lock ® M e Cl kwork® – Machine Fo ndati s oun ions


App plicatio Tutor on rial

NEWTONIAN MA ACHINES®

CO RIGHT OPYR T
program CL LOCKWORK and all associated documentat K tion are pro oprietary an nd The computer p righted prod ducts. Worl ldwide right of owne ts ership rest w with NEWT TONIAN MACHINES® M ®. copyr Unlic censed use of the program or reprodu m uction of the documentat e tion in any fo form, without prior writte en autho orization from NEWTON m NIAN MACH HINES® is explicitly pro e ohibited. NEW WTONIAN M MACHINES® ® STA. MAGDALE . ENA 10, OF 71 F. PROV VIDENCIA, SANTIAGO CHILE , O, Tel: ( 2) 23236 (56 600 Fax: (56 2) 66520 052 Emai contact@n il: newtonianma achines.com Web: http://www : w.newtonian nmachines.co om

Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 5 2. TUTORIAL ................................................................................................................................ 6

2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM ............................................................................................. 6
2.1.1 Foundation Geometry ....................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.2 Machine Parameters .......................................................................................................................... 7 2.1.3 Soil Parameters ................................................................................................................................. 8

2.2 BUILDING THE MODEL .......................................................................................................... 8
2.2.2 Passive machines and other masses ................................................................................................ 15 2.2.3 Forces.............................................................................................................................................. 23 How masses and dynamical forces are entered. ....................................................................................... 30

2.3 ANALYZING THE MACHINE FOUNDATION AND OBTAINING RESULTS .................................. 35
2.3.1 Natural frequencies ......................................................................................................................... 36 2.3.2 Natural Frequency Range ............................................................................................................... 37 2.3.3 Displacements ................................................................................................................................. 38

2.4 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ....................................................................................................... 43
3. ANNEX A – MACHINE WITH PERIODIC EXCITATION ....................................................45 3.1.1 Machine Input ................................................................................................................................. 46

3.2 FORCES INPUT ..................................................................................................................... 47

1. Introduction The objective of this tutorial is to provide the user with average/advanced knowledge of the tools, concepts and use of the “Clockwork” software application. To do this, we will work on a guide that will cover such essentials as the proper use of the software. This example describes the necessary steps to conduct a response analysis of a foundation excited by a rotating machine. The analysis of the piston (or reciprocating) machine will take place in Annex A, changing only the items “Machine” and “Forces”. It will detail the input of the geometry using the “Design view” as well as the input of the machines on the foundation, definition and allocation of soil parameters and applied forces. The software possesses tools which will be described throughout the development of the example and reference images will be used where necessary. Throughout this tutorial, tips/details are framed in relation to the item in which they work. Finally, we remind the user that this tutorial is accompanied by a help manual which describes forms and detailed features and tools. It is accessed from the help menu, in the toolbar.

2. Tuto orial 2.1 Description of the problem f m To T evaluate the dynamic response of the found c o dation propo osal to support a rotatin ng machine and its artifacts (Table 2.1.2 correspon m 2) nding to a st team turbine The figure e. es below show t drawings of the found the s dation/equipment in plan and elevation. The lowe n er part of the fou undation rest directly on the soil. Th units used are in meter and tons. ts n he rs 2.1.1 F Foundation G Geometry

Fig. 2.1.1 – Founda ation, lower slab

Fig. 2.1.2 – Fou . undation, Top View p

Fig. F 2.1.3 – Foundation, S View F Side

2.1.2 M Machine Par rameters In this example the only active machine co e e onsidered is t “turbine”. The other machines ar the r re conside ered as pass sive machine See anne A (Item 3.3) for con es. ex nsidering fou undation wit th more th one activ machine. han ve Machine: Turbine Machine Type Operatin Speed [rp ng pm] ID Generator Turbine Condenser C Form Prismatic Prismatic Cylindrical l Weight t [tonf] 12,116 6,701 6,269 Rota ating Machin (Steam Tu ne urbine) 30 000 Dim mensions app prox. [m] Lx:3, ,7 Ly:2,6 Lz: 3,79 Lz: 2,3 Ly y:6,9

Lx:1,26 Ly:2 R: 0,9

Table Ta 2.1.2 – Machine Parameters

Fig. 2.1 – Machin Ground V 1.4 ne, View

Fig. 2.1.5 – Machine, Si View ide

Fig. 2 2.1.6 – Mach hine, Top Vie ew

2.1.3 S Paramet Soil ters Shea Modulus ar [T/m2] 8500 Poisson Ratio n’s 0,3 0 Table 2.1.3 – Soil Param meters uilding the M Model 2.2 Bu Once t software is open, the first step to start devel the e o loping our ex xample is to create a new o project To do this, go to the “ t. “File →New” menu or cl ” lick on the i icon that is shown on Fig s g. 2.2.1 Unit Wei ight [T/m3] 1,9 Hysteretic H Damping 0

New Fi ile

Fig. 2.2.1 Toolbar 2 r open the dialog “New” (F 2.2.2), where there are two defa foundatio elementar Fig. w ault on ry Then, o models (disk, recta s angle), the un of force and distanc the grid spacing and data about th nits ce, d he founda ation geomet if the foun try ndation shap is disk or r pe rectangle. Alternatively you can select y the “E Empty” option if you pre efer to defin the geome ne etry from sc cratch. Anyw way, whatever selectio is chosen at this stage the geometr can be cha on e ry anged later in the Design Mode. n

Fig. F 2.2.2 –“ “New” Dialo Form og

Th unit sel he lected for the New Project pred P dominates t throughout the de evelopment o this, as w the selec of will ction of the spacing of F 2.2.2. This Fig. T me eans that if y select th grid size in “2” and th distance un in “Meter you he n he nit rs”, ea square of the grid will have an are of “2x2 sq ach f ea quare meters” ”.

