.

Upon statistics, sort them by specific services. Meanwhile, traffic statistics includes the cause to release of RAB of each service by RNC. CS CDR is calculated as below:

PS CDR is calculated as below:

The failure cause indexes are sorted in 4.1.2.

2. Types of CDR indexes
CDR type Cause Corresponding process signaling

RF Due to interface air Expiration process timer of

RLC reset and RL Failure RB RECFG Expiration of PHY/TRCH/SHO/ASU HHO failure The transport failure between RNC and NodeB. NCP reports failure. FP synchronization failure.

Hardware failure

Not due to air interface

Transport failure

layer

ALCAP report failure

Subscribers are released by force O&M intervention by MML

The definition of RAN traffic statistics call drop is according to statistics of lu interface signaling, including the times of RNC's originating RAB release request and lu release request. The DT call drop is defined according to the combination of messages at air interface and from non-access lay and cause value. They are inconsistent.

4.2 DT/CQT Optimization Flow
4.2 shows flow chart for analyzing call drop.

2. Flow chart for analyzing call drop

4.2.1 Call Drop Cause Analysis
Call drop occurs usually due to handover, which is described in chapter 3. The following sections describe the call drop not due to handover.

Weak Coverage
For voice services, when CPICH Ec/Io is greater than ±14 dB and RSCP is greater than ± 100 dBm (a value measured by scanner outside cars), the call drop is usually not due to weak coverage. Weak coverage usually refers to weak RSCP. 4.2.1 lists the thresholds of Ec/Io and Ec (from an RNP result of an operator, just for reference).

1. Thresholds of EcIo and Ec
Bit rat e of ser vic e D L E b N o

Ser vic e

EcIo thres holds

Ec thres holds

CS 12.2 CS 64 PS 64 PS 128 PS 384

12.2 64 64 128 384

8.7 5.9 5.1 4.5 4.6

±13.3 ±11.9 ±12.7 ±13.3 ±10.4

±103.1 ±97.8 ±98.1 ±95.3 ±90.6

Uplink or downlink DCH power helps to confirm the weak coverage is in uplink or downlink by the following methods. y

y

If the uplink transmission power reaches the maximum before call drop, the uplink BLER is weak or NodeB report RL failure according to single subscriber tracing recorded by RNC, the call drop is probably due to weak uplink coverage. If the downlink transmission power reaches the maximum before call drop and the downlink BLER is weak, the call drop is probably due to weak downlink coverage.

In a balanced uplink and downlink without uplink or downlink interference, both the uplink and downlink transmit power will be restricted. You need not to judge whether uplink or downlink is restricted first. If the uplink and downlink is badly unbalanced, interference probably exists in the restricted direction. A simple and direct method for confirming coverage is to observe the data collected by scanner. If the RSCP and Ec/Io of the best cell is low, the call drop is due to weak coverage. Weak coverage might be due to the following causes: y y y

Lack of NodeBs Incorrectly configured sectors NodeB failure due to power amplifier failure

so at the call drop point. Uplink interference might be internal or external. the uplink and downlink transmit power before call drop will approach the maximum.The over great indoor penetration loss causes weak coverage. When over three cells meets the handover requirements in the coverage area. You can use this method to distinguish them.2. but the RSCP of Ec/Io of cells in monitor set are good). Without interference. In downlink. 4. so the over high BLER causes SRB reset. handover failure usually causes SRB reset or TRB reset. You must distinguish them. Uplink interference increases the UE downlink transmit power in connection mode. Namely. refer to previous causes to R99 call drop. the RSCP might be good and Ec/Io might be weak. or call drop due to asynchronization. When the downlink transmit power reaches the maximum. which occurs easily during CQT. The UE does not report 1a measurement report so call drop occurs. When the comprehensive quality of active set is bad (CPICH Ec/Io changes around ±10 dB). the active set replaces the best cell or the best cell changes due to fluctuation of signals. Most of scenario uplink interference is external. so links keeps being added and deleted. When downlink interference exists. TRB reset. Downlink interference usually refers to pilot pollution. the call drop might due to problematic equipment. It is the same with uplink interference. The power of a single subscriber is . The causes might be as below: y y An abnormal NodeB causes failure of synchronization. but it brings interference. the uplink transmit power is low or BLER is convergent. the data recorded in DT does not contain the information reported by UE for a period. the coverage is weak. Incorrectly configured sectors or disabling of NodeB will occur. when the active set CPICH RSCP is greater than ±85 dBm and the active set Ec/Io is smaller than ±13 dB. Namely. call drop might occur. If the downlink RTWP is 10 dB greater than the normal value (±107 to ±105 dB) and the interference lasts for 2s±3s. Abnormality Analysis If the previous causes are excluded. the downlink BLER is not convergent. the uplink and downlink are balanced. You need to focus on the call drop due to abnormal testing UE. Interference Both uplink and downlink interference causes call drop.2 Frequently-adjusted Non-handover Algorithm Parameters The frequently-adjusted non-handover algorithm parameters in call drop are as below: Maximum Downlink Transmit Power of Radio Link Configuring the transmit power of dedicated link to a great value helps to eliminate call drop points due to weak coverage. You need to check the logs and alarms of equipment for further analysis. the call drop is probably due to downlink interference (when the handover is delayed. HSPA Call Drop Analysis For HSPA call drop analysis. You must pay attention to this.

If the retransmission reaches the maximum times. . so the subscriber might impact other subscribers or lower downlink capacity of system when the subscriber consumes great power at the edge of a cell.2. The services using AM mode for service transmission will also retransmit signaling. so the system releases resources. burst interference or needle effect exists.3. A reset of signaling causes call drop. the judgment tree for analyzing call drop is as shown in 4. Maximum Retransmission Signaling and Services Times of When the BLER of the channel is high. In some scenarios. This parameter is configured for RNC. If you want have less call drop. 4. When the reset times reaches the maximum. The default configuration of system guarantees that burst blocks will not cause abnormal call drop. you can lower the maximum downlink transmit power of radio link. increase the retransmission times improper to resist burst interference. which causes call drop. the system starts to release the service.3 Judgment Tree for Call Drop Causes Based on various causes to call drop.2. An increase or decrease of 1±2 dB has little impact on call drop in signal DT. The configuration of downlink transmit power is usually provided by link budget. The system configures the maximum reset times. the signaling is reset because the retransmission reaches the maximum times. but it can be seen from traffic statistics indexes. you can increase the maximum transmit power of DCH. The CDR of some cells is high due to weak coverage. The access failure probability of some cells is high due to over high load. so 100% block error occurs during burst interference. and call drop occurs when UE moves to an area with weak coverage and when the reset is time.allowed to be great. the signaling is reset.

. Analyzing Signal Variation of Best server From Scanner Analyze the signal variation of best server from scanner. the software Assistant helps to obtain call drop time and location. For example. Judgment tree for call drop causes Preparing Data The data to be prepared include: y y y Data files collected by DT Single subscriber tracing recorded by RNC CHR recorded by RNC Obtaining Call Drop Location You need to use special software to process DT data. and the signaling flow. PICH data collected by scanner. information about active set and monitor set collected by UE.1.

or data. call drop must be due to weak coverage. The flow for analyzing traffic statistics is as below. When the traffic volume reaches a certain level. If RSCP is normal but Ec/Io is bad (delayed handover is excluded. You can obtain call drop of different services and approximate causes to call drop by using traffic statistics analyzers. If the signals of best server fluctuate sharply. Analyze traffic statistics indexes of these cells (such as more indexes related. you need to check RNC call drop indexes and master the overall situation of network operation. When the cell in UE active set is inconsistent with the best cell according to scanner. When solving problems. and handover indexes). and check the causes to call drop based on CHR. a CDR of 50% does not indicate a bad network. 4. analyzing the interval between two periods. In addition. hardware. you must analyze the cells with obviously abnormal indexes. the traffic statistics indexes work. you need to focus on one index and combine other indexes. To analyze traffic statistics indexes. Meanwhile. Analyzing RSCP and Ec/Io of Best cell Observe the RSCP and Ec/Io of best cell according to scanner. Based on alarms. For example. If both RSCP and Ec/Io are normal. call success times. analyze RSCP and Ec/Io. antenna-feeder. the traffic statistics indexes work. Re-perform DT to Solve Problems A DT might not help to collect all information needed to locate call drop problems. When the cell in UE active set is consistent with the best cell according to scanner. so further DTs are needed. .3 Traffic Statistics Analysis Flow When analyzing traffic statistics indexes. there must be problems with version. You must eliminate fixed call drop points. and total times of call drop is meaningful in terms of statistics. call drop must be due to missing neighbor cell and delayed handover. transport. call drop must be due to uplink interference or must be abnormal. you can check these aspects. If there are no abnormalities. Consequently you can analyze call drop due to ping-pong handover. call drop must be due to downlink interference. you must analyze the quick variation of best server signals and the situation without best server. you can form a list of cells with bad KPIs by classifying sector carriers. intra-frequency neighbor cell interference). indexes leading to call drop. y y y If both RSCP and Ec/Io are bad. but you can choose to eliminate random call drop points.y y If the signals of best server are stable. you can confirm whether the call drop point is random or fixed by further DT. If the KPIs of the cell are good. Only when the absolute value of call times. you must analyze the cell concern for detailed call drop indexes.

4.Loss.64.SuccEstPS.SuccEstPS. This corresponds to abnormal process. After a service is established successfully. as well as SHO/HHO call drop.CS.SuccEstCS.AMR / VS.2 Analyzing Causes to Call Drop In traffic statistics analysis.RAB.Conv64K / VS. 4. To analyze PS call drop of various rates. This kind of call drop occurs when the load and resources are limited.Loss.3.64 VS.128K / VS.RF.Loss. Causes due to UTRAN The causes due to UTRAN in the cell lead to abnormal release of link. you must analyze the major causes to call drop.Loss. so you must further analyze it based on CHR.RAB.RAB. the RNC sends CN the IU RELEASE REQUEST message.1 Analyzing RNC CDR The RNC CDR involves the number of RAB of each service triggered by RNC.CS.RAB. and then receives the IU RELEASE COMMAND message sent by CN.PS.SuccEstPS.RAB.RAB. VP CDR = VS.Conv.RAB.RAB.PS. 1. the RNC sends CN the RAB RELEASE REQUEST message.2 lists the major indexes for analyzing traffic statistics.128 VS.384K / VS.64K / VS. including two aspects: y y After a service is established successfully.4. . you can obtain the cells with bad indexes and periods. Performing expansion depends on the times of occurrence.Loss.RAB.3. Traffic statistics indexes for analyzing causes to call drop Failure cause OM interference Analysis The O&M tasks cause call drop. AMR CDR = VS. you can obtain the performance of various services and rates in the network. Causes due preemption to RAB High-priority preemption causes release of CS links.384 Based on analysis of previous indexes. More important.SuccEstab.RAB.3. you can analyze the following indexes: y y y VS.AMR.PS.

you can exclude the causes due to abnormal cells.3 Check Cells If the previous KPIs of the cell are normal. the cell-oriented DT is performed to trace the signaling flow at UE side and of RNC. By this. For details.3. and subscribers' interference). so the UE powers off the transmitter abnormally or uplink demodulation is asynchronous. For problematic cells. Immediate normal release during RB establishment is counted by statistics as abnormal release as the cause. They fall into air interface causes (RF and flow expiration) and not due to air interface causes (hardware failure.1.4 Optimization Flow for Tracing Data . Abnormal AAL2 link The RNC detects that AAL2 Path at CS lu interface is abnormal. Other RF causes It is due to RF causes and the coverage quality is bad. You can classify the previous indexes 4. so the UE powers off the transmitter abnormally or uplink demodulation is asynchronous.3. Uplink failure synchronization Uplink synchronization failure causes abnormal release of links. 4. transport failure. Downlink RLC reset Downlink SRB reset causes release of links. see 3. The problem is due to equipment failure. 4. check the alarms. so the system originates an abnormal release. The coverage quality (including missing neighbor cell and over mall handover area) is bad. because the coverage quality (including missing neighbor cell and over mall handover area) is bad. Downlink synchronization failure Downlink synchronization failure causes abnormal release of links.4 Further DT for Relocating Problems Analyzing traffic statistics indexes helps to expose potential problems. Abnormal GTPU The RNC detects the GTPU at PS lu interface is abnormal. The coverage quality (including missing neighbor cell and over mall handover area) is bad. so the system originates an abnormal release. Therefore you can have an overall master of network and obtain the major causes impacting the network. 4.Uplink RLC reset Uplink RLC reset causes release of links.2 by the classification of previous chapters. No response of UU port The UE air interface fails to respond the command transmitted by system. To locate and analyze problems. because the coverage is bad. Other causes You need to analyze the abnormal call drop based on RNC logs.3. you need to use DT and CHR. The problem might be due to abnormal transport equipment. because the coverage quality (including missing neighbor cell and over mall handover area) is bad.

lub. Single subscriber tracing involves recording the following information: y y y y y y y Signaling message (lu.4 shows the flow for analyzing call tracing. and Uu) of single subscriber Performance tracing of CPICH RSCP and Ec/Io UE transmit power Uplink SIR. SIRTarget Uplink BLER Downlink code transmit power Uplink and downlink traffic and throughput (for data services) 4.Analysis traced data includes analyzing single subscriber tracing message and performance monitoring. you can locate basic call drop problems. lur. For more complex problems. . you need to locate and analyze problems concerning commercial UEs or key subscribers which are not recorded at UE side. you need to use CHR and performance monitoring. By single subscriber tracing data. Based on the combination of single subscriber message and data at UE side recorded by data collection tools.

see W-Equipment Room Operations Guide. Flow for analyzing call tracing 4. By searching for the previous two messages.4. For detailed tracing methods. The latter corresponds to call drop caused by SRB reset.2. 4. 4.4.1 Obtaining Single Subscriber Tracing Message You must first trace single subscriber tracing message on RNC or M2000 and then record the corresponding messages.3 Analyzing Call Drop due to SRB Reset .2 Obtaining Information about Call Drop Point According to single subscriber tracing messages. you can obtain the call drop time and the signaling message before call drop for further analysis. Usually analyzing call drop problems by message for tracing IMSI is enough.4. the call drop is defined as: y y The RNC originates RAB release RANAP_RAB_RELEASE_REQ) The RNC originates IU release RANAP_IU_RELEASE_REQ) (the (the message message is is The former corresponds to call drop caused by TRB reset.

5 Analyzing Abnormal Call Drop Abnormal call drop can neither be located from coverage and interference nor be explained by TRB reset or SRB reset.4 Analyzing Call Drop due to TRB Reset TRB reset usually occurs in PS services. 4. so the connection is released.The call drop due to SRB reset is that the UE or RNC fails to receive signaling transmitted in confirmation mode. 4. which consequently causes uplink asynchronization. If the retransmission times of data services are improperly configured. SRB reset occurs probably if the UE fails to receive the following messages in uplink: y y y y y Measurement report Active set update complete Physical channel reconfiguration complete Transport channel reconfiguration complete RB reconfiguration complete Confirm that the UE receives these messages by tracing messaged at RNC side. Confirm TRB reset by the UE transmit power upon call drop and downlink code transmit power. Downlink asynchronization causes UE to power off transmitter. Pay attention to this. When only one link exists in active set. SRB reset occurs probably if the UE fails to receive the following messages in downlink: y y y y y y y y Security mode process Authentication and encryption process Measurement control Active set update Physical channel reconfiguration Transport channel reconfiguration RB reset Handover command from 3G to 2G (HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND) Confirm that the UE receives these messages by tracing messages at UE side. It is caused by abnormal equipment or UE. TRB reset occurs before SRB reset upon delayed handover. uplink asynchronization causes RL failure which consequently causes lu release originated by RNC. To judge whether uplink asynchronization or downlink asynchronization causes release. it might be caused by the following factors: y y y Abrupt transmission failure Abnormal NodeB equipment Abrupt breakdown of UE .4. you must analyze the UE transmit power before call drop and downlink code transmit power monitored in real-time state.4. It seldom occurs in voice and VP services. For example. and consequently SRT reset occurs. strong downlink interference or uplink interference causes TRB reset. Weak downlink coverage.

Total number of successes of MBMS on demand: Total number of successes of MBMS-on-demand originated by the UE. 4. the software tool used for this purpose is Qualcomm drive test software QXDM. The cell is in the preliminary congestion state and the channel power of the MBMS service is reset to the minimum. 4. increase the maximum power of the MBMS traffic channel. The UE is at the edge of the cells. You can see from the terminal interface whether the MBMS service is exceptionally interrupted. The MBMS session drop rate is defined as follows: MBMS session drop rate = number of MBMS session drop times/total number of successes of MBMS-on-demand x 100% Number of MBMS session drop times: One MBMS session drop time is counted once the MBMS service is exceptionally interrupted or the UE is in the buffering state for more than one minute. You can improve the coverage rate by optimizing the RF. or adjusting the antennas. the RNC V18 or V29 supports only the broadcast mode. Therefore.5 Optimization Process for MBMS Call Drop Currently.Analyze abnormal transmission by analyzing CHR or checking alarms. If the coverage does not improve. Currently. The possible causes for a high MBMS deactivation rate are as follows: The network coverage is poor. a block error rate (BLER) of the FACH of the MBMS service also exists. without signaling interaction with the RNC. the MBMS receives a control message from the MCCH to establish the MBMS service and radio bearer. The best method is to perform CQT at call drop points to recheck problems for further analysis. Run the DSP CELLMBMSSERVICE command to query the status of the current MBMS service. In addition. The channel power can. . In broadcast mode. If a neighboring cell is not configured. If the MBMS service is not established successfully. the UE is unable to obtain a gain through soft combining or selective combining. adding NodeBs. we can substitute the MBMS session drop rate for the MBMS call drop rate. The RSCP and Ec/Io in the position where the UE is located are both low. be automatically recovered to the maximum or the service can be re-established through periodic detection. configure it. Confirm that the NodeB equipment is abnormal by querying NodeB state.4. or the cell is in the over-congestion state and the MBMS service with a lower priority is released by force. and the neighboring cells are not configured for the cell in which the UE is located.6 Performing CQT to Recheck Problems When the data is inadequate for locating call drop problems. As a result. the failure cause is displayed. however. and you need to use the drive test software to observe whether the UE is the buffering state for more than one minute. Locate abnormal UE problems by analyzing data recorded by UE. you must start more detailed data tracing.

5 FAQs Analysis 5.1 SHO Problems 5. 5.1. .1.1. SHO threshold relative According to 5.1 shows the SHO relative threshold 1. More than two cells exist in active set most of the time during DT and are in SHO state. the greater the reporting range is. This causes over high SHO rate. namely.1. Analysis Analyze the relative threshold of 1A and 1B event. the more easily a neighbor cell is listed into active set and the more difficult it is deleted from active set. reporting range.1 Over High SHO Rate due to Improper SHO Relative Threshold Description The SHO rate in traffic statistics indexes is over high.

The k is from Filter coefficient. Configure the threshold of 1A event small (such as 3 dB) and keep the threshold of 1B threshold the same (5 dB). Analysis Layer 3 filter reduces the impact by frequently-fluctuating signals and avoids ping-pong handover. there is no layer 3 filter. . If K = 0 and a = 1. The greater it is. If the DT car moves quickly. namely. The filter of measurement values is calculated as below: Wherein. Fn: the measurement resulted update after filter is processed. the stronger the capability of smoothing burr is and the weaker the capability of tracing signals is. In this way. According to simulation.1.2 lists the relationship between the filter coefficient and the corresponding tracing time.2 Delayed Handover due to Over Great Intra-frequency Filter Coefficient Description SHO hysteresis is serious in DT: though the signals of a neighbor cell are strong. Fn-1: the measurement result of last point after filter is processed. Therefore the SHO rate is lowered based on normal SHO.1. call drop occurs due to delayed handover. The filter coefficient ranges from 0 to 6 (integers). 5.A general method is to configure the threshold of 1A and 1B different. the cell can be listed into active set after a long time. 5. FilterCoef. Mn: the latest measurement value received in physical layer. You must make a balance. the cells with bad quality cannot be listed into active set easily and the cells with good quality can be listed into active set. a = (1/2)(k/2).

5.3 shows the signaling flow recorded by UE before call drop.1.1. so you must reduce the tracing time.2 0.4 0.4 2 3 4.3 Missing Neighbor Cell Description The call drop point is related to signaling flow before call drop. Relationship between the filter coefficient and the corresponding tracing time Filter coefficient Intrafrequency tracing time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 0.1.4 17 The distance between sites in dense urban areas is short and the handover time is short. .2 6 8. The value 2 is usually proper for filter coefficient of layer 3. the filter coefficient. namely. 5.6 1 1.

3. the measurement result of UE active set and canner is inconsistent and the SC 170 of scanner does not exist in UE active set. 5. In 5.3 shows the scrambles recorded by UE active set and scanner before call drop.1.1. . Signaling flow recorded by UE before call drop Analysis Check the pilot test data from UE and scanner at call drop points.1.

