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Kant 1 Milagros Kant Vinda Professor N.

Thomas Stephens Physiology 29 June 2010

Human Factors of Automation

Improving or Not, Our Life as Pilots

This research will inform briefly about the advantages and disadvantages that the human factor automation provides and how its involving to human being. The human factors of automation at this point of technological growth, is one of the most important factors in aviation, as it influences the safety of the aircraft and the pilot, the two are combined to result in a good flight, so it is important to know its pros and cons. This paper will cover the beginnings of the automation, how it grows up so fast in aviation industry, which are todays most using automation instruments and the mechanism of use. Of course all cant be perfect, some persons think that automation is the exception, but its just if human & machine make the perfect match, so we know that human have difficulty to adapt to the machine, so why not adapt machines to humans?. Over the past 50 years, automation has challenged the human factors community with both pragmatic and philosophical issues (Asher & Post, 1964; Edwards & Lees, 1974; Parsons, 1985). Pragmatic issues concern the frequent failure of automation to achieve the promised benefits. Philosophical issues concern how automation redefines the role of humans in complex systems and even the nature of human cognition (Hancock, 1996; Sheridan, 2002). Automation, defined as technology that performs a function that was previously carried out by a human (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997).

Kant 2 In others words, automation is the use of control systems and information technologies reducing the need for human intervention. Automation extends the physical and cognitive capacity of people to achieve what might otherwise be impossible, but only if its design considers the characteristics of the joint cognitive system that emerges from the combination of humans and automation (Roth, Bennett, & Woods, 1987.) No all things have just two faces and this type of technology is the exception, were going to briefly talk about the most important faces of the automation in aviation and how it have change radically, the term flight for pilots.

Flight, what came to our mind when you imagine to flight? , well many persons imagine a great adventure between clouds and sky, The air up there in the clouds is very pure and fine, bracing and delicious. And why shouldn't it be? it is the same the angels breathe. (Mark Twain 1886). , childrens dream with touches the stars and the ones who really love aviation thinks in freedom, to control all movements, to feel the wind beneath hers wings as be one with the airplane because No one can realize how substantial the air is, until he feels its supporting power beneath him. It inspires confidence at once. (Otto Lilienthal). But over the years, many things have changed and gradually technology appropriated the term "fly and for those like Michael Parfit from Smithsonian' magazine, who think that the magic of flight ever be carried by words, I have one word for describe that magic, Automation. Ironic or not, is the truth and automation is the new fly.

"To err is human and to blame it on a computer is even more so" (Stokes 2007:197). And all begin with Jacquard in the 1800s when he introduces the automated weaving loom. In aviation the oil price crisis of the 1970s provided the initial impetus for aircraft manufacturers to

Kant 3 rethink aircraft cockpit design. In attempting to find a competitor for the then very popular Boeing 727, Airbus Industries designed a successor to its A300 aircraft. The A320 family of aircraft from Airbus Industries incorporated more advanced computer technology and automation (Kingsley, 2006). This was by far the most advanced aircraft of its time, incorporating a modern avionics and computer suite. The engineers of the time determined that only a computer had the capability to control a commercial jet to the precise requirements of efficiency that was required by the phenomenal oil price (Kingsley, 2006).

Airbus Industries introduced advanced features such as a fly-by-wire flight control system, composite primary structures and centre-of-gravity control, using fuel located in the tail plane of the aircraft. A two-person flight deck working in an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) environment (glass cockpit) was the radical and most visible change to the commercial jet. The net result was that the A320 consumed 50% less fuel than the Boeing 727. Thus, we can say that was a financial imperative induce the needed for aircraft automation. (Beauden 1989) further suggested that the reason for the changes and advances in flight deck design was a desire to achieve the following advantages: lowering of pilots mental and physical workload;

Economy in personnel (by relieving the flight engineer of duties, the designers were able to build an aircraft that requires only two pilots); Precision in automation to create accuracy in the flight path; and a reduced need for maintenance because of the reliability of the system. All these things according humans will improve the aviation of our days. But who much it improves it? What parts of aviation theyre affecting? , well in the next paragraphs I will show you some of the moderns automation programs.