To quickly star a foundation design, se o rt elect the foun ndation type as either “D Disk” or “Rectangle”, which co orresponds to a circular or rectangu r ular foundat tion, res spectively. I is necessar to enter the radius (d It ry dimensions if rectangular of f r) the foundation and the rad e n dius (dimensions if recta angular) of th pedestal. Fig. he 2.2 2.3

Fig 2.2.3 – Ci g. ircular Foundation (on th left), Rectangular Fou he undation (on the right)

To sta the Desig Mode, first select the “To be defi art gn ine” option ( (Fig.2.2.2), units “ton, m u m” (tons, m meters) and then click o the button “OK”. From this point, you can be on n m , egin designin ng the fou undation of o example, guided by th drawings. Fig. 2.1.1 to Fig. 2.1.6. our he o

Fig. 2.2.4 – Desi Mode. On left-center, perspective view; on top ign n , e p-right, ortho ogonal view (XY); o bottom-rig orthogon view (ZX on ght, nal X).

Th orientation of the coor he n rdinate axes is given by th right-hand rule. Fig. 2.2.4 i he d 2

The locatio (center of gravity) of any object is given by th distance from on f s he f the origin of the XYZ coordinate system to t center o gravity of the Z the of f object. (Fig 2.2.7) g. To navigate through the different vie ews, use the arrow keys o the keys A, S, or A D, W, whic correspond to left, do ch own, right an up respec nd ctively. To zoom in/out, rotate the mouse wheel back and forth. e a he w mply by dou uble clicking on the sele g ected Changing th main view is done sim view. It is also possible to perform this action from the m m n menu “Show → w Show→ Top”, Show →P Perspective”. . Lateral”, “S

2.2.1 G Geometry Enter a default uni itary block in the coord nto dinate space by clicking o the button shown in on n Fig. 2.2 and then click on the design spac (Fig. 2.2.6.) 2.5, n e ce.

New Blo ock

Fig. 2.2.5 –“Add New B – Block” Butto on

Fig. 2.2.6 – Defa block siz 1x1x1 m³ ault ze,

A new block has be added, w a default size of 1 m³ (Fig. 2.2.6) een with t ³. 6)

Ea block is considered i ach infinitely rigi which me id, eans the resu ulting solid is also s inf finitely rigid d.

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Th software c he considers tha all volume below the plane Z = 0 are embed at es e dded. When entering a block, you may notice that its low default bo W g e wer oundary is at Z = t 0, which mean it is resting directly over unexcavat soil. ns g ted t e oice of the g geometry giv to the lo ven ower It is important to enter the correct cho ea foundation in contact with the soil (Soil Con n w l ntact Area, SCA S are of the f he enceforth). T The SCA co onsidered by ClockWo y ork is calcu ulated only with blo ocks that me the condi eet ition of bein the lowest area of the whole struc ng t e cture (in contact wi the soil). The SCA of Fig. 2.2 is very s n ith 2.7 simple since the e fou undation con nsists only of one block, and there efore, only o lowest area. one a Ho owever, for the case of the foundat f tion such as Fig. 2.2.8, we recomm s mend res sizing the bl lock until it reaches the lowest area. Otherwise, only one of the f blo ocks will be considered t calculate the SCA. to t

Fig. 2.2.7 –Partly Embedded Foundation ly d n

Fig 2.2.8 – Pa g. artly Embedd Foundati compose of two blo ded ion, ed ocks. The low one is wer considered fo obtaining t SCA. or the

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To calculate th mass of each block (and all the foundation) the concrete unit o he ( e we eight is used. To change the attributes o a block, simply click on the obje with the right o e of s k ect e mo ouse button. This action will display a side tab to facilitate the exchan of n y b e nge va alues such as location an size in thi same tab, displaying i s nd is information about the foundation (body weigh taking int account al existing blocks. Fig. 2.2.9 e n ht) to ll

Fig 2.2.9 – Side tab, block p g. e properties.

Fig. 2.2.1 – Resizing a block by u 10 g using the mo ouse.

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With “Zo oom” capabilities, it is po ossible to ac chieve better accuracy when r w resizing or moving o objects.

Fig. 2.2.11 – Creating the Model. 1 g

Alig Tool gn Fig.2 2.2.12 – Align Tool. n

Fig. 2.2.1 – Two sep 13 parate blocks but rigidly l s linked.

A quick way to cha k ange the size of a block is to stretch one of its sides e s with the left mouse b button. It is first necessar to mark th block with the f ry he h utton. A mark object ch ked hanges color to be disting guished from the m same bu rest. Fig 2.2.10 g. To stick blocks to each other quickly, the is an “A k ere Align” tool (Fig. 2.2.11, F 2.2.12). This tool al aligns all kinds of ob Fig. lso l bjects, as wel as ll blocks. W When worki with mor than one o ing re object at a ti ime, the “Ali ign” tool is disabled. eling and che ecking the SC CA. Use “Align” for leve

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The sof ftware consi iders that al blocks are rigidly lin ll e nked even when w graphica ally displaye as separ ed rate units. Consequen ntly, Fig. 2.2.13 consists of two separ blocks, but physicall are an uniq rigid sol rate b ly que lid.

14 hed Fig. 2.2.1 – Unfinish Model.

SCA Button

SCA Location A Fig. 2.2 2.15 – The re point show the locati of the SC ed ws ion CA.

For the location of the SCA, pr ress the butto “SCA” (F 2.2.15). The on Fig. lly ed sphere in the design view and w position is graphical represente by a red s t e ht in ( its exact location is shown in the bottom righ of the mai window. (Fig. 2.2.16).

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2.2.2 Passive machines a other masses 2 e and m As A indicated in Table 2.1 the equip d 1.2, pment is com mposed by an active mach (the n hine turbine) and others mach t hines conside ered passive. The turbine produces for rces due to the t imbalanc ce. 2.2.2.1 Mass Data Input 2 s t Continuing the development of our example, the masses are added to the mod C del according to Table 2.1.2 It should be noted th the “Tur a o 2. hat rbine” produ uces dynam mic forces and w not be con f will nsidered mer as a mas The Item 2.2.2.2 cove the steps t rely ss. ers to add a this class of active eq s quipment. Now N proceed to enter the mass of the “Generator d e e r”.