Scrambles recorded by UE active set and scanner before call drop The cause might be missing neighbor cell or delayed handover. Check scrambles in UE active set. No SC 170 cell exists in UE monitor set.1. .1. because this is possibly due to missing neighbor cell.3 shows the scrambles in UE active set before call drop. 5.

According to the latest measurement control before call drop.1. because the call drop is due to missing neighbor cell of SC 6 and SC 170.3 and 5.2. as shown in 5.1. no SC 170 exists in the neighbor cell list.3. Scrambles in UE active set before call drop Continue to check the neighbor cell list sent by RNC to UE before call drop. .

UE intra-frequency measurement control point before call drop .3.

3: y y y Confirm the scrambles of all cells in active set and the scrambles of cells in monitor set measured by UE before call drop. . If the former scramble is not in the scramble list of active set and monitor set before call drop. Analyzing signaling of UE intra-frequency measurement control before call drop If only the UE recorded information during test. Check the neighbor cell list.1. as shown in 5.4. confirm that call drop is due to missing neighbor cell by using the following method. This applies for solving call drop due to missing neighbor cell on site. the call drop is probably due to missing neighbor cell. Compare the scramble information of the cell where the UE camps on after reselection after call drop and the scrambles in UE active set and monitor set before call drop. without scanner information.

The intra-frequency neighbor cells of S subject are based on data of 2G neighbor cells. a necessary neighbor cell found during optimization fails to be listed as an inter-frequency neighbor cell. For this. Usually they are configured to bi-directional neighbor cells. Check that the cells to be deleted are not the ones that were added during previous DT and optimization. so the actual intra-frequency neighbor cell is 31 at most. If the intra-frequency neighbor cells reach or exceed 31. 5. In the dense urban areas. the densely-located sites and combine make the intra-frequency neighbor cell list large. Deleting necessary neighbor cells leads to call drop. you must delete some redundant neighbor cells. Confirming missing neighbor cell without information from scanner Solution Add neighbor cells. the maximum number of neighbor cell is 32 and the host cell is also included in these cells.4 Redundant Neighbor Cells According to the protocol. The . including DT and CQT in important indoor spots. you can check the variation of traffic statistics result of the corresponding cells. check the revision record of neighbor cells. After deleting neighbor cells. perform comprehensive test. You must be cautious to delete abundant neighbor cells. From this. Following the principles below: y y Before deleting neighbor cells.1.5. Because the RNC updates measurement control according to the best cell which is obtainable by searching for intra-frequency measurement report with 1D event before measurement control is sent.

If no reliable 3G handover times can serve as judgment at the network construction stage.traffic statistics result includes setup success rate. Otherwise restore the configuration. and handover success rate. Ensure there is no abnormality.1. you can estimate the handover probability by using the handover times of 2G neighbor cells. 5. 2G handover times Assist_GSM_HO_Count SERVCELL NCELL HOCOUNT 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 10121 10161 10162 10301 10321 12061 12101 12111 12251 12291 12292 12330 417 3262 2070 381 265 9 961 16 2 4 0 1082 . CDR. 1.4 lists the 2G handover times.

.1. such as cell 12531±12292.12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12531 12391 12451 12532 12540 12591 12592 14051 14072 14091 14111 14460 56361 56362 56820 56910 1063 17019 16030 74 926 20994 2 2 211 1 321 16 0 0 206 Search for the neighbor cells with few handover times and even no handovers.4 shows the location relationship of 2G redundant neighbor cells. 5.

Therefore. the handover times in traffic statistics according to statistics reflects the real handovers. so the handover probability is small. The judgment principles based on 2G statistics might have mistakes.5 shows the pilot pollution point near Yuxing Rd. so you must confirm that no call drop occurs after deleting the neighbor cell relationship. so deleting abundant neighbor cells by using the handover times in traffic statistics according to statistics is more reliable. . multiple NodeBs are located between the cell 12531 and the cell 12292. After network launch. SC270 cell is planned to cover the area with pilot pollution.5 Pilot Pollution Description and Analysis y Locating pilot pollution point 5.1.4. You need to register the traffic statistics tasks of two cells on traffic statistics console of RNC. delete the neighbor cell relationship.1.1. Location relationship of 2G redundant neighbor cells According to 5.2. 5.

y Analyzing signal distribution of cells near pilot pollution point 2. Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd.1. Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. .

The 2nd ServiceCell Yuxing Rd. best near 4. The 3rd ServiceCell Yuxing Rd. best near .3.

5. 5. best near 6.5.1.1.5.1.5. though SC20 cell is planned to cover the area.5.1. Best servers and other cells Best ServiceCell 1st best ServiceCell SC220 Primary Others SC260 and SC270 . 1. The 4th ServiceCell Yuxing Rd. From 5. but the best ServiceCell is as listed in 5. Composition of pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd.5. 5. and 5.1. 5.1.5.

5 shows the RSSI near Yuxing Rd.1.2nd best ServiceCell 3 best ServiceCell 4 best ServiceCell th rd SC270 SC200 SC200 SC260. and SC200 SC270 and SC260 SC270 and SC260 y Analyzing RSSI distribution near pilot pollution point. .5 shows the RSCP of Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd... RSSI Rd. 5. 7. near Yuxing 5.1. SC220.

so you can solve the problem by strengthening a strong pilot.1. Best near As shown in 5. RSCP of ServiceCell Yuxing Rd. RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd.5. The pilot pollution of the area is caused by no strong pilot.1.1.5. The signals from SC270 cell are weak in the area with pilot pollution. y Analyzing RSCP Distribution of Related Cells 5. As shown in 5. the RSCP of Best ServiceCell is between ±105 dBm to ± 100 dBm.8. the RSSI of the areas with pilot pollution is not large.5 shows the RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. 9.5 shows RSCP of RSCP distribution of SC270 cell. 5. The SC270 cell is planned to cover the area. . about ±100 dBm to ±90 dBm.1.

and is performed in narrow streets with buildings around. so the signals are blocked. 1. After analysis of DT data.1. This enhances the coverage of SC270 cell.1. . the residential area is densely distributed by 6-floor or 7-floor buildings. Pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization. 5.5 shows the best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. after optimization.Solution According to on-site survey. The suggestion is to adjust the azimuth of SC270 cell from 150° to 130° and the down tilt from 5° to 3°.5 shows the pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. after optimization 5. the expected result after adjustment is that the coverage area by SC270 cell increases and the coverage is enhanced. The test route fails to cover the major streets.

Best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd.1. after optimization 5. after optimization.1. after optimization.2. RSCP of ServiceCell Yuxing Rd.5 shows the RSCP of best ServiceCell near Yuxing Rd. 3.5 shows the RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. . optimization best near after 5.

5. RSCP of SC270 cell near Yuxing Rd. the signals from SC270 cell after optimization are stronger. This complies with the expected result. the pilot pollution near Yuxing Rd. and consequently call drop occurs.5s).1.6 (the interval between two points is 0. Turning corner effectsignals attenuation .1. after optimization According to the DT data.4. after optimization is eliminated. and the signals of target cell increases sharply. so the UE cannot receive the active set update messages. The variance of Ec/Io is shown in 5.6 Turning Corner Effect Description and Analysis The turning corner effect exists in the following situation: The signals of original cell attenuates sharply. 1. and the SC270 becomes the best ServiceCell.

When the RNC sends the active set update message. and the RNC receives the measurement report according to signaling traced by the RNC. According to the signaling traced by the RNC.6.6.6. and 1a event is configured to easily-triggered state. 5.According to 5.1. the measurement report is sent according to traced signaling of the UE. If the signals are weak before attenuation. so the signaling is reset. and the signals of target cell increase 10 dB. and call drop occurs. TRB reset occurs before the UE sends the measurement report. the UE cannot receive it due to weak signals of original cell. the signals of active set scramble 104 and 168 attenuate to smaller than ±17 dB. before turning corner. Turning corner effectsignal attenuation recorded by the UE According to 5. If 1a event is slowly triggered (such as configuring great hysteresis or triggering time). 2. The UE does not receive the completion message. . and sends the active set update message. as shown in 5.1.6 shows an example of turning corner effect.1. the signals of original cell attenuate 10 dB sharply within 1s. so the call drop occurs. but that of 208 is strong (±8 dB).1. and the UE reports the 1a event of the cell of scramble 208.

and avoid call drop. Based on previous analysis. Adjust antenna to enable the antenna of target cell cover the turning corner. This helps avoid fast variance of signals. with less impact. The CIO only affects the handover between two cells. especially in areas where you can adjust antenna easily). . or frequent ping-pong handover. You must configure the triggering time for a specified cell. If you lower the triggering time to 200ms. Configure the CIO between two cells with turning corner effect to add the target cell more easily. the first method prevails. use the third method (the third method is the best solution. If the second method fails. use the second method. Actually experiences help judge whether the adjustment of engineering parameters can cover the turning corner. you can reduce hysteresis. however. do as follows: y y y Configure 1a event parameter of a cell to enable handover to be triggered more easily. If it fails. because the change of the parameter might lead to easily occurrence of handover between the cell and other cells without turning corner effect. so using this method is difficult. The configuration leads to an increase of handover ratio. Turning corner effecttraced signaling recorded by the RNC Solution To solve turning corner effect problems. it impacts handover.3.

call drop occurs.1. Finally. and becomes a cell in the active set. Needle pointsignal variance The needlepoint effect cause call drop in the following situations: y y y y If the needlepoint lasts for a short period. 1. Compared with turning corner effect.7 (the interval between two points is 0. The turning corner effect causes an absolute call drop because the signals of original cell will not recover after turning corner. . unable to meet the handover conditions and to affect call drop. call drop occurs because the cell can exit the active set before completing a handover with the needlepoint disappearing quickly. the original cell attenuates sharply. and then increase.7 Needlepoint Effect Description and Analysis The needlepoint effect is that affected by the strong signals of target cell in a short time. The variance of Ec/Io is shown in 5. so the UE cannot receive active set update messages. If the target cell completes handover. If handover occurs in the target cell. and failure of one of the two causes call drop.5. it will lead to deterioration of quality of service (QoS). configure a greater retransmission times). so call drop may not occur if QoS is lowered (for example. If the needlepoint lasts for a short period. the needlepoint effect is more risky due to two handovers. If two antennas cover two streets respectively. The needlepoint lasts for a short period. at the crossing point. and consequently call drop occurs.5s). and the handover conditions are difficult to meet. and the signals of the original cell is over weak. Observe the needlepoint effect by scramble distribution diagram of the best cell recorded by Scanner. such as over great BLER exists in downlink.1. needlepoint effect occurs easily. so the signaling or service RB reset occurs due to weak downlink signals before handover.

drop5. 2.5. and drop16 are caused by needlepoint effect.8 shows signal distribution of cell52 vs. . drop6. Call drop distribution of PS384K intrafrequency hard handover Solution To solve problems caused by needlepoint effect.7 shows the call drop distribution of PS384K intra-frequency hard handover (it is the best cell). cell88 (signal fluctuation in handover areas).1.8 Quick Change of Best server Signal Description 5. In addition.1.1. you can refer to the solution to turning corner effect. you can increase the retransmission times to resist to attenuation of signals so that CDR is lowered. call drop point drop4. Wherein. drop15. drop7. 5. The key to adjust antenna is not to enable original signals attenuate sharply and not to enable target signals increase sharply.

1.1. Signal distribution of cell152 vs. after the signals of cell 152 keep weaker than that of cell 88.7. the signals of cell 152 become stronger than that of cell 88 for continuous 2s. as follows: y y y Ho Req SRB Reset Ho Failure TRB Reset To sole the problem. Analysis When the UE hands over from cell 152 to cell 88.1.8. . cell88 (signal fluctuation in handover areas) After the UE hands over from cell 152 to cell 88. Therefore quick change of best server signals causes the same handover failures as the needlepoint effect causes. In 5. the signals of cell 152 are stronger than that of cell 88. This is similar to the needlepoint effect in 5. and the signals of cell 152 become better than that of cell 88. optimize RF engineering parameters and 1D event parameters to avoid ping-pong handover.

Signal fluctuation easily causes ping-pong handover to best cells.2.2. Frequent report 1D event triggers inter-frequency HHO. Reporting 1D event The UE is at the border of two cells. . as shown in 5. 1. so the signals from the two cells are equivalently strong.2 HHO Problems 5. The 1D event is reported when the best cell changes. as shown in 5. To avoid intra-frequency ping-pong HHO caused by 1D event triggered by frequent fluctuation of signals if the channels are similar.5. you can increase the hysteresis.1 Intra-frequency Ping-pong HHO due to Improperly Configured 1D Event Hysteresis Description The UE keeps performing intra-frequency HHO at the cell border. so the call quality declines and even call drop occurs.2.1. Analysis Reporting the 1D event triggers the inter-frequency HHO.1.

Increasing hysteresis to reduce frequently reporting of 1D event According to 5. when UE moves from the current cell to another cell. the 2D event. Therefore the UE receives the signals the . it fails to start compression mode to start inter-frequency measurement. The measured value of pilot Ec/No depends on the following two aspects: y y CPICH RSCP strength Downlink interference The downlink interference in the WCDMA network includes the interference from downlink signals of intra-frequency cells (the host cell and neighbor cells) and the background noise. It is similar to the attenuation that UE receives useful signals (such as CPICH RSCP). However. the downlink interference strength of intra-frequency cells is impacted by path loss and slow attenuation. Wherein.1. and inter-frequency measurement all take Ec/No as measurement quantity.2. the CPICH RSCP attenuates at the same speed as the attenuation of interference (the background noise is not impacted by path loss. so the CPICH RSCP attenuates a little faster than interference attenuates. Namely. 2F event. It camps on the inter-frequency cell after disconnection. At the coverage edge of a carrier. the second times does not reach the hysteresis. so reporting 1D event is not triggered.2.2 Delayed Origination of Inter-frequency Measurement due to Improper Inter-frequency Measurement Quantity Description When the UE moves to an inter-frequency cell. 5. the difference between the two speeds is close (depending on the strength of background noise). Analysis The cell mentioned previously is configured as the carrier central cell after querying cell configuration.2.

Attenuation relationship of RSCP and Ec/No If you take Ec/Io as the measurement quantity for 2D event.CPICH Ec/Io of which changes slowly. Therefore adopting Ec/Io as the measurement quantity for 2D event will not trigger 2D event upon call drop of UE. . configure the cell to carrier coverage edge cell and take RSCP as the measurement quantity for 2D/2F event so that inter-frequency measurement is originated in time. In this case. the CPICH Ec/Io can reach about ±12 dB. According to the simulation and on-site test. so the inter-frequency measurement will not be started. 1. When the CPICH RSCP is about ±110 dBm. the 2D event will be triggered before call drop.

3 Inter-RAT Handover Problems 5. When the quality of signal in 2G neighbor cells satisfies the cell reselection criteria and lasts for Treselection. the current configuration is 7 (always start). the 3G neighbor cells are measured. and it lasts 5s. ³WCP´ and ³GCP´ are displayed in the screen of the Qualcomm test MS frequently. When the signal strength RSCP of the 3G cell minus the current RLA_C (the average signal strength in 2G serving and non-serving cells) is greater than FDD_Qoffest. the UE selects 2G cells. When the signal quality Ec/Io of the 3G cell is greater than or equal to FDD_Qmin threshold. Analysis The reselection from the 3G network to the 2G network is as follows: y y When the pilot signal quality Ec/Io in 3G cells minus Qqualmin is less than the inter-RAT measurement start threshold SsearchRAT.3. The rational configuration of the reselection delay timing parameter Treselection helps solve ping-pong reselection. The reselection from the 2G network to the 3G network is as follows: y y y y When the signal strength of 2G serving cell satisfies the inter-RAT start threshold Qsearch_I. Therefore. From optimized 3G strategy. the UE started to measure the 2G neighbor cell. the UE reselects the 2G cells.1 Ping-pong Reselection Description In part of the office building of a commercial deployment. 3G RSCP is below ±90 dBm at the borders of 3G network. During the testing. However the 2G RSCP ranges from ±60 dBm to ±70 dBm with signals of good quality. the UE select the cell of best quality as the target cell to be reselected.5. the UMTS-GSM dual-mode MS performs frequent ping-pong reselection of cells between 3G and the 2G network in the idle state. once the UE starts to measure the 2G neighbor cells and the signal in the cell fails to be better in Treselection. the 3G cell can serve as the target cell to be reselected. In the cells that satisfy the previous conditions. the location of the MS and the circumstance keep fixed. the 3G cell can serve as the target cell to be reselected. ³2G´ and ³3G´ flag are displayed in the screen of Siemens U15 and Moto A835 MSs. The current FDD_Qoffset is 7 (always reselect 3G cells). The key parameter in reselection from the 3G network to the 2G network in test is SsearchRAT. The reselection from the 2G network to the 3G network takes 1±2 minutes on average. . The reselection from the 3G network to the 2G network takes 1min on average.

According to the default parameters. If the default configuration is 1s. the reselection between the 3G network and the 2G network is reduced. Treselection is increased. compared with the start measurement threshold ±14 dB of reselection from the 3G network to 2G network.2 PS Inter-RAT Ping-pong Handoff Description The UE performing PS domain services hands off between the 3G network and the 2G network. In this way. if 3G CPICH Ec/Io is greater than ±12 dB in the GSM system. so the SsearchRAT cannot be less. after handoff from the 3G network to the 2G network and after release of services in the 2G network. Solutions In network optimization. If 3G CPICH Ec/Io is less than or equal to ±14 dB. the value range of FDD_Qmin is increased through CR GP-032221 (see 5. if Ec/Io is less than ±14 dB. the UE reside again in the 3G cell through reselection from the 2G network to the 3G network or reselection of PLMN. the UE reselects the 3G network. In field test of 3G cells. If the signal fluctuation is over 1 dB.2 for details). The default configuration is ±12 dB. the signal fluctuation of 3G CPICH Ec/Io decides the frequency of cell reselection. the UE reselects the GSM network from 3G network. the UE drops off the network easily. If the UE is updated according to GP-032221. the ping-pong reselection occurs. the FDD_Qmin is increases completely.Therefore. 5. so it can be only set to its maximum value ±13 dB. and FDD_Qmin can be increased. FDD_Qmin has a space of 6 dB. In the current parameters configuration. Since the protocol of September 2003. The value range of FDD_Qmin is over small. the key parameter in from the 2G network to 3G is FDD_Qmin. . If FDD_Qmin is set to ±8 dB. y In CS service.3. Analysis For inter-RAT handoff of CS and PS. the services for CS and PS are different in handoff between the 2G network and the 3G network. the operator can take the following adjustment: y y The operator increases the interval between SsearchRAT and FDD_Qmin. In this way. the Treselection can be set to 5s. the ping-pong reselection caused by signal fluctuation is less likely.

However many current NEs does not support this. .08 protocol defines the RSCP (FDD_RSCP) that can measure the 3G network in reselection from the 2G network to the 3G network. The default parameter of 2D/2F with the measurement target Ec/Io is ±24 dB. In addition. in the reselection of the cells performing PS domain services from the 2G network to 3G network. If this cannot be performed.1. the measurement target between 3G and the 2G network is Ec/Io. Adjustment of start parameters in compression mode and reselection threshold from 2G to 3G network The adjustment fits the 3G cells the property of which is ³carrier border cell´. The measurement target of 2G and the 3G network is unified. the change of Ec/Io indicates the change of 3G cell quality. The start parameters in compression mode and reselection threshold from the 2G network to the 3G network is adjusted. after the reselection from the 3G network to the 2G network started by the network. According to the analysis of 3. The parameter can be adjusted to ±12/±10 dB to avoid pingpong handoff. Whether the UE has handed off from the 3G network to the 2G network is judged through measuring RSCP in condition of the cell as a border cell. the following method is adopted. If the cell property is configured as ³carrier center cell´ and the measurement target in 2D event is Ec/Io. so no mechanism can avoid ping-pong handoff. Solutions The solutions lie in as follows: y y y y Unification of measurement target in the 3G network and the 2G network When there are more than one 3G cells. If Ec/Io is greater than FDD_Qmin. Only 3G Ec/Io can be measured in reselection from the 2G network to 3G network. the UE reselects 3G network. The start/stop threshold in compression mode can be lowered to ±105/±100 dBm. In services transmission. the actual working factor is the configuration of FDD_Qmin (measuring Ec/Io).y In PS service. the UE performing PS services may return to the 3G network through reselection between the 2G network and the 3G network. the UE re-accesses the 2G network. The adjustment fits the 3G cells the cell property of which is ³carrier border cell´. Measuring RSCP cannot assure that Ec/Io is greater than FDD_Qmin. Now only Ec/Io can be tested. the new 3GPP TS 05.

