GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 GSM Principles and Call Flow....................................................................................3 1.1 GSM Frequency Band Allocation .....................................................................................3 1.2 Multiple Access Technology and Logical Channel.............................................................4 1.2.1 GSM Multiple Access Technology...........................................................................4 1.2.2 TDMA Frame..........................................................................................................5 1.2.3 Burst.......................................................................................................................7 1.2.4 Logical Channel......................................................................................................9 1.3 Data Transmission..........................................................................................................12 1.3.1 Voice Coding........................................................................................................13 1.3.2 Channel Coding....................................................................................................14 1.3.3 Interleaving...........................................................................................................15 1.3.4 Encryption ............................................................................................................17 1.3.5 Modulation and Demodulation..............................................................................17 1.4 Timing advance...............................................................................................................18 1.5 System Information.........................................................................................................19 1.6 Cell Selection and Re-Selection......................................................................................21 1.6.1 Cell Selection........................................................................................................21 1.6.2 Cell Selection Process..........................................................................................22 1.6.3 Down Link Failure ................................................................................................23 1.6.4 Cell Re-Selection Process....................................................................................23 1.7 Frequency Hopping ........................................................................................................24 1.7.1 Types of Frequency Hopping................................................................................25 1.7.2 Frequency Hopping Algorithm..............................................................................27 1.7.3 Benefits of Frequency Hopping.............................................................................30 1.8 Discontinuous Reception and Discontinuous Transmission............................................32 1.8.1 Discontinuous Reception and Paging Channel.....................................................32 1.8.2 DTX......................................................................................................................34 1.9 Power Control.................................................................................................................36 1.9.1 Power Control Overview ......................................................................................36 1.9.2 MS Power Control.................................................................................................36 1.9.3 BTS Power Control...............................................................................................38 1.9.4 Power Control Processing....................................................................................39 1.10 Immediate Assignment Procedure................................................................................41 1.10.1 Network Access License and Random Access Request.....................................41 1.10.2 Initial Immediate Assignment..............................................................................42 1.10.3 Initial Message....................................................................................................43


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.10.4 Immediate Assignment Failure............................................................................44 1.11 Authentication and Encryption ......................................................................................45 1.11.1 Authentication ....................................................................................................45 1.11.2 Encryption ..........................................................................................................48 1.11.3 TMSI Reallocation ..............................................................................................49 1.11.4 Exceptional Situations.........................................................................................50 1.12 Location Update............................................................................................................51 1.12.1 Generic Location Update (Inter-LA Location Update).........................................51 1.12.2 Periodic Location updating.................................................................................53 1.12.3 IMSI Attach and Detach......................................................................................54 1.12.4 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................55 1.13 MS Originating Call Flow...............................................................................................57 1.13.1 Called Number Analysis .....................................................................................58 1.13.2 Voice Channel Assignment (Follow-up Assignment)...........................................58 1.13.3 Call Connection .................................................................................................62 1.13.4 Call Release.......................................................................................................62 1.13.5 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................64 1.14 MS Originated Call Flow...............................................................................................66 1.14.1 Enquiry...............................................................................................................66 1.14.2 Paging ...............................................................................................................67 1.14.3 Call Establishment for the Called Party..............................................................68 1.14.4 The Influence of Call Transfer to Routing............................................................69 1.14.5 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................70 1.15 HO.................................................................................................................................72 1.15.1 HO Preparation...................................................................................................73 1.15.2 HO Types............................................................................................................76 1.15.3 HO Process Analysis..........................................................................................78 1.15.4 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................87 1.16 Call Re-Establishment .................................................................................................88 1.16.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................88 1.16.2 Call Re-Establishment Procedure.......................................................................89 1.16.3 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................90 1.16.4 SM Procedure.....................................................................................................91 1.16.5 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is calling ...............................91 1.16.6 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is called ................................92 1.16.7 Short Message Procedure on SACCH When MS is calling................................93 1.16.8 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is called..................................94 1.17 CBS...............................................................................................................................94 1.17.1 CBS Mechanism ................................................................................................95 1.17.2 BSC-BTS Message Transmission Mode.............................................................96


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Chapter 1 GSM Principles and Call Flow
1.1 GSM Frequency Band Allocation
GSM cellular system can be divided into GSM900M and DCS1800M according to frequency band, with carrier frequency interval of 200 KHz and up and down frequencies as follows: Table 1.1 GSM frequency allocation Frequency band(MHz) Bandwidth( MHz) Frequency number Carrier frequency number (pair)
124 374

GSM900 DCS1800

Up 890–915 Down 935–960 Up 1710–1785 Down 1805–1880

25 75

1–124 512–885

“Up” and “down” are classified according to base station. Base station transmitting mobile station receiving is “down”; mobile station transmitting - base station receiving is up. With the expanding services, GSM protocol adds EGSM(expanded GSM frequency band) and RGSM (expanded GSM frequency band including railway service) to the original GSM900 frequency band. The frequency band allocation is as follows: Table 1.2 EGSM/RGSM frequency allocation Frequency band(MHz) Bandwidth (MHz) Frequency number Carrier frequency number (pair)


Up 880–915


0–124 975–1023

Down 925–960 RGSM Up 876–915
Down 921–960 40

0–124 955–1023



The following only introduces FDMA and TDMA technologies. GSM adopts a technology combined with FDMA and TDMA. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA). and takes FDMA as complement. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).1 GSM Multiple Access Technology In cellular mobile communications system. For example.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1.2 Multiple Access Technology and Logical Channel 1. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). II. The way to this problem is called multiple access technology. There are now five kinds of Multiple access technology. Each subscriber takes one timeslot and sends or receives signals only in the specified timeslot. namely: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). since many mobiles stations communicate with other mobiles stations through one base station. Digital cellular system also uses FDMA. GSM takes FDMA technology. TDMA TDMA divides a broadband radio carrier into several time division channels according to time (or timeslot). Any subscriber has access to one of these channels under the control of the system. Analog cellular system is a typical example of FDMA application. I. GSM multiple access technology focuses on TDMA. 4 . TDMA is applied in digital cellular system and GSM. and polar division multiple access (PDMA).2. Each channel transmits one path of speech or control information. FDMA FDMA divides the whole frequency band into many single radio channels (transmitting and receiving carrier frequency pairs). it is necessary to distinguish the signals from different mobile stations and base stations for them to identify their own signals. but not the pure frequency allocation.

which is about 0. Burst is a transmission unit consists of over one hundred of modulation bits. that is. Generally. and sometimes not. Similarly. Its duration is used as time unit. a particular slot. Burst represents different meaning in different situation. central frequency of slot is set in every 200 KHz (in FDMA).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. Similarly. and sometimes means using one of every eight slots periodically.2. called burst period (BP).577 ms (in TDMA). Sometimes it concerns time – frequency “rectangle” unit. the 200 KHz bandwidth in GSM is called frequency slot.2. They are exported in time and frequency window which is called slot. in system frequency band. equal to radio frequency channel in GSM protocol. the slot of a channel is not Frequency 200kHz BP 15/26ms Slot Tim e Figure 1. continuous in time. It has a duration limit and takes a limited radio frequency. To be specific. Slot occurs periodically in each 15/26 ms. Time/frequency map illustrates the concept of slot.The interval between two slots is called timeslot.2 TDMA Frame The basic conception of GSM in terms of radio path is burst.2. See 1. timeslot sometimes concerns time value. Using a given channel means transmitting burst with a particular frequency at particular time. Each slot is expressed as one little rectangle with 15/26ms length and 200 KHz width.2 Timeslot 5 .

533.25 bits duration£ ¨ 5/26=0.68us£ © 1 4 TB GP 3 8.615ms in total.2.2. or 6.The position of these timeslots in TDMA frame is fixed. TDMA frame is a repetitive “physical” frame in radio link.048 super frames with a period of 12. =2715648 TDMA frames (3Ð ¡ ±8· Ö3Ã ë60º Á ë 1 Hyper frame shown in frames Ê 2 5 7 Ã ) 0 1 2 3 TCH SACCH/T FACCH 1 Super frame =1326 TDMA frames £ ¨ . 1.2.385 ms.557ms£ © 1 £ ¨ bit duration£ º 8/13=3. Each timeslot is a basic physical channel with 156. The frame number is transmitted in sync channel.715.648 TDMA frames numbered from 0 to 2. with a period of 120 ms.557ms. consisting of 26 and 51 continuous TDMA frames respectively.12 s£ © 6 0 0 1 2 1 3 47 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCCH 48 24 49 25 50 1 Multiframe =26TDMA frames£ ¨ 20 ms£ © 1 0 1 24 25 1 Multiframe =51 TDMA frames£ ¨ 060/13ms£ © 3 0 1 49 50 1 TDMA frame =8 time slots£ ¨ 20/26=4.25 TB£ ºail bits t 6 TB TB GP constant bits 142 Frequency correction burst£ ¨ B£ © F 3 3 8. Each period of hyper frame consists of 2. or 3 hours and 28’ 53’’ 760’’’.7s.615ms£ © 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 time slot =156. Many multiframes together form a super frame. The 51 multiframe. The structure of GSM frame is=2018 Super1. Among the 26 bursts. is used in traffic channel and associated control channel. There are two kinds of multiframes.25 58 information bits26 training sequency58 information bits TB TB information bits 36 Access burst£ ¨ B£ ©3synchronization sequence 41 A 3 GP 68.2 shows the complete structure of TDMA frame. It consists of timeslot flow that connects base station (BS) and mobile station (MS).25 GP£ º uard period g TB TB GP extended training sequency64 information bits 39 synchronized burst£ ¨ B£ ©3 information bits 39 S 3 8. is specially used in control channel.25 elements. Super frame is a continuous 51×26TDMA frame. including timeslot and burst.25 TB Normal burst£ ¨ B£ ©3 N .GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Physical channel combines frequency division multiple access and time division multiple access together.326 TDMA frames. One TDMA frame consists of eight basic timeslots. a super frame consists of fifty-one 26 TDMA multiframes or twenty-six 51 TOMA multiframes. 24 are used in traffic and 2 are used in signaling. about 60/13≈4. that is to say. The 26 multiframe. Multiframes are applied when different logical channels are multiple used in one physical channel. with a period of 3060/13≈235. It is used in encrypted voice and data. coving 15/26≈0. A hyper frame consists of 2.648. The period of super frame is 1.12 s. Many super frames together form a hyper frame.715.

BSIC settings of the same BCCH should be different. in access burst. Information bits: It is used to describe traffic and signaling information. training sequence is fixed and does not change with cells.3 Structure of TDMA frame 1. Training sequence is known by both transmitter and receiver. except idle burst and frequency correction burst. The 36-bit message digit of the random access burst includes BSIC information of the cell. Training sequence can be divided into eight categories in normal burst. It can be used to identify the location of other bits from the same burst and roughly estimate the interference situation of transmission channel when the receiver gets this sequence. Different message in the burst determines its layout. Since each carrier frequency can carry a maximum of eight subscribers.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1.3 Burst Burst is the message layout of a timeslot in TDMA channel. used for equalizer to generate channel model (a way to eliminate dispersion). which means each burst is sent to a timeslot of TDMA frame. in order to avoid mis-decoding of random access burst from neighboring cells into local access. but when accessed to burst and synchronization bust. it is necessary to guarantee the non-overlapping 7 .    Guard period: It is a blank space. Training sequence: It is a known sequence. There are five kinds of bursts:  Normal burst: used to carry messages in TCH.2. It usually has the same BCC setting with cells. FACCH. SACCH. BCCH. training sequence is fixed (occupying 41 bits). standard frequency sends message continuously)     Each kind of burst includes the following elements:  Tail bits: Its value is always 0 to help equalizer judge start bit and stop bit to avoid lost synchronization. SDCCH. PCH and AGCH channels Access burst: used to carry message in RACH channel Frequency correction burst: used to carry message in FCCH channel Synchronization burst: used to carry message in SCH channel Dummy burst: transmitted when no specific message transmission request from system (In cells. For example.

it is unnecessary to add extra kinds of training sequences. synchronization burst is used for time synchronization of mobile station in SCH channel. bursts from different mobile stations still show little slips. On the other hand. GSM requires protection bits to keep constant transmission amplitude of the effective burst (except protection bits) and properly attenuate the transmission amplitude of mobile station. After modulated. The following is a detailed introduction to the structure and content of burst:  Access burst It is used for random access (channel request from network and switchover access). Its structure is pretty simple with all constant bits being 0. 36-information bit. It is used in FCCH channel for mobile station to find and modulate synchronization burst of the same cell. When mobile station gets the frequency through this burst. Since it is the first burst required to be modulated by mobile station. it can read the information of following bursts (such as SCH and BCCH) in the same physical channel. Protection interval and tail bit are the same with that of normal burst. its training sequence is relatively long and easy to be detected. Although timing advance technology (introduced later) is used. therefore. it becomes a pure sine wave. The amplitude attenuation of two sequential bursts as well as proper modulation bit stream can reduce the interference to other RF channels. protection interval is adopted to allow transmitter to fluctuate in a proper range in GSM. It is the first burst that the base station needs in uplink modulation.  Synchronization burst With a 64-bit training sequence and two 39-bit information fields. 8 .25 bits. and its protection interval is 68. This sequence has 142 constant bits for frequency synchronization. There is only one kind of training sequence in access burst. Since the possibility of interference is rather little. equal to an unmodulated carrier.  Frequency correction burst It is used for frequency synchronization in mobile station. Access burst includes a 41-bit training sequence. It belongs to downlink. Both training sequence and protection interval are longer than normal bursts in order to offset the bug of timing advance ignorance in the first access of mobile station (or switch over to another BTS) and improve demodulation ability of the system.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 of each timeslot in transmission.

 Dummy burst This kind of bust is sometimes sent by BTS without carrying any information. Logical channel carries out time multiplexing in one physical channel. GSM defines 9 . two 58-bit groups are used to transmit subscriber data or voice together with two stealing flags. Normal burst has a total of 26 bits. There are eight kinds of such training sequence (these eight sequences have the least relevancy with each other). It is classified according to the type of information in physical channel. it copies the first five bits to the end of the training sequence and the last five bits to the head of the training sequence. In order to get 26 bits. the stealing flag of the 8 half bursts should be set to 1. Different logical channel transmits different type of information between BS and MS. Its format is the same with normal burst.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程  Normal burst It has two 58-bit groups used in message field. but can be regarded as the extension of training sequence and always set to 1. each cell has several carrier frequencies and each frequency has eight timeslots. such as signaling and data service. 3 bits) respectively to distinguish the two cells using the same frequency. It has no other use in channels except in TCH channel. 1. For example.25 bits.2. They correspond to different base station color code (BCC. proving eight basic physical channels. The encrypted bits are changed into mixed bits with certain bit model. to distinguish TCH and FACCH (when TCH channel is used as FACCH channel to transmit signaling.Normal burst also includes two 3-bit tails and a protection interval of 8. Normal burst is used to describe whether the transmitted is traffic information or signaling information.4 Logical Channel In real networking. 16 of which are information bits. The only bug is that the receiver has to store the preceding part of burst before modulation. To be more specific.

BCCH  Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) It carries the information for frequency correction in mobile station. common control channel (CCCH). 10 . I.4 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F2.4 Kbit/s information respectively.6) Full rate 4. Reduced TDMA frame (RFN) occupies 22 bits. III. each BTS has a transceiver containing BCCH in order to broadcast system information to mobile station.8 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F4. System information enables mobile station to work efficiently in null state. It mainly consists of broadcast channel (BCCH). and the other three are base station color codes (BCCs) ranging from zero to seven. Base station identification code (BSIC) occupies six bits. Through FCCH. or traffic channel (TCH) and control channel (CCH) sometimes. and recognize whether this carrier frequency is BCCH or not. mobile station has to decode SCH information.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 different burst type for different logical channel. Using half of the timeslots in TCH/F can get TCH/H. In GSM. Voice channel types are as follows:      Enhanced full rate speech TCH (TCH/EFS) Full rate speech TCH (TCH/EFS) Full rate 9.4) II. A carrier frequency can provide eight kinds of TCH/F or sixteen kinds of TCH/H.8) Full rate ≤2.8 bit/s information and 11. logical channel is divided into dedicated channel (DCH) and common channel (CCH). It is divided into full rate TCH (TCH/F) and half rate TCH (TCH/H) with 22. CCH CCH is used to transmit signaling or synchronous data. and dedicated control channel (DCCH). mobile station can locate a cell and demodulate other information in the same cell. TCH TCH carries coded voice or subscriber data.6 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F9. three of which are PLMN color codes ranging from zero to seven.  Sync Channel (SCH) After FCCH decoding.  BCCH Generally. This information contains mobile station frame synchronization and base station identification.

and complementary services. The request includes the reason to build 3-bit (call request. downlink mainly transmits part system information and the first layer head information. authentication. The information includes quality of communications. Uplink mainly transmits radio measurement report and the first layer head information. DCCH  Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) SDCCH is a bi-directional dedicated channel used to transmit information of signaling. short message. It can be divided into SD/8 and SD/4. location update request and short message request) and 5-bit reference random number for mobile station to identify its own access grant message. and power control level.  Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) SACCH works with traffic channel or SDCCH to transmit subscriber information and some specific information at the same time. Keep a fixed number of blocks for AGCH or just borrow PCH when AGCH requires without keeping special AGCH block (AGB). it sends paging information marked as TMSI or IMSI through PCH to all the cells in LAC area according to the current LAC registered in mobile station. channel allocation.  Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) FACCH works with TCH to provide signaling information with a rate and timeliness much higher than that provided by SACCH. AGCH and PCH share the same radio resource.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 IV. cell options. that is. 11 . CELL ID.  Random Access Channel (RACH) RACH is an uplink channel used for mobile station to request SDCCH allocation in random network access application. paging response. NCC limit. It is used in downlink and carries short message service cell broadcast (SMSCB) information. to allocate a SDCCH or TCH directly. TA. encrypted command. There is another control channel called cell broadcast channel (CBCH) besides the three control channels mentioned above. CBCH uses a physical channel same as SDCCH. location update. V. CCCH  Paging Channel (PCH) PCH is a downlink channel used to page mobile station. When the network wants to communicate with a certain mobile station.  Access Grant Channel (AGCH) AGCH is a downlink channel used for base station to respond the network access request of mobile station. LAI. BCCH signal strength in neighboring cells.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 VI.7) + SACCH/C8(0. AGCH DCCH (combined BCCH/SDCCH): SDCCH. The configuration of combined BCCH/SDCCH has a great influence on paging capacity. . Radio channel 12 . The channe l combinations specified in GSM protocol are as follows:      TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF TCH/H(0.1) + FACCH/H(0. SCH.1) + TCH/H(1. Each multiframe is 235. Channel Combination Logical channel is mapped to physical channel according to certain rules. The timeslot 0 of BCCH carrier frequency does not have SDCCH channel or CBCH channel.1) TCH/H(0. Different configuration has different paging capacity. 1.1) + SACCH/TH(0. BCCH CCCH: PCH.7)   VII.1) + SACCH/TH(0.1) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (main BCCH) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0. . which means the paging capacity of cells with combined BCCH/SDCCH is only one third of that of cells with uncombined BCCH/SDCCH. such as combined BCCH/SDCCH and uncombined BCCH/SDCCH.  Combined BCCH/SDCCH Each multiframe of combined BCCH/SDCCH can have three paging blocks.0) + FACCH/H(0.. Each multiframe has only three paging blocks instead of nine in uncombined BCCH/SDCCH. Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH and Combined BCCH/SDCCH Paging information transmits in the timeslot 0 of BCCH. Timeslot 0 has the following s ub channels:    Broadcast channel (BCH): FCCH. Multiframe has different channel configurations.3)(BCCH combination) BCCH + CCCH(BCCH extension) SDCCH/8(0.4 ms in length.3) + SACCH/C4(0.. CBCH ( if using cell broadcast) Physical channel timeslot 0 is made of multiframes logically.  Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH Each frame of Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH can have nine paging blocks. SACCH. The timeslot 0 of BCCH carrier frequency contains four SDCCH subchannels (no CBCH) or three SDCCH and one CBCH subchannel.3 Data Transmission Radio channel has totally different characteristics from wired channel.

interleaving and de-interleaving. Voice encoder divides voice into several 20 ms voice blocks and samples each block 13 . The model parameters transmit through TCH channel. modulation and demodulation.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 has a strong time-varying characteristic. or shadow fading. burst formatting. multipath fading.4 Forward and reverse data transmission process 1. See 1. GSM takes tone and noise from human throat as well as the mouth and tongue filter effect of acoustics as voice encoder to establish a model.3. Voice encoder is based on residual excited linear prediction encoder (REIP) and its compression effect is strengthened through long term predictor (LTP). In order to solve these problems. It has a high error rate when the signal is influenced by interferences. These transformations include channel coding and decoding. LTP improves residual data encoding by removing the vowel part of voice.3 Figure 1. it is necessary to protect the signals through a series of transformation and inverse transformation from original subscriber data or signaling data to the information carried by radio wave and then to subscriber data or signaling data. encryption and decryption.1 Voice Coding Modern digital communication system usually uses voice compression technology.