Add New Mass Fig. 2.2.15 – Add New M Mass Button. After selecti the indic A ing cated button in Fig. 2.2 n 2.15, click w the left button of th with he mouse within the area o the top view (XY) to add the new mass, spec m of w cifically in th he location give by Fig. 2.1 (Fig. 2.2 l en 1.6. 2.16)

Fig. 2.2.16 – Ad dding the “Ge enerator’s” Mass

Machine can be cla es assified as Pa assive or Act tive. sive es ribute to the m model by the masses. eir Pass machine only contr Acti machine are the so ive es ource of the dynamical e excitation of the f system.

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Relative Distances s Fig. F 2.2.17- “Relative Dis “ stances” butt ton Use U the “Rel lative Distan nces” tool to locate the ex position of the “Gen xact n nerator” give en by b Fig. 2.1.6 To do this press the button “Relative Distances” from the toolbar (Fig 6. s, b e g. 2.2.17), then select the bl 2 n lock to be us as a refer sed rence and fin nally move th mass object he with w the mou Depend use. ding on the type of view in use, the distances from the obje t w ect (“Generator’s” mass in th case) to th selected b ( his he block’s edge will be displayed.

Distances” Tool. On the left, the XY v T view; and on the right, th n he Fig. 2.2.18 – “Relative D ZX view After posit tioning the generator, you must assign mas value, geometry an ss g nd dimensions. All of this data is in Table 2.1.2. (F 2.2.19) . Fig.

The “Re elative Dista ances” tool indicates the distance of an object from i e f f the edge of a selecte block. es ed It is pos ssible to add the positio of the ce d on enter of grav of the mass vity m directly by using the property tab (Fig. 2.2.1 e b. 19)

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Fig. 2.2.19 – Pro operties Tab for Mass Ob b bject. Having enter this info H red ormation, you can view the artifact a according to its geometr o ry and a size, pressing the but tton “Machin from the toolbar. ne”

Machi ine Fig. 2.2.20 – Mac 2 chine Button. .

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Fig. 2.2.21 – Generator over Foundation To enter the mass of the “Condenser” follow the same steps described above. However, now select a cylindrical geometric form as the envelope surface of the machine, the orientation of its rotator axis, length and radius.

The orientation of the cylinder is modified by clicking on the button “Rotate to”. This way, the new direction is reflected graphically in the design view (if the machine button is enabled) and also in the side properties tab “Cylinder at Y Direction”.

Cylinder- rotator axis at “Y” direction

Length of main axis and radius

Fig. 2.2.22 - Mass properties tab.

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Frequen ntly, the cen nter of gravi of a mas does not match with its ity ss h geometr center. T software simplifies t ric The this problem by taking into m account only its cen of gravit Therefore if the cen of gravit is nter ty. e, nter ty correctly set, it does not matter th graphically the mach seems no to y hat hine ot be direct resting ov the found tly ver dation (Fig. 2 2.2.23) or ev if it seem to ven ms be crossing it.

Fig. 2.2.2 – The con 23 ndenser is no displayed d ot directly restin over the foundation ng f Others than the Turbine there are not other re O e n elevant mass ses. If other masses wer re presented the can be ent p ey tered using th mass butt he ton. 2.2.2.2 Activ Machine Data Input 2 ve In I this sectio we will be on egin the inpu for the activ machine p ut ve properties an the nd dynamical fo forces. d orce According to Table 2.1.2 the “turbin is a rotat A o 2, ne” ting machine whose oper e rating speed is 1850 rpm. Fr 1 requently, th here is not in nformation fr rom the supp plier about dy ynamic force es produced by the machin imbalance in normal o p y ne e operation. La ater, an outl line of how t to obtain an ap o pproximate v value of thes forces usi empirica formulas will be given. se ing al w Also A we will cover how t input thes forces if th supplier in l to se he ndicates them by means o m of a table. To T start the entry of the machine, be egin by adding a “Center of gravity” object to th ” he model, by cli m icking with t mouse on the “CG” b the n button of the toolbar.

Cente of er Grav vity Fig.2.2.24 – Center of G Gravity button n

It is imp portant to not that the rot te tatory analys can be performed only sis y for this c category of m machine. To see how to m different categories of mix t o machine (rotating a reciproca es and ating) over th same foun he ndation, go to o Item 3.3.

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It is possible to add one center of gravity, w relation t the size of the o with to f machine and the cen of gravity of the fou e nter undation. To use this opt o tion, select fr rom the “Li of Cente ist ers” list box the object called “of the x, t f Envelop pment” (Fig. 2.2.25). Aft this, it is possible to enter the rel ter lated data (ma geometr and size). It is import ass, ry . tant to note that this rel lated entered data, belon only to the selected center of gravity, in this ngs d example to the obj e, ject “of the Envelopmen Once the data has been nt”. b saved, th object changes its def his fault name to “CG_Equip o pment”.

The Rotor c center of gra avity object represents th point where the unba he alanced force es will w be gener rated. These unbalanced forces are always perpen e d ndicular to th rotor axis. he

Fig. 2.2.2 Quick op 25ption, add one default Cen of Gravi called “C e nter ity, Centered”. Like the othe componen of the ma L er nts achine, place the Center of Gravity in the positio e i on according to the drawing of Fig. 2.1 and give i the name o Table 2.1.2. Optionally a gs 1.6 it of y, you y can ente the mass o this comp er of ponent in the side tab of properties. However, it is e H also a possible from the “M e Machine” me as indica below. enu ated You Y can def fine more th one Rotor Center of Gravity if you have more than on han f m ne active machi Internally the software generates a list of Rotor Center of Gravity. a ine. f After saving this data, a n “Center of Gravity” object will b added to the internal. A new r be t

The “Sti to Block” tool allows the moveme of objects over the blo ick ” ent s ocks although these block are at diff h ks ferent heights Therefore, it is possibl to s. , le change the position (height) of an object w n f without usin the side view ng v ig. “Stick To Bl lock” can m manipulate ob bjects like mass, m (ZX) (Fi 2.2.26). “ center of gravity, for point and bearing. rce d

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Menu M Machine Stick to Block Fig. 2.2.26 – “Mac chine” Optio and “Stick to Block” Tool on k T The T next step is to assign the Rotor Center of Gra p n C avity to a par rticular mach hine. Now, go to the menu “M N Machine” to associate th “turbine” object with the center o he h of gravity of the machine. F 2.2.26 – Fig. 2.2.27. g e Fig. .

