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Introduction: There had been extensive research on leadership in organizational literatures and theories. Locke (1991) claims in his study that effective leadership has the capability of motivating others. Also Bass (1985) in his model describes how leadership behavior often leads to the term motivation to a great extent. Peter and Liz (2000) in their studies define the concept of leadership as a kind of relationship which two people possesses where the one influences the behavior of the other. Leader must have the potential to influence and motivate the sub-ordinates in order to meet the goals for the organization. There had been a considerable amount of study that had taken place on leadership. In a study conducted by House and Shamir (1993) on charismatic leadership while Avolio and Bass (1999) has made studies on transformational leadership. Adapting any of these leadership methods certainly provides results in the form of predictable follower outcomes. Link between Charisma and Motivation: Weber (1974) associated the concept of charisma with the theory of organizational leadership. This theory linked the concept of charisma with leadership as they argued that the leaders necessarily promote the motivational factors and create a strong bond with the subordinates. From this idea the concept of transformational leadership has evolved. The transformational leadership model has direct effect on affective influence process as well as cognitive influence process. Both of these processes effect directly towards the motivation of the followers. The first key factor of contingency is the follower development. (Houghton & Yoho, 2005). The subordinates mainly operate according to the contract of employment but at the same time can be contributed by the supervision imposed by the leader especially in the case of the unstructured tasks and volunteering for the extra work or taking on additional responsibilities. (Houghton & Yoho, 2005). There are more than a few characteristics that a person has to possess and adopt to establish him/her as a true and inspirational leader within a firm and when they achieve to establish their position. According to them transformational leaders motivate the followers by importantly appealing common interests in them and also this kind leadership models necessarily has basic dimensions. This is idealized influence in the form of inspirational motivation, the intellectual simulation and also individualization. The other terms used in explained such leadership qualities are called the visionary leadership. But in case of short term works the transformational leadership attempt does not hold good. The short term efficiency becomes a major concern rather than long term involvement. In some of the cases more directive leadership approaches is much more desirable. (Manz & Sims, 2001). On the other hand when the leader is aiming to inspire or motivate the subordinates, then transformational or empowerment leadership style becomes applicable. This approach may also be regarded as investment behavior on the part of the leader as it will fetch him or her returns at a later stage. This concept is related to the theories in the form of self-regulation and self-control. According to this form of eldership theory, the employees are less likely to be influenced by an autonomous leader and will indulge more on self-development. Thus the transformational
leadership often is more applicable in the cases when a long term project is there and a fixed team is present. In that kind of situation this kind of leadership models often flourish and also at the same time helps the subordinates to grow. Hypothesized Model: This model definitely has contribution in the recent literatures in three most critical ways. Firstly the model importantly integrates the contingency factors, the leadership approaches and outcomes into a single model. (Llies, Judge &Wagner, 2006). Secondly the model also makes practical contribution by providing the various practitioners in the field with a proper framework to work on. But most importantly this model definitely provides the basis on which it can be decided when or where the concept of self-leadership can be implemented. The model for understanding the transformational leadership theory is based on the motivational factors and understanding that is crucial for gaining an in-depth understanding of the issue. This approach may also be regarded as investment behavior on the part of the leader as it will fetch him or her returns at a later stage. This concept is related to the theories in the form of self-regulation and self-control. According to this form of leadership theory, the employees are less likely to be influenced by directive leaders and will indulge more on selfdevelopment. In this theoretical context the organizations have better control over their employees. It is in fact that particular ability that an individual posses which enables him or her to influence the activities of an organization and guide it towards the goal. (Grint, 1997). Influence Process: The neurobehavioral components that necessarily regulate the level of motivation do have some distinct and affective cognitive, biological as well as behavioral components. (Llies, Judge &Wagner, 2006). The dimension of effective transformational leadership which influences follower motivation is the charisma. Through this component the subordinates determines the self-confidence and regulation and also the charismatic leader influences the level of determination within the sub-ordinates. Also a charismatic leader is believed to influence the traits within the followers which distinguish one person to another. (Llies, Judge &Wagner, 2006). They are more likely to influence positive emotion within the subordinates and for that reason the motivational level are expected to be high. In short the charismatic component influences the emotional contagion and as a result positive emotions are created within the followers. This in turn is likely to create self-efficacy and self-set goals. Leaders need to be self-motivated because through his or her motivation the subordinates will be motivated in their work and will be involved. The leader must show the direction towards organizational goals and this constant effort from the leaders indeed requires some level of motivation. Conclusion: It’s very difficult on the part of the leaders to get motivated all the time as they are the ones who are expected to motivate others. But leaders can definitely motivate themselves by benchmarking other larger firms and trying to achieve goals which other firms have already achieved. The charisma on the other hand has a greater influence in determining the kind of relationship and influence that the leader has on the followers.
Reference: Northouse, P.G. (2010) Leadership: Theory and practice 4th ed. London: Sage. Grint K. (1997). Leadership: classical, contemporary, and critical approaches: Oxford University Press, UK Houghton, J.D., & Yoho, S.K. (2005) ‘Toward a Contingency Model of Leadership and Psychological Empowerment: When Should Self-Leadership Be Encouraged?’, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11 (4), pp. 65–83, C. C. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leaders: A self-concept based theory. Organizational Science, 4, 577- 594. Pinder, C. C. (1998). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (Eds.) (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. (Translated by A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons.) New York: Free Press. Locke, E. A. (1991b). The essence of leadership. New York: Lexington Books
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