The added data is calculated on the basis of original data with certain rules. each logical channel has its own coding and interleaving mode. 456 coded information bits plus 8-bit header (header is used to distinguish TCH and FACCH). 260 bits are output after compression encoding. The block size depends on channel type. Common coding schemes include block convolutional code. but the principle is trying to form a unified coding structure. error correcting cyclic code and parity code. Reassemble and interleave coding bits and add a stealing flag to form interleaving bits.5kbps (half rate encoding).  Encode information bit into a unified block code consisting of information bits and parity check bits. In practice. and then each sample gets 16 bits quantification value. In GSM. Compared with the direct coding transmission of voice in traditional PCM channel. With full speed encoder.3. The basic way of coding is adding some redundant information to the original data. Then these blocks are reinterleaved (concerning channel). More advance voice encoder can reduce the rate to 6. this block carries one speech frame of information. If the redundant bit of received data calculated with the same way is different from the received redundant bit.2 Channel Coding Channel coding is used to improve transmission quality and remove the influence of interferential factors on signals at the price of increasing bits and information. With 20 ms as a unit. 128 Kbit/s data flow is obtained after digitizing but before encoding. so the encoding rate is 13Kbit /s. After channel coding. Therefore. In control 14 . all channels (except RACH and SCH) are made of 464-bit block. Next is channel coding.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 with 8 kHz. so each block has 160 samples. The decoding process of receiving end is judging and correcting errors with this redundant bit.   All these operations are based on block. errors must have occurred in transmission. Each sample is quantified through frequency A 13 bits (frequency μ 14 bits). Different code is used in different transmission mode. add three and two “0” bits to the quantification values respectively. In TCH/F voice service. Encode block code into convolutional code and form coding bits (usually 456 bits). that is. the 13kbps voice rate of GSM is much lower. This data flow is too fast to transmit in radio path and has to be compressed in encoder. Since the compression rates of frequency A and frequency μ are different. 1. each voice block is encoded into 260 bits to form a 13 Kbit/s source coding rate. several coding schemes are always combined together.

speech signal turns into sequential frames. plus 4 tail bits to get 18 bits. RACH message only has 8 bits. In BCCH. add 6 bits of color code (obtained through the MOD 2 of the 6-bit BSIC and 6-bit parity check code). speech information is transmitted by a block of 228 coded bits block. The 260 bits of the 13 Kbit/s 20ms speech frame can be divided into three categories: 50 most import bits. SDCCH. Through 1/2 rate convolutional coding. and the 456 bits code sequence is obtained. which occupy an entire RACH burst.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 channel. PCH. this block usually carries one piece of information. indicating whether the block belongs to TCH or to FACCH. 132 important bits and 78 unimportant bits. Through 1/2 rate convolutional coding. while in transmission. Add 3 parity check bits to the 50 most important bits. and the rest four sub blocks borrows odd bits of the four timeslots from the four continuous frames delayed for two or four frames after the first frame. which will affect the accuracy of continuous frames. through 1/2 convolutional coding rate. leading to error bit strings. Among them. Each SCH contains 25-bit message field.3. Channel 15 . On the basis of these 8 bits. In TCH/F. Each 456 coded bit block has a stealing flag (8 bits). including 3-bit setup cause message and 5-bit discrimination symbol. and these 53 bits together with 132 important bits and 4 tail bits are convolutionally encoded ( with 1/2 convolutional coding rate ) into 378 bits. The synchronous information in Downlink SCH and the random access information in uplink use short coded bit blocks transmitted in the same timeslot. this stealing flag is dummy. 78 bits are obtained. error bits usually occur suddenly. Each LAPDm frame has 184 bits. and the 456 bits code sequence is obtained.3 Interleaving If speech signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding. 36 bits are obtained. In TCH/H voice service. due to parametric variation of mobile communication channel. FACCH and SACCH. BCCH or CCCH. which occupy an entire SCH burst. These 25 bits plus 10 parity check bits and 4 tail bits are 39 bits. the long trough of deep feeding will affect the succeeding bits. In the case of SACCH. 19 bits are frame number and 6 bits are BSC number. together with 40 bits error correcting cyclic code and 4 tail bits. a 20ms speech frame is encoded into 456-bit code sequence. 。 1. The first four sub blocks are transmitted by even bits of the four timeslots borrowed from the continuous frames of TCH. AGCH. For FACCH. plus the 78 unimportant bits. each block of 456 coded information bits is divided into eight sub blocks. That is to say. after coding. data is transmitted by Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel (LAPDm). .

As one burst contains two groups of 57-bit voice information. each group contains 57 bits.3. GSM adopts secondary interleaving method. Therefore. After first interleaving. Therefore. that is. Greater n value leads to better transmission performance but longer transmission delay. The entire interleaving process is shown in 1. it is hoped to find a way to separate the continuous bits in a message. Channel coding will correct the error bit under such circumstances. also called inter-block interleaving. After channel coding.5 Interleaving process 16 . it is only about a single or very short bit stream and will not interrupt the decoding of the entire burst or even the entire information block. Therefore. these two factors must be considered in interleaving.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 coding only works for detection and correction of signal error or short error string. Therefore. is required between two voice blocks. The 456 bits are divided into eight groups. also called internal interleaving. Channel coding cannot restore so much loss. This method is called interleaving technology. This is the first interleaving. the loss of this burst will lead to 25% loss of bits for this 20 ms voice block. a secondary interleaving. to transmit the continuous bits in a discontinuous mode so as to change the error channel into discrete channel. if the two-group 57 bits of a 20 ms voice block after first interleaving are inserted to the same burst. Interleaving is always related to the use of channel. the continuity of information in a group is broken. Figure 1. Interleaving technology is the most effective code grouping method to separate error codes.3. even if an error occurs. The essence of interleaving is to disperse the b bits into n bursts in order to change the adjacent relationship between bits.

Interleave the first four groups of voice block B (B0. It is used for normal burst only and has nothing to do with data type. and then the first four groups are interleaved with the last four groups (the same interleaving method as that of voice block) to get four bursts. so the loss of one burst only affects 12. The secondary interleaving of control channel (SACCH. A7) form four bursts. In addition. Encryption is achieved by XOR operation of poison random sequence (generated through A5 algorithm of encryption key Kc and frame number) and the 114 information bits of normal burst. and B3) with the last four groups of voice block A (A4. A6). to put B0 at odd position and A4 at even position. Interleaving is an effective way to avoid interference. BCCH. The 456-bit voice block is divided into eight groups after internal interleaving (the same as that of voice block). B2. which is 37. The same poison random sequence generated at receiving end and the received encryption sequence together produce the required data after XOR operation 1. and (B3. but it has a long delay. (B1. the 456 bits of a voice block B are divided into eight groups. Therefore.5 Modulation and Demodulation Modulation and demodulation is the last step of signal processing. PCH. and signaling. A4). Therefore. 1. A5). GSM provides high security through transmission encryption.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 After internal interleaving. put block A at even position and block B at odd position of bursts. or AGCH) is different from voice interleaving which requires three voice blocks. as these bursts have no relations with each other. interleave the last four groups of block B with the first four groups of block C. GSM modulation adopts GMSK technology with BT being 0. In order to break the consistency of bits. In the transmission of a 20 ms voice block. Similarly.4 Encryption Security is a very important feature in digital transmission system. a 20 ms speech frame is inserted into eight normal bursts after secondary interleaving. B1. Theses eight bursts are transmitted one by one. they can be corrected by channel coding.3. the delay period is (9*8)-7=65 bursts (SACCH occupying one burst). that is.833 Kbit/s and Viterbi algorithm. user data.3 at the speed of 270.5% voice bits. A5. This kind of encryption can be used in voice. (B2.3. and then (BO. FACCH. SDCCH.5 ms. The function of modulation is to add a certain feature to electromagnetic 17 . and A6). A6. MS and trunk circuit have echo cancellers added to remove the echo due to delay.

According to the preceding description. the signal from BTS to MS will be delayed. the TA value of MS is in the normal range 0-63. the number of channels that each TRX contains must be reduced. 1. c is light velocity (transmission rate of signal). and the maximum coverage area is 35km. and 6/7) for each TDMA frame in extended cell. The range of this value is 0–63(0–233 us). such as in coastal areas. the report header carries the delay value measured by MS. This technology is called extended cell technology. If the delay is too long. so there are only four channels (0/1. so will the signal from MS to BTS.7us/bit is the duration per bit (156/577). The maximum value of TA in BTS measurement report is 63+156. 4/5. and this timeslot may even overlap with the timeslot of the next signal from other MS.25=219. TA error may be about 3 bits (1. If the MS moves away from BTS during calling.25) ×3×108m/s=120km 18 . so the maximum radius of coverage area is: 1/2×3. Therefore.7us× (63+156.25 bit. This feature is the data to transmit. Allocate channels 0. The method is to bind odd and even timeslots. 4. leading to inter-timeslot interference. and then into an electromagnetic wave. the signal in one timeslot from MS cannot be correctly decoded. In GSM. Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation. A binary numeral has to be changed into a low-frequency modulated signal first.6km).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 wave according to the rules. The function of demodulation is to receive signals and restore the data in a modulated electromagnetic wave.7us/bit×63bit*c=35km 3. Within 35 KM around BTS. and 6 to MS. The calculation is as follows: 1/2×3. TA value stays at 63. prompting MS the timing advance (TA) value. Therefore. 1/2 is related to the round-trip of signal. 1bit to 554 m. Sometimes a greater coverage area is required. 63bit is the maximum bit for time coordination. for the area beyond 35 KM. the phase of electromagnetic field bears the information. 2/3.4 Timing advance Signal transmission has a delay. due to the influence of multipath transmission and the accuracy of MS synchronization. 2. BTS monitors the arrive time of call and send command to MS with the frequency of 480 ms.

4. channel allocation and random access control. System information is transmitted on BCCH or SACCH. It informs all the MSs within the coverage area of location area. 3. 2. If the MS in conversation goes beyond 35 km. both the capacity requirement for remote areas and the coverage requirement for local areas can be satisfied. BCCH must be in dual timeslot TRX to receive random access from any area. 5.4. cell selection and re-selection. 5ter. an intra-cell switchover will be carried out. 1. and 13. the calls within 35 km– 120 km and the switched in calls are allocated to dual timeslot TRX. There are 16 types of system information: type1. it will switch over this call to common TRX.6 Principle of dual timeslot extended cell The principle of dual timeslot extended cell is shown in 1. 5bis. 7. neighbor cell information. 2bis. By receiving system information. MS receives system information in different mode from different logic channel. The calls within 35 km are allocated to common TRX. 2ter.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. In real scheme. If the system detects the switched in call is within 35km. 19 . 6. Therefore. MS can quickly and accurately locate network resources and make full use of all kinds of services that network provides. both common TRXs and dual timeslot TRXs can be included. 8. in order to improve the utilization of TRX.5 System Information System information is sent to MS from network in broadcast form.

Neighbor cell BCCH frequency description contains the BCCH frequency that the neighbor cell uses. used for cell handover. System information 3 : Cell identity + location area identity (LAI) + control channel description + cell option + cell selection parameter + RACH control parameter. System information 2ter : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. EC. transmitted on BCCH. 7. used for cell handover. RE.  System information 5 : Neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. system information 5 and 6 are transmitted on SACCH. System information 7: cell re-selection parameter System information 8: cell re-selection parameter      BCCH is a low-capacity channel. The content of system information is as follows:  System information 1 : cell channel description + RACH control parameter. CCCH-CONF. CBA. every 51 multiframes ((235 ms) have only four frames (one information block) to transmit a 23 byte LAPDm message. used for cell re-selection. transmitted on BCCH. transmitted on SACCH channel. transmitted on BCCH. BS-AG-BLKS-RES. TX_integer. Control channel description contains parameters such as MS    ATTACH/DEATTACH allowed Indicator ATT. and 8 are transmitted on BCCH . and AC CN. system information 1– 4. transmitted on SACCH. System information 5ter : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. used for cell re-selection   System information 2bis : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description + RACH control information. LAI + cell selection parameter + RACH control parameter + CBCH channel description + CBCH mobile configuration. transmitted on BCCH System information 2 : frequency description of neighbor cell + RACH control information + network color code (NCC) permitted. used for cell re-selection. transmitted on SACCH channel.    System information 4 : transmitted on BCCH. In communication mode. used for cell handover. System information 5bis : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. RACH control information contains parameters such as Max Retrans.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程   In idle mode. Allowed PLMN is used to provide NCC Permitted that MS monitors on BCCH TRX. 20 . transmitted on SACCH channel. System information 6 : Cell Global Identification (CGI) + cell option + NCC Permitted. Each information unit contains:   Cell channel description contains all the frequencies used in this cell. transmitted on BCCH.

6. and T3212. it tries to contact GSM PLMN that the SIM permits and select a proper cell to extract control channel parameters and other system information. The priority levels of cells include normal. and RXLEV-ACCESS-MIN. The path loss between MS and BTS is under the limit set by network. This process is called cell selection. The priority level of a cell is determined by CELL_BAR_QUALIFY (CBQ) and CELL_BAR_ACCESS (CBA). The cell is not barred.  1. timeslot number (TN). mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). discontinuous Transmission (DTX) indication. A proper cell means:     The cell belongs to the selected network. The cell is not in the national prohibited roaming location area. hopping frequency sequence number (HSN) and absolute radio frequency channel number ( ARFCN). hopping frequency channel indication H. Low priority level cell is selected when there is no proper normal cell. CBCH channel description contains channel type and TDMA deviation (the combination mode of dedicated channel). Table 6. Cell re-selection parameter contains CELLRESELIND.6 Cell Selection and Re-Selection 1.    CBCH mobile configuration contains the relationship between hopping channel sequence and cell channel description.1 Cell priority level CBQ 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 CBA Cell priority level Cell re-selection status Normal Barred Low Low Normal Barred Normal Normal 21 . and RADIO-LINK-TIMEOUT. and barred. and penalty time (PT). cell reselection offset (CRO). cell bar qualify (CBQ). MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH.1 Cell Selection When a MS is switched on. training sequence code (TSC). low. Cell selection parameter contains parameters such as cell re-selection hysteresis. temporary offset (TO).  Cell option contains parameters such as power control (PWRC) indication.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 BA-PA-MFRMS.

If there is no proper cell.9s(n>1)to obtain the system information.P). MS has already decoded and identified all these frequencies by now. Cell Selection When MS Storing No BCCH Information MS searches all RF channels (at least 30 channels for 900 M. Cell Selection Criteria Parameter C1 is the path loss criteria for cell selection.MAX ((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. C1 of the service cell must exceed 0.MAX ((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH + POWER OFFSET. 0) (2-1) For DCS 1800 cells: C1 = RLA_C . MS will perform measurement sampling procedure (only for the stored BCCH TRX) according to this list.P). the formula is as follows: C1= RLA_C . II. and 40 for PSC1900) in the system to obtain the Relev of each RF channel. If the cell selection within this list fails. MS will keep on searching.9 s to read the synchronized BCCH TRX data.2 Cell Selection Process To perform cell selection and re-selection. MS selects the cells with normal priority first.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. MS will select the cell with the highest Relev. 0) In the formula: RLA_C: Average value of Relev 22 .5 s to synchronize a BCCH TRX and 1. and calculate the RLA_C based on at least five samples in three to five seconds. MS has already decoded and identified all these frequencies by now. It takes a maximum of 0. Cell Selection When MS Storing BCCH Information If MS stores the BCCH frequency list of the former selected networks. When a 900 M MS enters the 900/1800 network. MS will select the cell with the highest Relev. and then arrange these levels in descending order to select the proper BCCH. If the proper cells have low priority. III. except that it takes n*1. 40 for 1800 M. I.6. MS requires all the frequencies monitored to stay at the unweighted average value of Relev RLA_C. because the MS stores all the 900 M frequency information in BCCH frequency list. MS will probably choose 900 M network and ignore the priority level.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. If all the cells have low priority level.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. common cell selection will be performed.