Kant 4 In aviation, automation generally began with systems that stabilize an aircraft's attitude through mechanical manipulation of the flight control surfaces--what we now call autopilots. It has now progressed through an incalculable number of steps to the automated cockpit in which the pilot is primarily an operator and monitor of automated systems. (Jose Ortega y Gasset). If we analyze this from two points of view you can see what Im talking about, lets think that were flying a normal C-172, at the moment of do any maneuver what we expect as pilots is that the airplane have a feedback through his five senses of what we are doing. So this implies 3 basics things: Pilot, the controls and aircraft feedback, keep it on mine, remember this is an aircraft and isnt have any automation. Now imagine we are flying a 747 or an Airbus, and you decide make a maneuver, wait! This kind of aircraft have an Automation Cockpit was mean have an Autopilot ( the first level of automation in our moderns Airplanes), this system is based in a assign and do method when the pilot assigns specific tasks to the autopilot, such as heading and altitude, and the autopilot performs those tasks. What happens?, Remember Pilots are first human and is a human needed to feel that they have the control over what they are directing and these also create strong feeling of responsibility, because PIC (Pilot in Command), so with automation we are separating the pilot from the controls and his(er) authority over the airplane and it masks the most basic feedback cues, such as control feel and airplane response time. So right now we have 4 implies: Pilot, autopilot, controls and Airplane feedback. The controller is our second level of automation; these controllers may use navigation information or altitude information or rate-of-descent commands, which transmit instructions to the autopilot such as ``turn to and maintain this heading'' or ``fly along this course'', If you have pay attention in this configuration, the pilot now has two layers of automation separating him from direct control of the aircraft, at this time he is just monitoring, so right know we add

Kant 5 another element to our list : pilot, controllers, autopilot, controls and aircraft feedback. But wait we have two more levels the famous FMC flight management computer). Now, the pilot must program the computer that instructs the controllers to transmit instructions to the autopilot, who finally fly the airplane. But isnt all, we have a fourth level of automation integrates the FMC with airplane systems such as fuel and environmental control. In one representative airplane, the cockpit humidifier is turned on by a signal from the FMC when the airplane reaches cruising altitude, and is turned off by the FMC two hours prior to the descent point. So just imagine the capacity of the FMC to consider all speeds, courses, temperatures, etc. Finally if you add all the levels we have: Pilot, FMC, controllers, autopilot/aircraft systems, controls and aircraft feedback. So at this level the pilot just enters some information and monitors what is happen. (Figure 1)

Figure1. Airplane automation. (ISAP 07, Graz 2007-07-06 )

Some scholars, such as Skitka, Mosier, Burdick and Rosenblatt (2000), have argued that the elimination of the human element in aviation will reduce errors and prevent accidents, whilst enhancing overall efficiency. We all know that autopilots are beneficial, that various types of controllers can greatly reduce the workload in certain maneuvers and can provide an accuracy

Kant 6 that is difficult for humans to duplicate and that the FMCs provides a reservoir of information and assistance that is unprecedented. History, however, has demonstrated that this ideal is still far from possible in the complex modern environment; Computers (conceived, designed and built by human beings) still have a latent flaw the human hand involved in any computers basic design. (Prevender Naidoo, 2008). Why if they create computers, they can control it, according to Fredricks and Dossett (1983:12), attitude is the key to understanding human behavior. Peoples perceptions have a similar impact on attitude and are considered the root of behavioral issues. Studies conducted by Vermeulen, Wilson and Mitchell (2004) on perceptions in respect of gender bias in the aviation industry demonstrate the importance of perception, attitude and behavior in the airline industry. According to Rigner and Dekker (2000), positive perceptions of automation enhance a pilots commitment to a safe operation. On the other hand, a negative perception will lead to disrupted thought, irrational decision-making, a bad attitude and unsafe acts or negligence. So lets look briefly the human face of automation, According to Gollwitzer (1999), five lines of theory were developed in human perception principles: y Psychophysical aspects of vision: Binocular fusion and color perception is studied in this area of research. Modern automation design uses more color and variations in font style to enhance safety and reduce misinterpretation. These colors and displays influence automation perception positively (and for some users negatively). y Visual grouping by proximity: This is also called the Gestalt law of perception. The principle of organization by grouping is the fundamental focus of this line of research. The psychological influence of grouping has an impact on a pilots perception of automation, either negative or positive, when more information is available via larger