L of center of List rs gravity

L of center of gravity List rs associate to the ed mach hine

Fig. 2.2.2 – “Machine” Form. 27 In I this menu you can com mplement ma data associated with t machine. ass the On O Fig. 2.2.28 part of t machine information has been added, such as the type o the n a of machine, ope m erating frequ uency (Hz) and the orien a ntation of the main axis of the turbin e o ne, which in this case revolv around th X axis. w s ves he Once the cen of gravi is associa O nter ity ated, press on it using the left mouse button. Th n e his will w activate the fields fo the entry of mass, geom or metric form a size. and

It is pos ssible to ana alyze a rang of operati frequenc ge ing cies by selec cting “Freque ency Range” and enterin a minimu frequency and maxim ng um y mum frequenc in the “Machine” menu (F cy Fig.2.2.28). The maxim mum displace ements are ob btained for each interme e ediate step (o 0.1Hz) fro F of om min to F max. Later we see these results grap e phically.

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Th

Fig. 2.2.28 – “Machine” menu. Mass, geometry and dimensions assigned

Fig. 2.2.29 – Masses over Foundation

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2.2.3 Forces As mentioned in the preceding paragraph for this example further information is not available regarding the dynamic forces produced by the machine (Steam Turbine). Next, use formulas provided by recognized standards, such as ACI351, ASA/ANSI S2.19 and DIN4024 for conservative approximations of the value of these forces. Pressing the button “Forces by formula applied at centers of gravity” from the menu “Machine”, shows the window of Fig. 2.2.30.

Forces Calculation Form Bearings, forces Form

Fig. 2.2.30 – Machine” Form

The software provides four well known formulas: 1. 2. 3. 4. Machine unbalance provided by the manufacturer Machine unbalance meeting industry criteria Dynamic load determined from an empirical formula Machine unbalance by DIN4024

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“Balance Quality” Table “Service Factor” Table

Fig. 2.2.31 – Forces Form. Provides formulas from international standards that allow calculation of dynamic forces applied at the selected center of gravity. For the example, the employed formula is “Dynamic Loads determined from an empirical formula”. (Fig. 2.2.32)

Fig. 2.2.32 – Dynamic loads determined from an empirical formula To obtain the approximate force, first add one rotor, pressing the up arrow in the “Segments of the rotor” section, then select the “turbine” center of gravity from the “Rotor center of gravity” column. Finally, in the “Select formula” column we choose the formula “Dynamic loads determined from an empirical formula”.

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The valu of the op ue perating freq quency used in each of the formula is as, automatically filled in, consid d dering the o operating fre equency of the e the machine entered in t previous menu.

In I this exam mple we assume that the weight o the rotat t of ting part of the machin f ne corresponds to 40% of the weight of the turbine. Enter t resulting value in th c the g he “Rotating W “ Weight” field (Fig. 2.2.32) and press th right mou button on “Calculate ) he use n e”. Fig. F 2.2.33.

Fig. 2.2.33 – Resulti Force ing

In the ca of having further data of the machine, such as “eccentrici ase g a s ity”, “service factor” an e nd/or “balan quality”, you would be able to use nce d sophistic cated formul for the ca las alculation of forces. Oth f herwise, you can also use these form e mulas, approa aching the p previous val lues through the h data tables attached to the form (Fig. 2.2.34 These tab are accessed 4). bles by press sing the “>” button, to th right of the input data. (Fig. 2.2.31 he 1)

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Fig. F 2.2.34a –“Balance Q – Quality” Tab ble

Fig. 2.2.34b –“Service F b Factor” Tabl le

Once the for is calcula O rce ated, press th button “O (Fig. 2.2.33) and then “Save” (Fig he Ok” n g. 2.2.30). The value has b 2 been assigne to the rot center of gravity of the “turbine ed tor f e”. This force is to be appli in the di T s ied irections perp pendicular to the axis of the machin o ne rotor, becaus the axis o the mach r se of hine rotates around direc ction X of the coordina t ate space. There s efore, the res sultant force due to the u unbalance of the rotor ha componen f as nts in i direction Z and directi Y. ion

When t the manufac cturer gives the force magnitude values direc ctly applied at the mach hine bearings the “bear s; ring” object is useful. (F Fig. 2.2.35).

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The adv vantage of th object “be he earing” in f front of other objects to the entry of forces are si f implicity and speed of da entry, as it is possible to d ata e even an appr roximation of the size o the machi o of ine. To do th his, obtain e after ent tering the “b bearings” (F 2.2.36), p Fig. press the button “Machin ne” in the to oolbar. (Fig. 2.2.37). To add forces to a “bearin object, just o ng” j click on the object w the right mouse butto to open it properties tab with t on ts 2.38) or go t “Forces ap to pplied at bea arings point” option wit thin (Fig. 2.2 the “Machine” menu Fig. 2.2.38 u. 8.