After the operator opens the door.3 shows the UMTS signal distribution observed by a scanner. enters. and closes the door. Change Inter RAT handover trigger time from 5000ms to 2000ms.5. Change GSM RSSI from ±90 dBm to ±95 dBm. Change the cell location property from ³carrier border´ to ³carrier center´ (the associated measurement changes from RSCP to Ec/Io). Change 2D RSCP Threshold from ±95 dBm to ±85 dBm to ±75 dBm. and then the call drops. Call drop is improved. This leads to an earlier and faster handoff. when the UE originates a call in areas covered by the 3G network and moves towards the areas covered by the 2G network. the call drops easily. UMTS outdoor macrocells are used to perform 3G coverage in the office building. Call still drops in test. The interRAT measurement starts more easily. The inter-RAT measurement starts earlier. The operator does as follows: y y y y y y y y Change the cell independent offset (CIO) in the GSM neighbor cell from 0 dB to 5 dB.3. Call still drops in test. Change the parameter back to 640ms. Change 2D Ec/Io Threshold from ±24 dB to ±10 dB. Call still drops in test. The UE performs inter-RAT handoff more quickly. Call still drops in test. 5. the signal attenuates sharply. so the handoff is not performed in time.3.3 Failure in handoff from 3G to the 2G network Description In the office building of a commercial deployment. The call succeeds one or two times every ten times. The signal attenuates sharply. The adjustment results in that the change to the parameter Inter RAT handover trigger time is the most effective to complete inter-RAT handoff. Change 2D Trigger Time from 640ms to 320ms to 0ms. Recover the parameter changed in Step 5 as it was. Call still drops in test. The UE hands off to GSM cells more easily. Call drop is solved. The UE hands off to the GSM cell more easily. The UE performs inter-RAT more quickly. . the test route is switched by passing two iron doors. Analysis The 2G neighbor cells configuration of the 3G network cells that cover the office building in the WCDMA network parameters is examined. The 2G cells that cover office building need to be confirmed in the 2G neighbor cells list. The key solution is to adjust the inter-RAT switching parameters. Change Inter RAT handover trigger time from 2000ms to 1000ms.

but increases the coverage of the 2G network and reduces the coverage of 3G. You must check whether the neighbor cells are missing in the following situations: . 5. This increases the possibility of handoff to the 2G network. therefore this step needs consideration. This increases the coverage of the 2G network.1.3. Increase GSM CIO. therefore this step need consideration. Increase 2D/2F threshold in compression mode to start compression mode earlier. Indoor 3G distribution RSCP Solutions The operator checks as follows: y y y y Check that 2G neighbor cells are validly configured. Reduce TimeToTrigForVerify (TimeToTrigForNonVerify needs no change. Increase the GSM RSSI handoff threshold. The current protocol defines that the UE needs not to report on NonVerify) to make UE hand off to the 2G network more quickly.4 Inter-RAT Handover Call Drop Missing Neighbor Cell Confirm the call drop due to missing neighbor cell by 3G cell information displayed on M testing cell. but reduces the coverage of 3G network.

so call drop occurs. but the cell of PSC273 is not configured with any neighbor cells. When the UE enters indoor. 14:25:36(02): The UE does not report 2D measurement report until call drop. Abundant Inter-RAT Neighbor Cells According to the signaling. A 2G testing UE detects that the 2G signals of indoor DAS are strong The UE starts compression mode for measurement The UE does not sent the measurement report of 2G neighbor cells. Conform that no inter-RAT neighbor cells are configured by examining parameters. the UE must spend more time on inter-RAT measurement. All the inter-RAT cells are configured as the neighbor cells of 3G cells. Therefore the RNC does not start handover. excessive neighbor cells delay UE to measure available neighbor cells. the phenomena of excessive inter-RAT neighbor cells are as follows: After the RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration and inter-RAT measurement control messages. If the cells are added. Ec is smaller than ±110 dBm. However. The cell of PSC273 and PSC 264 alternate to be the best server. so call drop occurs. 16:38:40(20): The UE keeps sending measurement reports. the original 2G neighbor cell information is used to configure inter-RAT neighbor cells. but detects that the signals of other GSM neighbor cells are weak. the UE accesses the network by PSC 417. and then call drop occurs.y y y y y y The signals of 3G cell are weak. for convenient configuration of parameters. The measurement internal of UE is limited. Ec/Io is smaller than ±10 dB. Example : 11:30:11(92): The RNC sends measurement control messages (23 inter-RAT neighbor cells) . Inter-RAT cell offset is configured to enable the UE to hand over to the target cell and to disable the UE to hand over to the undesired cell. In S subject. After indoor GSM neighbor cells are configured as the inter-RAT neighbor cells of the cell of PSC273. The following are two examples. the UE keeps sending the measurement report of Nonverified until call drop. the cell of PSC273 becomes the best server. y y Example 2: 16:38:18(18): The UE reports 1D event of cell 273. and cell 273 becomes the best cell. Example 1: 14:24:17(12): According to RB Setup. the BCCH 538 indoor 2G cell is not configured as an inter-RAT neighbor cell of cell 273. If excessive neighbor cells are configured. no call drop occurs. Indoor GSM neighbor cells are configured as the inter-RAT neighbor cells of the cell of PSC264. call drop problems are solved. The RNC does not send measurement control report.

If you compare it with terminals of other types. the MotoA835 hands over successfully. Improper Configuration of LAC Confirm improper configuration of LAC by signaling. The RNC keeps sending Relocation Require message due to No Resource Available message until call drop. 10:53:23(71): The CN replies the Relocation Failure message due to the No Resource Available message. the CN might reply the No Resource Available messages. control table resource. It sends new measurement control messages after 1. 16:38:06(06): The RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration (active sets contains PSC46. Check the signaling to confirm whether the UE send measurement report messages. so examining data configuration before test is necessary. PSC492. Example : y Moto A835 handset: 16:38:05(99): The UE sends 2D measurement reports. the UE succeeds in handover. After adjustment. No Measurement Report by UE If the UE does not send measurement report. Configure the inter-RAT neighbor cells to the needed four neighbor cells. such as inter-MSC trunk resources. the UE performs the same as when the neighbor cells are missing. and then sends measurement control messages. The phenomena are as follows: y y y y y The signals of 3G cell is weak Ec is smaller than ±110 dBm. the T resource to MGW. if the mobile switching center (MSC) fails in assigning related resources. In addition. and is rejected. and PSC36) 16:38:07(19): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion. The actual LAC is 21000. A 2G testing UE detects that the 2G signals of indoor DAS are strong The UE does not hand over. confirming the problem is easier and more accurate.11:32:22(61): The UE keeps reporting to BSIC Nonverified cell until 2 minutes before call drop. 16:39:19(73): The system does not receive the UE inter-RAT measurement report before call drop. The CN replies the No Resource Available messages. 16:38:08(75): The cell of PSC 492 reports 1D and becomes the best server.5s. Ec/Io smaller than ±10 dB. Example : 10:53:23(29): The RNC sends the Relocation Require message due to the No Resource Available message. y Qualcomm 6250 handset .

Moto handset: 15:26:27(87): The RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration (active set contains PSC201 and PSC16). 16:21:06(37): The RNC sends the Physical channel reconfiguration message. 16:38:48(88): The RNC sends HO CMD message. Other situations: 3G signaling is normal. and the level is ±88 dBm. but actually the call drops. y y y y The CN originates lu Release command. call drop occurs due to delayed handover. 15:26:34(25): The UE sends inter-RAT measurement reports. 16:21:10(48): The system sends the UE HO FROM UTRAN CMD GSM message. and it sends measurement control messages. 16:21:07(46): The UE sends the Physical channel reconfiguration completion message. The time depends on different scenes. the phenomena of delayed handover are as follows: y During the handover process. or the UE fails in Example 1: y . 16:21:06(30): The UE sends the 2D measurement report. 15:26:32(13): The RNC sends the HO CMD message. The IOT engineers think that the version of out handset is not updated. According to the signaling. 16:21:11(11): The RNC sends the Iu interface Release Command message. and the level is ±87 dBm. but does not hand over. it takes 4±5 meters. longer than that on UE. the Moto A835 handset does not send inter-RAT the measurement report for multiple times. This is because the UE does not receive HO CMD sent by the RNC. The following are the time needed by the RNC. due to treloccomplete expire. When the UE moves outdoor to indoor with the 3G signals fluctuating sharply. If the walking speed is 3 km/h. and they recommend updating handset version. so the handover succeeds. 16:38:42(49): The RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration (active set contains PSC46 and PSC492) 16:38:43(43): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion message.16:38:42(16): The UE sends 2D measurement reports. The NodeB does not report RL failure. the RNC originates lu Release because: The NodeB reports RL Failure. Delayed Handover According to signaling of the RNC. 16:21:09(72): The UE sends the inter-RAT measurement reports. and the level is ±67 dBm. but SRB reset occurs. 15:26:31(26): The UE report BCCH 844 BSIC verified. You can only know whether the UE confronts call drop problems by checking the UE call drop recorded in test. a normal inter-RAT handover takes 5s. 15:26:30(30): The UE report BCCH 844 BSIC Nonverified. 16:38:47(74): The UE report BCCH 847 BSIC Verified. In the test of handover between outdoor 3G to indoor 2G DAS.

y Qualcomm handset in the same test period: 17:08:59(29): The UE sends 2D measurement reports. Now the starting threshold of compression mode is as high as ±95 dBm. 17:09:20(89): The RNC originates Iu Release due to Radio Connection with UE lost. call drop occurs during handover. and the UE succeeds in accessing the 2G network). so call drop occurs. and the handover succeeds. BCCH 853. 17:09:00(78): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion. Do not change it to avoid impact on other parts of the network so that the handover occurs earlier. In addition. they are different in measuring GSM level (Qualcomm 6250 uses an external antenna. 17:09:00(33): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion. the Moto handset indexes as follows: y y Ec is smaller than ±110 dBm. 15:26:32(13): The RNC sends HO CMD. and the RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration. 17:08:00(90): The CN sends Iu Release Command (successful relocation). if the best cell changes. while Moto A835 uses a built-in camera). Change of Best Cell in Physical Channel Reconfiguration According to the test result. according to comparison of two terminals. the handover is delayed. Ec/Io is small than ±15 dB. and sends measurement control messages. and no interRAT the measurement report is sent. 17:08:00(25): The RNC sends HO CMD. and the level is ±61dBm.accessing the 2G network. The CN sends lu Release due to treloccomplete expire (normally successful relocation causes lu Release. so call drop occurs in the following situations: . This affects the inter-RAT measurement. 17:07:58(81): The RNC receives the measurement report from UE. 15:26:30(90): The UE report BCCH 844 BSIC verified. and the RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration. and the level is ±79 dBm. Actually. 17:09:04(35): The NodeB is out of synchronization. Before call drop. and sends measurement control messages. Example 2: y Moto handset: 17:08:59(61): The UE sends 2D measurement reports. Here is the entrance to parking yard of Taigu Shopping Hall. y Qualcomm handset in the same test period: 15:26:27(43): The RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration (active set contains PSC201 and PSC16).

and it sends inter-RAT measurement control message of PSC201 cell. The RNC does not process the report (to prevent UE from handing over to incorrect cell. 14:06:18(95): The UE reports 1D event of PSC16 cell. will the RNC avoid this problem? UE Hand Back Failure Other abnormalities in handover might cause handover failure. and cell 137 becomes the best server. and the RSSI is ±79 dBm. so call drop occurs. Example : 14:07:37(38): The UE reports BCCH the measurement report of cell 852. The RNC does not process the reports 14:53:19(99): The RNC originates Iu Release. After Physical channel reconfiguration process is complete. 14:06:20(94): The UTRAN sends 1B event to the UE to delete PSC 201. 14:06:18(75): The best server PSC201 report 2D event (meanwhile. 14:06:22(83): The UE reports the GSM cell 852 (BSIC Verify) according to the new measurement control. 14:06:19(95): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion from UE. 14:06:18(82): The RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration. and ensures that the cell ID is in the list of neighbor cells of cell 144. 14:06:21(45): The RNC sends inter-RAT measurement control to the cell of PSC16 (3s delay compared with 1D event). including inter-RAT neighbor cells (the neighbor cell list is different from that of cell 144) 14:53:16(62): The RNC does not receive the measurement report from UE.y y Between RNC sending Physical channel reconfiguration and receiving Physical channel reconfiguration completion sent by UE (about 1s). the RNC must process UE measurement report 3s after sending new measurement control) 14:06:28(94): NodeB is out of synchronization. Example 1: Example 2: Qualcomm handset: 14:53:08(63): The UE sends 2D measurement reports. Therefore the RNC sends the measurement control messages of best server 137. 14:07:38(38): The TimeToTrigger of Nonverified is 1s. If different interRATCellID is used in inter-RAT measurement control. the RNC sends Relocation to CN. PSC16 is in the active set). and interfrequency and intra-frequency measurement control of PSC16 cell. and sends measurement control messages. . and after 1s. 14:53:16(58): The UE sends 1D measurement reports. and the RNC sends Physical channel reconfiguration (the cell 144 is the best server) 14:53:09(67): The RNC receives Physical channel reconfiguration completion. Nonverified BSIC.

verified BSIC. so SRB is reset. and check the causes to handover failure. so call drop occurs. the UE keeps deleting cell 201 which is the best server. The 3G signals are weak.14:07:38(38): The UE sends BCCH the measurement reports of cell 852. The reason is that the network side sends a PHY_CH_RECFG message. Analyze the signaling process at RNC side. Consequently 2G cells are not measured. You can enable 2D event to be reported more quickly by the following methods: y y y Increasing the threshold of 2D event Reducing hysteresis Reducing delayed triggering time Now the back system can configure different starting threshold of inter-RAT compression mode for signaling. 14:07:38(78): The UE sends the measurement report before failure. The network side receives 2D report. and then asynchronization or SRB/TRB reset cause call drop. Late. The causes include: y The network side fails in receiving 2D report from UE. . so compression mode is not started. However. 14:07:40(79): However. and RNC sends HO CMD to UE. the UE fails in receiving it. Therefore subsequent starting compression mode and handover process cannot proceed normally. but compression mode is not started. so the RNC does not process the request. The above cases are due to delayed starting of compression mode. 14:07:40(12): The CN replies Relocation to RNC. 14:07:38(74): The CN replies that Relocation Prepare fails (no radio resources). the UE replies HO FAIL. so call drop occurs (also for other reasons). CS and PS services. The network side receives Verified measurement reports. and then enters 2G coverage areas. Delayed Starting of Compression Mode y Description: The UE cannot hand over from the 3G network to the 2G network smoothly. After it sends UE the handover messages. so the RNC again originates Relocation to CN. it fails in handing over to 2G networks. y y y Analysis: Starting compression mode is affected by 2D event configuration of ID2 measurement control sent by the network side. but the UE fails in sending ACK message or PHY_CH_RECFG_CMP. and call drop occurs. In details. so call drop occurs. so the quality of signals of the original cell becomes weak. the UE originates a call in 3G coverage areas or uses PS services.

so the call drop must be due to downlink weak coverage. the transmit power of UE approaches 21 dBm and the downlink BLER before call drop reaches 100% (due to the comprehensive effect by inner loop and .5.4.1. so the call drop must not be due to missing neighbor cell. and call drop time The DT data analysis software Analyzer provides the previous data.1 describes the following indexes: y y y Scrambles. Analyzing weak signals 5.4. According to the 5. After call drop. Ec/Io. the Ec/Io of active set is smaller than ±15 dB and the RSCP is close or smaller than ±110 dBm. the UE camps on the cell of SC 232 the quality of which is bad.1 shows the call drop due to coverage problems. 1.4. and RSCP of cells in active set before call drop Scrambles and Ec/Io of cells in monitor set Transmit power of UE.1 Over Weak Coverage Description and Analysis 5. BLER of transport channel.4 Call Drop Problems 5.4. According to the data before call drop.

you must adjust engineering parameters of antennas or construct new sites. the uplink and downlink are balanced. Solution To solve coverage problems. the call drop is due to bad coverage. so call drop occurs.outer loop. 5. To sum up. . the downlink code transmit power reaches the maximum.4.2 shows the uplink interference according to RNC signaling. According to previous analysis.4. Confirm this by using the data for tracing the performance of RNC). 5.2 Uplink Interference Description and Analysis Uplink interference leads to unbalanced uplink and downlink.

The following paragraphs describe the signals before and after call drop. 5. Uplink interference according to UE signaling The UE receives the CC connect message sent by RNC and then replies with CC connect Acknowledge message which the RNC fails to receive.2.4.4. the RNC sends a CC Connect message. 2. This causes the call drop.2 shows the uplink interference information recorded by UE. Uplink interference according to RNC signaling According to 5.1. but the UE does not respond to the CC Connect message. .

the downlink PCICH Ec and Ec/Io are good. The cells involve the cell 24231 and 24232. Uplink interference information recorded by UE From the UE side.3. Therefore it is probably an uplink problem. but the uplink transmit power approaches the maximum. . The RTWP of the cell fluctuates sharply. Interference: The problematic site is the site 90640.

and UE will lead to call drop. The following paragraphs described the call drops that occurred before. RTWP variation of the cell 89767 5. RNC. Some call drop problems can be further analyzed and located only in research and development (R&D) environment.3 Abnormal Equipment Summarizing call drop problems due to abnormal equipment is difficult. 5. NodeB.4. You can refer to them.4. Generally abnormal CN. . RTWP variation of the cell 89768 Solution Locate the sources of interference t solve uplink interference problems.

the problem is solved. It also keeps being deleted because the NodeB is asynchronous. the access to the cell also fails. the Ec/Io and RSCP recorded by scanner are good upon every call drop. it loses some signaling before call drop easily. After reset of the handset. at a fixed spot (at the corner under an overhead).Abnormal NodeB Uplink Synchronization of According to the test. Failure to hand over from the 3G network to the 2G network The 3G signals received by a Sony-Ericsson handset attenuate slowly at the subway entrance and finally no signals are received. Based on repeated DT. If it is missing. Abnormal UE y y y y Failure to report 1a event by UE Call drop occurs easily with a version of Qualcomm 6250 during test. The signals of the active set recorded are weak. This leads to incorrect judgment of call drop problems. At the same time. Each call drop occurs in the cell of SC 160. The call drop location is special. so finally call drop occurs. According to the analysis of data. a conclusion forms that call drop occurs within 5s when the signals measured by scanner in the cell are from only one cell (SC 160). There is another problem. the handset fails to hand over to the 2G . The 2G signals are received at the subway entrance and inside subways. However. Abnormal Moto handset due to continuous CQT After tens of or hundreds of CQTs. the problem is solved. but the uplink is problematic. To avoid this. After the UE is updated. Therefore. so calls fail. but there are cells with qualified signals. reset the handset after continuous CQT. According to signaling flow. According to the signaling flow. it becomes normal. Strangely the downlink signals of the cell is normal (because the cell can measure the pilot signals and send a report). so the link is deleted 5s after expiration of timer. After reset of board one by one. you must analyze call drop problems based on the combination of messages form UE and information about RNC. so the call drop is probably due to turning corner effect. the screen displays an unanswered call. the calling or called Moto handset is likely to confront problems. Missing of messages recorded by UE When Moto A835 records signaling messages. The signaling before call drop is key for analyzing call drop. it does not ring and consequently call drop occurs. The NodeB logs and alarms involve no prompts. the UE does not send the 1a event measurement report of the cell in monitor set. the cell of SC 160 keeps being added because the UE reports the measurement. call drop occurs in the test car when it passes the spot every time. When the handset is called.

After excessive 2G neighbor cells are deleted and only one 2G neighbor cell is kept. the handset will stop handover because it is not specified with the BSIC and the target 2G neighbor cell when it is sending the measurement report. The Moto handset and Nokia handset can succeed in handover. When two 2G neighbor cells with the same frequency and different BSIC exists. .network. the Sony-Ericsson handset succeeds in handover. The handover failure is probably due to excessive 2G neighbor cells are configured.