Kant 7 liquid crystal display (LCD) screens. Surveys reveal that some information on the aircraft status is lost due to an overload of incoming data presented on these screens (Billings, 1997). y Structural description of visual form: This line of research focuses on constructs used to formally describe visual structures, for example, pattern interpretation, pattern classification and symmetry perception. Patterns on board the newest generation of automated flight decks now employ square dials, as opposed to the traditional round dials. Basic flight information data such as airspeed, vertical speed and altitude are now displayed digitally. These displays appear to influence a pilots perception positively, as the computer can now offer information regarding trends in airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, and so on, providing the pilot with an advanced warning of change. y Perception and production of sound: Auditory perception, mainly in the field of music, such as key-finding, melody, harmony, and so on, is the basis of this line of research in perception theory. Using this information, design of the automation system makes very good use of sound in providing information to the pilot. Variances in tones and pitch indicate to the operator what the extent of the non normal or emergency situation is.

Research conducted by Little (1999) in the field of human perception built on the five earlier perceptual paths and condensed it for simpler understanding. Two primary phenomena, immediate perception and normal perception, were found to dominate the thinking process within the human mind: y Immediate perception: This is a total physical awareness of ones environment,

via neural pathways in the brain. Information is gained physiologically from a human

Kant 8 beings various senses (smell, taste, touch, sight, and hearing). On board the flight deck of a highly advanced aircraft, the human operator is immediately aware of the functioning of the automated system through the use of colored lights (sight), audio cautions and warnings (sound). y Normal perception: According to Little (1999), normal perception by a human being is the psychological interpretation of the environment by that person. However, it should be noted that psychological interpretation may not always correlate with physical and physiological reality. In the context of highly automated aircraft systems, research conducted by Mosier et al. (1998) discovered an alarming increase in the use of cognitive heuristics in the glass flight deck. Automation bias is the use of automated cues as a replacement for vigilant seeking and processing of incoming perceptive information. Researchers have suggested that past behavior and habits may play a significant role in present actions or behavior (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2001). This can explain why it seem that there may be difficulties in the transition training of pilots shifting from analogue to digital flight decks, according to the theory of planned behavior, human actions may be considered to be guided by three kinds of action (Gollwitzer, 1999): y Behavioral beliefs (understanding the likely consequences of certain behavior): Incomplete training or a lack of adequate information will hamper a pilots ability to operate an automated aircraft confidently. It was found that this lack of confidence created a negative perception in the mind of the operator. y Normative beliefs (what you believe others expect from you): The normative belief, based on an orthodox school of flying aircraft, states that a pilot should be able to fly

Kant 9 without the use of the auto pilot system. This was always the expectation of the flying instructors during all pilots initial flying training experience. y Control beliefs (belief about the presence of factors that may further or hinder your progress, which are considered out of your control): Complacency is still regarded as one of the major threats to the operation of automated aircraft (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). Pilots may indicate a very positive perception of automation systems; however, this may be a false impression and must be looked at more objectively. Lack of understanding and incomplete knowledge loops may give rise to the fallacy that advanced flight deck automation is infallible. See (Figure 2)

Figure 2: The link between belief and behavior on an automated flight deck .The fundamental objective of the current study is to measure airline pilots perception (Point 2 in Figure 2) of automation by analyzing their belief system (assessing various biographical variables, Point 1 in Figure 2). The impact of these variables affects the final outcome, as behavior on the flight deck (Point 4 in Figure 2). The model portrays how a pilot may be considered the last line of defense in a flawed system. Measuring perception in order to understand behavioral issues in advanced aircraft is a primary area of concern in mitigating accidents. (Prevender Naidoo, 2008)

Kant 10 Obviously if you make a flash back and compare the old flight deck cockpit with the newest (see, Figure 3.), you can saw a big different, it have change a lot and also it looks more sophisticated but all good news, bring some bad news hide, waiting for the perfect moment to get out, and bring an error.