MS will re-select a neighbor cell as service cell under certain condition. Each RLA_C requires at least five level measurement samples and has to be updated from time to time. When DSC<=0. this BCCH TRX data should be decoded within 30 s. when decoding fails. Each time when mobile phone successfully decodes a message on its paging subchannel. five consecutive paging blocks of that MS}. the TRXs with strongest signals may be in different frequency bands. DSC is initialized to an integer most close to 90/N ( N is BS_PA_MFRMS. And the latter update may be even faster. When a mobile phone stays in a cell.6.3 Down Link Failure Downlink failure criteria are based on DSC. N is the number of BCCH TRXs outside service area in BA list. DSC increases by 1. Mobile phone checks the BSICs of the six BCCH TRXs with strongest signals to make sure they are in the same cell. mobile phone monitors all the BCCH TRXs in BA list and averages each Relev from BCCH TRX within 5 s to Max {5. RLA_C is calculated by averaging the level samples received from 5s to Max {5s. range value: 2–9).4 Cell Re-Selection Process In cell re-selection. the MS will regard the TRX as new TRX and reread the BCCH data. For multifrequency mobile phones. DSC decreases by 4. mobile phone will synchronize and read the information from six BCCH TRXs (in BA list) with strongest signals outside the service area. In idle mode. This condition 23 . 1. downlink failure occurs. 1. Service area samples the Relev at least once for each paging block to mobile. When the mobile phone detects that a new BCCH TRX becomes one of the six TRXs with strongest signals.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: Minimum Relev that MS allows MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH: Maximum transmit power on control channel P: Maximum transmit power of MS POWER OFFSET : Power offset related to MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH used by DCS1800 cells. If the BSIC of a TRX is changed. but DSC cannot exceed the initial value. Mobile phone decodes all the BCCH data in a service cell every other 30 s and the BCCH data blocks related to cell re-selection parameters of the six BCCH TRXs with strongest signals every other five minutes. Each RLA_C update is followed by the update of the six BCCH TRXs outside the service area in BA list.6. ((5 * N + 6) DIV 7) * BS_PA_MFRMS / 4} s. Down signaling link failure will lead to cell re-selection.

such as RLA_C. If the defined penalty time is out. MS detects downlink failure.7 Frequency Hopping With the ever growing traffic volume and the limited frequency resource. The calculation formula is as follows:  When PENALTY TIME is not 11111 C2=C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET–TEMPORARY_OFFSET*H (PENALTY_TIME– T). MS will ignore the CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET. the temporary offset will be ignored. The essence of anti- 24 . T will be reset. Cell re-selection adopts C2 algorithm. under such circumstances. TEMPORARY_OFFSET.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 includes several factors. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET adjusts the value of C2. function H(x) =0. Penalty time can avoid the frequent cell re-selection in those coverage areas like express highway. The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to different location area from the current cell) exceeds the sum of the C2 value of the current service cell and cell selection hysteresis value by 5 seconds successively. 1. TEMPORARY_OFFSET will modify the C2 algorithm according to the defined value before the penalty time in order to avoid a micro cell or a cell with small coverage area is selected by a fast moving MS. Cell re-selection will be triggered under the following conditions:  The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to the same location area with the current cell) exceeds that of the current cell by 5 seconds successively.     The current service cell is barred. Otherwise. The C1 value of the service cell is less than 0 for 5 seconds successively.  When PENALTY_TIME is 11111 C2=C1-CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET. These setting parameters of in C2 algorithm works only when and CELL_RESELECTION_INDICATION is activated. PENALTY_TIME. when X≤O. frequency reuse is more and more aggressive. T is a timer. the problem of how to reduce frequency interference becomes more and more remarkable. C2=C1. When X>0. when a cell is excluded from the six neighbor cells with strongest signals by MS. After T starts. and access state of the neighbor cell. its initial value is 0. the timer T of this cell begins to time. cell restriction (decided by cell_bar and cell_bar_qualify). function H(x) =1. When a cell is included in the six neighbor cells with strongest signals by MS. Therefore.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 interference is to fully utilize the current spectrum. since each MS has only one TRX unit. mobile allocation index offset (MAIO) and frame number (FN) through a certain algorithm in the mobile allocation containing N frequencies. The two frequency hopping modes above are based on BTS. Frequency hopping is performed through the handover of banseband signal. As for MS. the frequency remains the same during burst transmission.  Baseband hopping: each transceiver works at a fixed frequency. Frame hopping is an exception of timeslot hopping. The TCH of BCCH TRX cannot join in the frequency hopping in a cell. The TCH of BCCH TRX can join in the frequency hopping. Each TRX can be regarded as a channel. Frequency hopping can be divided into frame hopping and timeslot hopping according to time domain and RF hoping and baseband hopping according to implementation mode. In GSM. the number of hopping frequencies cannot exceed the number of TRXs in the cell. Therefore. In frequency hopping. The key measures include frequency hopping. and power control. the carrier frequency is controlled by a sequence and hops with time. TX does not join in frequency hopping.  Frame hopping: the hopping frequency changes once in each TDMA frame period. time domain. The different channels of the same timeslot in the same cell adopt different MAIO. which happens in baseband hopping. Therefore. and space resources. Frequency hopping sequence is a sequence of frequencies decided by hopping sequence number (HSN). The number hopping frequencies can exceed the number of TRXs in the cell.  Timeslot hopping: the timeslot frequency of each TDMA frame changes once.7. This sequence is frequency hopping sequence.  RF hopping: both transmission and reception of TRX join in the frequency hopping. The difference between slow frequency hopping and fast frequency hopping is that the frequency of latter changes faster than frequency modulation. Frequency hopping also can effectively reduce the influence of fast fading. The N channels of different timeslots can use the same hopping sequence. The hopping TRX should have a different MAIO.1 Types of Frequency Hopping GSM radio interface uses slow frequency hopping (SFH) technology. discontinuous transmission (DTX). RF hopping is the only mode. GSM frequency hopping belongs to slow frequency hopping. 1. 25 .

the corresponding code word will be lost. RF Hopping Under this mode. As the working frequency of TRX changes. This kind of frequency hopping is called “baseband hopping”.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 I. In RF hopping. the frequencies used by a TRX to handle all the bursts of a call come from the frequency change of combiner. The number of TRXs is not limited by carrier frequency. In baseband hopping. Each TRX processing unit has a fixed working frequency. The problem for baseband hopping is that if one TRX board fails. only broadband combiner can be adopted. instead of the handover of baseband signals. The number of TRXs decides the maximum number of frequency hopping. The bursts on the same speech path are sent to each transceiver. each line of service information is processed by fixed baseband unit and frequency band unit. This kind of broadband combiner leads to about 3dB insertion loss in two-in-one 26 . each baseband processing unit processes one line of service information and sends the processed information to the TRX unit with bus topology in time sequence according to frequency hopping rule. The working frequency of frequency band unit is provided by frequency combiner. which means the frequency of the input port to combiner changes. Baseband Hopping The system has multiple baseband and TRX processing unit.7 Baseband hopping II. Figure 1. each transceiver works with a fixed frequency. both broadband combiner and cavity combiner can be adopted. Baseband hopping is based on the handover of baseband signals. frequency can be changed according to certain rules. Under the control of control unit. thus affecting all the calls under hopping mode in the cell. Since the transceiver of each BTS has a fixed working frequency.

During communication. 27 . Figure 1. FN (0–2715647) synchronizes BTS with MS MA: mobile allocation. MAIO is the initial offset of MAI and it is used to avoid the contention of frequency by several channels at the same time. the collection of radio frequencies used for MS frequency hopping. The mode of frequency hopping can be decided by operators according to the equipments.8 RF hopping 1. Mobile allocation index (MAI. the actual frequency used is decided by MAI. broadcasted on sync channel. (0–N-1). 0– N-1) is used to determine the element of MA. The proper setting ensures the healthy working state of the system. MAIO: mobile allocation index offset.2 Frequency Hopping Algorithm The parameters related to frequency hopping algorithm are as follows:   CA: cell allocation.7. 1. the collection of frequencies used by a cell FN: TDMA frame number. GSM protocol does not specify which kind of frequency hopping is used in GSM BTS. 1≤N≤64. When HSN=0. It determines that the hopping sequence with concentrated frequencies is adopted in frequency hopping. the hopping is random hopping. MA contains N frequencies. It is a subset of CA.    HSN: hopping sequence number (0–63). when HSN≠0.7.2 is the flow chart of frequency hopping algorithm. the radio frequency at air interface is an element of MA. The proper setting of parameters is based on the understanding of the use of each parameter in hopping algorithm and the hopping theory.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 combination and the loss is greater in the link insertion of multi-combiner. the hopping is cyclic hopping. That is to say.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 M AI (m0¡«mN-1) MAIO (0¡«N-1) FN T3(0¡«50) HSN (0¡«63) FN T1(0¡« 2047) FN T2(0¡« 25) NBIN bits 6bits 6bits 11bits T 1R= T1 MOD 64 5bits Represent in 7 bits 6bits Exclusive OR 6bits Addition 7bits Look-up table 7bits Addition T=T3 mod 2^NBIN NBIN bits N 8bits M'=M mod 2^NBIN 7bits M'<N NBIN bits Y S=(M'+T) mod N NBIN bits MAI=(S+MAIO) RFCN=MA£¨MAI£© Figure 1.9 Frequency hopping algorithm In 1.2: Mod: modular arithmetic ^: power arithmetic NBIN: number of bits required to represent N = INTEGER (log2 (N) +1) According to GSM protocol 0502: For cyclic hopping (HSN = 0): S=M' mod N NBIN bits 28 .7.

. integer (0 . because under such condition. and the harms are obvious.... 152) S.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 MAI. integer (0 .7.8 RNTABLE is a function with the parameters from integer 0 to 113..2: M. N 1) : Otherwise.1 RNTABLE(X) The following conclusion can be used in the rough estimate of whether interfrequency or intra-frequency collision exists: MAI=(S+MAIO) MOD N 29 . N 1) : : MAI = (FN + MAIO) modulo N (2-2) M = T2 + RNTABLE((HSN xor T1R) + T3) M' = M modulo (2 ^ NBIN) T' = T3 modulo (2 ^ NBIN) If M' < N: S = M' Otherwise: S = (M'+T') modulo N MAI. N 1) : MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N (2-3) Remarks: For the cyclic hopping in discontinuous transmission (DTX).. GSM protocol defines its values as shown in 1.. see 1. the probability of transmission and measurement of SACCH frame at the same frequency is rather high.2: Table 9.7. integer (0 . the number of hopping frequencies should avoid N mod 13 = 0. See the description of DTX in section 1.. integer (0 .

different hopping groups in sync cells can adopt the same HSN.7. See I. while the 1 MHz interval can fully guarantee this kind of independence. A proper configuration of MAIO can avoid the inter-cell or intra-cell frequency collision within the same BTS. S is only related to frame number and frequency hopping number. Figure 1. all the bursts containing the code word of the same speech frame are protected from the damage of Rayleigh fading in the same way. Therefore. 1. in other cases. In mobile communications. Frequency Diversity Frequency hopping can reduce the influence of signal strength change due to multipath transmission. When HSN is fixed and frame number is the same. as the TRXs of each sync cell have the same frame number. When HSN=0.10 Fading 30 . S must be the same. Through frequency hopping. frequency hopping has two benefits: frequency diversity and interference averaging. S equals the frame number. This kind of change is related to frequency: a more independent fading accompanies a greater frequency difference.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 RFCHN=MA (MAI). I. Rayleigh fading leads to the great change of radio signal in a short time.3 Benefits of Frequency Hopping In GSM. This effect equals that of frequency diversity. The aggressive frequency reuse adopts this theory. The 200 KHz interval generally ensures the independence of inter-frequency fading.

Through error correction coding and interleaving of the system. so that all the bursts containing the code word of the same speech frame are protected from the damage of interference in the same way. especially to the moving speed of MS.1 The relationship between the number of frequencies and frequency hopping gain Number of TRXs in frequency hopping 〈=1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >=11 0 3 4 5 5. and the hopping gain is the processing gain after transmission frequency band spread.5 6 6. The higher the speed is. When the MS moves at a high speed.3 6.5 6. The basic way to test frequency hopping gain is to calculate the differences between different C/I at different hopping frequencies under the same FER.8 6. (The actual gain may be affected by environment) Table 10. The relationship between the number of frequencies and hopping gain can be explained in this way: frequency hopping is pseudo spectrum spread.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Statistics shows that frequency hopping gain is related to environmental factors. Frequency diversity benefits a lot to a large number of MSs moving at low speed.9 7 Gain of frequency diversity(dB) II. the location difference between two bursts on the same channel is also affected by other kinds of fading. the original data can be restored from the rest part of 31 . the lower the gain will be. Interference Averaging Frequency hopping provides the diversity of interference on transmission channel. The relationship between the number of frequencies and frequency hopping gain is shown in I. Frequency hopping gain is also related to the number of frequencies. When the number of frequencies decreases. the hopping gain falls. These C/I differences are the frequency hopping gain.

no hopping gain is obtained. MS can find the broadcast short messages it wants quickly so as to reduce its power consumption. But MS must complete the required task of network information measurement within a specified time.8 Discontinuous Reception and Discontinuous Transmission 1. discontinuous reception (DRX) is introduced in GSM. The time that all broadcast short messages of a scheduling information takes is a scheduling cycle. it begins to receive the paging information from this cell. The number of paging subchannels of each cell can be calculated based on the configuration type of CCCH. error rate tends to increase in the test. In frequency hopping.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the received flow. frequency hopping can be harmful when the data rate is rather high (CS4). The common interference after frequency hopping can be regarded in narrowband distribution. Scheduling information contains the description of all short messages to be broadcast in order and also indicates the position of the messages in scheduling cycle. MS just listens to the paging information from the system on its subchannel (MS also monitors the Relev of BCCH carrier frequency in non-service area during this period of time) and ignores the information on other paging subchannels. Each user (IMSI) belongs to a paging group and each paging group corresponds to a paging subchannel. and then locate the paging subchannel of this paging group. BS_AG_BLKS_RES (the number of blocks belonging to 32 .8. The hopping gain is obtained only when the interference is in narrowband distribution. Through DRX. But in order to reduce power consumption.1 Discontinuous Reception and Paging Channel In idle mode. 1. In GPRS data services. If the interference is in broadband distribution. if MS selects a cell as its service cell. the speech restoring ability improves because of the interleaving and de-interleaving before. Some of the hardware equipments are even switched off to save the power of MS. MS can receive the broadcast short messages that the users want to know with less power consumption. MS can calculate which group it belongs to based on the last three digits of its IMSI and the configuration of paging channel in this location area. Therefore. One scheduling message contains lots of broadcast short messages to be sent soon. In fact. but we feel the conversation quality improves. It is because although the error rate increases. the influence of interference is homogenized in frequency hopping. all the bursts will be destroyed and the original data cannot be restored. thus extending the service time. Through scheduling messages. BSC has to send scheduling messages to support DRX at MS. in idle mode.

this cycle can be defined as 2. because the paging message of a location area must be sent in all the cells of this location area at the same time. BS_PA_MFRMS should be reduced to shorten the paging delay. MS will listen to system information again to judge the cell re-selection process.  The capacities of paging subchannels of all cells in a location area should be the same. in case one physical timeslot is not enough. this cycle can be defined as 4 or 6. the more the paging subchannels. Its primary function is to transmit immediate assignment messages and paging messages. The combination mode of CCCH depends on the parameter CCCH_CONF. but the total capacity of the system remains the same.BS_AG_BLKS_RES)×BS_PA_MFRMS In addition.BS_AG_BLKS_RES) ×BS_PA_MFRMS When there are nine CCCHs in a 51 multiframe. but these channels must be used in timeslot 0. The configuration of CCCH_CONF must be consistent with the actual configuration. the number of paging subchannels is (3. GSM specification allows the configuration of multiple CCCH channels on the TRX besides BCCH. It is recommended that when there is only one TRX in a cell. In rural areas. parameter BS_AG_BLKS_RES actually decides the ratio of AGCH and PCH on CCCH.  When the traffic volume is extremely large. For example. the configuration of CCCH can be a physical channel shared with SDCCH (3 CCCH information blocks). MS enters the rest state and listens to the paging information in the specified paging blocks only and measures the Relev of BCCH of neighbor cells at the same time. After measuring the system information.  The longer the cycle of paging channel. BS_PA_MFRMS should be improved to increase the paging subchannels. The MS with the paging channel cycle of 6 consumes 18% less power than the MS with the paging channel cycle of 2. After 30 s. It is recommended that this 33 . because the average delay of the paging information on radio channel increases. 2. and 6. the number of paging subchannels is (9. which means MS listens to paging messages once for every 102 frames. and the less the users of each paging subchannel. CCCH can be one or several physical channels and it can also share a physical channel with SDCCH. 4. When there are three CCCHs in a 51 multiframe. and BS_PA_MFRMS (the number of 51 multiframes used as one paging subchannel cycle). When the ratio of retransmission waiting is relatively high.  In GSM.  When CCCH_CONF is confirmed. the configuration of CCCH parameters has the following principles:  The greater the parameter BS_PA_MFRMS. the less power the MS in this service area takes. when the ratio of retransmission waiting is relatively low.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 AGCH in 51 multiframe). in cities. CCCH mainly includes AGCH and PCH.

only 40% time is used for conversation. in normal mode. Therefore. no useful information is transmitted during the rest 60% time. There are two kinds of transmission modes in GSM: normal mode and discontinuous transmission (DTX) mode. GSM adopts DTX technology to stop signal transmission when there is no voice signal. many of the system resources will be wasted.2 DTX I. In normal mode. the interference level is reduced and the system efficiency is improved. In DTX mode. in addition. the interference will aggravate. which means this noise will not annoy the listeners nor affect the conversation. the downlink DTX can be configured on the basis of cell. DTX Overview During communication. 1. In DTX mode. noise and voice have the same transmission quality. The parameter DTX in system information consists of 2 bits.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 parameter be configured as little as possible in order to reduce the response time of MS to paging. The control information is transmitted to baseband processing part through dedicated signaling channel. 260-bit code is transmitted in every 480 ms. This kind of control is based on BSC. 260-bit code is transmitted in every 20 ms. Uplink DTX is configured by network operators of the radio part. For some vendors. MS only sends man-made noise signals that are tolerable. the transmission of unuseful messages is prohibited.2 Value range of DTX DTX 00 01 10 11 Meaning MS can use DTX MS must use DTX MS is not allowed to use DTX Reserve Parameter DTX is contained in “cell option” of information unit and transmitted periodically in the system information of each cell broadcast. Whether the downlink DTX is adopted or not is controlled by network operators of the exchange part. and then arrives at TC through the inband signaling of TRAU frame to indicate whether downlink DTX is adopted. Its coding scheme is shown in I: Table 10. MS decides whether to 34 . This kind of noise is called comfort noise.8. If all the information is transmitted to network. In order to solve this problem.

Downlink DTX can save BTS power consumption and reduce interference and intra-BTS intermodulation. the coded noise block also contains 260 bits. the first SID frame is interleaved with the preceding voice frame and the following SID frame. the noise signal will be regarded as voice signal to transmit. DTX can be used for voice signal transmission and nontransparent data transmission. IV. In order to differentiate voice frame and SID frame. a noise block will be produce by encoder in every 20ms. This kind of differentiation is based on an energy rule: the energy of noise is always lower than that of voice. these eight continuous bursts are arranged at the beginning of the third multiframe. There are two kinds of measurement in GSM: full 35 .GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 start DTX function based on this information. VAD can differentiate voice from noise through calculating some signal parameters and threshold values. the encoder must detect the signal is voice or noise. Therefore. After sampling and quantification. This kind of improvement. Measurement Uplink DTX and downlink DTX are two irrelevant procedures that are activated by system parameters respectively. When the background noise is too loud. Uplink DTX and downlink DTX used together can improve the intra-frequency ratio of the system. the VAD is required. BCCH TRX does not use this technology. During other time of the 480 ms. can greatly expand the system capacity. no information is transmitted except SACCH timeslot. a complete SACCH information block has four 26 muliframe cycles (480 ms). Silence Indicator The coding procedure of noise is the same as that of voice. interleaving. the source must indicate when the transmission is required.  II. The benefits of DTX are listed below:   Uplink DTX can save MS batteries and reduce interference. VAD generates a group of threshold value in every 20 ms to judge whether the next 20ms block is voice or noise. The SID frame will go through channel coding. Like voice block. When DTX mode is activated. Voice Activity Detection For voice activity detection (VAD). encryption and modulation and finally be sent by eight continuous bursts. when used in aggressivefrequency-reuse cell planning. III. The SID frame made from the 20 ms noise block is interleaved with the preceding frame and the following frame. On TCH. which forms a SID frame. especially when used with frequency hopping.