The T bearings are the poin where the machine dy s nts e ynamical reac ctions are ap pplied to the foundation. f

Bearing Button Fig. F 2.2.35 – “Bearing” B Button

Fig. 2.2.36 – Bearings o foundation on n

Fig F 2.2.37 – Machine on Bearings

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By usin the “For ng rces applied at bearing point” o d gs option from the “Machin form, yo can have access to an advanced in ne” ou n nput by click king the “Ad dvanced” but tton. Here you can see the directio in which the y on forces ar loaded and the used ph re d hase. (Fig. 2. .2.38a – 2.2.38b)

Fig. F 2.2.38a – Forces Inp put

Fig. 2.2.38b – Forces Inp “Advanc F put, ced” option

There is an addition object to add force the “For Point” (Fig. nal es, rce ( which allow rotating or reciprocatin forces, depending on the ws r ng n 2.2.39), w option. Y can acce the prope You ess erties of the object as yo can any ot ou ther, by using the right mo ouse button. (Fig. 2.2.40) ( ) Rememb that in th case of th objects “F ber he he Force Point” “Mass Poi ”, int”, “Center of Gravity” and “Beari ing”, it is no necessary that they have ot y h visual di irect contact with the fo oundation, as these are c s considered to be o rigidly linked to the s structure. (Fi 2.2.40) ig.

Forc Point ce Button B Fig 2.2.39 – To g. oolbar, “For Point” bu rce utton

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Fig. 2.2.40 – Force Point. To the left are the properties of the object.

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How masses and dynamical forces are entered. Type of Mass Foundation Mass Description Is automatically calculated when creating the foundation model using the concrete specific weight. Use the “Add New Mass” button (Fig. 2.2.15) to insert masses. Masses are considered uniform inside the envelope shape. Use the “Center of Gravity” button (Fig 2.2.24) when: - Mass represents the rotor mass when forces are to be calculated in rotation machines Mass represents the total machine when forces are to be calculated. Restriction

Other Masses

Rotatory machines only

Masses with Forces

How dynamical forces are entered in ClockWork. Type of Force Forces determined from formula applied at Centers of Gravity Description From the machine form these forces are calculated from formulas and assigned to the assigned centers of gravity. Forces given by the machine data sheet are assigned at bearings. The machine envelope is created if not entered before. General method entering any force in for Restriction

Given forces to be applied at bearing points Given forces to be applied at a “Force Point” Using “Forces applied at bearing points” from the machine form.

Forces are applied using a table.

Rotatory machines only

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2.2.4 Soil To T consider the soil-st r tructure inte eraction, you need to enter the geomechanical u g properties of the soil. T definition is made in “Define → Soil Classif p f The n n fication” (Fig g. 2.2.41). For o example the data giv in Table 2.1.3 is used 2 our e, ven d.

Soil Cla assification Fig. 2.2.4 – Access menu “Define →Soil Clas 41 m e ssification” Once the for is open (F 2.2.42), press with th left mous button on the label “No O rm Fig. he se Not Classified”, f C followed by clicking the “Add” button located on the bottom m-center of th he form. f

Fig. F 2.2.42 – “Soil Classif fication” Form

You may enter the s y shear modulu directly in the field a shown in Fig. us nto as 2.2.42 o obtain an approximat or tion based o test result from an SPT on ts “Standard Penetrati Test” (F 2.2.43), using the m ion Fig. methods in Fig. 2.2.43b.

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The sof ftware is ac ccompanied by a librar of soil p ry properties ca alled “Classif fied Soils”. These soi contain parameters belonging to ils s g recogniz standard which are used worl zed ds e ldwide. This library can be s n expande by the use pressing (i the “Soil Classificatio form) on the ed er in on” n “Add C Classified So oil” button and enteri ing a name for the new e classific cation. Any n classific new cation and ev very added layer is store in ed the soil l library.

The T fields ar activated t fill the soi parameters after which you must give a name t re to il s, h g to the t new laye This name is the ident er. e tifier that all lows you to f find the soil at the time o of assigning lay a yers to your model in th next steps The remaining fields are filled wit he s. a th the t data give in Table. 2 en 2.1.3.

SPT Met thods

O Ohsaki – Iwas saki, 1973

Iw – Tonouchi, 1982 wai

Se 1983 (Sa soils ) eed, and Fig. F 2.2.43a -“Standard p penetration test” Form Fig. 2 2.2.43b – SP Methods PT

Once the da of Table 2.1.3 in the “Soil Clas O ata e e ssification” f form is ente ered, press th he button “Clos on the same form (F 2.2.42). After this s b se” Fig. step, the def finition of th he layer that w be assign l will ned to the model is com m mpleted. The allocation is made on th s he “Soil” form, located in th menu toolbar Fig. 2.2.44. “ he

Soil for rm

Fig. 2.2.44 – Toolbar, “Soil” form 4

In I this examp we use th theory of semi-infinite space, the “ ple he e “Standard” method for th m he selection of t impenda s the ance. The fou undation rect tangular geo ometry is ent tered to obtai in the t static stif ffness. To as ssign all of this data, go to the “Soil form (Fig 2.2.45) an t o ls” g. nd press the “Ad p dvanced” bu utton, located on the right of the same form. d t e

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To T assign th layer defin above, first denote, with a name the layer that compose he ned f e, t es the t new soil, in the “Nam field of the “Soil” op , me” ption. It cou be the sam name use uld me ed to t define it. The T “Type” field is assig gned with th mouse, by left-clickin on the ent area. (Fig he y ng try g. 2.2.45) 2 The T value of the “Thickn f ness” field in this exampl is predeter n le rmined and unchangeabl u le: for f a semi-in nfinite space the thickness is infinite. s For F stratified horizontal s layers th thickness o each layer shall be ind d soil he of r dicated. The T field “Te exture” is op ptional and re epresents the soil in the d e design windo To ow. perform this example we choose the first texture. p e f

Fig. 2.2.4 – “Soils” form. Assign 45 f ning an uncla assified soil

Click on “Sa C ave” button o the “Soils” form to save changes. of ” Then, in the design wind you can see the allocation made g T dow graphically. (Fig. 2.2.46) ( ).