Figure3: Flight deck comparisons (Flight Deck pictures,, 2007) Extensive research contributions by aviation scholars in the field of automation issues have been documented in the public domain and can be accessed via the website, notably at http// Funk, Lyall and Riley (1995) have ranked the top ten automation issues in terms of the strength of the evidence on these issues. The top ten issues

Kant 11 affecting pilots operating an advanced aircraft as determined by Funk et al. (1995) by means of meta-ranking and confirmed by Funk and Lyall (2000:5) are: y Understanding: Pilots may not understand the structure and function of automation or the interaction of automation devices well enough to perform their duties, safely. y Situational awareness: The behavior of automation devices, what they are doing now and what they will do in the future, based upon pilot input or other factors, may not be apparent to pilots. This may result in reduced pilot awareness of automation behavior and goals. y Complacency: Pilots may become complacent because they are overly confident in the flight management system and uncritical of automation. Such complacency leads to a failure to exercise appropriate vigilance, sometimes to the extent of abdicating responsibility to it. This can lead to unsafe conditions. y Design: Displays (including aural warnings), display formats and display elements may not be designed for detectability, discriminability or interpretability. This may cause important information to be missed or misinterpreted. y Training: The training philosophy, objectives, methods, materials or equipment may be inadequate to train pilots properly for safe and effective automated aircraft operation. y Inappropriate usage: Pilots may use automation in situations where it should not be used. y Complexity: Automation may be too complex, in that it may consist of many interrelated components and may operate under many different modes. This makes automation difficult for pilots to understand and use safely.

Kant 12 y Surprise events: Automation may perform in ways that are unintended by, unexpected to, and perhaps inexplicable to pilots, possibly creating confusion, increasing pilot workload to compensate, and sometimes leading to unsafe conditions. y Dissemination of information: Important information that could be displayed by automation is not displayed, thereby limiting the ability of pilots to make safe decisions and actions. y Reduced skill: Pilots may lose the psychomotor and cognitive skills required for flying manually, or for flying non-automated aircraft, due to extensive use of automation.

After us ventured into the world of automation, we know that automation rather than a luxury, but a necessity that provide us greater navigational accuracy, better efficiency, vastly expanded information, workload, precision, reliability, economy, safety, also many

disadvantages for human like dont have a correct understanding of information, reduced skill of the pilot, bad dissemination of information, to be not prepare for surprise events, complexity in learning process, to be complacency with what happen and one of the most important

disadvantages is the pilot loss of situational awareness, but the more than that, bring us a lot of irony, dont think so?. Easy parts of work is taken away while difficult parts become more difficult, workload increased where it already was high and decreased where it already was low, leaves the unreliable pilot to watch out for the things that could not be automated, people are not good at watching out for the rare failures of systems, which becomes the pilots role (Bainbridge, 1987). The irony of automation has captured the cockpit. Along with the irony come hazards, challenges, anxieties and opportunities. To cross an ocean as the FMC tracks the route and

Kant 13 calculates optimum speeds and altitudes, to communicate with distant air traffic controllers using digital FANS procedures, to watch a descent fully programmed for crossing restrictions, to follow a Category IIIB approach from initial setup to the end of the landing roll-without ever having to see the runway itself as a criteria for landing--is to look at the future of aviation, and the challenges to aviation safety. Welcome to the irony. (Jose Ortega y Gasset). If automation improve or not the aviation, really, I dont know, why? Because the pros and cons of automation cannot be stated as final truths. But its my think, what think you?

Kant 14 Works Cited Asher, J. J., & Post, R. I. (1964). The new field-theory: An application to postal automation. Human Factors, 6, 517522. Beauden, E. 1989. Modern Flight Deck. Canadian Aviation, November: 45-46. Belson, W.A. 1986. Validity in Survey Research. Aldershot: Gower.
Billings, C.E. 1997. Aviation Automation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Edwards, E., & Lees, F. (1974). The human operator in process control. London: Taylor & Francis. Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. 2001. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Fredricks, A.J. & Dossett, D.L. 1983. Attitude-behavior relations: A comparison of the Fishbein-Ajzen and the Bentler-Speckart models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45:501-512. Funk, K. & Lyall, B. 2000. A Comparative Analysis of Flight Decks with Varying Levels of Automation. Final Report prepared for the FAA Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Human Factors. Washington DC: Federal Aviation Administration. Funk, K., Lyall, B., & Riley, V. 1995. Perceived Human Factors Problems of Flight Deck Automation. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering. Gollwitzer, P.M. 1999. Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple American Psychologist, 54:493-503. plans.