2 MS Power Control The power control of MS includes two adjustment stages: stable adjustment stage 36 . The downlink power control range is decided by equipment manufacturer. Each SACCH measurement report of BTS and MS indicates whether DTX is used in last measurement report time. for timeslot 1. each step can change 2 dB. BTS and MS must complete these two kinds of measurement. and 59. the frame numbers of these four bursts are 12. 54. Power control can reduce the system interference and improve the spectrum utilization and prolong the service time of MS battery.9.9 Power Control 1. no matter the uplink DTX or downlink DTX is activated or not. 58. 57. The frame numbers of these eight bursts are 52. 1. 38. similarly. power control can be used in uplink and downlink respectively. which means the maximum transmission power is 33 dbm). including eight continuous TCH bursts (for TCH/F. the frame numbers that the eight timeslots correspond to can be obtained in this way). and 90. When the Relev and quality is good. Based on the power class of MS (most MSs belongs to class 4. In order to achieve uniformity. 1. In GSM.1 Power Control Overview Power control is to change the transmission power of MS or BTS (or both) in radio mode within certain area. all MSs and BTS equipments must support this function. BSS manages the power control in the two directions. Global measurement is the average of the level and quality of the 104 timeslots in a measurement cycle (four 26 multiframes). 55. Although whether to adopt uplink or downlink power control function is decided by network operators.9. 64. To facilitate BCCH frequency pull-in and the measurement of Relev (including the Relev of neighbor cell BCCH frequency). 53. local measurement is the average of level and quality of 12 timeslots. 56.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 measurement and sub measurement. BSC choose one of the two kinds of measurement based on this indication. GSM protocol specifies that no power control is allowed for the timeslots in the downlink of BCCH TRX. when no voice or signaling is transmitted. the transmission power of the peer end can be reduced to lower the interference to other calls. 0-103 TDMA frames as a cycle. the frame number is that of timeslot 0 plus 13. the descriptor of comfort noise they contain is called SID) and four SACCH bursts (0-103 TDMA frames as a cycle. The power control range for uplink MS is 20 dB–30dB. for timeslot 0.

One power control message does not make the MS switch to the required level immediately. 37 . so MS can be adjusted according to stable power control algorithm. before MS receives the next power control message. the nominal transmission power of MS is the maximum transmission power on BCCH of the cell. Therefore. and other methods with the expected values and calculate the power level that the MS should be adjusted to through power control algorithm. the Rxlev should be quickly reduced in the new connection. For 12 dB. When MS power is lower than this value. such as the maximum power level supported by the classmark of MS in indication message establishment). The system control begins after MS receives the power control command in SACCH information block from SDCCH or TCH. The system specifies that the power level of the first message that MS sends on DCH is also this value. the system compares the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality obtained by interpolation. When a connection occurs.9. it will transmit with this power level. Initial adjustment is used at the beginning of call connection. The command of changing MS power and the required time advance will be sent to MS in the layer 1 header of each downlink SACCH information block. MS accesses to network through RACH with the maximum power broadcast on BCCH. When MS receives the power control information in SACCH information block from DCH. it will transmit with its maximum transmission power. The required parameters in uplink power control. The purpose of initial adjustment stage is to quickly reduce the transmission power of MS to get the stable MR. it takes three measurement cycles to send power control message and execute the command.2. If the calculated power level differs from the output power level of MS and meets certain limit conditions (such as step limit of power adjustment and range limit of MS output power). Stable adjustment is the common way to implement power control algorithm. other calls supported by this BTS will deteriorate and the calls in other cells will also be affected. After receiving a certain number of uplink MRs. it will adopt other power level most close to this level. MS sends signals with nominal power (before receiving power adjustment commend. the expected uplink Rxlev.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and initial adjustment stage. See 1. it will not end as one SACCH measurement cycle takes 480 ms. This level is the power level of the last burst in the previous SACCH measurement cycle. Since BTS can support multi-call at the same time. If MS does not support this power level. MS will configure the power level it uses now in its uplink SACCH information block and send it to BTS in measurement report. the power control cycle should not be too short in order to ensure its accuracy. and the uplink received quality can be adjusted according to the situation of the cell. The maximum change rate of MS power is 2 dB for every 60 ms. Otherwise. In addition. Therefore. filtering. the system will send power adjustment command.

Level 0 is the lowest Rxlev. The required parameters are Rxlev threshold (lower limit).3 BTS Power Control BTS power control is an optional function. and the initial adjustment only has downlink adjustment. but it only uses stable power control algorithm. and the maximum transmission level can be received (upper limit). BTS power control is divided into static power control and dynamic power control. If the maximum output power is 46 dBm (40W). level 63 is the highest Rxlev. Static power control step is defined in the cell distributes list of data management 38 .11 Execution of power control command The purpose of uplink power control adjustment is to minimize the difference between the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality and the expected uplink Rxlev and received quality. The Relev is divided into 64 levels ranging from 0 to 63. the step 6 is 34 dBm. The purpose of interpolation and filtering is to process the lost measurement reports and remove temporary nature to ensure the stability of power control algorithm. The difference between initial adjustment and stable adjustment is that the expected uplink Relev and received quality and the length of filter in initial adjustment are different from that of stable adjustment.9.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. There are six steps (2 dB/step) of static power control according to Protocol 0505. Dynamic power control is the fine tuning based on static power control. It is similar to MS power control. 1.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

system, which specifies the maximum output power (suppose this value is Pn) of static power control. For step 15 of dynamic power control, the corresponding value range is Pn dB–Pn-30dB. When the maximum power control still cannot satisfy the requirement, adjust static power control step to improve the maximum output power of dynamic power control Pn.

1.9.4 Power Control Processing
I. Measurement Report Interpolation
Each measurement report has a sequence number. If network detects incontinuous sequence numbers, it means some of the measurement reports are missing. The network will complete the reports based on interpolation algorithm. As shown in I, the network receives measurement reports n and n+4. It detects the sequence numbers are not continuous, so it uses an algorithm to add n+1, n+2, and n+3 (yellow) to complete the reports. The purpose of measurement report interpolation is to avoid call loss when the power is too low.

Figure 1.12 Measurement report interpolation

II. Measurement Report Filtering
Network will not judge the state of MS based on only one measurement result, because that is too incomprehensive, in addition, the MS may be fluctuating. Therefore, filtering is required. Filtering combines several continuous measurement results together to determine the state of MS during this period of time. In II, the network uses four measurement reports (yellow). TA has filters for Rxlev and received quality of uplink and downlink The purpose of measurement report filtering is to remove temporary nature and


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

ensure the algorithm stability.

Figure 1.13 Measurement report filtering

III. Power Control Adjustment
Calculate the power adjustment value based on the difference between the Rxlev and the expected value.

Power control adjustment based on Rxlev

Power control module compares the estimate value of Rxlev obtained through preprocessing of measurement report with the expected value, and calculates the step length of adjustment. In power control algorithm, variable step is often used for quick power control.

Power control adjustment based on received quality

Power control module compares the estimate value of received quality obtained through pre-processing of measurement report with the expected value, and calculates the step length of adjustment. When the received quality is bad, improve the transmit power; when the received quality is good, reduce the transmit power. This kind of power control adopts fixed step.

Comprehensive decision for power control

Consider both Rxlev and received quality and adopt different power control strategies in different conditions to keep the stability and efficiency of power control algorithm. Table 13.1 Comprehensive decision for power control Relev power control adjustment Reduce TP Reduce TP Reduce TP Improve TP Received quality power control adjustment Reduce TP Improve TP No action Reduce TP Comprehensive power control adjustment Reduce transmit power No action Reduce TP Improve TP


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Improve TP Improve TP No action No action No action Note: TP = transmit power

Improve TP No action Reduce TP Improve TP No action

Improve TP Improve TP Reduce TP Improve TP No action

III shows how comprehensive decision for power control works. When the received quality requires the improving of transmit power while the Rxlev requires the reducing of it, the system will make a comprehensive decision to perform no power control adjustment, because bad received quality and good Rxlev represent strong network interference. Under such circumstances, improving transmit power will further increase the interference.

1.10 Immediate Assignment Procedure
The purpose of immediate assignment is to establish a radio connection (RR connection) between MS and system at Um interface.

1.10.1 Network Access License and Random Access Request
The request of MS for channel assignment is controlled by its own access level and the access grant level broadcast in cell. Each MS has one access level of the ten levels from 0 to 9. In addition, it may also have one or several levels of the five special access levels from l1 to 15. Access level is stored in SIM card. BCCH system information broadcasts access levels and special access levels that the network grants and the information that whether all MSs allow emergency call or allow special access levels only. If the mobile originated call is not emergency call, the MS can access to network only when it belongs to the granted access level or granted special access level. If the mobile originated call is emergency call, the MS can access to network only when all the MSs in the cell allow emergency call or it belongs to the granted special access level. When an MS wants to establish connection with the network, it sends a channel request to network through RACH channel. Channel request information contains 8bit useful signaling information, among which 3 bits–6 bits are used as the minimal indicator of access cause. The system processes different channel requests based on this rough indication. It differentiates the granted calls from the denied calls and


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 assigns proper channels for the granted calls. GSM introduces the message layout of immediate assignment extended that contains the assignment information of two MSs. BTS sends a channel required message to BSC. Further discrimination of the MSs requires the response information at Um interface. BTS returns a channel active acknowledge message to BSC. GSM specifies the required access algorithm for MS. If BSC receives this message. When the retransmission times reaches RET and T3120 times out.10. This kind of algorithm defines three parameters: Tx_interger T. Since the channel capacity is limited. BTS will send an immediate assignment command or immediate assignment extended message on CCCH. RET is the MS maximum retransmission times allowed in order to avoid access collision. In order to reduce the collision on RACH during MS access to network and improve the efficiency of RACH channel and MS access. S is an intermediate variable depends on T and the configuration of CCCH. The 8-bit information also contains the random discriminator sent by the MS and the immediate assignment command (it contains information about the assigned channel). and parameter S related to T and channel combination. RACH is a kind of ALOH. When T3126 times out. The immediate assignment 42 . Each time after MS sends access request. this indicator cannot transfer all the information from MS. This message contains important additional information and the estimation of TA by BTS. See the description of this parameter in Chapter 7. T3126 will be started to receive (or reject) immediate assignment message. 1. such as the detailed cause of channel request. Immediate assignment command carries the discriminator sent by the previous MS. In order to improve channel efficiency. These kinds of information are sent in the following SABM messages. only 32 MSs can be differentiated at the same time. This kind of process is especially useful when the network is overload and the flow control is required. cell re-selection will be initiated. BSC selects a proper channel for this request and activates the land resources by sending a channel active message to BTS.2 Initial Immediate Assignment After decoding the channel request information. In GSM. Channel request information belongs to internal information of BSS. user identity and the features of mobile equipment. Since there are at most 5 bits in the 8 bits information carrying discriminator. T3120 is to receive (or reject) immediate assignment message. the maximum retransmission times RET. MS compares this discriminator with its own discriminator and judges whether it is the message for itself from network. MS will retransmit access request for the messages that are not received or rejected when T3120 times out under the premise that RET is not exceeded and restart the T3120. T represents the number of timeslots between two transmissions when continuous channel requests are sent. After receiving this message.

MS must identity the immediate assignment (extended) information for the last three channel requests. All these messages contain the identity of MS. After receiving the reject message. location updating request (generic location updating. MS has no access to network and turns into idle mode. MS will abandon this channel and start reaccess process. and MS classmark (indicating some key features such as transmission power 43 . periodic location updating. If there is no channel to activate. If this message matches one of its last three channel requests. Only the right MS can stay on this channel. and supplementary service). BSC will send an immediate assignment reject or immediate assignment extended reject message to MS.3 Initial Message After receiving immediate assignment message and decoding it. According to GSM specifications. Before T3122 times out. after receiving SABM frame. the two MSs may respond to the same dedicated channel. IMSI detach.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 message contains the assignment information of one MS. MS compares the received assignment command with the information stored in its channel request and judges whether this message is for itself. During the specified time of T3122. When two MSs send the same channel requests (which is possible in high traffic volume area). MS will stop T3120 or T3126 and switch to the assigned channel. MS stops T3120 based on one of the last three channel requests and starts T3122. in order to save this problem. MS cannot initiate connection attempt except emergency call within the same cell.10. SABM frame carries four kinds of initial messages: CM service request (such as call setup. and paging response. BTS makes no modification but sends a UA frame (no frame number acknowledgement) containing the same information as that of initial message. and IMSI attach). short message. detailed access cause. MS adjusts its configuration of transmission and reception to the assigned channel and transmits signaling according to the TA value specified by BSS and the initial maximum transmission power broadcast in BCCH system information (see the description of msTxPwrMaxCCH). MS sends an SABM frame on assigned SDCCH/TCH to establish the asynchronous balanced mode (SAPI=0) that is used to establish signaling message link layer connection under acknowledgement mode. After receiving immediate assignment message. SABM carries an initial message that contains layer 3 service request information. Then it starts to establish the signaling link by using Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM) command. According to GSM protocol. 1. If the information of UA frame is different from that of SABM frame.

4 Immediate Assignment Failure  If a failure occurs to the underlaying MS on the new channel before the establishment of signaling link.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 level. MS identification number. Layer 3 information carries the causes for CM service request. and frequency capacity). Then the MM connection begins. and short message. BSC receives this message and sends complete layer 3 information to MSC to request SCCP connection to MSC. ciphering algorithm. T3101 starts when BSC sends channel active message to BTS and ends when the establish indication is received. The process of immediate assignment is shown in 1. Figure 1. After receiving the initial message. and some physical information of the MS such as transmit power level. BTS sends an establish indication message to BSC. 1. location updating. MSC will send SCCP refused message) to indicate that the signaling link between MS and MSC has been established. and short message service. emergency call. By this time.3. MSC sends connection confirmed message to BSC (if the connection cannot be established. which includes mobile originated call. encryption algorithm. Authentication or encryption is triggered when required in the following processing. the activated channel will be released. short message capacity. This information also carries cipher key sequence number. If the failure is caused by the mismatch of message field in decision contention 44 . The following processing depends on the failure type and previous actions. BSS monitors the transmission quality and prepares for handover. the network releases the assigned channel of MS.14 Immediate assignment In the immediate assignment process.10.10. If T3101 times out before signaling channel is established. MSC can control the transmission properties of RR management. pseudo-synchronization. After receiving this information.

If the assigned frequencies of MS belong to two or more than two frequency bands. The purpose of authentication is to avoid unauthorized access to GSM network and the theft of private information by illegal 45 . the immediate assignment is restarted. MSC/VLR will request for transfer again. and A5 that are used for authentication and encryption. AUC has a pseudo number generator used to generate a random number RAND. authentication through authentication center (AUC) for network access. Authentication and encryption require a group of three parameters that generated in AUC. and equipment identity register. Network cannot tell whether MS resends the access attempt or not. 1. IMSI is preserved onto SIM card through SIM printer and SIM printer will generate a corresponding client authentication value Ki that is stored in SIM card and AUC as permanent information. GSM defines algorithm A3.11. encryption. Each client is assigned a Mobile Station International ISDN Number (MSISDN) and IMSI when registers in GSM network. Generally.  If the available information is not sufficient to define a channel after the MS receives immediate assignment message. RR connection fails. network releases the assigned channel. AUC transfers five groups of parameters to HLR for automatic storage. When MSC/VLR requests for three-parameter group transfer. In AUC.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and no re-assignment is initiated. If the assigned frequency of MS is not consistent with the requested frequency but supported by MS. HLR sends five groups at the same time for MSC/VLR to use one by one. RAND and Ki together produce a response number SRES through A3 authentication algorithm and a Kc through A8 encryption algorithm. If the failure is caused by other reasons or if the re-assignment triggered by the mismatch of message field in decision contention is carried out and the assignment still fails. A8. using Personal Identification Number (PIN) to protect SIM card. and SRES form a three-parameter group of client. MS accesses the channel with the frequency used in channel request. HLR can save ten groups of such parameters. RAND. RR connection fails. If MS does not support the assigned frequency. 1. This group is stored in the data base of this client in HLR.1 Authentication Authentication is the process that GSM network checks whether the IMSI or TMSI from MS at radio interface is valid or not.   If T3101 times out before the signaling channel is established. When there are two groups left. such as using Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to protect IMSI.11 Authentication and Encryption GSM takes lots of measures to protect the safety of system. MS turns into idle mode and triggers cell re-selection. RR connection fails. Kc.

Mismatching Cipher key Sequence. MS does not send Kc value to network through radio path for the sake of privacy. If they are not consistent. authentication is required before encryption. If CKSN=0. Authentication Success The procedure for authentication success is shown in I: Figure 1. if not. authentication procedure can be escaped and this Kc value is used directly for encryption. The network initiates authentication procedure in the following situations:   MS requesting for the change of information in VLR or HLR. I. and supplementary services. Service access. During the initial access of MS. It is stored in both SIM card and MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR sends an authentication request message to MS to initiate authentication procedure and T3260. Authentication procedure is initiates and controls by network. it means no Kc is assigned. MS activation and deactivation. MS terminated call. CKSN is sent to MS by MSC/VLR through authentication request message during the last network access. The Ki 46 . including MS originated call. MSC/VLR compares it with the last CKSN. The first network access after MSC/VLR reboot. CKSN is sent to MSC/VLR through the initial request message of SABM frame. Authentication also provides parameters for MS to calculate new encryption key.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 users. Therefore.   Whether to initiate authentication procedure depends on if the Kc value of the last service processing stored in network consistent with that of the present access stored in MS. If consistent. Kc value needs to be recalculated. Cipher Key Sequence Number (CKSN) is introduced.15 Procedure for successful authentication 1) AUTHENTICATION REQUEST contains a RAND (128 bits) and a CKSN.

the network will initiate identity procedure. the network releases all the MM connections under establishment and restarts the procedure for RR connection release. it stops T3220 after RR connection is released. If MS receives AUTHENTICATION REJECT message in other state. Authentication Reject If authentication fails. If MS receives AUTHENTICATION REJECT message in IMSI DETACH INITIATED state. After receiving this message. the network will send AUTHENTICATION REJECT directly to MS. stops T3210 and T3230. the network will restart the authentication procedure. If the IMSI provided by the MS is different from that in network.  If the MS uses TMSI. such as encryption. If possible. the network stops T3260 and checks its validity (network compares it with the SERS generated by Ki and RAND through algorithm A3 and check whether they are consistent or not). LAI. if the IMSI is correct. II. and then enters the subsequent procedures. if not (such as the IMSI detach after switch off). After receiving AUTHENTICATION REJECT message.16 Procedure for authentication reject After sending AUTHENTICATION REJECT message. the network will send AUTHENTICATION REJECT to the MS. 2) MS sends AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE to network.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and RAND together generate a SERS (32 bits) through algorithm A3 and a Kc (64 bits) through algorithm A8. The procedure for authentication reject is shown in II: MS BTS BSC MSC AUT_REQ(1) AUT_RES(2) AUT_REJ(3) Figure 1. and cipher key. MSRR exits abnormally. The new Kc replaces the former key and is stored in SIM card together with CKSN. MS sets the roaming disabled flag and deletes information such as TMSI. it means AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE is invalid.  If the MS uses IMSI. MS initiates local release procedure after the normal release procedure or T3220 timeout. sets and 47 . it exits all MM connections and call re-establishment procedures.