The causes is as mentioned in 5. If R99 subscribers have handover problems. 5. see 5. the cell of SC 11 serves HSDPA subscribers. engineers need to check R99 handover. 1.5.1. According to previous description.5.5. the HS-DSCH serving cell is updated. Pilot information recorded by scanner The active set does not list the cells of SC 25 and SC 26. the UE camps on the cell of SC 26. call drop occurs with HSDPA subscribers. the call drop is probably due to missing neighbor cell. This is triggered by reporting 1D event by UE. . the quality of signals from the cell of SC 11 declines sharply. After call drop. If now the SHO on the associated DCH is faulty. the HSDPA subscribers cannot smoothly hand over. y Description and Analysis Before call drop. For detailed analysis.1 The following paragraphs describe a case: missing neighbor cell causes handover on associated DCH fails.1 shows the pilot information recorded by scanner. solve the problems as previously mentioned.5 HSDPA-related Problems 5. When the R99 subscribers have handover problems. when the HSDPA subscribers fail to hand over. The call drop problems currently in test is usually caused by R99 problems. Meanwhile. ADCH SHO with Serving Cell Update When SHO occurs on the associated DCH. Therefore.1 HSDPA Handover Problems A connected HSDPA subscriber uses the following channels: y y y y HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH HS-DPCCH DPCH as associated channel. and this consequently causes call drop of HSDPA subscribers.

intra-frequency ping-pong HHO occurs on ADCH. Pay attention to cell coverage and call drop problems caused by decrement of handover areas after R99 network is upgraded to HSDPA network. the coverage scope decreases sharply after HSDPA technology is used. Handover between HSDPA and GPRS For the handover between HSDPA and GPRS. the HS-PDSCH serving cell is updated. and the RSCP is below ±110 dBm. and even call drop. adjust engineering parameters or construct sites. y Solution To solve the problem. HS-DPCCH is used in uplink of HSDPA. so the HSDPA UE consumes more power than R99 UE.3. refer to 5. If the 2D/2F and handover threshold is improperly configured. ADCH HHO with Serving Cell Update y Call drops due to ping-pong handover. y Description and analysis In test. and consequently QoS declines. where the Ec/Io is also above ±15 dB and RSCP is above ±110 dBm.y Solution To solve the problem. The maximum transmit power of some R99 UEs and HSDPA UEs are the same.5.4. After call drop. While the HHO occurs on ADCH. so the problems is caused by weak coverage. the HSDPA UE at the cell edge reaches the maximum transmit power more quickly than R99 UE at the cell edge.2 HSDPA Call Drop Weak Coverage After HSDPA technology is used. before call drop the Ec/Io of active set before call drop is below ±15 dB. This is uplink power restriction. and the HS-PDSCH serving cell is frequently updated. The transmit power of UE before call drop approaches 24 dBm (terminal is data card E620). This has some impact on coverage radius of cell. 24 dBm. the downlink load of cell increases. 5. and consequently. add the corresponding neighbor cell. When the HHO occurs on ADCH: y If the 1D event is improperly configured. . the UE camps on a new cell. This leads to decline of QoS. y Handover between HS-PDSCH and DPCH Related causes are to be supplemented. If the load of original R99 cell is light. ping-pong handover occurs.

the protection time is longer. the handover parameters are differently configured for these two networks.Call Drop due to Improper Configuration of Parameters The call drops due to strong uplink interference if all the following conditions are met: y y y The power of HS-DPCCH is over high The uplink admission threshold is low There are excessive subscribers The signaling flow for HSDPA service handover is more complex than that of R99 service handover. the UE is required to respond messages from UTRAN more quickly. so the call drops due to handover failure. in turning corner. the UE responds measurement control failure. For example. In some occasions. Abnormal Call Drop The early versions of HUAWEI E620 are faulty in inter-frequency handover. After reporting 2D event. . in ping-pong handover areas.

5. .6 HSUPA Problems To be supplemented.

including: y y y y DT/CQT flow for HSDPA handover Definition of traffic statistics indexes for HSDPA handover HSDPA handover problems Algorithm and flow for HSPDA handover The traffic statistics of HSDPA is to be supplemented. V3. HSDPA networks are not commercially used in a large scale. . It focuses on operability by on-site engineers. The fundamental knowledge and preparation knowledge are placed in the appendix. so more cases will be supplemented.1 supplements HSDPA knowledge.6 Summary Based on related guides to handover and call drop. The SHO ratio analysis will be supplemented after enough RNO experienced are collected. it describes operation steps in details for the actual handover and call drop problems in forms of flow chart. In addition. this guide is complete. Operations are in the body.

2 SRB The SRB carries the signaling at U-Net interface. 7. It is a function of RNC.7 Appendix 7. It provides the part that RAN and RB play in the UMTS network.2 shows the structure of SRB and TRB at the user plane. RB is ratio bearer between SRNC and UE. data.1 SRB&TRB Reset 7. 1. It is the service provided to layer 2. It is used in transmitting voice. The RAB assignment is originated by CN. UMTS QoS structure 7. The TRB carries the services at the Uu interface and it is the radio bearer at the user plane.1 RAB RAB is the carrier at the subscriber plane.1.1. and multimedia services between UE and CN. . 7.1. It includes layer 2 and above.1.1 shows the UMTS QoS structure.

After sending PDU.2. During RLC AM entity reset. SRB and TRB at user panel The SRB and TRB carriers signaling and services as blow: y y y y y y SRB0 for all messages sent on CCCH (needless of configuration) SRB1 for all messages sent on the DCCH that uses unconfirmed RLC SRB2 for all messages sent on the DCCH that uses confirmed RLC (excluding initial direct transfer and uplink/downlink direct transfer) SRB3/SRB4 for confirming downlink and uplink direct transfer messages of RLC transferred on DCCH TRB in the AM mode for carrying PS services TRB in the UM mode for carrying CS services The SRB reset involves the SRB in the AM mode. The AM mode uses the confirmationretransmission method. If the waiting timer expires and the sender fails to receive the ACK frame. the sender sends a polling frame and waits for the ACK frame from the receiver. Discarding PCU is not configured now and only triggering RLC AM entity occurs. it keeps sending PDU. After sending for maximum retransmission times. the sender will resend the frame. it triggers RLC AM entity reset or discards the PDU to be sent. TRB leads to triggering the release process at user. the sender will report "unreasonable error" to a high layer and stop resending. This is the RB reset. The sender will perform polling to check periodically that the receiver has received the PDU with a method. . If the timer expires. the sender sends a RESET frame to the receiver and waits for RESET ACK frame. SRB leads to triggering the release process at signaling plane. If it still fails to receive the ACK frame after sending for maximum retransmitting times.

1400. D1000. and D8000 Actual value range: 100.2 RL FAILURE When a cell sets up a new radio link. stop time T302. 800. 1200. 1. 600. it powers on the transmitter. the RNC then originates the release at signaling plane. D3000. D2000. If it fails. 200. there is a process for uplink and downlink synchronization. When the UE receives CELL UPDATE CONFIRM/URA UPDATE CONFIRM messages. After UE succeeds in uplink synchronization. D200. 3000. D800. it releases the resources related to the radio link. the UE resends CELL UPDATE/URA UPDATE . D1200. it sends the RNC an RL RESTORE message.2 lists the timers and counters related to the synchronization and asynchronization. 400. start timer T302. D1800. D600. 1800. 2000. Timers and counters related to the synchronization and asynchronizatio n Parameter ID Parameter Name Description Value range: D100. If the NodeB succeeds in synchronization. D1400. it sends the RNC the RL FAILURE message. D6000.7. and then the NodeB performs uplink synchronization. 1600. D4000. D400. 6000. When T302 expires. 4000. If V302 ” N302. 7. D1600. 1000. and 8000 Physical unit: ms T302 Timer 302 Content: When the UE sends CELL UPDATE/URA UPDATE messages. If the active set uses only one radio link. When the RNC receives the RL FAILURE message or fails to receive RL RESTORE message.

10. D600. D800.messages. 20. D4. Recommended value: 3 Value range: 1±15 Physical unit: s Content: When the UE starts DCH. D200. 4. The default value is 1. D10. Recommended value: D1 Value range: 1±15 Physical unit: s Content: When the UE detects from L1 continuous N313 N302 Constant 302 T312 Timer 312 N312 Constant 312 T313 Timer 313 . The default value is 1. When T312 expires. 800. 200. 100. D2. and D1000 Actual value range: 1. If not. D400. The default value is 3. 600. Recommended value: 1 Value range: D1. When the UE detects 312 continuous synchronization indicators. 2. D100. Recommended value: D2000 Value range: 0±7 Content: This parameter indicates the maximum retransmission times of sending CELL UPDATE/URA UPDATE messages. D20. stop T312. D50. the UE enters idle mode. start T312. 400. 50. the DCH connection fails. and 1000 Physical unit: none Content: It indicates the maximum times continuous synchronization indicators received from L1.

resend CELL UPDATE messages to reconfigure the radio link (related T314 Timer 314 . When the cell update is complete. D16. 4. 50. D2. D10.asynchronization indicators. 100. The default value is 12. When T313 expires. 8. 2. D50. The default value is 3. Before T314 (or T315) corresponding to services expires. start T313. stop T313. and send CELL UPDATE messages. D20. Recommended value: 3 Value range: D1. and D200 Actual value range: 1. When the UE detects from L1 continuous N315 asynchronization indicators. 4. 10. and 20 Physical unit: none Content: When the principle of radio link failure is met. D12. D100. D2. D4. 12. start T314. and 200 N313 Constant 313 Physical unit: none Content: It indicates the maximum times continuous synchronization indicators received from L1. 16. D6. 6. and the radio bearer only related to T314 exists. D8. if the radio link reconfiguration configured by CELL UPDATE CONFIRM message fails. stop T314. D4. and D20 Actual value range: 0. Recommended value: D50 Value range: D0. The default value is 20. 2. When the UE of CELL_DCH fails in radio links. start T314 (or T315). the radio link fails. 20.

and send CELL UPDATE messages. Based on this. and 1000 Physical unit: s Content: It indicates the maximum T315 Timer 315 N315 Constant 315 . start T315. 180. When the cell update is complete. 400. D600. configure T314 > T302 × N302. 10. and the radio bearer only related to T315 exists. D600. 2. D4. resend CELL UPDATE messages to reconfigure the radio link (related to T302 and N302). 4. 1200. and D1800 Actual value range: 0. D10. D1200. and D1000 Actual value range: 1. 600. 60. Recommended value: D30 Value range: D1. 100. 20. D2. D10. D400. configure T315 > T302 × N302. D180. if the radio link reconfiguration configured by CELL UPDATE CONFIRM message fails. 200. 10. Recommended value: D20 Value range: D0.to T302 and N302). 30. The default value is 180. 50. 600. the service RB of corresponding timers is deleted. Before T315 (or T314) corresponding to services expires. D100. D800. When T314 expires. start T315 (or T314). D20. When T315 expires. D30. stop T314. D60. When the UE of CELL_DCH fails in radio links. Based on this. 800. D200. D50. the service RB of corresponding timers is deleted. and 1800 Physical unit: s Content: When the principle of radio link failure is met.

times continuous synchronization indicators received from L1. The default value is 1. Recommended value: D1

7.2 lists the timers and counters related to call drop at lub interface.

1. Timers and counters related to call drop at lub interface
Parameter ID Parameter Name Description

Value range: 1±256 Actual value range: 1±256 Physical unit: none Content: The value indicates the times of continuous synchronization indicators needed by the timer to trigger radio link recovery process. The radio link set keeps in initial state until the NodeB receives NINSYNCIND continuous synchronization indicator. Now the NodeB triggers radio link recovery process, and radio link set is synchronized. When the radio link recovery process is triggered, the radio link set is in synchronization state. Recommended value: 5 Value range: 1±256 Actual value range: 1±256 Physical unit: none
Content: The value indicates the times of continuous asynchronization indicators needed by the timer to

NINSYNCIND

Times of continuous synchronization indicator

NOUTSYNCIND

Times of continuous asynchronization indicator

trigger radio link failure process. When the radio link set keeps in synchronization state, after the NodeB receives NINSYNCIND continuous failure indicators, start radio link failure timer. After receiving continuous NINSYNCIND synchronization indicators, the NodeB must stop and reset radio link failure timer. If the radio link failure timer expires, the NodeB triggers radio link failure process, and indicate the radio link sets which are in asynchronization state. Recommended value: 5

Value range: 0±255 Actual value range: 0±25.5, and the step is 0.1 Physical unit: s
Content: The value indicates the timer period of radio link failure. When the radio link set keeps in synchronization state, after the NodeB receives NINSYNCIND continuous failure indicators, start radio link failure timer. After receiving continuous NINSYNCIND synchronization indicators, the NodeB must stop and reset radio link failure timer. If the radio link failure timer expires, the NodeB triggers radio link failure process, and indicate the radio link sets which are in asynchronization state. Recommended value: 50

TRLFAILURE

Radio link failure timer period

7.3 SHO Flow
You can analyze SHO-related signaling flow by three typical flows. The three flows include adding radio link, deleting radio link, and combination of adding and deleting radio links. SHO is valid for FDD mode. The following three flows are SHO with lur signaling. The SHO flow under the same RNC is simpler, which deletes the parts between SRNC and DRNC. The following three cases are typical. The actual signaling flow depends on the actual situation.

7.3.1 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Adding Radio Link
The conditions of SHO signaling flow for adding radio link are: y y

The UE has one or more radio links with SRNC. The UE sets up a new radio link through new NodeB and new RNC.

The UE can set up only one link with UTRAN, so there is no macro diversity combination/splitting.

Signaling Flow for Adding Radio Link
7.3.1 shows the signaling flow for adding radio link.

1. Signaling flow adding radio link

for

Steps of Signaling Flow for Adding Radio Link
The signaling flow proceeds as below: y

The SRNC decides to set up a new radio link and the new cell to which the link belongs is under the control of another RNC (DRNC). The SRNC sends DRNC a Radio Link Setup Request message, and requires DRNC to prepare the corresponding radio resources. The new radio link is the first link set up between UE and DRNC, so a

The request includes AAL2 bound ID for binding lub data transmission and bearer. and DCH. AAL2 bound ID for transmitting and carrying data) and information about adjacent cells. The lur signaling connection carries UE-related RNSAP signaling. to DRNC. namely. The Radio Link Setup Request message includes parameters as below: y y y y y y Cell ID TFS TFCS Frequency Uplink Scramble According to radio resources.new lur signaling connection is required. to NodeB to which the DRNC belongs. the NodeB starts to receive messages in uplink. After this. The Radio Link Setup Response message includes two parameters: transport layer addressing information (AAL2 addressing. the NodeB reports an NBAP message. The Radio Link Setup Response message includes two parameters: signaling termination and transport layer addressing information (AAL2 addressing. AAL2 bound ID for data transmission and bearer) The DRNC sends the Radio Link Setup Response message to SRNC through RNSAP. The NodeB starts downlink transmission. If yes. namely. If it succeeds. the DRNC send the NBAP message. or 7) The NodeB and SRNC set up synchronization of data transmission and bearer by exchanging the corresponding DCH FP frame Downlink Synchronization and Uplink Synchronization. the DRNC judge whether the requested radio resource can be met. . The Radio Link Setup Request message includes parameters as below: Cell ID TFS TFCS Frequency y y y y y y y y The NodeB allocates radio resources as required. the Radio Link Setup Response message. Radio Link Setup Request. The SRNC starts lur/lub data transmission and bearer through the ALCAP protocol.

Signaling Flow for Deleting Radio Link 7. It sends SRNC the RRC message.2 shows the signaling flow for deleting radio link. The parameters include: Update type Cell ID Downlink scramble Power control information Adjacent cells y y y y y y The UE configures the corresponding parameters according to RRC signaling. 7. The message includes content on adding radio link. Delete the link connecting UE and SRNC through DRNC.3.3. .2 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Deleting Radio Link The conditions of SHO signaling flow for deleting radio link are: y y The UE has one or more radio links with SRNC. Active Set Update Complete message. namely.y The SRNC sends UE the Active Set Update message on DCCH.

. The SRNC sends UE the Active Set Update message on DCCH. This message includes the content about deleting radio link.1. Signaling flow for deleting radio link Steps of Signaling Flow for Deleting Radio Link The signaling flow for deleting radio link proceeds as below: y y The SRNC decides to delete a radio link. The UE deactivates the downlink receiver of radio link to be deleted and sends SRNC the Active Set Update Complete message. The parameters include update type and cell ID.

The UE sets up a new radio link through new NodeB and new RNC. The SRNC starts releasing lur/lub data bearer through the ALCAP protocol.3 shows the SHO signaling flow for adding and deleting radio link.y y y y The SRNC sends the Radio Link Deletion Request to DRNC on through.3.3. so there is no macro diversity combination/splitting. The NodeB deactivates radio resources and sends DRNC the NBAP message. namely. Delete the previous link connecting UE and SRNC through the NodeB which belongs to SRNC. the Radio Link Deletion Response message. The NodeB stops receiving and sending. The parameters include cell ID and transport layer addressing information. The DRNC sends NodeB the NBAP message. The UE can set up only one link with UTRAN.3 Analyzing Signaling Flow for Adding and Deleting Radio Link The conditions of SHO signaling flow for adding and deleting radio link are: y y y The UE has one or more radio links with SRNC. 7. . SHO Signaling Flow Deleting Radio Link for Adding and 7. the Radio Link Deletion Request message. namely. The parameters include cell ID and transport layer addressing information.

1. SHO signaling flow for adding and deleting radio link Steps of SHO signaling Flow for Adding and Deleting Radio Link .

The Radio Link Setup Request message includes parameters as below: Cell ID TFS TFCS Frequency Uplink Scramble y y y y y y According to radio resources. The SRNC sends DRNC a Radio Link Setup Request message. The Radio Link Setup Request message includes parameters as below: Cell ID TFS TFCS Frequency y y y y y y The NodeB allocates radio resources as required. If it succeeds.The SHO signaling flow for adding and deleting radio link proceeds as below: y The SRNC decides to set up a new radio link and the new cell to which the link belongs is under the control of another RNC (DRNC). to NodeB to which the DRNC belongs. . Radio Link Setup Request. The Radio Link Setup Response message includes two parameters: signaling termination and transport layer addressing information (AAL2 addressing. the DRNC judge whether the requested radio resource can be met. AAL2 bound ID for transmitting and carrying data) and information about adjacent cells. so a new lur signaling connection is required. the NodeB reports an NBAP message. The new radio link is the first link set up between UE and DRNC. The lur signaling connection carries UE-related RNSAP signaling. to DRNC. the NodeB starts to receive messages in uplink. The Radio Link Setup Response message includes two parameters: transport layer addressing information (AAL2 addressing. After this. the DRNC send the NBAP message. If yes. and requires DRNC to prepare the corresponding radio resources. namely. namely. AAL2 bound ID for data transmission and bearer) The DRNC sends the Radio Link Setup Response message to SRNC through RNSAP. the Radio Link Setup Response message.

the Radio Link Deletion Request message.4 SHO Algorithm Intra-frequency Measurement Model When the UE is in CELL_DCH connection mode (for example. The NodeB stops receiving and sending. 7. . delay trigger time are included in signaling). voice talk starts). and 1D) event must be updated. The parameters include: Update type Cell ID Downlink scramble Power control information Adjacent cells y y y y y y y y y The UE configures the corresponding parameters according to RRC signaling. The NodeB deactivates radio resources and sends SRNC the NBAP message. and DCH. actives the downlink receiver to be added. When the best cell is updated (including occurrence of intra-frequency HHO and inter-frequency HHO). and sends SRNC the Active Set Update Complete message. the Radio Link Deletion Response message.302. or 7) The NodeB and SRNC set up synchronization of data transmission and bearer by exchanging the corresponding DCH FP frame Downlink Synchronization and Uplink Synchronization. The SRNC sends UE the Active Set Update message on DCCH. The parameters include cell ID and transport layer addressing information.4 shows the WCDMA measurement model according to protocol 25. namely. deactivates the downlink receiver of the link to be deleted.3. hysteresis. 1C.3.y y y The SRNC starts lur/lub data transmission and bearer through the ALCAP protocol. 7. 1B. the measurement control of 1X (including 1A. The message includes content on adding and removing radio link. namely. The request includes AAL2 bound ID for binding lub data transmission and bearer. The SRNC sends NodeB the NBAP message. the RNC sends the MEASUREMENT CONTROL command to command UE to measure and report events (the event threshold. The NodeB starts downlink transmission. The SRNC starts releasing lur/lub data bearer thought the ALCAP protocol.

The cell reselection when UE is in the idle mode and connection mode does not support layer 3 filter controlled by network layer. 1. inter-frequency. the filtering occurs before event judgment and measurement report. y y y y Fn: filtered updated measurement result Fn-1: filtered previous measurement result at last point Mn: the latest measured value received from physical layer = 1/2(k/2). FilterCoef is configured in intra-frequency. y y y y Point A is the direct measurement result of physical layer. The k is from Filter coefficient. FilterCoef is filtering factor of measured values and weights the measurement results of physical layer at different points. From previous measurement model. It is used in event report and period report. Intra-frequency Measurement Events In the measurement control message.4. The intra-frequency measurement report events are marked by "1X". 1A event: a Primary Pilot Channel Is in Reporting Range .3. Point C is the measurement result for event judgment after upper layer filtering. namely. and inter-RAT handover measurement. Measurement model In 7. there is no layer 3 filtering. the UTRAN indicates the events to trigger measurement report.1. In addition. the measured values in cell Measurement results and Measurement results on RACH of UE's report are filtered. Point B is the filtered measurement result at physical layer and it is also the measurement result provided to upper layer from physical layer. When is 1 (accordingly k = 0). The layer 3 filtering controlled by network layer caters for measurement event judgment and measurement report only. The filtering of measured values is calculated as below: Wherein. the handover parameter FilterCoef.

