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DEVELOPMENT O F THE NASA/GRUMMAN LUNAR MODULE

Grumman A i r c r a f t Engineering Corporation, Bethpage, New York, p r i m a r i l y known a s a maker of f i g h t e r planes f o r the Navy, began r e s e a r c h back i n 1960 with a M ' t e a m which now comprises approximately 6000 s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s and technicians. Two y e a r s of pioneer work on Apollo paid off i n 1 9 6 2 when t h e N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) c a l l e d f o r b i d s on developing a LM.
A major c r i t e r i o n ,

NASA said,

would b e knowledge t h e companies had a l r e a d y acquired i n the

field.

Gxumnan was able t o p r e s e n t NASA w i t h a mountain of d a t a ,

evidence t h a t it understood t h e two paramount problems


and dependability.

--

weight

I n l a t e 1 9 6 2 , G r m a n won the c o n t r a c t that plunged i t deep i n t o t h e Apollo Moon-Landing Program Module.

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t h e ~ ~ ~ A / G r u m r n Lunar an

The c o s t - i n c e n t i v e c o n t r a c t t o t a l s approximately $1.61

b i l l i o n f o r development, manufacture, test and d e l i v e r y of t w o mission s i m u l a t o r s , 1 0 ground test a r t i c l e s (LTA'S) and 1 5 f l i g h t a r t i c l e s (LM's)
M-1,

a n e n g i n e e r i n g mockup, was f i r s t displayed i n S p r i n g 1964.

LTA-1

i s b e i n g used a t Grumman f o r t e s t i n g LM e l e c t r i c a l and

e l e c t r o n i c s systems.

The thermal-vacuum t e s t a r t i c l e , LTA-8,

was d e l i v e r e d t o the
I t h a s completed

NASA Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center September 17, 1967.

a s e r i e s of t e s t s i n t h e Space Simulation Laboratory under


t e m p e r a t u r e and vacuum extremes s i m u l a t i n g a t y p i c a l moon mission. Before t h e L was committed t o t h e l u n a r mission, i t s ability M t o meet t h e o p e r a t i o n a l requirements of t h e mission was demonstrated t o assure a s t r o n a u t s a f e t y and mission s u c c e s s . The F l i g h t

Development Test Program (FDTP) provided t h i s a s s u r a n c e by a series of developmental m i s s i o n s

LTA-1OR was aboard t h e November 9, 1967 f l i g h t o f Apollo 4 . It was instrumented t o measure v i b r a t i o n , a c o u s t i c s and s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y d u r i n g launch.

Data was telemetered t o ground s t a t i o n s

d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 12 m i n u t e s of f l i g h t of t h e f i r s t S a t u r n V .
The f i r s t f l i g h t vehicle, LM-1, was shipped from Grumman's

Space Center June 2 3 , 1967. Bethpage f a c i l i t y t o NASA ~ e n n e d ~

LM-1

was launched J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1968 on Apollo 5 for i t s f i r s t unmanned test flight. During this mission t h e Lunar Module's a s c e n t and

d e s c e n t p r o p u l s i o n systems, along w i t h t h e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system, were s u c c e s s f u l l y t e s t f i r e d f o r t h e first time i n space. r e s u l t o f t h e LM-1


LM-2,
As

f l i g h t , the second scheduled unmanned flight,


LM-2

was d e l e t e d from t h e NASA f l i g h t program.

i s undergoing

ground t e s t s a t MSC. Another LM Test A r t i c l e , LTA-2R aboard Apollo 6 , provided


f l i g h t t e s t d a t a on t h e S a t u r n V launch load and environment

criteria.

LTA-B,

d e s i g n e d t o s i m u l a t e t h e w e i g h t and mass o f a Lunar


LTA-B c o n s i s t e d of two

Module was launched aboard Apollo 8.

c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s a r r a n g e d t o form a c y l i n d e r w i t h four i n t e r n a l

water b a l l a s t t a n k s . LM-3, t h e first manned LM, w a s launched on Apollo 9 f o r an

earth o r b i t a l f l i g h t on March 3 , 1969.

USAF C o l . James McDivitt

w a s Commander: USAF C o l . David S c o t t , Command Module P i l o t ; C i v i l i a n R u s s e l l S c h w e i c k a r t , LM P i l o t .


LM-4,

the second manned flight o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t , was launched

a b o a r d A p o l l o 1 0 on May 18, 1969 f o r a f l i g h t t o w i t h i n 10 m i l e s o f the moon's s u r f a c e .


I t s ' crew, commanded by USAF Col.

Thomas Staffo r d , i n c l u d e d U S N Cdr

. John

Young, Command Module P i l o t ;

and U N C d r . Eugene C e m a n , LM P i l o t . S
LM-5

(Apollo 11) w i l l make t h e f i r s t lunar l a n d i n g .

Mission

p l a n s include t h e deployment o f s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s , photography, and t h e r e t r i e v a l o f l u n a r s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s f o r r e t u r n t o E a r t h . The d e s c e n t stage o f LM-5 was s h i p p e d t o Kennedy Space Center on J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1968 and t h e a s c e n t s t a g e on J a n u a r y 8, 1969.

The

crew o f A p o l l o 11 is C i v i l i a n N e i l Armstrong, Commander; USAF L t .

Col. Michael C o l l i n s , Command Module P i l o t ; and USAF C o l . Edwin


A l d r i n , J r . , LM P i l o t .