1. MS will exit RR connection abnormally. Under the two conditions above. service access. The encryption information of Cipher Mode CMD specifies the required encryption 48 .GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 starts T3240 to enter WAIT FOR NETWORK COMMAND state and wait for the release of RR connection. A5/0 stands for no encryption. After receiving Ciphering Mode CMD. MS enters MM IDLE and NO IMSI state. 3) 4) 5) BSC sends MS Ciphering Mode CMD to inform MS of the selected encryption algorithm. and whether the MS is required to add IMEI in Ciphering Mode CMP. Kc. If RR connection is not released after T3240 timeout. MS starts the transmission of ciphering mode and sends Ciphering Mode CMP to the system. as well as the encryption ability of MS. II. the encryption algorithm that BSC allows.11. BSC decides the final algorithm based on the encryption algorithm in Ciphering Mode CMD. and inter-office handover.17 Encryption procedure 1) 2) MSC sends BSC a Ciphering Mode CMD that contains encryption algorithm. The encryption procedure is shown in I: I. and then inform BTS.2 Encryption Encryption occurs in service requests such as location updating. and the encryption algorithm that MS supports. BSC transfer it to MSC. Signaling Procedure MS BTS BSC Encryption Mode CMD (2) Ciphering Mode CMD (3) Ciphering Mode CMP (4) Cipher Mode CMP (5) MSC Cipher Mode CMD (1) Figure 1. The encryption procedure is initiated by the network. After receiving the Ciphering Mode CMP from MS. Procedure Description  A5 algorithm GSM protocol specifies eight kinds of encryption algorithm from A5/0 to A5/7. It requires the support of GSM network equipment (especially BTS).

the configuration of ECSC = 1 is recommended when the encryption is used).11. one sequence is used for MS encryption and BTS decryption. A5/2. 1. Therefore. For the interconnection of A-interfaces when the encryption is used. it saves the TMSI and LAI and sends TMSI reallocation complete message.3 TMSI Reallocation After authentication and encryption. Otherwise. The algorithm that generates encrypted code is called A5 algorithm. After receiving this message. A5/5. the encryption algorithm allowed in BSC data configuration.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 algorithm.  Encryption algorithm selection When MS initiates call request. When the MS leaves this location area. A5/6. BSC chooses the intersection of the encryption algorithm allowed in the command sent by MSC. the network stops 49 . the network allocates a TMSI to it. When MS registers in the location area for the first time. and the encryption algorithm supported in the MS report. and reports Classmark 3 in CLASS MARK CHANGE to further indicate whether the MS supports Algorithm A5/4. whether special data configuration is required for BSC and MSC must be considered. special treatment has to be made to the target MSC or target BSC (or the source MSC or source BSC) to change the handover command for inter-BSC handover. MS reports Classmark 3 immediately. or A5/7(In system information. MSC sends encryption command based on the configuration of secret data. it releases the TMSI. When the MS receives the TMSI reallocation command. the Classmark 3 is reported after CLASSMARK ENQUIRY is initiated by the network. BSC selects a proper algorithm based on the priority level of A5/7 > A5/6 > A5/5 > A5/4 > A5/4 > A5/3 > A5/2 > A5/1 > A5/0. if ECSC = 0.  Encryption in handover The HANDOVER REQUEST contains the encryption information unit that indicates the required encryption algorithm and key. the two A interfaces match only when they share the same encryption algorithm (such as A5/2) to ensure the normal interBSC handover. or A5/3. If one of the two A interfaces of BSS is in PHASE I. if ECSC=1. the system sends CM SERVICE ACCEPT or TMSI reallocation command to MS and initiates T3250. In the intersection. For each burst. the SABM frame carries Classmark 1 or 2 to indicate whether the MS supports algorithm A5/1. Two encryption sequences are used for uplink and downlink. due to the limitation of ETSI GSM PHASE I protocol (no ciphering mode setting information unit in handover command). It calculates by using the Kc (64 bits) and the current frame number (22 bits) to generate a 114-bit encryption sequence and then implements XOR operation with the 114-bit burst. the other sequence is used for BTS encryption and MS decryption.

the MS provides its IMSI by sending identity response message to the network. If the encryption is initiated in BSS before MSC requests for the change of encryption algorithm. it sends CIPHER MODE REJECT message to MSC. 1. after receiving this message. The identification program is initiated before the TMSI reallocation to request for the IMSI. terminates the authentication procedure and all the active MM procedures. The identification program sends identity request message to the MS. Authentication  RR connection failure If the network detects RR connection failure before receiving AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. BSS also sends CIPHER MODE REJECT message to MSC.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 T3250. and IMSI reallocation are implemented if required. If the T3260 times out before the AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE is received.  T3260 timeout T3260 is started when MSC sends authentication request to BSC and stops when MSC receives AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. and then releases all the MM connections and initiates RR connection release procedure.  Unregistered SIM card If the SIM card of the MS is not registered. for example.4 Exceptional Situations I. when the data base error occurs. 50 . the network sends AUTHENTICATION REJECT message directly to the MS. the MS must provide its IMSI. the network releases RR connection. it releases all the MM connections and terminates all the active MM procedures. II. authentication. encryption. Encryption  Encryption reject If BSS does not support the encryption algorithm specified in CIPHERING MODE CMD. When this procedure is over.11.  Un-encrypted MS The CIPHERING MODE COMMAND message is valid when: –The un-encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires encryption. If the system cannot identify TMSI of the MS.

the paging information cannot be sent in the whole network due to the capacity limit of the paging channel. all the MM connections are released and both the old and new TMSIs are saved during a certain recovery time. if cell re-selection occurs when the MS moves within the LA.12. The MS sends RR STATUS message with the cause of protocol error and performs no action.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 –The un-encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires non-encryption. If the LAI stored in the MS is different from the LAI of the current cell. –The encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires non-encryption. Therefore. III. CIPHERING MODE COMMAND is considered wrong. and IMSI attach. The registration management for the LA is required since the paging for the MS is carried out through the paging in all the cells within the LA. If T3250 times out before the TMSI _REALL_COM is received. Location update is divided into generic location update. 1. The paging for the MS is carried out through the paging in all the cells within the LA of the MS.  T3250 timeout T3250 is started when MSC sends TMSI_ REALL_ CMD message or LOC UPD ACC message with the new TMSI and stops when MSC receives TMSI _REALL_COM. TMSI Reallocation  RR connection failure If RR connection fails before TMSI reallocation complete message is received. This procedure is called generic location update. 1. The size of the LA is of vital importance to the system performance in network design. LAC contains many cells. registration is required. In other cases.1 Generic Location Update (Inter-LA Location Update) When the MS moves from one LA to another LA.12 Location Update In GSM. the MS will not inform the network immediately but implement cell re-selection without location 51 . In idle mode. the MS informs the network to change the location information it stores. MSC sends CLEAR COM message to release RR connection and terminate TMSI reallocation. the definition of location area (LA) is introduced. periodic location update. which brings about the definition of location update.

According to whether the VLR changes or IMSI involves. and then sends a new TMSI to MS if required (MS uses the former TMSI if no TMSI is carried in the TMSI re-allocation command). If the MS moves to another LA after re-selection. In the initial message carried by SABM frame. MSC sends location updating accept message and releases the channel. It happens in the current VLR without informing the HLR. The generic location updating is indicated. the MS informs the network of this LA change. Figure 1. MSC receives this message and forwards it to VLR. the access cause is MM LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST that carries the MS TMSI and LAI. After receiving the TMSI re-allocation complete message. Location updating completes. VLR updates the MS location information and stores the new LAI. generic location update is divided into the following types: I.18 Location updating procedure 52 .GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 update or network involvement. Intra VlR Location Update It is the simplest location update that requires no IMSI. which is called forced registration.

the network may not be able to decode this message correctly.12. VLR sends HLR the location updating message that contains the MS identity information for the data query and path establishment of HLR. and confirm the location updating after receiving the response from the VLR. It cannot inform the network of its status and the contact is lost. The MS is still regarded in attach status. Inter-VLR Location Updating. the system sends paging information in the LA that the MS registered before. After receiving this message. The network sends a periodic location updating time 53 . The network cannot receive the response from the MS. Inter-VLR Location Updating. The network lost contact with the MS and regards it still in attach status. If the current VLR cannot obtain the IMSI. it sends MS an identity request message to request for the IMSI. and TMSI reallocation is over. HLR stores the number of the current VLR and sends MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION to the former VLR if the current MSC/VLR has the normal service rights. Therefore. the network is informed of the status of MS. the former VLR deletes all the information about this MS and sends the HLR a MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION_RESULT message to confirm the deletion. Sending IMSI The procedure is similar with the procedure above but easier because it requests for authentication parameter from the HLR through IMSI directly. Sending TMSI After the MS enters a cell. 1. If the paging for MS happens when the contact is lost.   The MS is power off. In addition. it sends its LAI and TMSI to VLR through MSC in location updating request. The HLR will send MAP_INSERT_SUBSCRIBER_DATA message to provide the current VLR with the information it requires (including authentication parameters) after the procedure for authentication. encryption. After receiving the IMSI. VLR deduces the former VLR based on the LAI and TMSI it received and sends a MAP_SEND_IDENTIFICATION to the former VLR to request for IMSI and authentication parameter. The system resource is wasted. The former VLR sends the IMSI and authentication parameters to the current VLR. After receiving this message. the implicit detach timer is introduced in the VLR for the IMSI status management. III. The MS sends IMSI detach message and the uplink quality is bad due to interference. if the current LAI is different from the LAI it stores. To solve this problem. measures are taken in BSS to force the MS to report its location periodically.2 Periodic Location updating The network and the MS lose contact when:  The MS is switched on but moves out of the network coverage area (dead zone).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II. This kind of mechanism is called periodic location updating.

or even affect the processing ability of MSC. MSC informs VLR to do detach mark to this IMSI while the HLR is not informed of the no-radio of this user. HLR requests for the MSRN from the VLR and is informed of the no-radio of this user by this time. If the current LAI and the LAI the MS stores are the same. the IMSI detach is triggered by a key-press. or PLMN SEARCH-NORMAL SERVICE status. The procedure is similar to the intra VLR location updating only that the location updating request message is marked as IMSI attach and the initial message contains IMSI of the MS. the service cell changes and the T3212 timeout value is broadcast). 1. The T3212 setting should be based on comprehensive consideration. the network marks the current user status in the system database for the paging program.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 T3212 to all the users in the cell through BCCH to force the MS to send location updating request with the cause of periodic location updating after T3212 times out. The procedure for periodic location updating is the same as that for generic location updating.3 IMSI Attach and Detach IMSI attach and detach means to attach a binary mark to the subscriber record in MSC/VLR. On the other hand. After receiving this message. such as playing the record: "The subscriber is powered 54 .12. If the T3212 times out when the MS is in NO CELL AVAILABLE. the location updating is initiated after the MS is out of these service status. When the MS is switched off. the MS uses the time when the change happens as the initial value and keep on timing. But the frequent location updating will increase the signaling flow and reduce the utilization of the radio resources. The shorter updating period leads to better network performance. it informs the network of its status change by sending an IMSI ATTACH message to the network to inform. if the timeout value is changed (for example. PLMN SEARCH. If the current LAI is different from the LAI stored. BSC. After receiving this message. This is an unacknowledged message. Therefore. generic location updating is initiated. and BTS. When the paging for this user occurs. When the MS is switched on. The former one is marked as access granted. Before the T3212 times out. Only one command is sent to MSC/VLR from the MS. and the latter one is marked as access denied. IMSI attach is initiated. The paging message is handled directly. LIMITED SERVICE. it will greatly increase the power consumption of MS and reduce its standby time. no paging program is implemented. Periodic location updating ensures the close contact between network and mobile users.

#6.  IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message is received during random access MS stays in the service cell and starts T3122 based on the value in the immediate assignment reject message. VLR deletes the IMSI marked as detach periodically (The period is adjustable) and reports the user status to the HLR. The MS initiates location updating immediately. the location updating is terminated. MS  Access denied because of access level limit MS stays in the service cell and performs the normal cell re-selection procedure without triggering location updating.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 off. the VLR sets the IMSI status as detach. Implicit detach timer is also called IMSI delete time. For the subsequent processing.4 Exceptional Situations I. The implicit detach is denied during the establishment of radio connection. 1. After the T3213 times out. see the following description. The completion of RR connection is abnormal: Location updating fails. see the following description. or #13: MS waits for the release of RR connection. For the subsequent processing. If two successive random accesses fail.  Random access failure If the random access fails. The implicit detach timer is set longer than the periodic location updating timer T3212 to avoid "abnormal" implicit detach. see the following description. The normal cell selection and re-selection procedure is performed. The implicit detach timer is reset after the release of radio connection. There is also implicit detach. #3. the MS initiates location updating. If the contact between MS and network is not established. If the cell that the MS stays changes or T3122 times out. For the subsequent processing. T3213 is started. When the current cell allows access or other cell is selected.12.  RR connection failure: Location updating procedure is terminated. #11. see the following description. For the subsequent processing. Location updating reject due to reasons other than #2.    #2 (IMSI unknown in HLR) 55 . T3210 timeout: Location updating fails. #12. For the subsequent processing." The procedure above is explicit IMSI detach. The implicit detach happens before the implicit detach timer times out. the random access procedure is initiated. see the following description.

(6) (the cause is abnormal release with unknown reason).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 #3 #6 (Illegal MS) (Illegal ME) # 11 (PLMN not allowed) # 12 (Location Area not allowed) # 13 (Roaming not allowed in this location area) Subsequent processing: If the T3210 is still timing. After it times out. MS keeps the UPDATED status. Add 1 to the location updating attempt timer. the stored LAI and the received LAI are the same. perform generic location updating If the cause for the status change is (3). After the RR connection release. if the location updating attempt is less than 4. After the release of RR connection. If T3210 times out. If the location updating status is UPDATED. or the stored LAI is different from the received LAI. After the release of RR connection. After the T3211 or T3212 times out. TMSI stored in SIM card and sets the location updating status as NOT UPDATED. Otherwise.  If the cause for the status change is (5). perform location updating when entering the new cell. the MS will do the following:    If T3211. the location updating procedure is started again. After the sub status of MM IDLE becomes ATTEMPTING TO UPDATE. perform location updating. or T3212 times out. and the location updating attempt timer is less than 4. stop it. T3211 is started. the sub status of MM IDLE becomes NORMAL SERVICE. the MS deletes the ciphering key sequence. location updating is not performed when entering the new cell. RR connection fails. the sub status of MM IDLE becomes ATTEMPTING TO UPDATE. Support emergency call request Respond the paging with IMSI Perform generic location updating triggered by the request from CM layer (if the 56 . or (7) (cause “retry in the new cell”). T3213. (6) (the cause is not the abnormal release with unknown reason). If LA changes. (4). T3212 is started. If the location updating status is not UPDATED. LAI. The MS also stores the information about the former location updating type. or the location updating attempt timer is equal to or less than 4.     No IMSI detach. or (7) (the cause is not “retry in the new cell”). The following processing depends on the LAI (stored and received from the service cell) and the value of the location updating attempt timer. the location updating procedure is started again. The T3211 is started after RR connection release.

it sends LOCATION UPDATING REJECT message to the MS with the following cause if possible: #96 required IE error #99 IE error or no IE exists #100 Conditional IE error #111 Protocol error. see section 4. the network initiates channel release procedure.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 location updating succeeds. So the IMSI delete time should be more than twice of the T3212 and based on LAC. the T3212 is set to be shorter in the bad coverage area. If no other common procedure is attached to the location updating procedure. III. especially in the area where the uplink and downlink do not match (downlink is better than uplink).  Protocol error If the network detects protocol error after receiving LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST. it is handled according to the exception handling of other common procedures. T3212 will be started for the next update. 57 . encryption. and then initiates the authentication. Therefore. the users stay in the service area but cannot be called. the MML connection request will be accepted. 1. after the periodic location update fails.1 of the Protocol 0408). In addition. the MS location updating is terminated. In the bad coverage area. and TMSI reassignment flow.5. Another location updating is initiated after T3212 times out. undefined After sending LOCATION UPDATING REJECT to the MS. if the IMSI delete time is less than twice of the T3212. For details.13 MS Originating Call Flow The MS needs to set up a main signaling link to connect to MSC first. II. if the RR connection fails. Matching Between IMSI Delete Time and T3212 If the periodic location updating fails for four times. Network  RR connection failure Among all the sub procedures attached to the location updating procedure.

If a certain item cannot be passed.13. The MSC implements the call proceeding according to the message. After receive this message. It means that the call request is accepted and the call is set up. That is. Figure 1. At this time.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. the VLR sends the COMPLETE_CALL message to the MSC. the MS starts the call setup flow. When receive the SETUP message.13. the MS sends a SETUP message to the network side. the calling party capability. and TMSI reassignment flow are over.1 Called Number Analysis After the authentication. the MSC sends the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST 58 . encryption. After receive the outgoing call message. This message contains called number and the required services. the VLR analyzes the items such as called number. the MSC sends the CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS. to check whether to accept this call request. First. and network resources capability according to the user information obtained from the HLR during the location updating process. the MSC activates the follow-up assignment according to the service request. The MS then proceeds to release the bottom layer connection and switches to the idle state.19 MS originating call flow 1. If the above items can be passed. the MSC sends the outgoing call message SEND_INFO_FOR_O/C_CALL to the VLR. assign the TCH voice channel to the user.2 Voice Channel Assignment (Follow-up Assignment) After send the CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS. The call fails. the VLR sends the RELEASE COMPLETE message to the MS.

voice decoding algorithm and transparent transmission indicator. After receive the channel request from the MSC. Figure 1. But if the system allows queuing. and inter-BSC handover do not support queuing. The TCH resource requests in the queue are assigned with relevant channels in the sequence of their priorities. intra-BSC handover. In the length of the queue reaches its threshold or the timer times out. This message contains the information such as the requested channel type to request the BSC to assign the TCH voice channel for the call. the BSC sends the Channel Activation for TCH message to the BTS to activate corresponding terrestrial resources and start a timer at the same time if the TCH channel resources are available.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 message to the BSC. assignment priority and CIC). the BSC puts the physical information of the channel provided by the BTS in the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message (this message contains the information such as channel type. Only the TCH resource request (that is. the BTS sends the CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK message to the BSC. the request is rejected. If the T11 times out. channel rate. the BSC sends the QUEUING INDICATION message to the MSC and places the assignment request in the queue and starts the timer T11. If the BTS has prepared the resources such as circuit. The immediate assignment request. it sends the RESOURCE FAILURE message to the MSC. The ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to the MS through the SDCCH channel. When the BSC receives the CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK message from the BTS. After the BTS 59 . voice/data indication.20 TCH channel assignment procedure After receive the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message from the BTS. the assignment request and intra-cell handover) allows queuing. If the BSC has no available resources to assign. the MS adjusts the transceiver configuration to the TCH channel and then sends the SABM message to the BTS through the FACCH channel in the way of stolen frame. the BSC sends the CLEAR REQUEST message to the MSC.

After the MSC sends the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message. to other channel requests. the GSM has three different channel assignment flows. the BTS sends the ESTABLISH INDICATION message to the BSC and then sends an Unnumbered Acknowledge (UA) to the MS. When receive the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message. They are initial channel assignment. the MS sends the ASSIGNMENT COMMPLETE message to the BTS through the FACCH channel.  After the BSC receive the message. it also sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to the BTS to release the occupied SDCCH signaling channel. For different purposes. If the SDCCH channel is assigned first and the TCH is assigned after the called party sends the CONNECT message. and handover channel assignment. just as the initial signaling channel assignment does. If the MS does not receive the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND sent from BTS or the BTS does not receive the response message sent from MS due to interference or other causes. if the TCH channel is assigned preferably. the channel is released. At the same time. radio interface message failure or interference. follow-up channel assignment. or hardware problems. During the establishment of the signaling transmission. process the location updating request. it sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK message to the BSC. it adopts the EA mode. this assignment is called early assignment (EA). it considers that the signaling channel is in idle state and can be assigned Initial channel assignment: is mandatory to establish the link transmission between the MS and the network. and then ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message from MSC is sent before the Alerting message.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 receives the SABM message. this assignment is called very early assignment (VEA). the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the MSC. Generally. and the TCH channel is assigned when it is needed. If the MS fails to identify the assignment information and fails to occupy the specified channel due to the radio interface failure. the BSC does not apply for new channel but initiate the Mode_Modify flow. After receive the UA. the system starts the corresponding timers (such as T3103 or T3107) and when the timer times out. the BSC reports the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the MSC. 60 . For example. When the BTS releases the signaling channel. the MS returns to the original channel and sends the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE to the BTS. If the SDCCH channel is assigned first. After the Mode_Modify is complete.