Kant 15 Hancock, P. A. (1996). Teleology of technology. In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Automation and human performance (pp.461498). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Jose Ortega y Gasset 2008. THE COCKPIT: A BRIEF HISTORY ``History will not tell us what to do, but . . . what we ought to avoid.'' Kingsley. M. 2006. Airbus Rethinks Plan to put Winglets on A320. Flight International. Magazine. October: (pp.15-19).
Little, G.R. 1999. A Theory of Perception. San Francisco: Freeman.

Mark Twain.(1886) Roughing It, Chapter XXII. Mosier, K.L., Skitka, L.J., Heers, S. & Burdick, M. 1998. Automation Bias: Decision Making and Performance in High Tech Cockpits. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(1):47-63. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and automation: Use, misuse, disuse, abuse. Human Factors, 39, 230253. Parsons, H. M. (1985). Special-issue preface Automation and the individual: Comprehensive and comparative views. Human Factors, 27, 12. Prevender Naidoo. 2008.

Rigner, J. & Dekker, S. 2000. Sharing the Burden of Flight Deck Automation Training. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(4):317-326. Roth, E. M., Bennett, K. B., & Woods, D. D. (1987). Human interaction with an intelligent machine. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27, 479 526.

Kant 16 Sheridan, T. B. (2002). Humans and automation. New York: Wiley. Skitka, L.J., Mosier, K.L., Burdick, M. & Rosenblatt, B. 2000. Automation Bias and Errors: Are Crews Better than Individuals? The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 10(1):85-97. Stokes, J. 2007. Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press Vermeulen, L. P., & Mitchell, J. I. 2007. Development and validation of a measure to assess perceptions regarding gender-related behavior. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 17(2), 75-96.

Kant 17 Abstract Most people when they think of flying, believe that its impossible, unlikely or simply they are afraid of heights, "Limited in his nature, infinite in his desire, man is a fallen god who remembers heaven" - Alphonse de Lamertin, "L'Homme" adressed to Byron in 1819 .. As time has passed, changes have been generated and the technology has advanced, and unfortunately for those that give everything to feel the wind in their wings and have the total control of his (er) aircraft, and a couple of years ago this technology reached the aviation, giving a new name to the term "fly", that is automation of aviation. And if it is true, automation is not new, because it started from 1800 with the creation of automatic weaving loom, but for aviation began not long ago. Automated aviation was created to meet the basic needs of all of the 70s companies, that including: workload to pilots, to improve aircraft performance and reduce costs and how to forget the first premise of automation "Security." The first signs of an automated aviation were the creation of the autopilot, then moved forward in the levels of automation and controllers were created, also the FMC and its multiple actions, which promised to reduce accidents and incidents, and make any changes in flight with minimal effort in the most accurate, to avoid errors and save, so they were leaving behind the pilot who previously had total control of the maneuverability of the airplane, now only works to plan, schedule, confirm, monitor, identify and review how the different machines are working. As we all know a human pilot is first of all as one, they need to feel ownership of the object that controls as to create an affinity with it, creating a bond of responsibility that makes you more alert and warned any changes. All progress, generates a change and all changes have pros and cons, and although the computers were created by man, many do not have the capacity to respond properly in certain

Kant 18 situations. And as in everything, there is always a why? well after many studies came to the conclusion that the man must be active to not enter a state of inactivity, because he could reflects a series of states of lightness and comfort on a flight, that would be reflected by the loss of situation awareness, not be prepared for a surprise, not understanding the commands reflected by the airplane, etc. Physiologically these commands are based on psychophysical aspects of vision, Visual grouping by proximity, Structural description of visual form, perception and production of sound, and this are dominated depending on immediate and normal perceptions of the person, based on their beliefs about normative , control and behavior . Automation aviation show it though, includes all flight crew, as to adapt to such changes requires a complex learning. For man and machine can again be one and need one another, a man must begin again to meet his great friend, as though time has passed and changes have been raised, that ones who really loves the aviation, are ready to overcome any challenge in order to feel what he felt the first time that aboard an airplane. No one can say whether the automation is beneficial or not, for aviation, but we can say that is a new challenge to man.