A parameter TIME-TO-TRIGGER is used to reduce the signalling flow for measurement report. NA is the number of cells in the active set. According to protocols. W is the weighting factor. for 1A event. If less than 3 cells are listed in the active set. the UE triggers measurement report. The path loss is: For other measurement values: In the previous formulas: y y y y y y y MNew is the measurement result of cells in the reporting range. no operation is performed. It is equal to the signal strength of the best cell in the active set minus a value. with signal strength as an example. the network judges to add links. the network requires UE to report the 1A event (for example. H1a is the hysteresis of 1A event. R is the reporting range. When the measured value meets the following formula. . MBest is the measured value of the best cell in the active set. After the primary pilot enters the reporting range and remains for a specified period. the UE enters the Cell_DCH state). 1 shows the 1A event and trigger delay. the UE can report multiple cells of trigger event in a measurement report. Mi is the measurement result of cells in the active set. the UE judges that a primary pilot channel is in the reporting range. The UE sorts the cells good to bad in terms of quality (CPICH Ec/No). the UE sends the measurement report when a primary pilot channel enters the reporting range. The cells are included in the list of trigger event. If the active set is full of cells. The parameter is also used in other events.In the measurement report mechanism domain.

the UE sends a measure report to UTRAN. . Only when the cell is successfully listed in the active set and leaves the reporting range will UE stop sending periodic reports. Example 1A event and trigger delay Usually. The measure report contains the information about the cells in the active set and cells in the monitored set in reporting range. if the 1A event is triggered. The UE changes from sending event-triggered report to periodic report. Probably No response is received after UE sends measurement report (for example. The UTRAN sends an Active Set Update message for updating active set. due to limited capacity).1.

Periodic report triggered by 1A event 2. . H1a is the hysteresis of 1B event. R is the reporting range. the UE judges to delete the links. 1B Event: a Primary Pilot Channel Leaves the Reporting Range When the following formulas are met.2. Mi is the measurement result of cells in the active set. W is the weighting factor. NA is the number of cells in the active set. MBest is the measured value of the best cell in the active set. the UE performs no operation. For 1B event and for event-triggered cells. If only one links is in the active set. y y If more than one links are in the active set. the UE judges that a primary pilot channel leaves the reporting range. The path loss is: For Other measure values: In the previous formulas: y y y y y y y MOld is the measurement result of cells in the reporting range.

3. 4. The UE also sort the reported cells good to bad in terms of quality (CPICH Ec/No). it replaces the cell to be replaced with the replacing cell in the active set. After the RNC receives the 1C event trigger list reported by UE. Example of 1C event In 3. the cells where the PCPICH 1. the UE reports the replacing cell and the cell to be replaced in the event trigger list. the UE sorts the cells in terms of measured value and then reports them. 3. 1C Event: a Non-active Set Primary Pilot Channel 3 shows the 1C event.If multiple cells meet the reporting conditions at the same time. the event is used for replacing bad cells in the active set. and reach the trigger delay. and PCPICH 3 serve are in the active set but the cell where PCPICH 4 serves is not in the active set. 1D Event: the Best Cell Changes . PCPICH 2. When the 1C event is triggered. If the cells in the active set reach or exceeds the replacement threshold of active set.

as shown in 4. Example 1D event When channels have little difference. Finally the system marks the cell as the best cell. Restriction from hysteresis to measurement report The second time fails to reach the hysteresis condition.4. According to protocols. This parameter also applied in other events. the 1D event might be triggered due to fluctuating signals. 5. This leads to unnecessary increase of signaling flow at the air interface. Consequently the system adds the best cell to the active set. the system deletes a cell that is not the best cell. Therefore the cells in the monitored set must be added to the active set. The hysteresis value helps to avoid this. If the active set is full. . so no 1D event report is triggered. the 1D event can report only one triggered cell which can be in active set or monitored set.

Example of 1E event The 1E event triggers measurement report of the cells not monitored when the UE fails to receive the neighbor cell table. Example of 1F event . 7. 6.5. 6. 1E Event: a Measured Value of Primary Pilot Channel Exceeds the Absolute Threshold 5 shows an example of 1E event. 1F Event: the Measured Value of Primary Pilot Channel Is Lower than the Absolute Threshold Value 6 shows an example event.

7.4 Ordinary HHO Flow
7.4.1 Ordinary HHO (lur Interface and CELL_DCH State)
The following HHO flow is based on the lur interface when the UE is in the CELL_DCH state.

Ordinary HHO CELL_DCH State)

(lur

Interface

and

7.4.1 shows the ordinary HHO flow (lur interface and CELL_DCH state).

1. Ordinary HHO flow (lur interface and CELL_DCH state)

Signaling Flow Analysis
The signaling flow proceeds as below: y

The SRNC sends the Radio Link Setup Request message to request radio link setup. The parameters include target RNC identity, s-RNTI, cell ID, TFS, and TFCS.

y

y

y

y

y

y y

y

y

y

y

The target RNC allocates RNTI and radio resources for RRC connection and radio links. In addition, it sends the NBAP message, namely, the Radio Link Setup Request message to the target NodeB. The parameters include cell ID, TFS, TFCS, frequency, uplink scramble, power control, and so on. The target NodeB allocates radio link resources, starts physical-layer receiver, and sends the target NodeB the Radio Link Setup Response message. The parameters include signaling termination and transport layer addressing for lub data transmission and bearer. The target RNC starts setting up lub data transmission and bearer according to ALCAP protocol. The request contains that the AAL2 bound ID is for binding lub data transmission and bearer, as well as transport channel DCH. The NodeB confirms the request. When the target RNC completes preparations, it sends SRNC the Radio Link Setup Response message. The SRNC starts setting up lub data transmission and bearer according to ALCAP protocol. The request contains that the AAL2 bound ID is for binding lub data transmission and bearer, as well as transport channel DCH. The RNC confirms the request. The SRNC send UE the Physical Channel Reconfiguration message. When the UE switches from using the original link to using the new one, the original NodeB detects that the original link fails in synchronization. Then the original NodeB sends the NBAP message, namely, the Radio Link Failure Indication message to the source RNC. The SRNC sends the original SRNC the RNSAP message, namely, the Radio Link Failure Indication. When the UE completes setting up RRC connection with target RNC and the related radio resources are allocated, the UE sends SRNC the RRC message, namely, the Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete message. The SRNC sends source RNC the RNSAP message, the Radio Link Deletion Request message. This requires the RNC to release the corresponding resources used by original link. The source RNC sends original NodeB the NBAP message, the Radio Link Deletion Request message.

y

y

y

y

The parameters include cell ID and transport layer addressing information. The source NodeB releases radio resources used by original link and sends source RNC the NBAP message, the Radio Link Deletion Response message. The source RNC starts releasing lur data transmission and bearer according to the ALCAP protocol. When the source RNC completes releasing lur data transmission and bearer, it sends SRNC the RNSAP message, the Radio Link Deletion Response message. The SRNC starts releasing lur data transmission and bearer according to the ALCAP protocol. The request includes AAL2 bound ID for binding lur data transmission and bearer and the transport channel DCH. The release request is confirmed by the target RNC.

7.4.2 Inter-CN HHO Flow
7.4.2 shows the inter-CN (between core networks) HHO flow.

it sends the Relocation Required message to the target RNC to allocating the corresponding resources. or 4) After the CN makes necessary preparations.1. . Ordinary HHO flow inter-CN The ordinary inter-CN HHO flow proceeds as below: y y or 2) The SRNC sends the Relocation required message to the nodes of the source CN and the target CN.

the Radio Link Setup Request message. and sends target RNC the NBAP message. power control. or 19) After the UE succeeds in handing over to the target RNC and is allocated with resources. TFCS. or 10) When the RNC completes preparations. The parameters include cell ID. When the UE completes setting up RRC connection with target RNC and the corresponding radio resources are allocated. it sends two nodes of CN the Relocation Detect message. the Physical Channel Reconfiguration message. The target NodeB allocates radio link resources starts physical layer receiver. or 24) The original RNC sends CN the Lu Release Complete message for confirming release. . the RNC sends CN the Relocation Required Acknowledge message. or 21) The CN sends SRNC the Lu Release Command message. or 12) The CN completes preparations and sends SRNC the Relocation Command message. it sends target RNC the RRC message. the source NodeB sends source RNC the Radio Link Failure Indication message upon detection of RL error by source NodeB. The SRNC sends UE the RRC message. When the UE switches from using the original radio link to the new one. the RNC sends all CNs the Relocation Complete message.y y y y y y y y y y y The transmission and bearer at the lur interface is set up at the target RNC and CN. or 7) or 8) The target RNC allocates RNTI and radio resources for RRC connection and radio links. TFS. and so on. or 15) or 16) When the target RNC detects UE. and then sends target NodeB the NBAP message. the Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete message. uplink scramble. the Radio Link Setup Response message. frequency. The lu transmission and bearer between the original RNC and CN is released.

7.5. When the UE enters the CELL_DCH state or the best cell changes. but the CPICH Ec/No is better to reflect the actual communication quality of links and cell load. The inter-frequency measurement in only recommended if needed. The 1D event is a judgment evidence for the intra-frequency HHO.7. Therefore. the CPICH Ec/No fluctuates slowly due to the same attenuating speed of CPICH RSCP and interference. The CPICH Ec/No or RSCP measurement quantity and threshold is respectively used according to the position property (as previously mentioned. The CPICH RSCP might serve as inter-frequency measurement quantity for cells in the carrier center area. so starting the inter-frequency measurement is not recommended. there are carrier coverage center and carrier coverage edge) of the best cell in the active set: .2 RNCs.1 Intra-frequency HHO Algorithm The intra-frequency HHO occurs in the following two situations: y y The intra-frequency neighbor cells belong to different RNCs. using CPICH RSCP as inter-frequency measurement quantity is more proper and valid for cells at the carrier coverage edge.2 Inter-frequency HHO Algorithm Fundamental Concepts The cell at the carrier coverage edge refers to the cell covered by a carrier in the most peripheral areas. when the UE moves towards the direction with no intra-frequency neighbor cells. The cell features that no intra-frequency neighbor cells are present in a direction of the cell. if the inter-frequency handover algorithm switch is enabled and the best cell is present in the list of inter-frequency neighbor cells. The handover of high-speed PS Best Effort service which exceeds the speed threshold. According to simulation. namely. the measurement of 2D and 2F events is configured. the triggering cell of 1D event is the target cell for handover. The cells in the carrier center area are the rest cells. The absolute threshold for 2D and 2F events is the staring/stopping inter-frequency measurement. In the cell at the carrier coverage edge. The reason is that SHO takes excessive forward capacity.5 HHO Algorithm 7. the CPICH Ec/No can reach about ±12 dB. when the CPICH RSCP is lower than the demodulation threshold (±110 dBm). Starting/Stopping Measurement Inter-frequency The inter-frequency measurement might use the compression mode which impacts the link quality and system capacity. but no lur interface is between the RNCs.5. The cell features that intra-frequency neighbor cells are present in all directions of the cell. Now the inter-frequency handover algorithm based on CPICH Ec/No measurement is invalid. Reporting 2D and 2F events determines starting/stopping inter-frequency measurement on V1.

according to the inter-frequency measurement result. Now you can only consider starting compression mode at the carrier coverage edge. Note: No dedicated control strategy in compression mode is available. After this. the 2F event is triggered and inter-frequency measurement is stopped. If the quality of active set is higher than the stopping threshold. the handover judgment uses different physical measurement quantity (CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/No) and handover threshold. The inter-frequency handover judgment on RNCs uses the absolute threshold judgment method based on cell property. . According to the different cell properties (cell at the carrier coverage edge or in the carrier coverage center). the reported cell becomes the target handover cell. Inter-frequency HHO Judgment Now the inter-frequency measurement is reported periodically. the RNC carries out inter-frequency HHO threshold. the 2D event is reported and then the periodic interfrequency measurement is started through judgment. In the carrier coverage center. If the measurement quantity keeps greater than the absolute threshold and hysteresis until trigger delay. so it is recommended that the inter-frequency handover caters for the compulsory handover caused by in continuous coverage by carrier. forbid the compression mode from starting by configuring parameters (set the absolute threshold of 2D event to the minimum value) and forbid inter-frequency HHO.y y If the quality of measurement quantity is worse than the starting threshold.

Without violating the coverage handover rules. the cell becomes the HSDSCH serving cell for the subscriber. For the handover of HSDPA subscribers. the system switches the service to R99 cells. If the subscriber only for service that is carried on HSDPA.6.6. so SHO is unavailable on HS-PDSCH bearing HSDPA.7. so the major impact on mobility management (MM) after use of HSDPA is as below: y y How to select and change the serving cell of HS-DSCH How to obtain best performance of data transmission. the RNC enable the UE to camps on HSDPA-supporting cell by direct retry and blind handover. engineers must give priority to the HSDPAsupported cells for a service. If other cells do not support HSDPA.2 Classification of HSDPA Handover By Different Handover Types on Associated DPCH According to different handover on the associated DPCH in HSDPA network. the update of HSDPA serving cell. the HSDPA service can be used in the non-superior cells. An RAB is mapped on the HS-DSCH of a cell only. and handover describes DCH handover. but available on associated DCH. and only partial cells support HSDPA. As the signals of HSDPA serving cell are weaker and weaker. the network switches the service to a HSDPA cell with better signals. the HSDPA handover includes the following types: y y y Handover in HSDPA system Handover between HSDPA and R99 Handover between HSDPA and GRPS . if multiple radio links are present for SHO.6 Concept and Classification of HSDPA Handover 7. For example.1 Concept of HSDPA Handover For a subscriber. 7. and the radio link of the cell is the HS-DSCH serving radio link. namely. the HSDPA handover includes the following types: y y y Update the serving cell of HS-PDSCH in active set Update the serving cell of HS-PDSCH by SHO or softer handover on DPCH Update the serving cell of HS-PDSCH by HHO on DPCH By Different Technologies Used in Serving Cell before and after Handover By different technologies used in serving cell before and after handover. if an RAB is mapped on the HS-DSCH of a cell.HS-DSCH serving cell update describes HS-DSCH handover. The HS-PDSCH does not support SHO.

the move from source HSDSCH cell to target HS-DSCH cell is decided according to measurement reports of UE and other information at network side.6.By Location of Cells for HSDPA Handover By location of cells for HSDPA handover. The signaling related to HSDPA in HSDPA handover includes: During NBAP: y y y y y y Radio Link Setup Synchronized Radio Link Reconfiguration Preparation Physical Shared Channel Reconfiguration Synchronized Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit Bearer Re-arrangement Radio Link Parameter Update RADIO BEARER SETUP RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION RADIO BEARER RELEASE TRANSPORT CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION At UU interface: y y y y . y y y The DPCH configuration and active set remains. and reconfigured. the UE is connected to a cell by HS-DSCH.3 Signaling Flow and Message Analysis of HSDPA Handover During mobility procedures of HSDPA. released. At measurement control and measurement report stage. In CELL_DCH state. A typical handover proceeds as below: y y y y y Measurement control Measurement report Handover judgment Handover implementation New measurement control The serving cell update of HSDPA subscribers is with DCH handover. Or the active set upon SHO is updated. the HSDPA handover includes the following types: y y y Handover under the same NodeB Handover under different NodeBs of the same RNC Handover under different RNCs 7. Or the DPCH is set up. so the connection is different from DCH SHO. When the serving cell is updated. the handover messages for HSDPA are similar to these of R99 and R4.

the best server is listed Change the radio link ID by reconfiguring in active set radio link Update the serving cell in active set. Replace the second worst cell in active set. the cell to be replaced is the and update the serving cell serving cell . Flow of serving cell update triggered by different events in SHO Event Action 1D event. The and update the serving cell in active set serving cell is not the worst cell 1D event. update the HS-DSCH serving cell in active and the active set is not full set The best server to trigger 1D event is not listed in active set.y PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION 7. and active set then replace the cell The best server to trigger 1D Perform DPCH SHO to add radio link.6. the current HS-DSCH Update the HS-DSCH in active set to serving cell is the worst cell in support the best server of HS-DSCH. the UE reports the following events listed in 7.6. the HS-DSCH serving perform DCH SHO to delete the cell cell is to be deleted corresponding to 1B event 1C event. 1.4. and the active set is full.4 HS-PDSCH Serving Cell Update due to DPCH SHO Description When the HS-PDSCH serving cell is updated due to DPCH SHO. the active set is full. The system will respond accordingly. Perform DCH SHO to replace radio link. and 1B event. and event is not listed in active set.

HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update NodeB) upon Fixed Active Set of UE
7.6.4 shows the intra-NodeB synchronization serving cell update.

(intra-

1. Intra-NodeB synchronization serving cell update

The update process is based on the following conditions: y y

The DPCH and active set are fixed. Assume that the parameters like transport channel and radio bearer are fixed.

The update does not involve MAC layer, so the entity of MAC-hs needs no reconfiguration. The intra-NodeB synchronization serving cell is updated as below: y

y

When the SRNC decides to update the HS-DSCH serving cell, it sends DRNC the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message. The message contains the identity of target HS-DSCH serving cell. The DRNC commands NodeB to perform synchronized radio link reconfiguration. The NodeB must reconfigure the resource transition from source HS-DSCH radio link to target HS-DSCH radio link. The

y

y

message contains the necessary information about setting up HSDSCH link in target HS-DSCH cell, like UE ID. The serving NodeB sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message. The DRNC sends SRNC the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message. The message contains the following information:
HS-SCCH set information Scramble of target SCCH cell UE ID of HS-DSCH

y y y y

y

y

The SRNC sends DRNC the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT message. The message contains the activation time of SRNC in CFN. The DRNC sends the serving NodeB the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT message. The message contains its activation time. At the activation time, the NodeB commands the source HS-DSCH cell to stop sending HS-DSCH data to UE. The target HS-DSCH cell sends UE the HS-DSCH data. The SRNC sends UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message. The message contains the following information:
Activation time MAC-HS RESET indicator Link ID of the serving HS-DSCH HS-SCCH set indicator UE ID of HS-DSCH

y y y y y y

In the specified activation time, the UE resets HS-DSCH. It stops receiving HS-DSCH data from the source HS-DSCH cell, and starts receiving HS-DSCH data from target HS-DSCH cell. The UE responds SRNC the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE message.
HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update NodeB) upon Fixed Active Set of UE (inter-

7.6.4 shows the inter-NodeB synchronization serving cell update.

1. Inter-NodeB synchronization serving cell update

The update process is based on that the DPCH and active set are fixed. The inter-NodeB synchronization serving cell is updated as below: y

y

y

y

y

a) After SRNC decides to update HS-DSCH cell, it sends DRNC the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message. The message contains the identity of HS-DSCH target cell. The DRNC sends the source NodeB the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE message. The NodeB responds RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message. The message contains the indicator of RESET MAC-hs after reconfiguration. The source NodeB responds the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION PREPARE to the target NodeB. The message indicates NodeB to perform synchronized radio link reconfiguration, namely, to add resource to target HS-DSCH radio link. The message contains necessary information to set up HSDSCH resource in target cell, like UE ID. The target NodeB responds RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message.

y

The DRNC responds RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message to SRNC. The message contains the following information:
HS-SCCH set information Scramble of target HS-SCCH cell UE ID of HS-DSCH

y y y y

y

y

After setting up the HS-DSCH transport bearer to the target NodeB, the SRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT to DRNC, including the activation time of SRNC in CRN. The DRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT message to the source NodeB and target NodeB. The message contains its activation time. In the activation time, the source NodeB stops and target NodeB starts sending HS-DSCH data. The SRNC sends UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message to UE. The message contains the following information:
Activation time MAC-hs RESET indicator Link ID of the serving HS-DSCH HS-SCCH set indicator UE ID of HS-DSCH

y y y y y y

In the specified activation time, the UE resets MAC-hs. It stops receiving the HS-DSCH data from the source HS-DSCH cell, and starts receiving the data from target HS-DSCH cell. It responds the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE message to SRNC. The HS-DSCH transport bearer to source NodeB is released.