The selection of so stratifica oil ation is dire ectly related to the cho d osen g general, the “ “Cones” met thod method for obtaining the static stiffness. In g any tratification, and it is the default selec ction if there are e allows a type of st no chang in the ad ges dvanced form m. To add or remove la ayers from the “Layers over semi-in t nfinite space” or rock” options, press the arrows (‘up’ to add, ‘do ’ own’ “Layers over rigid r ve) ng ght the r ers” to remov appearin on the rig side of t “Number of soil laye label. In the c case of emb bedded foundations, it i recommen is nded to use the “Cones” method, since it cove all types of soil st ” ers tratification and embedm ment. The “Fundament tal” method also allo d ows embed dded foundati ions, though only for the “Semi-infini space” op ite ption.

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Fig. 2.2.46 – Model with assigned soil.

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2.3 2 Analyzin the mach ng hine foundat tion and obt taining resul lts After enterin all necess A ng sary data for the dynam analysis o the system proceed t r mic of m, to initiate the an i nalysis. In th toolbar (F 2.3.1), go to “Analys →Calcula or simpl he Fig. sis ate” ly press the F5 key. This will start the analysis. H p 5 However, fir you find the forms o rst of Fig.2.3.2. F

Start the Analysis

Fig. 2. – “Analy .3.1 ysis” Menu, “Calculate” option ” The T purpose of this form (Fig. 2.3.2b) is to en e m nsure that all the data en ntry has bee en completed in order to con c n ntinue.

Fig. 2.3.2.a – Effective d a damping lim mit

Fig. F 2.3.2b – Data verific cation form

Fig. 2.3.2 – Analysis successfully completed 2c s ly

It is pos ssible to alte the damping from the “Effective damping lim er e mit” form by varying the values of the column “ y e t “Value”. Thi factor, wh is hose range v varies between 0 and 1 (minimum and maxim m mum values of s damping respective g, ely), can be entered individually for each degree of e freedom The corresp m. pondence is as follow: -M Modal Numb 1: Degree of Freedom X (Horizon ber m ntal) -M Modal Numb 2: Degree of Freedom Y (Horizon ber m ntal) -M Modal Numb 3: Degree of Freedom Z (Vertical ber m l) -M Modal Numb 4: Degree of Freedom rx (Rockin X) ber m ng -M Modal Numb 5: Degree of Freedom ry (Rockin Y) ber m ng -M Modal Numb 6: Degree of Freedom rz (Torsion Z) ber m n An effec ctive dampin limit of 0.35, will lim the effect ng 0 mit tive damping to g 35% of t calculate value. the ed Thus, if internally the software determines say Fn d f e s, direction.x a Cx value, th effective C to be used in the analy is 0,35C he Cx d ysis Cx. Note: Th is not a re his eduction of a damping cr ritical value

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2.3.1 Natural frequencies To obtain the natural frequencies of the model, it is necessary to provide, as a minimum requirement, the foundation geometry, the machine mass, and soil parameters. Access to this option is possible through the toolbar “Analysis →Results → Vibration Modes”.

Natural Frequencies Fig. 2.3.3 –“Natural Frequencies” Toolbar

Fig. 2.3.4 –“Natural Frequencies” form On Fig. 2.3.4, the natural frequencies of the first six degrees of freedom of the model are indicated.

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2.3.2 Natural Frequency Range You can obtain natural frequencies for a range of values of shear modulus, by using the “Shear Modulus Range” option, from the menu “Analysis →Results →Shear Modulus Range” (Fig. 2.3.5)

Natural Frequency Range Fig. 2.3.5 – Access menu, “Shear Modulus Range”

Fig. 2.3.6 –“Shear Modulus Range” form

When you first open the form, the fields “G min”, “G max” and “Step” are filled automatically. The calculation of these default values is made by multiplying the shear modulus provided (Fig. 2.2.42) by “0.5” and “1.5”, for “G min” and “G max” respectively. Changing these values is permitted. (Fig. 2.3.6)

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In the “S Shear Modul Range” form, there is a button m lus f s marked “DIN 4024”, which a allows to display the ra ange of G v values that determines natural frequenc cies that are near to a resonance co e r ondition. Th upper rig box he ght indicates the acceptable range criteria accor s c rding to the standard. Pr ressing the butto “DIN 402 will high on 24” hlight, in color, all frequ uencies that belong (Fig.2.3.7.) to the unaccep ptable range

Fig. 2 2.3.7 – “Shea Modulus Range” Form Applying D ar R m, DIN4024 Sta andard. 2.3.3 Displac 2 cements 2.3.3.1 Displ 2 lacement Ta able After the ve erification an analysis (F 2.3.2), y are able t obtain resu To access nd Fig. you to ults. the displace t ement table go to the toolbar option “A e, t Analysis → Results → Displacemen (Fig. 2.3 D nts” 3.8). If you have not don the analysis previousl this optio h ne ly, on will w be disab bled.

Displac cements fo orm

Fig. 2.3.8 – Acce to “Displacements” F ess Form You Y can see the dynamic analysis res c sults, within the table of t “Displacements” the form. f Each row of the results table corre E s esponds to a assigned “control po an oint” over th he foundation (Fig. 2.3.9) Each “co f ). ontrol point has thre possible displacemen t” ee nt directions. d Ux: Dis splacement at X direction (from zero to peak) a n Uy: Dis splacement at Y direction (from zero to peak) a n Uz: Dis splacement at Z direction (from zero to peak) a n The T SCA con ntrol point has the same three directio but three more corres t ons e sponding to the t overturni moment. ing MUx: Rocking aro ound X axis ( (from zero to peak) o MUy: Rocking aro ound Y axis ( (from zero to peak) o MUz: Rocking aro ound Z axis (from zero to peak) o

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To loca a particu ate ular control point withi the mode use the “Show in el, Object” option, from the menu “Show →O m Object → Co ontrol Point” (Fig. ” 2.3.12). In the searc window (Fig. 2.3.13) enter the I of the “C ch ( ) ID Control and hen n icking on a control c Point” a it will th appear in the design window. Cli point with the right mouse but t tton will obt tain its posi ition regardi the ing origin of the coordin axes (Fig 2.3.14). f nate g.