21 Mode modify in the early assignment flow If the EA mode is used in the initial assignment. the follow-up channel assignment is triggered to assign a TCH channel. When the timer times out. the timer T3107 starts when the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the BTS. the network quality is bad. the timeout of the timer is caused by the bad radio coverage. add more SDCCH to meet the requirement in time. Generally. in this case. the assignment can be extended to five seconds. the assignment fails.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1.  Handover channel assignment This assignment is used to apply for channels due to handover during the call process. Similar to the immediate assignment flow.  Follow-up channel assignment After the signaling channel finishes the authentication and encryption process. when no SDCCH is available. The handover flow and the assignment flow in the cell are the same. Based on the statistics. When this situation is quite serious. The only difference is that the message names are different. if there is still voice or data request. Please note that using the TCH channel to transmit the signaling wastes the resources a lot because one TCH channel equals eight SDCCH channels. in the MS assignment flow. The TCH channel replaces the SDCCH channel to send the signaling message. the MS is considered disconnected with the network and the resources are released for other MSs. the channel assignment is generally complete within two seconds. the timer T3107 resets. some messages needs to be sent several times. set the timer as 2 seconds to 5 61 . if the traffic load of the cell is heavy. But sometime. The system judges whether the handover occurs in the SDCCH or in the TCH to assign corresponding channels. If the BSC does not receive the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message within two seconds. Generally. After the BSC receives the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message from the BTS. assign the TCH channel for the channel request directly.

Similarly. If not heavy. If the called party picks up the phone. If the called end is data device. the MSC sends the Initial Address Message (IAM) that includes the information used to establish the route to the called network. The MS stops the T308 after receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message. the MS sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message to the system and the call is over. After receiving this message. it sends a CLEAR COMMAND message to BSC to release all the signaling links. If succeeds. The MSC sends the calling party a DISCONNECT message after receiving the RELEASE message. it enters CONNECT status directly after receiving the SETUP indication. But the call is not complete. the system sends a RELEASE message to the MS and starts T308. the MSC receives an ADDDRESS COMPLETE message (ACM). this message further indicates the cause for that. if the called party hangs up first. The system starts charging after receiving this message. the MS sends disconnect message to MSC through FACCH.4 Call Release If the calling party hangs up first. 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 seconds.3 Call Connection After receiving the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message from the BSC. If no answer is received from the called party and the calling party does not terminate the connection. MSC sends a CONNECT message in the CC protocol to the MS. The MSC will receive the call setup report soon. After receiving this message.13. because certain tasks such as sending charge indication are performed. the MSC sends release message to inform the called party to terminate the communication. When the MSC receives the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the MS. the MS sends a CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE message in the CC protocol to the system. When the connection to the MS is no longer necessary. The call connection procedure is over and the two parties start the conversation or data transmission service. it sends a RELEASE message to the calling party. such as handover complete or 62 . This message contains the cause for the call clearance. MSC receives an ANSWER message. the MSC receives a RELESASE message from the called end. 1. set the timer as 10 seconds. if fails because of certain reason (such as busy line or congestion). This message is a DTAP message. the network will terminate the call or perform no answer call transfer after a while. If MSC receives the ACM. MSC sends the ALERTING message to the MS (MS translates it into ring back tone). After receiving this message. The link between the calling party and the called party is connected. If the call is terminated in an abnormal way. The end-to-end connection is over.13.

After receiving this message. The MS sends DISC message to BTS and starts T3110. BSC resets the T3109 and starts the T3111. After receiving the CLEAR REQUEST message. Figure 1. When the T3110 times out or the MS receives the UA frame. When the MS receives the CHANNEL RELEASE message. The BTS sends UA to MS and the RELEASE INDICATION to the BSC. requiring for the release of TCH resources. When the BSC receives the RF CHANNLE RELEASE acknowledgement message from the BTS. the BTS stops the transmission of the downlink SACCH frame and sends the deactivate SACCH acknowledgement to the MSC. BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS and starts T3109 to show that all the lower layer links are released.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 location updating complete.22 Call release In order to ensure the timely removal of the uplink and downlink. it 63 . After receiving this message. when the BSC sends the CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS for the uplink removal. and sends RF CHANNLE RELEASE to the BTS (the T3111 is reset at the same time). Meanwhile. The call connection release is over. it also sends a deactivate SACCH (SACCH) to the BTS requiring for the release of the downlink signaling (to stop the signaling connection between the two parties). After receiving the RELEASE INDICATION message. it removes the uplink signaling link (to stop sending the measurement report of uplink channel associated signaling on SACCH). it enters the idle mode. If the abnormal release occurs because of radio link failure or device failure. it requires the MS to enter the idle mode. the BSC sends a CLEAR REQUEST message to the MSC.

 Improper configuration of Tx-integer in BSC The Tx-integer affects the interval of channel request re-sending. it is usually because the transmission at Abis interface is not stable. But the MS only occupies one of them. III. MSC Sending Disconnect Message Instead of Assignment Request to Terminate the Call In the call connection process. the usual causes are:  No proper signaling channel is available for the MS because of all channels are busy or the channels are blocked. Other channels are released by the BSC after the T3101 times out as they cannot receive the establish indication from the MS. or because errors occur in certain board of BTS. If the MS is not far away from the BTS but the received level and the received quality are bad. check the antenna feeder and the TRX in BTS. the received level and the received quality of uplink and downlink should be checked. BTS sends channel activation negative acknowledge after receiving the channel activation message. the cause for this problem is that the uplink reception is normal but the downlink signal cannot be received by the MS. Under such circumstances.  If the BTS sends lots of channel activation negative acknowledge messages to the BSC. No Establish Indication Message Is Received After Channel Activation The main causes are:  The MS may send many channel requests even if the BSS works well. but no call will be affected.5 Exceptional Situations I. the MSC releases the SCCP connection by sending RLSD and receiving RLC. BSC Sending Immediate Assignment Reject If the BSC sends immediate assignment reject to the MS after receiving the channel required message. Improper Tx-integer only leads to the activation of many channels by BSS. The whole MS originating call flow is over. 1. which activates many signaling channels. II. If the Tx_interger is proper. After receiving the CLEAR COMPLETE message.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 sends a CLEAR COMPLETE message to the MSC.13. the immediate assignment is followed by the 64 . which leads to the inconsistent channel status of the BSC and BTS. indicating that the radio link clearance is over and the channel is available for reallocation.

But due to certain reasons. the BSC sends assignment failure message instead of assignment complete. and the parameters related to channel access in BSC data configuration. many complaint phones from users cannot get through. the call drop occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request message from the MSC. VI. The assignment procedure may be not complete (the channel may be just assigned and no assignment command message 65 . V. the CIC in the assignment request is not available.  The transmission at A interface fails.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 assignment procedure. check the antenna feeder. if no TCH is available and the BSC allows directed retry. this kind of assignment failure occurs most frequently and is unsolvable. If the occurrence rate is too high. the BTS board. IV. Due to the special features of the radio transmission. Under such circumstances.  The A interface circuit of BSC fails. especially the circuit pool data. the assignment failure is reported from the MS. Assignment Failure After receiving the assignment request. Exceptional Procedure Due to Call Drop Call drop may occur any time during the call flow. BSC has no proper voice channel for the MS because all the voice channels are busy or the channels are blocked. the BSC implements the handover with the cause value of directed retry to change the service cell of the MS. The usual causes are:  No proper voice channel is available for the MS.  The MS voice channel access fails. the MSC sends a disconnect message instead of the assignment request message to the MS and then terminates the call. Directed Retry After receiving the assignment request message from the MSC. For example. The hardware of BSC fails.  The cause value in the assignment failure message sent by BSC is equipment failure. The cause value carried by the assignment failure message is no radio resource. Check the following:   The A interface circuit of MSC The data consistencies of the A interface between the MSC and BSC. Under this condition. for example. which affects the following procedures.

the hangup occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request from the MSC.14. For example. The IAI contains the MSISDN of the called party. Under this condition. the call flow may be terminated before the BSC sends assignment complete or assignment failure to the MSC. Exceptional procedure because MSC sends clear command After the A interface connect is established.  The interval between the clear command or disconnect message and the last message The interval between the clear command or disconnect message and the last message indicates whether the exceptional procedure is triggered by timeout. which affects the following procedures. analysis the following two factors:  The cause value carried in the clear command The cause value is usually the call control if the call is terminated in a normal way. This assignment procedure neither succeeds (BSC sends assignment complete) nor fails (BSC sends assignment failure) If it happens many times.14 MS Originated Call Flow 1. the HLR checks the user record. VII. VIII. This assignment procedure neither succeeds (BSC sends assignment complete) nor fails (BSC sends assignment failure). 1. After receiving this message. and then performs different procedures and responds the GMSC as follows: 66 . MSC may send clear command or disconnect message to the BSC during the call flow.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 is sent). Under this condition. BSC may send clear request message instead of assignment complete message or assignment failure message to the MSC. Otherwise. the hang up occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request from the MSC. Exceptional Procedure Due to Hangup Hang up of the calling party or the called party may occur any time during the call flow. the cause value may be protocol error. or others. which affects the following procedures. the Initial Address Message with Information (IAI) is send from the calling end to the GMSC. For example. GMSC analyzes the identification number of the CCS7 of the HLR and sends this HLR the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION message. equipment failure. Under this condition.1 Enquiry After the signaling link for the calling end is established. the call flow may be terminated before the BSC sends assignment complete or assignment failure to the MSC.

it selects a roaming number from the idle numbers to temporarily connect it to the IMSI. When the MSC obtains the LA information of the MS from the VLR. such as the CCS7 address or the universal mark. and sends the PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER_RESULT message with the MSRN assigned to this call in it to the HLR. BSC sends the PAGING COMMAND to all the cells in the LA. the VLR sends the MSC a PAGING MAP message that contains the location area identification (LAI) and the IMSI or TMSI of the called party. To get the routing information for the call. After the call is established. it informs the calling end that the call establishment fails. If no VLR number of the user is found and no call forwarding is set. the HLR sends the VLR a PROVIDE ROAMING_ NUMBER message that contains the user IMSI information. it sends all the BSCs in this LA the paging message that contains the cell list and the TMSI and IMSI information required for paging. Error message will be sent to the GMSC. Then the GMSC can find the VLR with the obtained MSRN and sends the IAI to it.14. the called MSC sends a SEND_INFO_I/C_CALL message to the VLR and the VLR will analyze the called number and the network resource capacity to check whether this requirement is acceptable. the total number of 67 . the HLR only has the partial information about the identification of the current VLR. The IMSI can be used in the paging for the MS through the cell paging channel.  If the user record is set as Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU).2 Paging After receiving the IAI from the GMSC. If certain item is not accepted. This command message contains the paging channel group number and the timeslot number (obtained by the calculation of the last three numbers of the IMSI. the HLR rejects this call. informing the MSC to perform the paging procedure. requiring the VLR to provide a MSRN for this call.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程  Under normal circumstances. this roaming number is released for another user. In addition.  1. the HLR sends the MSRN to the original GMSC to analyze this number and redefine the routing. it transfers the information by sending a SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION_RESULT message to the call originating GMSC. it is also used to confirm the paging subchannel in the discontinuous reception processing. When the HLR receives the MSRN. Under normal circumstances. After receiving this message. the MSC restores the IMSI of this user in its memory record with the MSRN and starts the paging for the MS. When the MSC/VLR receives this message.  If the record of the called party is set as Barring of All Incoming Calls (BAIC) or Barring of Incoming Calls when roaming is outside the home PLMN country (BIC_roam) according to the message sent by the VLR and the user is in roaming now.

When the cell receives this paging command. and the total number of the paging timeslots). After receiving the immediate assignment command from the network. If the called MS detects the paging by decoding the paging information. The message contains the IMSI or TMSI of the user paged. The call confirmed message carries the parameters that the MS selects. the MS sends the initial message of PAGING RESPOSE on the channel assigned through the SABM frame. After receiving this message. it sends a channel request to initiate the channel allocation process.23 Paging flow 1. After receiving the call confirmed message. Figure 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the paging channels.3 Call Establishment for the Called Party After the TMSI reallocation is over. the MSC sends the assignment command 68 .14. TMSI reallocation. encryption. and finally begins the call establishment process. it sends the PAGING REQUEST message on the paging channel. and then implements the authentication. such as the channel type (full rate TCH or half rate TCH) and the service type. the called MS confirms the information and sends a CALL CONFIRMED message back if the service is available. the MSC sends the MS a SETUP message that includes all the details required such as the service type and the calling number.

The processing is different for different criteria. II. such as playing the user bush record.14. the MSC connects all the transmission links. If the last location registration of the called user fails. After receiving this message. The routing selection for each function is as follows: I. If the HLR does not keep the record of this situation. CFU When the GMSC sends the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION message to the HLR. CFNRc The routing selection for this function is based on how the network decides the called party is not reachable. Call Forwarding Busy (CFB). and the HLR keeps the record of this situation and knows the MS is unreachable.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 to the BSC for the voice channel allocation. The call transfer is mainly caused by Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU). the called MS sends an ALERTING message to the network and a ringing prompt occurs to the called MS. but the called end is busy and the CFB function is available. it makes the CFNRc decision by itself. and Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNRy). the call flow continues until the MSC performs the paging for the user and gets no response from the user in due 69 . it sends an Address Complete Message (ACM) to the calling end. the HLR sends the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION_RESULT message with the transfer number in it back to the GMSC for it to redefine the routing. call transfer has the greatest influence on call routing. 1. the GNSC handles the call directly. After the assignment procedure is over. when the MSC receives this message. the calling end makes a ring back tone as the originating user prompter. the VMSC/VLR implements the call transfer of the transfer number and sends it to the third party. The called user hears the ringing and responds. After receiving this message. CFB When the GMSC finds the VMSC/VLR with the MSRN obtained from the HLR. and then sends a CONNECT message to the MSC. The end-to-end transmission is established. Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not Reachable (CFNRc). If the CFB function is not available. if the CFU function is available. III.4 The Influence of Call Transfer to Routing In the supplementary services.

but the called user makes no response in due time and the CFNRy function is activated. the call forwarding can only be initiated by the VMSC/VLR. which leads to paging timeout.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 time. One of them is that the user enters the dead zone or the MS is power-off. because the detach tag is in the VLR instead of the HLR. the handover of the two calls can be performed. the call forwarding procedure is initiated. For other abnormal procedures. When the MSC receives the IAI from the calling end. but the VMSC has not made the periodic check on the IMSI attached user yet. the HLR need not contact the VLR. the MSC skips the paging procedure and directly sends a SETUP message to the MS by using the current signaling mode. see "Mobile Originating Call Establishment Procedure. indicating the called MS is outside the serving area or cannot be connected. In this case. If the MS is in IMSI detach (the MS is switched off or out of the service area for a long time). so it cannot judge the MS status and the paging fails. if the called user is in another conversation and the CW function is enabled. IV. V. the MSC prompts voice information to the calling party. CFNRy If the paging of the VMSC for the user succeeds and the called end sends the ALERTING message to the system. This kind of situation has many causes. CW and HOLD Call Waiting (CW) is a supplementary service.5 Exceptional Situations This section only analyzes the common abnormal procedures. Another cause is that the MS is in frequent location updating on the edge of the LA and cannot respond the paging or the channel request fails. The CFB will be initiated when a third call is coming. The user is decided not reachable. 1." Upon paging failure. trace the signaling on interfaces A and Abis to check whether the paging failure is caused by:     No PAGING COMMAND at A interface No PAGING COMMAND at Abis interface No PAGING RESPONSE at Abis interface No PAGING RESPONSE at A interface 70 .14. When the CFB and the CW are enabled at the same time. When the CW function is enabled. The MSC forwards this call. When the VLR periodically deletes the longterm detached IMSI and informs the HLR. the CW is initiated first if another call is coming.

which requires that MS must initiate a location updating procedure within the period specified in MSC. In this case. the BSC detects that the MSC has not sent PAGING COMMAND to the BTS over interface Abis. Additionally. For example. the PAGING message that should have been sent to the local BSC will be sent to another BSC. On MSC side. the PAGING COMMAND message cannot be successfully sent over Abis interface.or cellrelated parameter is not correctly set in the MSC. there is also a location updating period (See "Location updating Procedure").or Cell-Related parameter settings in MSC If a routing area or cell related parameter is incorrectly set in the MSC. the MS may probably be unable to be paged. II. No Paging Command at Abis Interface Upon receiving the PAGING message from the MSC. Additionally. if a wrong target BSC is selected. if RA. the transmission of the PAGING message may fail.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 I. registered LA. In this case. check the data configuration and MS information in the MSC/VLR and HLR on the NSS side. power off the called MS. or has entered a different LA) and has not registered in the network normally or updated user data in VLR. and decides whether or how to send the PAGING message. the MSC is detected that it has not sent a PAGING message to the BSC. the MSC judges the current state of the MS by the user data (including MS active state. In that case. 71 . for example. The period of periodic location updating is indicated in system information. No Paging Command at A Interface Through signaling tracing over interface A. check the operations and data configuration in the BSC。  Checking if flow control is enabled Check if the system load suddenly increases due to centralized transmission of short messages or mass access bursts. a wrong target BSC is selected. the MS only need to initiate a location updating procedure to ensure that the user data in VLR is correct. the MS is switched off. The two parameters of BSC and MSC must satisfy a certain relationship.  Checking relevant data configuration Check if the CGI information in BSC data configuration is consistent with the LAC information in the PAGING message over A interface. If the MS state has changed (for example.  Checking user data in VLR When an MS is paged. cell information). power it on and make a test call to check whether the MS is normal.  Checking RA.