The signaling is in the attachment below (the corresponding RNC version is V100R005C01B061):

DPCH SHO with HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update
7.6.4 shows the inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell update after radio link is added.

the inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell is updated as below: y y . It sends the RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST message to the target NodeB.1. The message indicates DRNC to set up a radio link without HS-DSCH resource. The radio link will be the HS-DSCH link. The SRNC sends DRNC the RADIO LINK ADDITION REQUEST message. The After radio link is added. Inter-NodeB HSDSCH cell update after radio link is added Setting a newly-added radio link to HS-DSCH radio link involves two steps: y y Add a new link to active set The HS-DSCH transmits to the new radio link The SRNC decides to add new radio link. The DRNC allocates resources for the new radio link.

excluding the resource of original HS-DSCH radio link. The DRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message to SRNC.y y y y y y y y y y message contains the information to set up DPCH. The message indicates the target HSDSCH cell. The DRNC responds the RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE message to SRNC. The SRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message to DRNC. The target NodeB allocates resources. The message contains the following information: HS-SCCH set information Scramble of target HS-SCCH cell UE ID of HS-DSCH y y y y y The HS-DSCH transport bearer to target NodeB is set up. In the . The DCH transport bearer is set up. The message indicates target NodeB to perform synchronized radio link reconfiguration to allocate resources to target HS-DSCH link. The DRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION message to source NodeB. The SRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT message to DRNC. The UE adds the new radio link to active set. It indicates the target NodeB to set up new radio link. The message contain the activation time in CFN. It receives information at the physical layer of the new DPCH. The source NodeB responds the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message to DRNC. Assume that the target HS-DSCH and source HS-DSCH are controlled by different NodeBs. The DRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION COMMIT message to the source NodeB and the target NodeB. The message contains the new radio link ID. It responds the RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE message. The target NodeB responds the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION READY message. The SRNC sends UE the ACTIVE SET UPDATE message. The DRNC sends the RADIO LINK RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message to target NodeB. and then responds the ACTIVE SET UPDATE COMPLETE message to SRNC. The message indicates NodeB to perform synchronized radio link reconfiguration.

6.y specified activation time. and then the target NodeB starts sending HSDSCH information to the UE. The message contains the following information: Activation time MAC-hs RESET indicator Link ID of the HS-DSCH HS-SCCH code set UE ID of HS-DSCH y y y y y y In the specified time. they occur simultaneously. . the UE resets MAC-hs. Namely. The intra. and starts receiving HSDSCH data from target HS-DSCH cell.5 shows the inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell update during HHO (single step method). the physical channel is reconfigured. the source NodeB stops sending HS-DSCH information to UE. Consequently. It stops receiving HSDSCH data from source HS-DSCH cell. The transport bearer to source NodeB is released. 7. and old link is deleted. The UE responds the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE message to SRNC.6. Handover Flow 7. The SRNC sends the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION message to UE. New radio link is set up in new cell with HS-DSCH.and inter-NodeB HHO with serving cell update have the same process.5 HS-PDSCH Serving Cell Update due to DPCH HHO Description The combination of HHO and HS-PDSCH serving cell update is simple.

The message contains the information to set up DPCH and that to set up HS-DSCH. The DCH and DSCH transport bearer is set up at lub and lur interface. It sends the RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST message to target DRNC. It responds the RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE message.1. It sends the RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST message to target NodeB. The message contains the following information: HS-SCCH code set y . It starts receiving data from physical layer. and HS-DSCH flow control. The message contains the information about HS-SCCH code set. The message indicates the target cell for HHO and the information to set up HS-DSCH resource in target HS-DSCH cell. The DRNC responds the RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE message to SRNC. The target NodeB allocates resources to set up DPCH link. The DRNC allocates resources for new radio link. Inter-NodeB HSDSCH cell update during HHO (single step method) The inter-NodeB HS-DSCH cell during HHO (single step method) is updated as below: y y y y The SRNC decides to perform HHO and update HS-DSCH cell.

y y y HS-DSCH flow control UE ID The SRNC sends RECONFIGURATION following information: Activation time DPCH of target cell MAC-hs RESET indicator Link ID of the HS-DSCH HS-SCCH code set UE ID of HS-DSCH UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL message. The message indicates the cell to be deleted. 7. the UE deletes the current active set. and sets up DPCH link to target cell. The SRNC sends the RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST message to source DRNC.6. and after it synchronize with target cell at the physical layer. The DCH and HS-DSCH transport bearer resource to source NodeB are released. RESET MAC-hs. The message contains the y y y y y y y y y y y In the specified time.6 DPCH Intra-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update 7. and responds the RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE message to source DRNC. The source NodeB releases original radio link resource.6. it starts receiving and sending DPCH data.6 shows the signaling when DPCH intra-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update. The UE responds the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE message to SRNC. The target DRNC sends the RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST message to source NodeB. . The source DRNC responds RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE message to SRNC. and receiving HS-DSCH data of target cell.

6.7 shows the DPCH inter-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update. They occur simultaneously. 7.6.2. DPCH intrafrequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update The flows for intra-frequency HHO and HS-PDSCH serving cell update are simple. After the UE reports 1D event. The following attachment includes the signaling. . the physical channel reconfiguration triggers the HHO of DPCH and HS-DSCH serving cell update. according to V100R005C01B061).7 DPCH Inter-frequency HHO with HS-DSCH Serving Cell Update 7.

. Messages 112±143: the UE sends the measurement report. y y y Message 98: the UE sends RNC the 2D measurement report. DPCH interfrequency HHO with HS-DSCH serving cell update In 7. The report meets the HHO threshold. HHO is complete. The flow for physical channel reconfiguration occurs. The HS-PDSCH serving cell is updated. Messages 99±105: the UE and NodeB starts compression mode.3.7.6.

7. When a UE moves from an R99 cell to a HSDPA cell. and the data service is remapped on the new HS-DSCH. handover from HSDPA to R99 The Case 1 is intra-frequency handover from R5 to R99. 7. 1.8 shows the intra-frequency handover from R99 to R5. according to V100R005C01B061. 2.6. The HS-DSCH set in HSDPA cell is deleted. The Case 2 is inter-frequency handover from R5 to R99. If both an R99 cell and a HSDPA cell are available in the active set of the UE.6. 7.6. Intra-frequency handover from R99 to R5 The strategy for handover between HSDPA and R99 in V17 differs from that in V15 and V16. an HS-DSCH is set up in the link between UE and HSDPA cell. This helps provide more qualified services for data services. the UE . if the original DCH bears packet data service. the service that is born on HS-DSCH channel is remapped on DCH to guarantee the continuity of service.8 Handover Between HSDPA and R99 Description When the UE moves from a HSDPA cell to an R99 cell.8 shows the handover from HSDPA to R99.The following attachment contains the signaling.

decides that the service is borne over the HS-DSCH or over the DCH depending on whether the best cell supports HSDPA or not. then inter-frequency HHO occur . 1. Scenario If the UE moves to an R cell from a HSDPA cell: 1 A 1D event occurs and t new best cell does n support HSDPA. A 1B or 1C event occurs a the new best cell suppo HSDPA. then an inte frequency HHO occurs. In V17. four scenarios of handover between HSDPA and R99 exist as listed in 7. 4 The UE moves to a HSDP cell of another frequen from an R99 cell. 2 The UE moves to an R99 ce of another frequency from HSDPA cell.6. A 1B or 1C event occurs a the new best cell does n support HSDPA. 3 The UE moves to a HSDP cell from an R99 cell: A 1D event occurs and t new best cell suppo HSDPA.8. Scenarios of handover between HSDPA and R99 (V17) No.

1. The report indicates that the signals from R99 cell are stronger than the .8 shows DPCH SHO with handover from HSDPA to R99 (inter-NodeB). DPCH SHO with handover from HSDPA to R99 (interNodeB) The meanings of messages shown in 7.8 are as below: y Message 19: the UE sends the 1A measurement report to RNC.6.Intra-frequency SHO Between HSDPA Cell and R99 Cell 7.6.

Message 44: the UE sends 1B measurement report. Messages 20. Messages 56±60: the RL of original HS-PDSCH is deleted from active set. RL is reconfigured. it sends the active set update complete message. Therefore the R99 cell requires being added to active set.y y y y y y y y y y signals required by threshold. . and the service is reconfigured from HS-PDSCH to DCH. Now the HS-PDSCH serving cell remains the same. and the R99 cell becomes the best server. Message 50: the RB is reconfigured. and the associated DCH can receive the message in two RLs. Messages 27 and 28: the network sends UE a new measurement control message. and HSPDSCH parameters are changed. 7.6. Messages 31 and 32: the R99 cell is listed in active set. After the UE receives the message. updated measurement parameters. 21. which the RNC can receive in two RLs. Message 33: the physical channel is reconfigured. so the HSPDSCH parameters need changing.8 shows the DPCH SHO with handover from R99 to HSDPA. and 22: the RNC sets up a radio link to NodeB. Messages 23±26: the RNC sends UE the active set update message. Messages 29 and 30: the RNC informs NodeB of perform dedicated measurement in new link. and neighbor cell list. Message 40: the UE sends 1D measurement report. and physical parameters of HSPDA are changed.

The following attachment contains the previous signaling. after the UE reports 1A event. it first adds the RL of HS-PDSCH. .8. and then reconfigures the service born on DCH to HS-PDSCH. in the handover from R99 to R5 HSDPA.2.6. according to V100R005C01B061. DPCH SHO with handover from R99 to HSDPA In 7.

The UE reports a 1D event of the HDSPA cell. the signaling flow for SHO from HSDPA to R99 is as follows: y y y y The UE accesses a HSDPA cell. according to V17C01B060. and the R99 cell is added to the active set. and the R99 changes into the best cell. The UE reports a 1A event of the HSDPA cell. In V17. . Inter-NodeB SHO with handover from HSDPA to R99 (V17) In V17. and the HSDPA cell changes into the best cell.3. The RNC hands over the UE from the R99 cell to the HSDPA cell. The following attachment contains the signaling for handover from HSDPA to R99. the signaling flow for SHO from R99 to HSDPA is similar to that for SHO from HSDPA to R99: y y y y The UE accesses an R99 cell. The UE reports a 1D event of the R99 cell (message 26). and the HDSPA cell is added to the active set. The RNC hands over the UE from the HSDPA cell to the R99 cell (message 34). The UE reports a 1A event of the R99 cell (message 18).

requiring network side to add the link for R99 cell. The UE reports 1D event.8 shows the intra-frequency HHO with handover from R5 to R99 (intra-NodeB).8 shows the intra-frequency HHO with handover form R99 to R5 (intra-NodeB).6. Intra-frequency HHO with handover from R5 to R99 The meanings of messages are as below: y y y y Message 31: the UE reports 1A event. . Message 32: the network side prohibits SHO and neglects 1A event.6.Intra-frequency HHO Between HS-PDSCH Cell and R99 Cell 7. 7. 1. the born service is configured from HS-PDSCH to DCH of the current cell. Messages 39±44: R99 HHO occurs. the UE hands over to a new cell. Message 35: after RB reconfiguration.

The intrafrequency HHO of R99 occurs. according to V100R005C01B061. The following attachment contains the signaling.2. Intra-frequency HHO with handover form R99 to R5 Intra-frequency HHO occurs on DPCH while the handover from R99 to R5 occurs. the signaling flow for intra-frequency HHO from HSDPA to R99 is as follows: y The UE accesses a HSDPA cell. . and then the service is reconfigured from DCH to HS-PDSCH in the new HSDPA cell. Intra-frequency HHO with handover from R5 to R99 (V17) In V17. 3.

6.y y y The UE reports a 1A event of the R99 cell (messages 18 to 22). In earlier versions. This step differs from that in the earlier versions. Inter-frequency HHO Between HS-PDSCH and R99 7. and the R99 cell changes into the best cell. . The RNC does not perform any processing because the SHO is not supported. The UE reports a 1D event of the R99 cell (message 23). and then hands over the service to another R99 cell through intra-frequency HHO.8 shows the inter-frequency HHO from HS-PDSCH to DCH. The following attachment contains the preceding signaling. The signaling flow for intra-frequency HHO from R99 to HSDPA in V17 is the same as that in the earlier versions. according to V17C01B060. the RNC re-allocates the service from HSDPA to R99. The RNC hands over the UE from the HSDPA cell to the R99 cell through HHO (line 34).

1. Message 36±66: the UE sends measurement report. The UE . Inter-frequency HHO from HS-PDSCH to DCH The meanings of previous messages are as below: y y y y Message 20: the UE reports 2D measurement report to RNC. Messages 28±35: the UE sends measurement report. The report indicates that the inter-frequency HHO threshold is met. Messages 21±27: the UE and NodeB start compression mode.

and then R99 HHO occurs. .6. 7. 2.reconfigures the service to be born on R99 DCH in RB reconfiguration. Inter-frequency HHO from DCH to HSPDSCH The meanings of previous message are as below: y y y Message 76: the UE sends 2D measurement report to RNC.8 shows the inter-frequency HHO from DCH to HS-PDSCH. Messages 77±83: the UE and NodeB starts compression mode. Messages 84±91: the UE sends measurement report.

and the inter-frequency HHO from DCH to HS-PDSCH is complete. 3.9 shows the handover between HSDPA and GRPS. For details.9 Handover between HSDPA and GPRS The handover between HSDPA and GPRS is similar to that of R99. The following attachment contains the signaling. The signaling flow for inter-frequency HHO from R99 to HSDPA in V17 is the same as that in the earlier versions.6. The signaling is to be implemented.6. only the HHO from a HSDPA cell to an R99 cell differs from that in the earlier version. 7. Handover between HSDPA and GPRS 7. In earlier versions. the RNC re-allocates the service from HSDPA to R99. In V17.6. and the interfrequency HHO threshold is met. The service is born on HS-DSCH in RB reconfiguration in target cell.y Messages 92±121: the UE sends measurement report. and then hands over the service to another R99 cell through intra-frequency HHO.10 Direct Retry of HSDPA . the handover from the HSDPA cell to the R99 cell completes in one step. The inter-frequency HHO occurs. In the signaling flow for inter-frequency HHO from HSDPA to R99 in V17. according to V100R005C01B061. see the Appendix 5. 7.

the system allocates the data traffic to the HS-DSCH of the HSDPA cell through direct retry if a 4A event occurs due to increase of data traffic of the UE in the R99 cell. Thus. it can use resource better. the R99 cell shares HSDPA resources with the HSDPA cell. When the UEs originate to access the network from R99 or HSDPA cells.In V16. the resources are better used. 1. Flow for direct retry during setup of a service Inter-frequency direct retry triggered by 4A events When an R99 cell and a HSDPA cell cover the same geographic area. the system allocates all data services to the HS-DSCH of HSDPA cells. In this case. direct retry of HSDPA includes the following two types: Inter-frequency direct retry of HSDPA during setup of a service When the R99 cells and HSDPA cells cover the same geographic area. . Thus. it can share the HSDPA resource of HSDPA cells however it is an R99 UE or a HSDPA UE.

the request is sent to the other R5 cell through an interfrequency direct retry. The UE that supports HSDPA originates a request for setup of a service that is fit for HSDPA or originates an RAB reconfiguration request (channel type) in an R5 cell. An inter- . The service setup here must be the first service setup of the UE or the existing services are over the FACH. the new service does not impact the existing services.1. If the request is rejected by the local cell. Thus. If the UE that supports HSDPA originates a request for setup of a service that is fit for HSDPA in the R99 cell. the service is sent to the R5 cell through direct retry during RAB setup. y Scenario 2 An R5 cell has an inter-frequency R99 cell with the same coverage. Direct retry triggered by traffic In V17. the UE supports HSDPA but the best cell does not. y Inter-frequency direct retry in the case admission rejection Suppose an R5 has an inter-frequency R5 cell with the same coverage. the following types of inter-frequency direct retry of HSDPA are available: y y Inter-frequency direct retry of HSDPA during setup of a service Scenario 1 An R99 cell overlaps with an inter-frequency R5 cell with the same coverage. or the UE that does not support HSDPA originates a request for setup of a service on HSDPA in the R5 cell. y Inter-frequency direct retry triggered by 4A events The current service that is fit for the HS-DSCH is over the DCH for some reason (such as admission rejection). the request is sent to the R99 cell through direct retry during RAB setup. If the UE that supports HSDPA originates a request for setup of a service that HSDPA cannot bear in the R5 cell.

the system triggers state transition to reduce consumption of DPCH resource. In this case.11 shows the switch of channel type. Switch type of channel HS-DSCH <-> FACH The UE with HSDPA channel uses DPCH resource of certain bandwidth. the system reallocates the service from the DCH to the HS-DSCH in the inter-frequency R5 cell with the same coverage if the channel type fit for service mapping has conflicted with the type of the current serving channel for a period of time (as specified by the HSDPA direct retry timer). the system reallocates the service from the DCH to the HS-DSCH in the inter-frequency R5 cell with the same coverage if the data traffic of the UE increases (the RNC receives a 4A event measurement report). y Inter-frequency direct retry triggered by a timer The current service that is fit for the HS-DSCH is over the DCH for some reason (such as admission rejection). To set the expiry time of COIFTIMER:HRetryTimerLen=5000. Whereas.. the data service is more active (the network receives the 4a event of service measurement quantity). the all service (including the service on DCH and HS-DSCH) are without data transmission for a long time.11 Switch of Channel Type When the HSDPA is used. 2. The signaling is to be supplemented. In this case. a new state appears compared with R99. The switch of channel type between HS-DSCH and FACH/DCH includes: y y HS-DSCH <-> FACH HS-DSCH <-> DCH 7.frequency R5 cell with the same coverage is available. the CELL_DCH state on HS-DSCH. the UE is triggered to switch from CELL_FACH state to HS-DSCH.6. run the command SET 7. the UE supports HSDPA but the best cell does not. . the timer. Therefore.6. If all services of HSDPA UE are BE services. An interfrequency R5 cell with the same coverage is available. the UE transits from CELL_DCH (HS-DSCH) state to CELL_FACH state.

This case includes that UE moves from an R99 cell to a HSDPA cell or from a HSDPA cell to a R99 cell. See 7. y Scenario 2: A 4A event triggers D2H switch between two cells at different frequencies but with the same coverage. the switch between HS-DSCH and DCH might occur in any of the following cases: y y y The reason for handover between HS-DSCH and DCH is coverage. Both the UE and the best cell support HSDPA. The current service that is fit for the HS-DSCH is over the DCH for some reason (such as admission rejection). The following attachment contains D2H switch signaling. In this case. The RNC reallocate the data service to HSDSCH. The current service that is suitable for the HS-DSCH is over the DCH for some reason (such as admission rejection). the handover between HS-DSCH and DCH might occur in any of the following cases: y One cause to handover between HS-DSCH and DCH is coverage. In V17. If the service set up by UE fits for HS-DSCH. y y D2H channel type switch triggered by traffic Scenario 1: A 4A event triggers switch between D2H channel types in a cell. HS-DSCH <-> DCH In V16. If the rate of service on the current DCH equals to 384 Kbps.6.6. the RNC triggers switch of channel type after the HSDPA cell is added to actives set of UE.The attachment below contains the signaling. the system reallocates the service from the DCH to the HS-DSCH in the best cell if the data traffic of the UE increases (the RNC receives a 4A event measurement report).10. In this case. the system reallocates the service from the DCH to the HS-DSCH in the best cell if the data traffic of the UE increases (the RNC receives a 4A event measurement report). The rate of the service on the current DCH is lower than 384 Kbps. In this case. Both the UE and the best cell support HSDPA. See 7. a timer is needed to trigger the D2H switch. D2H channel type switch triggered by traffic Scenario 1: A 4A event triggers D2H channel type switch in a cell.10. This case includes that the UE moves from an R99 cell to a HSDPA cell or from a HSDPA cell to a R99 cell. The rate of the service on the current DCH is lower than 384 Kbps. y Scenario 2: A 4A event triggers D2H switch between two cells at different frequencies but with the same coverage. no 4A event occurs. This is due to mobility of UE. according to V17C01B060: .

6. In this case. The current service that is suitable for the HS-DSCH is over the DCH for some reason (such as admission rejection).y y D2H channel type switch triggered by a timer Scenario 1: The timer triggers D2H switch in a cell. according to V17C01B060: . timer. the system re-configures the service from the DCH to the HS-DSCH in the best cell if the channel type fit for service mapping has conflicted with the type of the current serving channel for a period of time (as specified by the HSDPA direct retry timer). run the command SET The following attachment contains signaling in the case that the timer triggers D2H switch in a cell. To set the expiry time of the COIFTIMER:HRetryTimerLen=5000. y Scenario 2: The timer triggers D2H switch in the case of inter-frequency direct retry. See 7. Both the UE and the best cell support HSDPA..10.

the E-DCH bears the uplink services. In some cases. According to the protocol. the serving cell changes. the following two types of links may coexist between a subscriber and the network: y y HSUPA link: Each UE can have only one HSUPA link with the network.1 Basic Concepts If the HSUPA is used. If all cells in the active set belong to the SRNC. HSUPA Channel Selection Policy y y If all cells in the active set support the HSUPA. . if a new cell added to the active set does not support the HSUPA or the new cell belongs to the DRNC. In other cases. the E-DCH bears the uplink services. the HSUPA supports SHO. including SHO. the DCH bears the uplink services (The lur interface in phase 1 of the product does not support the HSUPA). Serving E-DCH RLS: It refers to a cell set that contains at least the serving E-DCH cell. HHO. the serving cell is updated.7. the cells in the serving E-DCH RLS and the serving E-DCH cell belong to the same NodeB. For these reasons. the HSUPA serving cell and HSDPA serving cell for a subscriber must be the same one. the DCH bears the uplink services. and handover between systems HSUPA Serving Cell The E-DCH active set has three types of RL: y y y Serving E-DCH Cell: The UE receives AG scheduling from the serving E-DCH cell. Different from the HSDPA.7. DPCH link: The handover functions supported by the DPCH link are the same as those supported by the R99 system. the channel type changes from the E-DCH to the DCH. The UE can receive RGCH from these cells. If the best cell in the active set changes due to changes of the radio environment. the channel type changes from the the DCH to the E-DCH. The UE can receive the AGCH message from only one cell. The UE can receive serving RGCH from such cells and perform softer combination.7 Concept and Classification of HSUPA Handover 7. Non-Serving RL: It means cells that belong to the E-DCH active set but to the serving E-DCH RLS. In other cases. This cell is the serving cell of the HSUPA. That is. That is. The HSUPA handover requires management of the HSUPA serving cell.