Kant 19 Resumen La mayora de personas cuando piensan en volar, lo creen imposible, poco probable o simplemente le temen a las alturas, Limitado en su naturaleza, infinito en su deseo, el hombre es un dios cado que recuerda el cielo - Alphonse de Lamertine, "L'Homme", dirigida a Byron en 1819..A medida que ha transcurrido el tiempo, cambios se han generado y la tecnologa ha ido avanzando, y lamentablemente para ellos que dan todo por sentir el viento en sus alas y poder controlarlo, ya hace un par de aos alcanzo la aviacin , dndole un nuevo nombre al termino volar, ese es Automatizacin de la aviacin. Y si bien es cierto, la automatizacin no es algo reciente, ya que comenz desde 1800 con la creacin del telar automatizado, para la aviacin no comenz hace mucho. La aviacin automatizada se cre con el fin de satisfacer las necesidades bsica de todo compaa de los aos 70, entre ellos: aligerarle la carga a los pilotos, de mejorar el rendimiento del avin y as reducir gastos y como olvidar la primera premisa de la automatizacin Seguridad. Los primeros indicios de una aviacin automatizada se vieron con la creacin del piloto automtico, luego fueron avanzando en los niveles de automatizacin y se crearon los controladores, el FMC y sus mltiples acciones, las cuales prometan disminuir los accidentes e incidentes, y efectuar cualquier cambio en el vuelo con el mnimo esfuerzo a de la manera ms precisa, para evitar errores y economizar, lo cual fueron dejando rezagado al piloto quien antes tena el control total de la maniobrabilidad del avin, ahora solo se dedica a planear, programar, confirmar, monitorear, identificar y revisar como van trabajando las diferentes maquinarias. Como todos sabemos un piloto es humano primero que todo y como uno, tiene la necesidad de sentir posesin del objeto que controla, ya que al crear una afinidad con el mismo, se crea un vinculo de responsabilidad que le hace estar ms alerta y prevenido a cualquier cambio.

Kant 20 Todo progreso, genera un cambio y todos los cambios tienen pros y contras, y a pesar que las computadoras fueron creadas por el hombre, muchos no tienen la capacidad de responder correctamente en algunas situaciones. Y como en todo siempre existe un porqu? bueno luego de muchos estudios se llego a la conclusin de que el hombre necesita estar activo para no entrar en un estado de sedentarismo , sino refleja una serie de estados de ligereza y confortabilidad que en un vuelo se veran reflejado por la prdida de conocimiento en la situacin, no estar preparado para una sorpresa, no entender lo comandos reflejados por el avin, etc. Fisiolgicamente estos comandos se basan en: aspectos de la visin psicofsica, agrupacin Visual por proximidad,

Descripcin estructural de la forma visual , La percepcin y la produccin de sonido que son dominados dependiendo de las percepciones inmediatas y normales de la persona, basado en sus creencias normativas, de control y de comportamiento. La Automatizacin de la aviacin a pesar de no aparentarlo, incluye a todo el equipo de vuelo, ya que para adaptarse a este tipo de cambios se requiere un aprendizaje complejo. Para que el hombre y la maquina puedan volver a ser uno y necesitarse mutuamente, el hombre tiene que volver a comenzar a conocer a su gran amigo, porque aunque el tiempo haya pasado y cambios se hayan suscitado, aquel que realmente ama la aviacin est dispuesto a vencer cualquier reto para poder sentir, lo que sinti la primera vez que abordo un avin. Nadie puede afirmar si la automatizacin es beneficiosa o no, para la aviacin, lo que podemos afirmar es que un nuevo reto para el hombre.