No Paging Response at Abis Interface Through signaling tracing over Abis interface. In this case. there might be some blind coverage areas. only exist in partial areas. the MS cannot be paged. Asynchronous HO requires the BTS to calculate the new TA. The MS that has entered a blind coverage area cannot receive the PAGING REQUEST message. and handover execution. Such cases. 1. handover preparation and decision. Check the called MS or SIM in it. HO can be divided into synchronous HO and asynchronous HO based on Timing Advance (TA). Check BTS by making test calls in a different cell. the BSC is detected that it has received an Establishment Indication (PAGING RESPONSE) message from the BTS but this message is not reported over interface A.15 HO As a key technology in the cellular mobile telecommunication system.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Check whether the following parameters in the [System information table] are correctly set: "BS_AG_BLKS_RES". "CCCH-CONF". "Tx-integer." and "MS MAX retrans". IV. "BS_PA_MFRMS". the BSC is detected that it has not received the Establishment Indication (PAGING RESPONSE) after sending PAGING COMMAND to the BTS. In that case.  Check if there is PCH or AGCH overload due to centralized short message transmission or mass access bursts. Check the setting for "location updating period" in BSC and that in MSC     Check radio signal coverage Due to the problem of radio signal coverage. check the relevant data configuration and radio signal coverage. When the MS receives the HO command and requests for the new BTS access. 72 . if any. The handover procedure consists of handover trigger. Synchronous HO means the two cells are synchronized with each other and the MS can calculate the new TA (the HO command indicates whether the HO is synchronous or not). III. No Paging Response at A Interface Through signaling tracing at Abis interface. Check data configuration in BSC Check whether the following parameters in the [System information table] are correctly configured: "BS_AG_BLKS_RES". handover (HO) can reduce the call drop rate and the network cross interference. "CCCH-CONF" and "BS_PA_MFRMS".

the handover command from the BTS of the original service cell contains the RTD value (the TA difference between the source BTS and the target BTS). The function of each unit is: MS measures the downlink performance and the signal strength. –If the SACCH is associated with TCH. the measurement period is 470ms. pre-synchronous. The system information that includes the parameters of the current cell and the neighbor cell are sent to the MS under the dedicated mode through the downlink SACCH. The MS access to the new channel can also be divided into four types: synchronous. The MS measures all the frames except the idle frames that are used to synchronize the neighbor cell and decode SCH. BSC. BSC handles the measurement report and makes the HO decision. because a complete SACCH message block occupies four 26 multiframes of TCH. The MS reports the condition of the cell and the six neighbor cells with the strongest RXLEV it measures during the measurement period to the system for the HO decision. Measurement Report The HO decision depends on the measurement report (MR) sent by MS through uplink SACCH to the network and the MR of the uplink sent by BTS. the HO can be divided into intra-cell HO and inter-cell HO. The MS reports the RXLEV and quality. 73 . In addition. intro-BSC HO. and MSC. BTS. According to the location where the HO happens. the MS also performs the pseudo-synchronization with the neighbor cell defined by the system for HO and measures the RXLEV from the BCCH. BTS monitors the received signal level and quality of the uplink and the interference level of the idle traffic channel. intra-BTS HO. MSC decides the target cell of the inter-BSC HO. power control. the measurement period is 480 ms. The HO process involves MS. asynchronous. The first three types are required in MS and the last one is optional. and DTX usage to the network according to the system information. intra-cell HO. and interMSC HO. 1. –If the SACCH is associated with SDCCH.15.  Measurement period The SACCH measurement period is different if the MS occupies different channel under the dedicated mode. These two reports are sent to BSC at the same time for decision.1 HO Preparation I. intra-MSC HO. The pseudo-synchronous HO can be performed only when the MS supports this function. and pseudo-synchronous. TA value. To be more specific. In the pseudo-synchronous HO. The MSC calculates the TA required for the access to the new BTS based on the RTD value.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the new BTS informs the MS of the calculated TA. because a complete SACCH message block occupies two 51 multiframes of SDCCH.

The MS also decodes the SCH that carries the TDMA frame number and BSIC. II. the MS must listen to the standard frequency of the neighbor cells defined in the system message. RXQUAL. Neighbor Cell Monitoring To establish the HO relation with the neighbor cells. each 26 multiframe has only one SACCH burst. It obtains the sample values of the RXLEV. But the FCCH of the neighbor cell may not be found during this timeslot. When the time is up. On the TCH. In fact. or distance handover. quality handover. but not sufficient to find the FCCH. For details. On the SDCCH. see the DTX description in Chapter 2. during the data exchange. The MS can only analyze the BCCH standard frequency of the neighbor cell in the idle timeslot of the TCH multiframe. the MR has two values: full measurement value and sub measurement value. so a complete MR requires four 26 multiframes. the interval between the end of the reception and the beginning of the transmission (about 1 ms) can be used to measure the RXLEV and the RXQUAL. the system decides whether to perform the level handover. the use of the arithmetic feature 74 . and TA. the four bursts are transmitted continuously. The standard frequency carries the synchronous channel and frequency correction channel. but it is not sufficient to measure the level of the neighbor cell.  MR processing BTS handles the uplink MR it makes and the downlink MR it collects from the MS. Figure 1. Therefore.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 A complete MR consists of four continuous SACCH bursts.24 Measurement period Whether to use DTX or not. The interval between the end of the transmission and the beginning of the reception (about 2 ms) is sufficient to measure the level of the neighbor cell. there is always an idle frame (about 6 ms) available for MS to decode the FCCH and SCH. In the 26 muliframe of TCH. and then calculates the arithmetical mean value and the weighted mean value based on the related parameters. One way to decide the received channel is the standard frequency channel is to confirm that the frequency carries a FCCH.

which may lead to HO failure. but differentiates them according to the BSIC and frequency it obtains to achieve the presynchronization. the MS must know the training sequence of the CSCH. When the MS receives the SCH. Under the dedicated mode. The purpose to define the Pa is to ensure the low power MS can access the neighbor 75 . if a cell shares the same frequency and BSIC with the neighbor cell and its signal is strong enough. The MR only contains the sequence number of the frequencies in the BA list. matching the BCC 0 to BCC 7 of BSIC respectively.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 of the two numbers 26 and 51 is required. OFFSET is the offset of the minimal access level. Because these two numbers have no common factor. the FCCH can be found during the 11 periods. The MS reports the six neighbor cells with the strongest signals. the SDCCH channel assigned to the MS only occupies 1/8 of the 51 multiframe. The BSIC carried by the SCH can inform the MS of the training sequence number of its service cell. Therefore. If it is too low. it checks whether this neighbor cell is qualified to join in the HO decision queue. Conditions Required for Neighbor Cells to Join in HO Decision Queue When the BTS receives the report on the neighbor cell from the MS. leading to HO failure and call drop. the threshold for the candidate cells is reduced. When SACCH is associated with SDCCH. The training sequence is of eight types. The neighbor cell can be listed in the HO candidate cells only when its RXLEV is qualified according to the formula above. the synchronization is established. III. The defined RxLevMinCell (n) must be higher than the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. The unit is dBm. the system informs the MS by sending the system message through SACCH. RxLevMinCell(N) is the minimal access level of the neighbor cell. RxLevMinCell(n) and MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) are defined by the HO cell parameters. The two cells with the same BCCH frequency and BSIC must be far from each other. MAX_POWER_OF_MS is the maximal transmit power the MS can achieve. The following conditions must be met: RXLEV(n) > RxLevMinCell(n)+ MAX(0. the MS can synchronize the neighbor cell. Since there are lots of idle timeslots. error report and decision of MS may occur. MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) is the maximal transmit power of MS defined by the system. BSIC also enables the MS to differentiate the cells using the same BCCH frequency. To translate the message on the downlink CSCH. although its period is also 51 multiframe.Pa(n)) + OFFSET (2-4) Pa(n)=MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) -MAX_POWER_OF_MS RXLEV(n) is the RXLEV of the neighbor cell.

when cell A and cell B are 76 .RXLEV_UL . and timing advance (TA) HO. According to the cause of the HO. 1.RXLEV_DL .0 ) BSTX_MAX: The maximum transmit power of BS in service cell BSTX_MAX (n): The maximum transmit power of BS in neighbor cell RXLEV_DL: The downlink received signal level in service cell RXLEV_UL: The uplink received signal level in service cell SENSI_CORRECT: The correct factor of MS/BS receiver sensitivity RXLEV_NCELL (n): the received signal level of MS from neighbor cell n PWR_C_D: the decrease of the transmission power in BTS power control P: Max MS Transmission power MSTX_MAX (n): Max MS transmit power allowed of the neighboring cell n MSTX_MAX: Max MS transmit power allowed of the service cell The neighbor cell with the biggest PBGT (n) is selected as the target cell for HO. HO hysteresis may occur and the HO efficiency is reduced.( BSTX_MAX(n)- RXLEV_NCELL(n) ).P) .max ( BSTX_MAX(n). The PGBT_Ho_Margin is the defined RXLEV difference value between the service cell and the neighbor cell when the HO is initiated.15. thus improving the quality of conversation.2 HO Types HO must be performed on time under different conditions to ensure the quality of communication.( RXLEV_DL . bad quality (BQ) HO. it can be divided into Power Budget (PBGT) HO. PBGT HO algorithm looks for a cell with less path loss to decide whether HO is necessary. if it is too high. it may lead to ping-pong handover.P) . PBGT HO PBGT HO is based on path loss.BSTX_MAX + min (MSTX_MAX. edge HO. I. direct retry.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 cell only when the RXLEV is high enough. Since the PGBT_Ho_Margin is defined for the specific neighbor cell. The biggest difference between the PBGT HO and others is that the triggering condition is path loss but not receiving power. If this value is too low.min(MSTX_MAX(n). The formula of PBGT HO is as follows: PBGT (n) > PGBT_Ho_Margin (n) PBGT(n) = (2-5) ( BSTX_MAX .SENSI_CORRECT). For example. the traffic load can be adjusted accordingly.PWR_C_D ) .

Direct Retry During the call establishment. this way to balance the call distribution equals the decrease of the coverage area for cell A and the increase of the coverage area for cell B. III. but no TCH is available. . The interference HO will trigger the intracell HO (when the intra-cell HO is available) first to improve the bad conversation quality due to interference. The edge HO margin should be higher than the minimal access level of the MS. In fact. BQ HO The decision mechanism of BQ HO is similar to that of the edge HO. In the edge HO. This algorithm is also used to avoid ping-pong handover. If the service cell has no idle TCH. the RXLEV of the neighbor cell should be higher than that of the service cell by a certain value. the queuing function can be activated to provide enough time for the system to select the neighbor cell available for direct retry. The intra-cell HO is not effective when the frequency hopping is used. the call attempt usually fails because of TCH congestion. and then trigger the inter-cell HO. thus avoiding the call drop. the direct retry function is introduced. To fully utilize the radio resources and reduce the congestion. After the direct retry function is enabled. the frequency interference exists. the assignment request is sent in the form of MR and the call is accessed to the idle speech channel.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 adjacent. II. A is the high-traffic cell and B is the low-traffic cell. To further differentiate the BQ HO. the interference HO is introduced. the call distribution can be balanced by reducing the PGBT_Ho_Margin from A to B and increasing that from B to A. the SDCCH is assigned first and then is the TCH. By improving the interference HO margin. 77 . the BQ HO will be mainly performed between cells. When BSC finds in the MRs from the MS and BTS that the uplink or downlink RXLEV is lower than the edge HO margin defined. PBGT HO only happens between the peer cells. When the SDCCH is assigned. Edge HO The uplink/downlink edge HO margin is defined in the HO parameters. When BSC finds in the MRs from the MS and BTS that the bit error rate of the uplink or downlink is higher than the BQ HO margin defined. IV. If the RXLEV is higher than the defined RXLEV margin of the interference HO and the RXQUAL is higher than the quality HO margin. This value is called the edge HO margin. the BQ HO is initiated. it selects a proper neighbor cell from the MRs as the target cell to initiate HO.

and the system load also increases.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 V. it sends Channel Activation to BTS2 of the target cell to activate the channel. The connection process is similar to the TCH assignment during the call establishment. if the traffic load is already heavy. BSC analyzes the MR from the MS and BTS. BSC will send a HO PERFOMED message to MSC. BSC receives the MR. Therefore. To inform MSC that the HO is complete.15. The intra-cell HO is initiated by the RXLEV margin or RXQUAL quality. and BTS1 forwards the message to the BSC. the intra-cell HO function is not recommended.3 HO Process Analysis I. The whole procedure is shown in 2. 1) 2) The MS sends MR to BTS1 on SACCH at Um interface. 78 . intra-cell HO increases a lot. Therefore. the TA HO is initiated. If it decides that the MS should be handed over to another cell. special attention should be paid to the matching of different kinds of HO. Intra-BSC HO Intra-BSC HO is performed by BSC and no MSC has to be involved. the intra-cell HO is used. Intra-Cell HO In the real network. After receiving the message. When the BSC finds the TA value reported by the MS is higher than the defined margin. 1. If the requirement for intra-cell HO margin is satisfied. it sends a CHANNEL ACTIVE message to BTS to initiate the intra-cell HO. the BTS can indicate the MS to perform the intra-cell HO through HO command or assignment command. the BTS releases the TCH resource and sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK message back. When the BSC receives the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE/HANDOVER COMPLETE message from the BTS. the frequent ping-pong handover may be triggered. If the TA margin is relatively low. Because the TCH is also assigned within the cell. When the intra-cell HO is enabled. To improve the conversation quality and avoid the call drop. leading to the high RXLEV but low RXQUAL or the remarkably low signal level of TRX. sometimes the interference may occur to certain frequency or a certain TRX fails. II. it sends MSC the HO PERFOMED message that contains the HO type. During the conversation. Then the BSC sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to BTS. TA HO TA HO can be used to control the coverage area of the BTS.

It only contains the 8-bit HO reference number obtained from the handover command. if the assigned TCH is on the BCCH. For the synchronous HO. the BSC sends HANDOVER COMMAND to the MS through BTS1 and starts T3103. for pseudosynchronous HO (MS reported whether this HO is supported or not before). the 79 . the MS decides the type of it. the MS sends the target cell four continuous HANDOVER ACCESS messages on the assigned TCH. the target cell can check whether the access request is from the expected MS with this number. It also indicates whether this HO is synchronous or asynchronous. 4) After receiving the CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK from BTS2. If the channel type is correct. 5) After receiving the HANDOVER COMMAND.25 Intra BSC HO 3) BTS2 receives the CHANNEL ACTIVATE. the former TA can be used.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. the default value is used). If the 8-bit reference number is the same as a service application number. the TA is calculated based on the difference value provided in the handover command. and send CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK to the BSC. the access burst may offset to the BCCH RACH timeslot. due to synchronization error and delay or other reasons. and then starts the transmission based on the calculated. Please note that the HANDOVER ACCESS is send by the access burst. It is the only time when the access burst is used on the DCH. Since this reference number is known to the target cell. The HO reference number is not fully defined in the protocol. The handover command contains all the feature information of the transmission on the new channel and the data required for MS access. During the HO access. for pre-synchronous HO. it turns on the power amplifier on the specified channel to receive information in the uplink direction. the TA in the handover command is used (If the TA is not provided in the handover command. If it is synchronous HO.

after receiving the PHYSICAL INFO. the network initiates T3105. 10) The MS sends HANDOVER COMPLETE to the BTS2. the MS regards that the signaling answer mode is established with this cell. the reference number is assigned a fixed value that is different from the application number for service type in random access. the MS sends the SABM to the BTS2 immediately after sending the HANDOVER ACCESS. Before receiving the SABM frame response from the MS. it also sends the UA response frame to the MS.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 system will regard it as a random access by mistake and assign the SDCCH through AGCH. the BTS2 re-enables the T3105 after timeout and resends the PHYSICAL INFO NY1. the MS sends the SABM to the BTS2. it waits for the MS access on the assigned DCH (until the T3103 times out). only the HO access cell will be affected. after receiving the UA response. leading to a waste of AGCH and SDCCH. for synchronous HO. But as the access burst contains the BSIC information. it will no re-assign this channel to other MS. The MS stops considering the possibility to return to the former channel only when this message is sent. even if no reference number is used. If the MS does not receive the PHYSICAL INFO from the target cell or the UA response frame. To further avoid the waste of radio resources. see the parameter description section. after the BTS2 channel of the target cell is activated. 8) For asynchronous HO. and BTS2 forwards it to the BSC. During the PHYSICAL INFO transmission. and after the new BSS assigns a channel to the MS. 7) For asynchronous HO. 11) After receiving the HANDOVER COMPLETE message. the network can find the MS to access and the HO will not be affected. For details. Then it sends the target cell a HANDOVER COMPLETE message that only contains the handover complete indication but no other information. For asynchronous HO. BTS2 sends BSC the EST IND to inform it of the radio link establishment. Since there are more than four HO access bursts. When it detects the handover access from the MS. Meanwhile. the BSC stops the T3103 80 . and send HANDOVER DETECT to the BSC notifying that the HANDOVER ACCESS message is received. it sends an ESTABLISHE INDICATION message to the BSC to show that the data link layer is established. 9) After receiving the first SABM. the BTS2 sends the HO DETECT message to the BSC and the PHYSICAL INFO that contains the calculated TA to the MS. 6) BTS2 receives the HANDOVER ACCESS from the MS. it sends a HANDOVER FAILURE message on the source channel. When the network receives this message. the MS starts the T3124 when sending the HANDOVER ACCESS message for the first time and stops the T3124 after receiving the PHYSICAL INFO.

it searches the BSC of the target cell (BSC2) and sends the BSC2 a HANDOVER REQUEST message that contains the information of the target cell and the source cell. BSC1 stops T8 and T3103. This command contains the cell ID. channel type. the BSC initiates the local release for the former channel of BTS1. the procedure for the inter-BSC HO only has several A interface signaling added. and forwards the HO COMMAND to the MS and starts T3103. the BSC2 sends the MSC a HO REQUEST ACK to indicate that the channel is available. 3) After the new channel is activated. it sends MSC a CC message to indicate that the connection between the MSC and its SCCP is established for transmission of the information from the A interface. After receiving this message. it sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK to indicate the radio channel is released and available for another assignment.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and sends MSC the HANDOVER PERFORMED that contains the handover type. it forwards it to the BSC. 2) After the MSC receives this message. the BSC1 sends a HO REQUIRED message that contains cell ID of the target cell group and the source cell and the HO cause to the MSC and starts T7 at the same time. This command contains the clear cause (such as HO clear). This message carries the HO command with the information about the resource allocation in it to show that the local end is ready for HO. Meanwhile. When the source cell receives this report. the MSC sends a HO COMMAND to the BSC1. and the channel type required. and HO reference. the BSC sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to inform the source cell to release the former TCH. classmark. Intra MSC HO Compared with the intra-BSC HO procedure. III. 4) After receiving the HO REQUEST ACK. BSC1 stops the T7 and starts the T8. When the BSC2 receives this message. 81 . and releases the former channel. 1) When the MS has to be handed over to the cell where the BSC2 belongs to. encryption mode. MSC sends a CLEAR COMMAND to the BSC1. if it shares the same LAC with the target cell. 5) After receiving the HO COMPLETE from the BSC2. it sends a CLEAR COMPLETE message to the MSC. transmission mode. Meanwhile. When the target cell receives the handover complete message from the MS. informing the MS to access the new channel.

the MSCa sends a PREPARE HANDOVER message that contains the HANDOVER REQUEST to it. the system resources will be wasted. When the T3103 is timing. After receiving the PREPARE HANDOVER message. The HON indicates the routing between MSCa and MSCb. If the target cell and the source cell are not in the same LA.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. 1) When MSCa receives the HANDOVER REQUIRED message from the BSC. If it is set too long. so the T3103 can be set to five seconds. IV. it queries the remote LAC list that contains the routing address of the neighbor MSC/VLR. 2) 3) When the target MSCb is found.26 Inter-BSC HO within MSC T3103 is started when BSC sends the HO command and cleared when the BSC receives the HO COMPLETE (INTRA BSC) or CLEAR COMMAND (INTER BSC). if it finds that the LAC of the preferred target cell is not in the local LAC list. two channels are reserved. the BSC provides the time for TCH both in the source cell and the target cell according to the T3103. Inter-MSC HO The procedure for inter-MSC HO is shown in 7. 4) VLRb selects an idle HON and sends it to MSCb through the SEND HO 82 . The longest HO (INTER MSC) may take about five seconds. The T3103 should be set less than T8. the MSCb sends the VLRb an ALLOCATE_HO_NUMBER message to request for HO number (HON) assignment. a location updating will be performed at the end of each call. During the HO.