3 Inter-frequency HHO betw two HSUPA cells A 2D event occurs and compressed mode is enab The handover also migh triggered by a 2B event periodic measurement repor .2 Classification of HSUPA Handover The HSUPA handover includes the following types: y y y Handover between two HSUPA cells Handover between a HSUPA cell and a non-HSUPA cell Handover between a HSUPA cell and a GSM/GPRS cell 7.7. 1C. Scenario 1 Intra-frequency SHO betw two HSUPA cells A 1A. 1B.3. No non-HSUPA cell exist the active set before and the active set is updated.7.3 Signaling Flow and Message Analysis of HSUPA Handover Handover Between Two HSUPA Cells The handover between two HSUPA cells includes three scenarios as listed in 7. 1. Handover between two HSUPA cells No. or 1D e occurs.7.7. 2 Intra-frequency HHO betw two HSUPA cells A 1D event occurs.

so a 1D event occurs.7. The RNC updates the HSUPA serving cell. Another HSUPA cell becomes the best cell as the UE moves. All cells in the active set support the HSUPA. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. 1.3 shows the related signaling. . and the HSUPA link of the UE is handed over to Cell 2 from Cell 1.Intra-frequency SHO Between Two HSUPA Cells The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2. Intra-frequency SHO between two HSUPA cells 7.

The signals of HSUPA 2 in the monitor set become stronger. the RNC updates the serving cell is updated by re-configuring the physical channel. Signaling for HSUPA cell update triggered by a 1D event If the monitor set reports a 1D event. At last.2. In this case.3 shows the related signaling: .7. 7. the service is over the E-DCH in HSUPA 1 that works as the serving cell. the HSUPA serving cell also is updated. the UE reports a 1D event and the RNC adds HSUPA 2 to the active set. For example.

The RNC reconfigures the physical channel to finish the intra-frequency HHO.3. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. In this case. . a 1D event occurs. The signals of the current HSUPA serving cell (Cell 1) become weak and those of Cell 2 become stronger as the UE moves. Signaling for HSUPA cell update triggered by a 1D event (reported by the monitor set) Intra-frequency HHO Between Two HSUPA Cells The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2.

Signaling for intrafrequency HHO between two HSUPA cells Inter-frequency HHO Between Two HSUPA Cells The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2.3 shows the related signaling: 2. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at different frequencies.7. The signals of the current HSUPA serving cell (Cell 1) become weak and those .1. Intra-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 7.

7. 1. If the target cell meets the handover requirements and the E-DCH allows the service setup. In this case. a 2D event occurs.3 shows the related signaling: . the RNC allocates the UE from Cell 1 to Cell 2 by re-configuring the physical channel and sets up the HSUPA link of the UE on the E-DCH of Cell 2. Inter-frequency HHO between two HSUPA cells 7. The UE starts the compression mode and performs inter-frequency measurement.of Cell 2 become stronger as the UE moves.

the service is allocated to the E-DCH from the DCH.3 shows the inter-RNC HSUPA handover: . After the migration. If a DRNC cell is added to the active set. provided all cells in the active set support the HSUPA.2. Signaling for interfrequency HHO between two HSUPA cells Inter-RNC HSUPA Handover HSUPA Phase 1 does not support HSUPA handover between lur interfaces.7. 7. In this case. the service must be allocated to the DCH from the E-DCH. all cells in the active set belong to the SRNC.

Inter-RNC handover HSUPA Handover Between a HSUPA Cell and a Non-HSUPA Cell In the initial stage of use of the HSUPA. Handover between a HSUPA cell and a nonHSUPA cell No. and then allocates the service from the E-DCH to the DCH through RB reconfiguration. handover between a HSUPA cell and a non-HSUPA cell occurs when the UE moves. The RNC updates the active set based on the measurement report. or 1D event occurs. usually it is hard to implement continuous coverage of HSUPA cells. 1C. 1.1. Scenario Rules 1 SHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell A 1A. In this case.7.3. . The handover between a HSUPA cell and a non-HSUPA cell includes six scenarios as listed in 7.

determines whether the service is allocated to the E-DCH through RB reconfiguration. The requirements and its DCH handover also might be allows service setup.perform measurement.2 Intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non. the RNC triggered by a periodic allocates the service from the Emeasurement report. the handover is complete through the following two steps: 3 4 5 6 . DCH through RB reconfiguration. cell to a HSUPA cell the channel mapping policy A 1B or 1C event occurs. Inter-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell A 2b event occurs. If the target cell allows HSUPA cell the HSUPA access. The handover also might be triggered by a periodic measurement report. The UE reports a 2D event to start the compression mode and perform inter-frequency measurement. If the target cell meets the handover requirements. the RNC allocates the service to the EA 1D event occurs. If the target cell HSUPA cell meets the handover A 2b event occurs. The RNC updates the active set based on the measurement SHO from a non-HSUPA report. The UE reports a 2D event to Inter-frequency HHO from start the compression mode and inter-frequency a HSUPA cell to a non. DCH to the DCH through RB reconfiguration.The RNC allocates the service from the E-DCH to the DCH HSUPA cell through RB reconfiguration. A 1D event occurs. If all cells in the updated active set support the HSUPA. The intra-frequency HHO of the DCH is complete through Intra-frequency HHO from reconfiguration of the physical a non-HSUPA cell to a channel.

4 shows the handover signaling: . 7.7. 2. the RNC allocates the service to the EDCH through RB reconfiguration.7. If signals of Cell 2 become strong enough to trigger a 1A or 1C event as the UE moves. In this case. The RNC allocates the service from the E-DCH to the DCH through RB reconfiguration according to the HSUPA channel selection policy. non-HSUPA cells exist in the active set. SHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 7.The intra-frequency HHO of the DCH is complete through reconfiguration of the physical channel. the RNC adds Cell 2 to the active set.4 SHO from a HSUPA Cell to a Non-HSUPA Cell Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. If the target cell allows the HSUPA access.

Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. Addition of an R99 cell when the service is on the E-DCH Intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA Cell to a Non-HSUPA Cell The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2. If signals of Cell 2 become stronger as the UE moves.3. . the UE reports a 1D event. In this case. the RNC allocates the service to the DCH from the E-DCH through RB reconfiguration (The intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to an R99 cell is complete in one step).

If a 2D event occurs as the UE moves.1.7. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at different frequencies. If the target cell meets the handover . Intra-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 7.4 shows the related signaling: 2. the UE starts the compression mode and performs the inter-frequency measurement. Signaling for intrafrequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell Inter-frequency HHO from a HSUPA Cell to a Non-HSUPA Cell The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2.

the RNC hands over the UE from Cell 1 to Cell 2 (HHO) through RB reconfiguration.4 shows the related signaling: .requirements. Inter-frequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 7.7. 1.

Signaling for interfrequency HHO from a HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell 7. the RNC delete Cell 1 from the active set.5 SHO from a Non-HSUPA Cell to a HSUPA Cell The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2. the UE reports the 1B event. If signals of Cell 1 become weak enough to trigger a 1B event as the UE moves. the RNC allocates the service from the DCH to the E-DCH through RB reconfiguration. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. The DPCH of Cell 1 bears the BE service of the UE.2.7. All cells in the updated active set support the HSUPA. . If the service is fit for the E-DCH. In this case.

3. SHO from a nonHSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 7.5 shows the related signaling: .7.

the intra-frequency HHO of the DCH is competed through reconfiguration of the physical channel. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at the same frequency. and then perform RB reconfiguration from the DCH to the E-DCH in the HSUPA cell). . At first. The target cell then determines whether the service can be set up on the E-DCH if the service is fit for the E-DCH. the UE reports a 1D event. If signals of Cell 2 become strong enough as the UE moves. If the E-DCH of the target cell allows setup of the service. the RNC allocates the service to the E-DCH through RB reconfiguration (The intra-frequency HHO from an R99 cell to a HSUPA cell is complete through two steps: Carry out intra-frequency HHO from a DCH to another DCH.4. SHO from a nonHSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell (triggered by a 1B event) Intra-frequency HHO from a Non-HSUPA Cell to a HSUPA Cell The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2.

1.5 shows the related signaling: . Intra-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell 7.7.

the inter-frequency HHO of the DCH is complete. The target cell then determines whether the service can be set up on the E-DCH if the service is fit for the E-DCH. . the RNC allocates the service to the E-DCH through RB reconfiguration. The UE is connected to the DPCH of Cell 1. If the E-DCH of the target cell allows setup of the service. Signaling for intrafrequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell Inter-frequency HHO from a Non-HSUPA Cell to a HSUPA Cell The UE moves from Cell 1 to Cell 2. Cell 2 and Cell 1 are adjacent cells at different frequencies.2. If the target cell meets the handover requirements. a 2D event occurs and the UE starts the compression mode. If signals of Cell 2 become strong enough as the UE moves.

Direct retry of the HSUPA includes the following three scenarios: y y y Direct retry from an R99 cell to a HSUPA cell Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to an R99 cell Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell . 7.7 Direct Retry of HSUPA The direct retry of the HSUPA can balance load between an R99 cell and a HSUPA cell at different frequencies or between different HSUPA cells. For details. Thus. The signaling flow is as follows: y y y The UE starts the compression mode. The use of the HSUPA does not impact triggering conditions and decision of the handover between different systems. the handover between a HSUPA cell and a GPRS cell is similar to that between an R99 cell and a GPRS cell. The UE measures the GPRS cell. Inter-frequency HHO from a non-HSUPA cell to a HSUPA cell The signaling is to be supplemented.6 Handover Between a HSUPA Cell and a GSM/GPRS Cell The handover between different systems is caused by coverage or service.1. 7. The RNC carries out handover from a HSUPA cell to a GPRS cell based on the measurement report from the UE.7.7. see the related section earlier in this document.

The related MML is SET COIFTIMER. The system periodic measurement uses the HSDPA retry timer (ms). The system periodically checks the services that conflict with the bearer policy and attempts to retry the services to the E-DCH. .Direct Retry from an R99 Cell to a HSUPA Cell An R99 cell and a HSUPA cell are at different frequencies but with the same coverage. the UE originates a service that is fit for the E-DCH. A service that should have been set up over the E-DCH according to the service mapping rules is over the DCH of the R99 cell. 1. Direct retry from an R99 cell to a HSUPA cell Direct Retry from a HSUPA Cell to an R99 Cell Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to an R99 cell might occur if the UE requests for setup of the CS service in the HSUPA cell. The traffic of the UE that is over the FACH in the R99 cell increases and the service is fit for the E-DCH. Direct retry from an R99 cell to a HSUPA cell might occur in any of the following cases: y y y In the R99 cell.

Once the . Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell 7. Direct retry from a HSUPA cell to an R99 cell Direct Retry from a HSUPA Cell to another HSUPA Cell Direct retry between two HSUPA cells at different frequencies but with the same coverage might occur in any of the following cases: y y y The HSUPA UE¶s request for setup of the PS service is rejected by the HSUPA cell.7. a timer for periodic measurement is available in the system.1. a channel state is added: the CELL_DCH state of the E-DCH. The switch from the FACH to the E-DCH in the case of traffic increase is rejected by the HSUPA cell. The switch from the DCH to the E-DCH is rejected by the HSUPA cell.8 Switch between Channel Types After the HSUPA is used. The HSUPA related switch between channel types involves switch between the CELL_FACH and the CELL_DCH (DCH). The direct retry algorithm might trigger switch between the CELL_FACH and the CELL_DCH (DCH). 1. In addition.

Measurement reports (4A) sent by the UE trigger switch from the CELL_FACH to the CELL_DCH. the UE measurement report does not support measurement of the E-DCH).timer expires. The internal measurement of the RNC triggers switch from the CELL_DCH(EDCH) and the CELL_FACH (According to the current protocol. 2. the system checks whether the current bearer mode conflicts with the bearer policy. Switch between HSUPA channel types . If a conflict exists. the system triggers switch between channel types. Traffic triggers switch between the CELL_DCH (E-DCH) and the CELL_FACH.

8 shows the signaling flow for handover from WCDMA to GSM. y > handover judgment > handover y y y During the measurement control stage. Flows of Handover from WCDMA to GSM 7. the UE sends the measurement control message to the network. the UE can test GSM cells without starting compression mode). the flow for CS domain handover from WCDMA to GSM is followed.8 Handover from WCDMA to GSM If the UE performs inter-RAT handover for CS domain services. the starting compression mode is compulsory. If the UE has two transceivers.7. the WCDMA RNC informs UE of starting inter-RAT measurement. During handover implementation. After the UE performs inter-frequency measurement and reports measurement result. it and the WCDMA system might start compression mode (if the UE has a transceiver. During the handover judgment stage. When dual-mode UE moves at the edge of WCDMA system and might perform inter-RAT handover. so the connected UE in all time works with a specified frequency. Description to Typical Handover Flow from WCDMA to GSM The typical handover flow includes stages as below: Measurement control > measurement report implementation. the network informs UE of parameters to be measured by sending the measurement control message. The WCDMA system uses code division multiple access (CDMA) technology for access. the network decides to handover according measurement report. the RNC judges whether to start signaling flow for inter-frequency handover according to measurement result. . When the dual-mode UE needs to perform inter-RAT measurement and keeps a conversation. During the measurement report stage. the UE and network follow the signaling flow and respond according to signaling.

Signaling flow for handover from WCDMA to GSM 7.1. Tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GSM Signaling Flow at UTRAN Side The signaling flow at UTRAN side proceeds as below: .8 shows the tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GSM 2.

After the UE completes related configuration according to new configuration data. downlink compression frame type. The RNC sends PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message to UE and prepare for starting compression mode. TGPL. After the NodeB prepares resources. The parameters include TGCFN. compression mode method. the information about frequency of cells. ITP. TGL. This report indicates that the signals at the serving frequency in the WCDMA network are weak and other frequencies or signals of other systems are required. which commands UE to perform inter-RAT measurement. the UE sends a measurement report of occurrence of 2D event. downlink compression frame type. RPP. including TGSN. TGPL. it sends RNC the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG COMPLETE message. and power control parameters in compression mode. TGSN. TGL. The message includes measurement parameters like the list of GSM cells. After the RNC confirmed that the UE has received the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message. it sends NodeB the RL RECONFIG COMMIT message. The RNC immediately sends the measurement control message. The UE sends a measurement report. TGD.y y y y y y y y When the UE moves outwards at the edge of a cell in the WCDMA network and the conditions for report 2D event meet the RNC configuration. The RNC starts compression mode to perform inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurement. it sends the RL RECONFIG READY message to the RNC. measurement filter coefficient. TGMP. the sampling sequence of compression mode and related parameters of sampling sequence of compression mode. indicating the RSSI measurement value of GSM cells. compression mode method. Now the compression mode is available. and power control parameters in compression mode. TGD. . This includes the activation time. The RNC sends the RL RECONFIG PREPARE message to NodeB to prepare for starting compression mode. The message contains the sampling sequence of compression mode and related parameters of sampling sequence of compression mode. indicating the time for NodeB to start compression mode.

The RNC immediately sends CN the IU RELEASE COMPLETE message. source PLMN. The IE contains the related resources allocated by GSM network. GSM frequency. the CN sends the IU RELEASE COMMAND message to inform RNC of releasing resources used by UE in the WCDMA network. Therefore the NodeB releases radio resources without informing UE of the release. which includes the IE layer 3 information. source SAI. indicating the BSCI confirmation of GSM cells. The message 16 and message 17 are to release the radio resources of NodeB. because the UE is using WCDMA network. The RNC sends UE the HANDOVER FROM UTRAN COMMAND message. and GSM messages in forms of BIT string. After the GSM side allocates related resources. After the UE accesses the GSM network. activation time. The UE powers off the transmitter according to GSM configuration. . The message includes the RAB ID. reason for SRNS relocation (usually relocation desirable for radio reasons). the RNC sends a SRNS relocation request to CN. the CN sends RNC the RELOCATION COMMAND.y y y y y y y The UE sends a measurement report. so no signals are in uplink. and target CGI (including PLMN and LAC). This message is optional in the flow. What is different from normal releasing flow is that the air interface does not send the RRC connection release message. The request includes SRNS relocation type (the UE must participate in inter-RAT handover). Consequently the NodeB sends the SIR ERROR report. After the handover conditions are met according to judgment.

7. The GSM network uses the time division multiple access technology. Signaling flow for handover from GSM to WCDMA 7. 1. Flows of Handover from GSM to WCDMA 7. The dual-mode UE performs inter-RAT measurement in idle slots and reports the measurement result. According to the measurement result. so the inter-RAT measurement is performed in idle slots. the measurement control is sent in system information. The GSM system is not involved in supporting compression mode.9 shows the signaling flow for handover from GSM to WCDMA. the BSC judges to start signaling flow for inter-RAT handover.9 Handover from GSM to WCDMA Description of Handover from GSM to WCDMA If a GSM cell has WCDMA neighbor cells.9 shows the tracing signaling of handover from GSM to WCDMA .

CN field identity. the MSC sends RNC the RANAP_RELOCATION_REQUEST massage. transport layer information. The RNC allocates radio resources for the SRNS relocation and configures NodeB during RL SETUP process. y y . After the NodeB sets up RL. Tracing signaling of handover from GSM to WCDMA Signaling Flow at UTRAN Side y y y y According to the handover algorithm and measurement information of the source BSS in the GSM network. The RNC allocates radio resources and other parameter packets. RAB configuration. The parameters are configured to UE in three forms: Complete configuration: clearly provide parameters in each layer Pre-configuration (pre-defined): the system broadcast multiple sets of parameter templates in the system information 16 and configure template number and necessary parameter to UE.2. and information about user plane. The parameter packets include U-RNTI. RAB. the identity of target cell. and physical layer information. After the BSS sends CN the handover request. IU signaling connection ID. integrity protection information. encryption information. handover reason. the source BSS judges that UE must hand over to the UTRAN cell. it replies the RL SETUP RESPONSE message. The NodeB start transmitting and receiving radio signals. The message contains the IMSI of UE.

The message might also contain the encrypted sequence number and its activation time for each CN field. indicating that the UE has already handed over from the 2G network to the 3G network. the UE synchronizes to NodeB directly and later sends data in uplink. The message does not contain other contents. After the NodeB detects uplink synchronization. y Pre-configuration (default): The protocol 25. After the RNC receives the HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message from UE. indicating the completion of handover. and about the UE's query of capacity. The RNC configures the default identity and other necessary information to UE. related information about CN field.The UE listens to the system information of UTRAN and obtain the parameter configuration according to template number. After the RNC receives the confirmation message from UE according to the 17th message. the UE obtains related access parameters in the pre-configuration (default) in the system information. After this. it sends CN the RELOCATION DETECT message. This message contains the values of timers used by UE. it sends UE the UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION while it sends CN the RELOCATION COMPLETE message which contains nothing. . it immediately sends UE the UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION message. After the RNC receives RL RESTORE IND message sent by NodeB. it sends RNC the RL RESTORE IND message. The following messages are about the measurement control process of UE and NodeB. According to the default parameter identity configured by RNC. y y y y y y The RNC sends the previous information through the IU interface RELOCATION REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message (in the IE RNC Container) to CN which forwards the information to the source BSS. UE ID.331 provides 10 sets of default parameters and specifies an identity to each default parameter. The source BSS sends the information to UE. and so on. After the RNC receives the HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message from UE. the handover flow from the 2G network to 3G network is complete. The UE sends RNC the HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message.

the UE can perform interRAT handover by initiatively originating cell reselection according to system information. Flows of Handover form WCDMA to GRPS The inter-RAT handover flow initiatively originated by RNC proceeds as below: 7.10 Handover from WCDMA to GPRS Description of Handover form WCDMA to GRPS The inter-RAT handover from WCDMA to GRPS caters for the handover from WCDMA PS domain service to GPRS system. If the traffic flow for slow-speed PS services.7. The RNC initiatively commands UE to reselect an interRAT cell with signaling. which triggers inter-RAT handover. the UE might be in CELL PCH or URA PCH state.10 shows the flow for handover from WCDMA to GPRS. .10 and 7.