Fig. 2.3.9 – “Displacem ments” Form m

Control P Points Butto on Fig. F 2.3.10 – Control Poin Button C nts

Con ntrol Points sea option arch

Fig. F 2.3.11 – Access Men to Search for Control Points by ID nu D.

Each blo has four control points, located on the edges of the up ock r d pper face. If adjacent con ntrol points are detected (for the stuck blocks ca a ase) hem remains To activat the contro points, pre the “Control s. te ol ess one of th Points” button fro om the too olbar. Bear in mind t that to obt tain ements/velocities/accelera ations at th hese points, the “Control , displace Points” button shoul remain ena ld abled. (Fig. 2.3.10, Fig. 2.3.11)

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Fig. 2.3.12 – The P55 Control Point is displayed by using the “Show Object” option.

Fig. 2.3.13 – “Control Point” Search Window

“Control Point” P47 Location Fig. 2.3.14 – Control Point location is displayed by using the “Show Object” option.

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2.3.3.2 Displ 2 lacements, v velocities an accelerati graphics nd ion s We W can graph the obtaine results by using the “P ed y Plot” option in “Analysis →Results → Plot” (Fig. 2.3.15). P

Fig. 2.3.15 – Acc to graph results wi cess hic indow

Step p

Max. Magnitu M ude (0 to peak)

M Magnitu Max. ude (Peak to Pea ak)

Fig. F 2.3.16 – The chart r represents pe to peak d eak displacement at a horizo ts ontal directio on X. The selected Cont Point corresponds to the SCA. trol o

The grap represents the displac ph cement, velocity or accel leration whic a ch determin nate point of the founda f ation (control point or fo oundation SC CA) has suffe fered with res spect to its original positi by the ac ion ction of exter rnal forces. n he of ents It is possible to add or remove nodes from th graphic o displaceme ies leration), by changing th ‘number o steps’ opti he of ion, (velociti and accel which is located belo the contr point list of the “Plot” form. The step s ow rol ” s value is, by default, 0.001. (Fig. 2.3.17) ,

41

Fig. 2.3.17 – Plot Form – The time interval between nodes has been changed from the default value (0.001) to 0.1 (the distance unit depends on the selected one at the beginning of the project)

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2.4 2 Acceptan criteria nce In I certain c cases, the e equipment manufacturer does not establish th acceptable m r he vibration lim for its no v mits ormal operati ion. In such cases, it is p possible to us well know se wn standards an recommen s nd ndations from recognized studies. Th software includes thre m d he i ee well w known v vibration crit teria widely used. Vi ibration cri iteria for ro otating mac chinery (Bla 1964, as modified b ake s by Ar rya, O’Neil and Pi ll, incus 1979; “New V ; Vibration Standards fo S for Maintenance,” Hydrocar Ma ” rbon Proces ssing and P Petroleum Refiner, Gu R ulf Pu ublishing Co, Houston, Tex., V. 43, N 1, Jan., pp 111-114) T No. p. Ge eneral mach hinery vibra ation severit chart (Ba ty axter and Be ernhard 196 67, “V Vibration To olerances fo Industry,” ASME P or Paper 67-PE EM-14, Plan nt En ngineering an Maintena nd ance Confere ence, Detroit, Mich., Apr. t, .) eiher-Meiste chart (Ric er chart, Hall, and Woods 1 1970, “Vibra ations of Soi ils Re an Foundatio nd ons”, Prentic ce-Hall, Engl lewood Cliffs N.J., 414 pp.) fs, p In I our exam mple, we use the “vibrati criteria f rotating machinery”, from “Blak ion for , ke 1964 (as mod 1 dified by Ary O’Neill, and Pincus 1 ya, a 1979)” (Fig. 2.3.18).

Vibration C Criteria for R Rotating Machinery (Bl 1964, as modified by M lake
Arya, O’Ne and Pincu 1979) eill, us

Fig. 2 2.3.18 – Acce menu, “V ess Vibration Criteria” It I should be noted that fo loading th control po or he oints on the v vibration crit teria option, it is i necessary to have the a analysis of th model com he mpleted. Opt tionally, keep the “Contro p ol Point” button enabled; o P otherwise, on the SCA control poi will be lo nly A int oaded into th he option. o

Showing the displac g cements on the vibratio criteria op on ption of one or e more “C Control Poin nts” is as sim mple as choosing the co ontrol point IDs from the left-hand lists. The result is auto r omatically r reflected on the criteria u used. (Fig.2.3.19) The con ntrol points o the vibra on ation criteria have the fo ollowing form mat: “ID.Dire ection”; which means, th “ID” nam and the “D he me Direction” of the f displace ement. For th example, the control point chosen is the P46. As his n . can be s seen in Fig. 2 2.3.19, the major displa m acement of th control point his p has been found at Y direction (P46.y) n If a selected contro point is not being re ol n epresented o the vibra on ation criteria graph, this m means that the displacement magni t itudes are lo ower ose by ia. xample, P46. and P46.z are .x z than tho allowed b the criteri In this ex not sho own because their disp e placements are much l lower than the minimum of the crite m eria.