MSCb sends MSCa a PROCESS ACCESS SIGNALLING message to indicate that the HO is detected.27 Inter-MSC HO 8) 9) After MSCa receives the ACM from the MSCb. Then the MS will perform the HO access to the target cell. 6) After receiving this message. After the HO-DETECT or HO- 83 . 5) MSCb establishes a SCCP link to the target BSC and sends a HANDOVER REQUEST message to BSCB. Figure 1. it sends the HO command to the MS. MSCb sends a PREPARE HANDOVER ACK message that contains the HANDOVER REQUEST ACK and the HON to the MSCa. After receiving the channel activation response from the target cell. the BSC sends MSCb a HANDOVER REQUEST ACK message that contains the HO command. Then the BSC activates the channel of the target cell.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 REPORT message. 7) MSCa receives this message and sends an IAM to MSCb. 10) When the target cell receives the HANDOVER COMPLETE message from the MS. After receiving the HO access message from the MS. MSCb sends a SEND HO REPORT RESP message to the VLRb anytime after it receives the IAM. Then the MSCb sends a SEND END SIGNAL REQ message to MSCa to inform it the HO is complete. The IAM contains the HON assigned by VLRb for MSCb to identify which speech channel is reserved for the MS. it informs the MSCb.

it also clears the call control function of MSCa and sends a MAP-SEND-END-SIGNAL message to release the MSCb MAP resource. The inter-MSC HO is complete. The subsequent HO is the handover of MSCb to other MSC after an inter-MSC HO is complete. the target cell has no radio channel available. 11) When MSCa receives the HO complete message. After the subsequent HO is complete. Subsequent Inter-MSC HO After the MSCb receives the HO request. V. the connection between MSCa and MSCb is released. it sends a clear command to the former BSC to release the channel resource. MSCb must send an answer signaling when receiving the HO-DETECT/COMPLETE. To avoid the PSTN/ISDN contradiction of the MSCa and MSCb. the connection between MSCa and MSCb is established. The MSCa will perform the HO to the secondary cell or terminate the HO. The procedure for the subsequent HO with circuit switch is as follows:  MSCb is handed over back to MSCa Figure 1. After the HO is complete. When MSCa clears the MS call. it informs the MSC. 12) MSCa controls the call until it is cleared. MSCb will release the HON. The circuit switch happens in the MSCa for both situations. the HO to the target cell is not allowed.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 COMPLETE is received. MSCb sends a HO failure indication to the MSCa if the MSCb cannot identify the target cell. it checks this target cell belongs to MSCb and performs the inter-MSC HO.28 MSCb is handed over back to MSCa 84 . or the data error occurs. The target MSC can be the former MSCa or the new MSCb’.

MSC sends MSCb the MAP FORWARD ACCESS SIGNALLING request that contains the subsequent TCH assignment result (HO REQUEST ACK or HO FAILURE). The MSCb requests the handover of the MS to the new cell of the MSCa by sending a HO command. MSCa sends a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response back. When MSCb receives the MAP SEND END SIGNAL response message. 2) 3) 4) MSCa is the call control MSC. It can search the idle channel immediately without target HO number routing. 5) If the MSCa is successfully assigned. After the radio channel is assigned. or the target cell ID does not match the target MSC number according to the HO REQUEST. target cell ID. it releases the BSSb resources. MSCb keeps the connection to the MS. BSSa sends a QUEUING INDICATION to MSCb (optional). 6) 7) After receiving the HO complete message.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1) MSCb sends MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER request to MSCa. MSCa releases the circuit connection to MSCb.  MSCb is handed over to MSCb' 85 . and all the information in HO REQUEST. If the radio channel cannot be assigned or the error occurs to the target cell ID. and the MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response is sent to MSCb. If the TCH is busy. a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response that contains the HO FAILURE information in it is sent to the MSCb. MSCa must send a proper MAP message to terminate the MAP procedure for MSCa and MSCb during the basic HO. This message contains MSCa number.

29 MSCb is handed over to MSCb' 1) MSCb receives the HO request and finds that the target cell does not belong to the MSCb. This message contains the HO REQUEST ACK from the BSSb’ and the BSSMAP information that may be special. Figure 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Note 1: This message can be sent anytime after the IAM is received. 4) After receiving this message. MSCa will initiate a basic HO to MSCb’. after the HON is provided by the VLRb’ and the MSCb’ channel is activated. This message contains the MSCb’ ID. 2) If the MSC can be found in the MSCa LAC list and remote LAC list (it contains information about other MSC). MSCb sends the HO command to the MS. and all the information in HO REQUEST. 3) MSCa sends a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response message to the MSCb. After the access succeeds. target cell ID. It sends a PREPARE SUBS HANDOVER to the MSCa. if the MSCa receives the MAP SEND END SIGNAL REQUEST (it contains the HO COMPLETE information of the BSSb’) from the 86 .

or Handover Failure message on the old channel at expiry of timer T3103A. The remote LAC list of MSCa must be complete and contain as many MSCs as possible besides the neighbor MSC.15. it will send a Clear REQ message to the MSC for the same purpose. HO Failure Due to MS Access Failure If the BTS cannot decode Handover Access or Handover Completed correctly when a MS accesses the new channel. For the intra-BSC handover. the HO will fail. MSCb receives this message and releases the radio resources. MSCa also sends the MAP SEND END SIGNAL response to MSCb to end their MAP conversation. 1. If BSC2 has not received the Handover DET or Handover CMP message. Any subsequent inter-MSC HO is the same as described above. I. the target cell will release the new channel. II. if a user in place A calls another user in place B. the MSC in place A must contains all the data of the MSCs and cells within the area between A and B. the BSC releases the old channel and notifies the target cell to release the new channel. 5) After the subsequent HO is complete. For example. If timer T3103B1 or T3103B2 times out. if the BSC has not received the Handover CMP message on the new channel. it will consider the call as dropped and send a Clear REQ message to the MSC on the old channel.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 MSCb’. the MSCb’ replaces the MSCb. if BSC1 has not received the Handover CMP message at expiry of timer T3103B2. and responds with a Hanover Failure message.4 Exceptional Situations The following are some extra exceptional situations on the basis of what has described before. it will send a Clear REQ message to the MSC to release the call. 87 . For the inter-BSC handover. Otherwise. Upon receiving the Clear CMD message from the MSC. The MS returns to the old channel. BSC will respond to MSC with Handover Failure due to "requested terrestrial resource unavailable". the HO cannot be performed and the call drops. HO Failure Due to CIC Exception If the CIC allocated in the Handover REQ received by BSC is marked as BLOCK. the HO is complete and the connection between MSCa and MSCb is released.

the cell's allowance of call re-establishment. Radio Link Timeout Occurs to BSS First After the radio link timer in BTS times out. After detecting the radio link failure. The former channel resource is released after the BTS timer times out. This cell should not be barred and the C1 is over 0. Radio Link Failure Occurs to MS First The MS sends a call re-establishment request in the selected cell (source cell or target cell). According to the protocol. I. Call reestablishment can be regarded as the HO initiated by MS to save the interrupted call in the current cell. no voice is heard during the call reestablishment.1 Introduction The re-establishment procedure allows MS to resume a connection in progress after a radio link failure. In addition. thus improving the network quality. The implementation mode and duration are decided by the equipment provider. or tunnels. and activated MM connection (MM is in status 6 "MM connection activated" or status 20 " Waiting for additional MM connection" Call re-establishment can only be initiated by MS. Call re-establishment is of two types according to the entity that has the radio link failure first. the call re-establishment is abandoned. 88 . When the call re-establishment is used. During the radio transmission. Whether call re-establishment is allowed depends on the calling status. possibly in a new cell or in a new location area (re-establishment in a new location area initiates no location updating). the MS can maintain the conversation by using another cell in a short time. this cell must permit the call re-establishment.16. GSM protocol does not specify the implementation mode for the short message service and the independent call supplementary service. buildings.16 Call Re-Establishment 1. the MS selects a neighbor cell with the highest RXLEV within five seconds and sends the channel request in the selected cell. In the other end. the BTS sends a radio link failure message to the BSC and BSC activates the SACCH. a connection may be broken suddenly because of the great transmission loss due to obstructions such as bridges. II. If all the neighbor cells are not qualified. the network must handle the context for a while after detecting the lower layer faults for the successful call re-establishment.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1.

This request includes an establishment cause and a CM re-establishment request. Most users have hung up the phone before the procedure is over. 2) After the CM sends the request for the re-establishment of MM connection.16.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 During the call re-establishment. Therefore. if the MS receives at least one request for MM connection re-establishment from CM. the MM sublayer starts T3230 and indicates to all 89 . the activation of this function is not recommended. 1.16.2 Call Re-Establishment Procedure 1. the call re-establishment cannot achieve its goal but wastes a lot of radio resources. Under normal circumstances.30 Call re-establishment 1) After the MM connection failure indication is reported to the CM entity. only one re-establishment procedure will be initiated. MM sublayer sends a request for the establishment of RR connection and enters the WAIT FOR REESTABLISH state. If several CM entities request for reestablishment. the call re-establishment procedure lasts about 4 to 20 seconds. Figure 1. it will initiate the call re-establishment procedure. When the RR sublayer indicates a RR connection is established (the CM re-establishment request message has been sent through the Um interface). If the MS selects a cell in different LA as the target cell for call re-establishment.2 shows the procedure for call re-establishment. For the areas with limited channel resources. it cannot perform location updating until the call ends. the MS cannot return into the idle mode.

LAI. the MM layer may send an indication to the CC layer. unidentifiable IMSI (# 4). MM connections shall be released. the MS deletes the TMSI.3 Exceptional Situations I.16. Re-Establishment Prohibition or Failure When MM connection is established. the network analyzes the request type and starts the MM program or RR program. Classmark 2. and CKSN in SIM card. and temporary service failure (#34)。 6) After receiving the CM SERVICE REJECT. and encrypted sequence number. the connection may be re-established through CC request. the MS stops T3230 and releases all MM connections and RR connections. congestion (#22). unsupported service (#32). 5) If the network cannot connect the re-establishment request to the current MS call. The CM Re-establishment Request message contains the MS identity (IMSI or TMSI). If the re-establishment is not allowed. and changes the status from “updating” into “no updating”. If re-establishment is unsuccessful. and changes the status from "updating" into “roaming inhibit”. network failure (#17). 1. unauthorized ME (# 6). The network can start the classmark enquiry program to obtain more information about the MS encryption ability. The SIM is regarded invalid until the MS is switched off or the SIM card is pulled out. If the reject cause if #4. The reject cause (value) includes unidentifiable call (#38). The T3230 stops and informs all the CM entities related to the reestablishment to enter the MM CONNECTION ACTIVE state. the MS deletes the TMSI. If the reject cause is #6. the MM connection is reestablished. The network can also decide to perform the authentication procedure or ciphering mode setting procedure. If the MM layer is disconnected. 3) After receiving the CM re-establishment request.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the CM entities that the MM connection is under construction. and the call is initiated within the establishment or clearing period. The location updating will be initiated after the RR release. The MM sublayer stays in WAIT FOR REESTABLISH state. it sends the CM SERVICE REJECT with the reject cause to the MS. and a release 90 . and then enters the “WAIT FOR NETWORK COMMAND” state. 4) When the RR sublayer indicates the ciphering mode setting procedure is over or the CM SERVICE ACCEPT message is received. and CKSN in SIM card. Whether the CM entity can request for re-establishment depends on protocol discriminator (PD). LAI. the CC layer shall release MM connections.

1. T3230 Time-out If the T3230 times out.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 indication shall be sent to the CC layer. the MS will stop call re-establishment and release MM and RR connections. For details. II.4 SM Procedure Short messages can be transmitted either on SDCCH or SACCH. If RR CONNECTION FAILURE is detected by the MSC.31 Short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is calling 91 . the MS will stop timer T3230.16. see GSM03. abort the call re-establishment procedure. Signaling Procedure Figure 1. RR Connection Failure If random access failure or RR CONNECTION FAILURE is detected by the MS. and release all MM connections. A short message procedure can be classified into short message calling procedure and called procedure. the MSC will abort the call reestablishment procedure and release all MM connections. 1.5 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is calling I.40 protocol.16. III.

Procedure Description The random access. immediate assignment. CP_DATA and CP_ACK are the messages on CM layer. transport layer (TL) and application layer (AL). Then. authentication. BSC provides a transparent-transmission channel for MS to exchange short message information with MSC. In this procedure. relay layer (RL). BSC can provide SMS either by allocating other channels or by using the original SDCCH.32 Short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is called 92 . the MSCs of some manufacturers are capable to send ASS REQ to BSC. requesting it to assign channel for short message transmission. and CP_ACK is the acknowledgement message of CP_DATA. The release procedure after message is sent is the same as general ones. After encryption. CP_DATA is used to transmit the content of RL and AL message. The time for sending ASS REQ is the same as that for a common call. Signaling Procedure Figure 1. Point to Point short messages protocol is divided into connection management layer (CM). notifying the network side that this user needs short message service (SMS). the MS sends SABM again.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II. 1.16.6 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is called I. and encryption procedures of short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is calling are the same as general procedures.

BSC transparently transmits the short message till the end of the transmission. Procedure Description The paging response and immediate assignment procedures of short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is called are the same as general procedures.7 Short Message Procedure on SACCH When MS is calling I. it establishes RR layer connection on SACCH. Then. Signaling Procedure Figure 1. For the short message procedure when MS is called. the BSC sends EST REQ to MS to establish short message connection. the connection is successfully established.33 Short message procedure on SACCH when MS is calling II.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II. When EST CNF is received from MS.16. The MSC responds with the CM SERV ACC message and establishes CC layer connection. 1. after encryption. and sends the short message. The release procedure after message is sent is the same as general ones. Procedure Description The MS sends CM SERV REQ through FACCH. 93 .

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.16.8 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is called
I. Signaling Procedure

Figure 1.34 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is Called

II. Procedure Description
The BSC receives the CP DATA message from MSC, and establishes an RR layer connection for SMS. Upon reception of CP ACK from MS, MSC sends the short message.

1.17 CBS
Cell Broadcast Service (CBS) is similar to paging station broadcast information. It means the mobile network operator broadcasts the public information to the mobile users within a certain area. The information that the users can read is called CBS message. It is generated by the Cell Broadcast Entity (CBE) and sent to the Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) for processing. After the processing, it is forwarded to the BSC and broadcast to the users through CBCH. The MS can only receive the CBS message in idle mode. Unlike the Point to Point Short Message service, the CBS message is broadcast without the acknowledgement of the user terminal. CBS includes:

Common public information service, such as weather, news, stock market, exchange rate, and lottery. Special public information service, such as people search, traffic navigation, and call charge prompt. Advertising service, such as information about stores, restaurants, and theaters.


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.17.1 CBS Mechanism
Operators or information providers can define the cell broadcast area through CBE. The minimal area is a cell and the maximal area can be all the cells of the BSCs that the CBC connects with. Features such as intervals, duration, and priority levels can also be specified to meet different requirements. The field length of the CBS message sent to BSC from CBC must be 82 bytes. If the length is shorter than 82 bytes, fill codes are added to it. If the length exceeds 82 bytes, the message is broken to a maximum of 15 pages. If the sending fails, the message may be sent again and the message with high priority level is sent first. The CBS information is sent to the proper cells through four continuous SMS BROADCAST REQUEST messages or one SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message. Each CBS message contains 82-byte user information and 6-byte header. The CBS message can be sent to BTS in the form of SMS BROADCAST REQUEST or SMS BROADCAST COMMAND. For details, see 1.17.2 BTS can send the CBCH Load Indication message to BSC and the system will speed up or delay the message sending according to this message. Although the BSC considers the CBCH capacity when sending the message and the BTS can indicate the status of the current CBCH, when the CBCH LOAD INDICATION mode is enabled, the BTS can send CBCH LOAD INDICATION to request for immediate broadcast of the m(1 - 15) SMSCB timeslot message when the CHCB is idle. After the BSC sends the m timeslot message, it sends messages according to its own schedule. If the message volume that the BTS requests exceeds the volume that the BSC can provide, the BSC only sends the messages within its volume limit. When the CBCH LOAD INDICATION mode is enabled, the BTS can send CBCH LOAD INDICATION to stop the sending of the m(1 - 15) timeslot message if overload occurs. Then the BSC will continue the sending according to its own schedule. CBCH LOAD INDICATION is only used in DRX mode. The CBCH is of two types: basic CBCH and extended CBCH. They are four continuous multiframes. The TB of basic CBCH is 0, 1, 2, or 3; The TB of extended CBCH is 4, 5, 6, or 7. TB = (FN DIV 51) mod (8). For the basic CBCH, the CBS message head is sent on the multiframe with TB being 0; for the extended CBCH, it is sent on the multiframe with TB being 4. The system message on BCCH indicates whether the CBS is available or not. When SMSCB is used, the BS_AG_BLKS_RES is set as 1 or above. When the CBCH is mapped to the CCCH+SDCCH/4, the number of BS_AG_BLKS_RES will not be limited by SMSCB. MS recomposes the CBS message and displays it for the user.


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

MS obtains the CBS message from the CBCH. BTS informs MS of the short message information during the schedule in the form of bitmap by sending schedule message. There are three reception modes for MS on CBCH:

Non-DRX mode. MS reads the first block of all message timeslots. The rest blocks will be read if the message head indicates that the following timeslots are used. If the MS does not support other reception mode, or it does not receive the scheduling for the next message timeslot, Non-DRX mode is used.

First DRX mode. If MS receives the scheduling for the next message timeslot, but the first scheduling message of the last scheduling period, or all the information of the last period or even earlier period is not received, first DRX mode is used.

Second DRX mode. If MS receives the important information of the last scheduling period and reads the first scheduling message of the current period, second DRX mode is used.

Whether the network uses DRX to receive the broadcast short message can be set through the maintenance console in BSC.

1.17.2 BSC-BTS Message Transmission Mode
A CBS message consists of eighty eight 8-bit bytes. These bytes are divided into four message blocks with each block containing twenty two 8-bit bytes. Each block is added by an 8-bit block type, and the length of the block is twenty three 8-bit bytes. A CBS message contains four continuous blocks: first block, second block, third block, and fourth block. As 1.17.2 shows, when the SMS BROADCAST REQUEST mode is used, the message is sent to BTS from BSC. The BSC handles the queuing, repetition, and short message sending. It also considers the CBCH capacity and takes charge of the SMS segmentation at radio interface. In the SMS BROADCAST REQUEST message, each SMSCB Information cell carries a complete frame that can be transmitted on CBCH and the layer 2 information that indicates the radio path. SMSCB Channel Indicator cell indicates the CHCH used for broadcast. If this cell does not provide the information, the basic CBCH will be used.


when the SMS BROADCAST COMMAND mode is used.17. In the default broadcast mode. SMSCB Channel Indicator cell indicates the CHCH used for broadcast.36 SMS BROADCAST REQUEST In the SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message. It has four continuous blocks with a maximum of 88 bytes. the SMSCB message cell contains the information to be broadcast on CBCH. If this cell does not provide the information. SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message is sent to BTS from BSC.35 SMS BROADCAST REQUEST As 1. The default broadcast mode for BTS can also be set through this message.2 shows.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. 97 . the basic CBCH will be used. It also adds bytes to the block if required. BTS will send the default message. Figure 1. BSC requires the immediate message sending during the next CBCH time. BTS segments the message and establishes the block format. if there is no other message to broadcast.

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