Flow of handover from WCDMA to GPRS (1) 2. Flow of handover from WCDMA to GPRS (2) .1.

10 shows the tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GPRS.7. Tracing signaling of handover from WCDMA to GPRS Signaling Flow at UTRAN Side The signaling flow at UERAN side proceeds as blow: y The UE sends the measured 2D report. 3. . indicating the quality of the serving cell is worse.

indicating NodeB to prepare for starting compression mode. Because the UE need to reselect a GRPS cell. TGL. . indicating the RSSI measurement value of GSM cells. it sends NodeB the RL RECONFIG COMMIT message. The NodeB sends the SIR ERROR report. After the RNC confirms that the UE has received the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message. TGSN. measurement filter coefficient. TGD. indicating the time for start compression mode. and power control parameters in compression mode. indicating UE to prepare for starting compression mode. The message contains the sampling sequence of compression mode and related parameters of sampling sequence of compression mode. After the NodeB prepares resources. The message contains the IEs of target cell like BSIC and BAND IND (900 or 1800). RPP. The message contains TGCFN. TGL. compression mode method. The message indicates UE to handover to the GPRS network by originating cell reselection. The UE sends a measurement report. The message contains the list of GSM cells. it sends RNC the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG COMPLETE message.y y y y y y y y y y The RNC sends NodeB the RL RECONFIG PREPARE message. After the conditions are met according to judgment. indicating the BSCI confirmation of GSM cells. The UE sends a measurement report. downlink compression frame type. The RNC sends UE the PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG message. it powers off the transmitter to WCDMA network. TGD. ITP. it sends RNC the RL RECONFIG READY message. The RNC immediately sends the measurement control and commands UE to perform inter-RAT measurement. BCCH ARFCN. TGMP. and power control parameters in compression mode. the RNC originates the SRNS relocation flow and sends UE the CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message. downlink compression frame type. which is optional in the flow. This indicates that the compression mode is ready. including TGSN. and NC mode. After the UE completes related configuration according to the new configuration data. TGPL. the information about frequency of cells. compression mode method. TGPL.

If restoring the PDP context is not required. The RNC sends CN the IU RELEASE COMPLETE message. it powers off the transmitter to WCDMA network. The CN sends RNC the SRNS DATA FORWARD COMMAND message. because the UE is using WCDMA network. the CN sends RNC the IU RELEASE COMMAND message. The message 18 and message 19 are to release the radio resources of NodeB.y y y y Because the UE need to reselect a GRPS cell. the CN informs RNC of target transport layer address and tunnel ID of each RAB data forward. the RNC directly receives the IU RELEASE COMMAND at the IU interface. indicating user plane to transmit data. indicating the GTP of each RAB ID and the uplink and downlink sequence number of PDCP. y y y y The RNC sends CN the SRNC CONTEXT RESPONSE message. After data is transmitted. which is optional in the flow. By the message. the UE obtains the SRNS CONTEXT information from the source RNC. . If restoring the PDP context is required. The source RNC will receive the SRNS CONTEXT REQUEST message with mainly an RAB ID. After the UE accesses the inter-RAT cell. indicating RNC to release the sources of the UE. The NodeB sends the RL FAILURE report. Therefore the NodeB releases radio resources without informing UE of the release. What is different from normal releasing flow is that the air interface does not send the RRC connection release message.

11 and 7. Signaling flow for handover from GPRS to WCDMA (1) .11 Handover from GRPS to WCDMA Signaling Flows of Handover from GRPS to WCDMA 7. 1.7.11 shows the signaling flow for handover from GPRS to WCDMA.

. The RNC allocates related resources and informs NodeB by sending RL SETUP message. and sequence number of PDCP. After the RNC connection is set up. The message contains the RAB ID.2. The RNC sends UE the RB SETUP REQUEST message to UE. The CN commands the RNC to allocate related resources by sends the RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message at the IU interface. The message contains the downlink sequence number of PDCP. QoS. Later the UE NAS layer and CN NAS layer exchange messages by DT process. with the reason INTERRAT CELLRESELECTION. the UE originates the RRC connection setup process. uplink and downlink sequence number of GPT-U. During the reselection of UTRAN cell. Signaling flow for handover from GPRS to WCDMA (2) Signaling Flow at UTRAN Side The signaling flow at UTRAN side proceeds as below: y y y y y The UE reselects a UTRAN cell. the UE initiatively originates the INIT DT process and sets up the SCCP connection at IU interface and the signaling connection in the CN NAS layer.

The RNC configure the uplink sequence number of PDCP from CN and the downlink sequence number from UE to the PDCP sample corresponding to the specified RAB. The UE should drop the data packet of which the sequence number of uplink PDCP is smaller than the sequence number of uplink PDCP configured by UTRAN/CN. The message contains the downlink sequence number of PDCP. . the RNC PDCP sample should drop CN' data packet of which the sequence number of downlink PDCP is smaller than the sequence number of downlink PDCP replied by UE. The RNC sends CN the RAB ASSIGNMENT RESPONSE message. While the traffic flow is being restored.y y y The UE sends RNC the RB SETUP COMPLETE message.

7.331. After the Trigger-Timer starts and before it expires. the Trigger-Timer is stopped and the network keeps waiting for receiving inter-RAT measurement report if the following condition is met: Mother_RAT + CIO < Tother_RAT . After the network receives the periodic report filtered by layer 3.12 Parameters of Handover from 3G to 2G Network Handover Judgment Process Now the periodic report is used in inter-frequency handover judgment. For the detailed judgment of 2D/2F event. If the quality of UE active set becomes better. the system judges for inter-RAT handover. y y y y Mother_RAT indicates the obtained inter-RAT measurement result.331. The following paragraphs describe the inter-RAT handover judgment algorithm using periodic reports. The hysteresis helps to reduce mal-operations due to fluctuation of signals. The network starts delay trigger timer Trigger-Timer if the following formula is met: Mother_RAT + CIO >= Tother_RAT + H/2 (formula 1) Wherein. According to the protocol 25. you need to measure the inter-RAT quality only. the UE stops compression mode and stops inter-RAT measurement. Therefore. namely. In the current handover algorithms (including inter-frequency handover algorithm). the UTRAN receives the 2F event report.H/2 (formula 2) If the Trigger-Timer expires. Tother_RAT indicates the inter-RAT quality threshold. see the 3GPP TS 25. if the quality of UE active set is worse in inter-RAT measurement. the offset configured by the inter-RAT cell. namely. List of Handover Parameters 7. H indicates hysteresis. the 2D event report serves as a rule for starting compression mode and performing inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurement.12 lists the parameters of handover from 3G to 2G. CIO indicates the cell individual offset. . the 2D event indicates that the quality of active set is lower than a threshold. it compares the obtained inter-RAT measurement result with the preset threshold.

namely. query cells by executing LST CELLINTERRAT RNC/Cell HystThd Inter-RAT handover hysteresis 4. namely. 2 dB TimeToTrigForVe rify The time to trigger delay verified by 0. namely. query RNCs by executing LST INTERRATHO. GsmRSSISIGThd The judgment threshold for inter-RAT handover 21. Parameters of handover from 3G to 2G M M L C o m m a n d s fo r m o di fy in g a n d q u er yi n g P ar a m et er M e a n i n g Default configuration A p p li c a ti o n s c o p e FilterCoef Filter coefficient at layer 3 of interRAT measurement D3 GsmRSSICSThd. For cells: interRAT handover algorithm parameter: add cells by executing ADD CELLINTERRAT HO. ±90 dBm For RNCs: interRAT handover algorithm parameter: set RNCs by executing SET INTERRATHO.1. 0s . GsmRSSIPSThd.

InterRatSigThdFo r2DRSCP. ±24 dBm For RNCs: set RNCs by executing SET INTERFREQHO and query RNCs by executing LST INTERFREQHO. InterRATPSThdF OR2DEcNo. PS.inter-RAT TimeToTrigForNo nVerify Non-verified delay trigger time 65535. It can be greater in areas with great shadow fading. PS. InterRatCSThdFor 2FRSCP. It can be smaller in areas with small shadow fading. For cells: add cells by executing ADD CELLINTERFRE QHO. InterRatPSThdFor 2FRSCP. InterRatSigThdFo r2FRSCP The starting/stoppin g threshold for inter-RAT measurement with RSCP as the measurement value (CS. and modify cells by executing MOD CELLINTERFRE QHO RNC/Cell HYSTTHD Hysteresis. and modify cells by executing MOD CELLINTERRAT HO PenaltyTimeForSy sHo Inter-RAT handover penalty time 30. namely. The hysteresis and inter-RAT quality threshold decides whether to trigger interRAT handover judgment. InterRATSigThdF OR2FEcNo The starting/stoppin g threshold for inter-RAT measurement with Ec/No as the measurement value (CS. InterRATSigThdF OR2DEcNo . and single signaling) The default values of them are as below: InterRatCSThdFor2DRSCPInterR atPSThdFor2DRSCP: ±95. 30s InterRatCSThdFor 2DRSCP. namely. query cells by executing LST CELLINTERFRE QHO. handover to nonverified GSM cell is prohibited. namely. InterRATPSThdF OR2FEcNo. HO. 4 . InterRATCSThdF or2FEcNo. InterRatPSThdFor 2DRSCP. InterRatCSThdFor2FRSCPInterR atPSThdFor2FRSCP: ±90. InterRatSigThdFor2DRSCP InterRatSigThdFor2FRSCP: ±115 InterRATCSThdF OR2DEcNo. and single signaling) ±24.

CS. The new protocol CR defines that the UE will not report the not verified GSM measurement. . The UE uses it with the initial measured value of the cell as the measurement result for handover judgment of UE. query cells by executing LST INTERRATNCEL L.CellIndividalOffse t The individual offset of interRAT handover cells. and PS.12 lists the starting/stopping threshold of compression mode and interRAT handover threshold in terms of signaling. 0 Set cells by executing ADD INTERRATNCEL L. and modify it by executing MOD INTERRATNCEL L Cell Note: 7.

y Location Area Cell Configuration Table 7. Add the corresponding LAI record and the corresponding 3G MSC/VLR code. . and to support reselection from the 3G network to the 2G network by UE. According to the 2G-to-3G interoperation strategy of Huawei. For the MSC. and guarantee the transmission of MAP handover-related signaling between MSCs. LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC.13 shows the data configuration of target 3G cell in the location area cell table. and SCCP DSP list. Data Configuration on the 2G MSC Data configuration on the 2G MSC proceeds as below: y y y y y y Add the matching record of 3G MSC/VLR code corresponding to RNC IDs in the list of cell in the location area. data configuration is necessary in the 2G and 3G system. Select Near VLR area as the property of location area.7. to support reselection from the 2G network to the 3G network by UE. The RNC ID is in the format of: MCC + MNC + LAC + RNC-ID. so data configuration on the 2G MSC is unnecessary. configure the corresponding record of the 3G MSC in the GT list. two tables are used for data configuration: location area cell table and neighbor cell table. 2G MSC Data Configuration If the system support the handover from the 2G network to the 3G network. data configuration on the 2G MSC is necessary. Select GCI as the type of location area. Select Near VLR area as the property of location area. The following paragraphs take Huawei 2G MSC as example.13 Data Configuration for Supporting Bi-directional Roaming and Handover Between WCDMA and GSM/GPRS To support bidirectional roaming and handover between 3G networks and GSM/GPRS. Change the supported MAP version to PHASE 2PLUS in the MAP function flow configuration table. to support PLMN selection. Configure inter-MSC trunk data like configuring common data. the handover from the 2G network to the 3G network supports cell reselection. SCCP SSN list. Configure the data at the SCCP layer. Configure the data at the MTP layer and guarantee the signaling transmission between the 2G MSC and the 3G MSC.

Query the LAI by running the command LST AC. y Neighbor Cell Configuration Table 7. You can also obtain the PLMN code of the RNC by running the command LST RNCBASIC. Property of location area: the configuration is Near VLR area. Query it by running the command LST INFOMSC command on the MSOFTX3000 client. Type of location area: LAI + RNC ID correspond to GCI.1. Data configuration in the location area cell table Pay attention to the following fields: y y y y y GCI code Location area MSC code Location area VLR code Type of location area Property of location area Content of GCI code: corresponding to LAI and RNC ID of the target 3G cell for handover.13 shows the data configuration of neighbor cell configuration table. Content of location area MSC code: the code of MSC configured by MSOFTX3000 of the corresponding 3G network. Query the RNC ID by running the command LST RNCBASIC. .

The UE perform inter-RAT cell reselection based on previous information. MCC. SI for Supporting the Handover from GSM to WCDMA To support the handover from GSM to WCDMA. The data contains: . LAC. the GSM BSS must complete sending the following system information: Add the data of the WCDMA cell. Query the LAI of target 3G cell by running the command LST AC. primary scramble. Query the RNC ID by running the command LST RNCBASIC. The information contains the following parameters: Qsearch_I: the level threshold for searching for 2G cells in the idle mode FDD_Qoffset: the level offset of 3G cell reselection FDD_Qmin: the level threshold of 3G cell reselection y y y The previous information contained in the system information 2ter and 2quater is sent to UE.2. and CELL ID. The content to be filled in the neighbor cell 1 is the LAI + RNC ID of target 3G cell for handover. the GSM BSS must complete sending the following system information: y y Add data of WCDMA cells. Added Data Configuration on BSCs y SI for Supporting the Roaming from GSM to WCDMA To support the roaming from GSM to WCDMA. Fill from the neighbor cell 1 to the neighbor 2«. RNC ID. diversity indicator. MNC. Data configuration of neighbor cell configuration table Pay attention to the following fields: y y y y GCI code Neighbor cells The GCI code of 2G source cell corresponding to GCI code. including downlink frequency. Add the information about inter-RAT cell measurement and roaming control in the idle mode.

as shown in 7. y Adding External 3G Cells Adding external 3G cells proceeds as below: Select setting up cells dynamically Add external cells Add external 3G cells. the level threshold for searching for 3G cells in the connection mode. The following paragraphs take the configuration of Huawei BSC as example. The BSC originates the handover to WCDMA.13. When the level of UE in the serving cell meets the conditions for Qsearch_C. the system starts measure 3G cells and sends the periodic reports to BSC. namely. including Qsearch_C. y y y .y y y y y y y y y Downlink frequency point Primary scramble Diversity indicator MCC MNC LAC RNC ID CELL ID Level threshold for handing over to the cell Add the measurement control information of inter-RAT cells for UE in the connection mode. The previous information contained in the system information MEASUREMENT INFORMATION is sent to UE.

1. and scramble. MNC. Downlink frequency point: query it by running the command LST CELL on the corresponding RNC client and then inputting the corresponding CELL ID in the CELL Scramble: query it by running the command LST CELL on the corresponding RNC client and then inputting the corresponding CELL ID in the CELL y Configuring Target 3G Cells as the Inter-RAT Neighbor Cell of GSM Configuring target 3G cells as the inter-RAT neighbor cell of GSM proceeds as below: Select setting cells dynamically Modify the property of external cells y y . LAI. CELL ID. Configuration table for external 3G cells Pay attention to several fields: MCC. downlink frequency point. Using system defaults is recommended for unlisted fields. It can be filled in the CELL ID field after it is converted to hex and removed of the highest bit. RNC ID. y y y y y MCC: query it by running the command LST RNCBASIC on the corresponding RNC client MNC: query it by running the command LST RNCBASIC on the corresponding RNC client LAI: query it by running the command LST AC on the corresponding RNC client RNC ID: query it by running the command LST RNCBASIC on the corresponding RNC client CELL ID: query it by running the command LST CELL on the corresponding RNC client Note: The query result is decimal.

as shown in 7.y y Select external cells Modify the neighbor relationship. Configuration table for GSM inter-RAT neighbor cells Note: The target cell for handover from the 3G network can be the directional neighbor cell of GSM only.13. as shown in 7. y Configuring Parameters for 2G Reselection Configuring parameters for 2G reselection proceeds as below: Select setting cells dynamically Select the current cell Modify the parameters for inter-RAT system information.13. 2. y y y .

1 = ±28 dB. Other default values y y y Configuring 2G Handover Parameters 7. The minimum Ec/No threshold for FDD cell reselect: level threshold for 3G cell reselection: when the receiver level of 3G cell is greater than the FDD_Qmin.13 shows the parameter configuration table for inter-RAT handover. . Select 0 for easy handover. 0 = ±’ (always select a cell if acceptable). the UE can reselect 3G cells. 2 = ±24 dB. Configuration table for 2G reselection parameters The configuration table for 3G system information includes the following parameters: y y y y Type of measurement reports: common measurement reports Number of best cells in the GSM band: the default value is 3 Threshold for searching for 3G cells in the idle mode: the values range from 0 to 15 Offset of FDD cell reselection: When the mean receiver level of 3G cells is FDD_Qoffset greater than that of the serving cell.3. «. the cell can be a candidate cell for reselection. 15 = 28 dB.

The lasting time for handover to a better 3G cell: the smaller the value is. the easier and faster the handover is. the difficult the handover to 3G is. y Added Data Configuration on 3G MSCs Added data configuration proceeds as below: Add the cell information about location area near the 2G MSC to the list of cells of 3G MSC location area. RSCP threshold for handover to a better 3G cell: the smaller the value is. The recommended value is 63. Select GCI as the type of location area. Select Near VLR area as the property of location area. Ec/No threshold for handover to a better 3G cell: the smaller the value is. Add the corresponding 2G MSC/VLR code. Permission for handover algorithm of a 3G better cell: select it. Select Near VLR area as the property of location area. GCI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI.4. Add the corresponding 2G MSC/VLR code. The recommended value is 10. the difficult the handover to 3G is. The recommended value is 4. y . Parameter configuration for inter-RAT handover table Pay attention to the following parameters: y y y y Handout permission: select it. the difficult the handover to 2G is. The recommended value is 10. LAI = MCC + MISSING NEIGHBOR CELL + LAC. Pay attention to frequent handover. Select LAI as the type of location area. Statistics time for a better 3G cell: the recommended value is 5. 2G/3G cell handover priority selection: select 3G cell for handover as priority 2G cell selection threshold: the greater the threshold is.

QOFFSET1SN=-50. MNC="10". When the UE reselects an inter-PLMN cell. the RNC will neighbor cells. configure the measurement point otherwise. CID="0x0102". y Configure the measurement point for FACH to frequency TDD measurement. or inter-RAT necessary. After configuration of these information. INTERFREQINTERRATMEASIND=INTER_RAT. according to SIB11. the SsearchRAT contained in SIB3 is sent and information about GSM neighbor cells contained in SIB11 are sent. LAC="0x0fa0". The equivalent PLMN is the PLMN which provides equivalent services to subscribers. BCCHARFCN=60. FACHMEASOCCACYCLELENCOEF=3. and SCCP DSP table. The MSC sends the list to UE upon update acceptance and the UE saves it. LAC="0x0fa0". SCCP SSN table. CID="0x0102". y y y y Necessary Data Configuration for RNC Data Configuration for Supporting Roaming from WCDMA to GSM/GPRS To support the roaming from WCDMA to GSM/GPRS. Data Configuration for Supportint Inter-RAT Handover from WCDMA to GSM . y y y Configure the SearchRAT of the GSM network by running the command MOD CELLSELRESEL. The network side decides whether to tell the control list to UE. BANDIND=DCS1800_BAND_USED. QRXLEVMIN=-58. not send RNC information about GSM MOD CELLMEAS: CELLID=123. BCC=0. Configure the data at SCCP layer. intermeasurement. If inter-RAT roaming is for FACH to inter-RAT measurement. and add the inter-PLMN MCC and MNC. FACHMEASIND=REQUIRE. NCC=0. ADD INTERRATNCELL: CELLID=123. MCC="460".y If inter-PLMN cell reselection is necessary. Configure the corresponding record of 2G MSC in the GT table. MNC="10". Configure the data at MTP layer and guarantee the signaling transmission between the 2G MSC and the 3G MSC. it reselects a cell from the list by priority. CELLINDIVIDALOFFSET=50. the MSC must configure the equivalent PLMN list: ADD EPLMN. Configure the trunk data between MSCs in the same way as configuring common data. the UTRAN must complete sending the following system information: y Add GSM cells and configuration the following data: MCC MISSING NEIGHBOR CELL LAC CELL ID NCC BCC FREQ_BAND Frequency number CIO ADD GSMCELL: MCC="460". inter-frequency FDD measurement. RATCELLTYPE=GSM.

2011-04-11 All rights reserved Page 202 of 202 . configure the following parameters: y Add GSM cells and configuration the following data: MCC MISSING NEIGHBOR CELL LAC CELL ID NCC BCC FREQ_BAND Frequency number CIO y Configure inter-RAT measurement control by running the command MOD CELLMEAS.To support the inter-RAT handover from WCDMA to GSM.

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