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Fig. 2.3.19 – Vibratio Criteria for rotating m on machinery

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3. 3 Annex A – Machine w Periodi Excitation with ic n The “Period excitatio T dic on” option provides fle exibility of analysis wi ithout undul ly increasing th complexit of operatio You can even make a harmonic analysis equ i he ty on. a ual to t that perfor rmed throug the “Rotat gh ting Machine by using the cosine function in th e”, f he “Functions” option (Fig. 3.3.1). “

The data co T oncerning th machine has been developed a he and exagger rated for th his example, in o e order to achi ieve a proper understanding of the ca r apabilities of the “Period f dic Excitation” o E option. The steps to pro oceed with t Item 2.2. the .2.1 “Mass Input” are th I he same for the periodic ana s alysis case; hence, it is ig h gnored in this annex. s
Mach hine Machine T Type Frequenc cy Reciprocat ting Machine 26,3 31Hz

ID Generator G Pump Condenser C

Shape Prismatic Prismatic Cylindrical l

Weight[t tonf] 12,116 6,701 1 6,269 9

D Dimensions ap pprox. [m] Lx x:3,7 Ly:2,6 Lz: 3,79 6 Lz: 2,3 Ly:6,9 L

L Lx:1,26 Ly:2 R: 0,9

Table 3.1.1 – Machine Parameters 1

Fig. 3.1.1 – Periodic Force of a R 1 F Reciprocating Machine. g f (t) in units of weig tons, and t in seconds of time ght d s The T periodic force shown in Fig. 3.1. is applied vertically fo this examp c n .1 or ple.

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3.1 Machine The machin type disc T ne cussed in th annex is composed of masses of the sam his s me characteristic to those re c cs ecently studi in this th tutorial. H ied he However, the applied forc ce is i not sinuso oidal as in th previous example, but its time var he e t riation is as shown in Fig g. 3.1.1. 3 3.1.1 Machin Input 3 ne To T set this t type of mach hine, we beg by addin a “Center of Gravity” object to th gin ng ” he model. The location is g m given by Tab 3.1.1. Th steps requ ble he uired to add a “Center o d of Gravity” object are listed in Item 2.2.2.2. G d Until this m U moment, the s steps with re espect to the rotatory m e machine are the same. Th t he changes com when choo c me osing the typ of machine in the “Machine” form. pe e

Fig. 3.2 “Machine” Form 2.1 After selecti the “Per A ing riodic Excita ation” of the “Machine” form, you set the perio e od according to the paramet given in Table 3.1.1, and the num a ters mber of harm monics for th he Fourier Serie For this ex F e. xample we use 80 harmonics. (Fig. 3. .2.1)

A bigge number of terms (harm er f monics) for t Fourier S the Series, impli a ies better ap pproximation of the resul (Fig. 3.2.1) n lts.

The peri set in th “Machine” form is co iod he ” onsidered as a global per riod, hence, it is the maxi t imum period for all the p d periodic forc If a peri ces. iodic force ex xceeds the m maximum est tablished pe eriod, then th period of the he f periodic force will be truncated until the max c u ximum establ lished.

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3.2 3 Forces In nput

To T enter the force plotte in Fig. 3.1.1, go to t "Functions" form, which is in th e ed the w he menu bar "D m Define → Fun nctions".

Add a P Point Remove a nt Poin

Fig. 3.3.1 – “Functio 1 ons” Form As A shown in Fig. 3.3.1, t n there is a for function w its resp rce with pective name, but the forc ce is i not active until this p e point, it shal be now sa ll aved. To do this, press on the "Sav o ve Function" bu F utton. After the fun A nction has be defined it is possible to use it. In the “Design View”, clic een i e n n ck on o the center of gravity " r "turbine" (Fig 3.3.2) g.

To add p points to the function, pre on the “+ button. To remove poi ess +” o ints, press on the “-” butto (Fig. 3.3.1) n on. Althoug the period of the “Fz” function add in Fig. 3 gh d ded 3.3.1 is of 0.0 03s, the softw ware deeme that the period of th function (and any other ed p his o function is of 0.038 (the applie one in the “Machine” menu) beca n) 8s ed e ause, as expla ained above this is th period th applies to all perio e, he hat odic function ns.

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Access t the "Funct to tions" form, from "Define → Functio ons" There a two ways to add a per are riodic functio in the “Fu on unctions” for rm: By P Points: Addin point by point until the curve is com ng p e mplete. (Fig g. 3.3.1) Expression: A Adding the mathematic ex m xpression of the function f n. By E (Fig. 3.4.3). It is possible to define a piece d ewise-define function. ed accessible by clicking on their respec y n ctive tab. These options are a To defin a functio using the “By Expres ne on ssion” option first open the n, n “Functio ons” form an then click on the side tab “By Exp nd k pression”. Gi a ive name to the new fun nction in the “Function N Name” field. Next, click with the left mouse butt ton on the “+” button to add a n new mathem matic ion 4.4a). It is possible to u the defa p use ault function to ns expressi (Fig. 3.4 describe a curve as shown in Fig. 3.4.4b. In the exp e s . pression, the “t” e variable represents th time axis in seconds. he

Fig 3.3.2 – Sid bar, “Turb g. de bine” proper rties When you cl W lick one of t drop-dow boxes of the side tab properties, you will see it the wn y shows a list of predefine force func s ed ctions added by the user. Apply the force functio f on "Fz" defined above, as a vertical load " d d. With W these c changes, you will be able to analyze t system a e the again. Go to "Analysis → Calculate" or press F5 to start the ana C o alysis. When this is done the an W s nalysis is fin nished and it is then pos t ssible to obta the resul ain lts through the d t displacemen table (Fig 2.3.8 – Fig 2.3.9) or b using the “Plot” optio nts g. g. by on (Fig. 2.3.15 - Fig 2.3.16) ( ).

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Fig.3.4.3 - Functions defined using the option “By Expression”. Note that the amplitude of force (1.62 [tons] for the turbine and 1.5 [tons] for the generator) is used directly in the function definition form.

Add New Function

Default Functions Operators Fig. 3.4.4a – “Add Function” button. Fig. 3.4.4b – Default functions

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Once the loads are a e applied, we can verify the resultant fo c e orce on the SCA S which corresponds t the total su of the forces assigned This optio is to um d. on in “Ana alysis → Resu → Force in center o SCA” (Fig 3.4.7) ults es of g.

Forces on SCA F Fig. 3.4.7 – “For rces in center of SCA” op r ption.

Fig. 3.4.8 – Resultant F Force of the “turbine” an “generato functions defined in nd or” s Fig g.3.4.3.

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