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Scientific experiments will normally have three types of variables; controlled, independent and dependent. Variables are a condition or factor that is used in testing a hypothesis and generating a conclusion. These three types of variables can also be quantitative or qualitative in nature. Qualitative: By definition something that is qualitative concerns or describes a quality. A qualitative variable is a descriptive. Qualitative variable are sometimes referred to as categorical. The variable may be colors in the light spectrum or a comparison between red and green grapes. Qualitative variables can influence the outcome of an experiment or research because they can influence other factors or parameters. Qualitative variables are frequently used in social research. Qualitative research is considered to be inductive. Quantitative: By definition something that is quantitative can be expressed as a quantity or number. Quantitative variables are something that can be measured. Quantitative variables are numerical. A quantitative variable can be a percentage of something, a number of units or any other measurement. Temperature is a quantitative value or variable by the number of degrees. Speed, area population, voltage and time are all examples of quantitative variables that can be measured. Quantitative variables are most often considered to be deductive in nature. Deduction and induction in experimentation and research: Deduction works from a general idea to a specific idea. Deductive research starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, gathers observations and then confirms or disproves the original thought. Induction works in the reverse. Inductive experimentation will start with an observation and then look for patterns in the observation. Once patterns form a hypothesis is developed. The hypothesis is then tested for a resulting theory. The best results in experimentation come from having only one independent variable. The controlled variable is something that does not change and must remain constant. The independent variable is the variable that is changed by the researcher. The dependent value is the variable that changes due to the independent variable. An example of quantitative variables in an experiment would be testing the change in speed on a turntable as additional weight is applied. The turntable itself is the controlled variable. The experimenter will only use one. The independent quantitative variable is the amount of weight applied for each measurement. The dependent quantitative variable is the resulting speed that is measured. An example of a qualitative variable in testing would be the drying time require for red and green grapes at a constant temperature. The outcome, or dependent variable, of time is measured and therefore quantitative. The controlled variable being used is temperature, also quantitative. The independent variable is qualitative, the difference between red and green grapes. In this particular

example the weight of each grape. Objectives of investigation should be stated at the outset. The scope of investigation has to be made clear.The accuracy of data depends upon the ability. Explain the steps involved in planning of a statistical survey? Steps of Planning a statistical survey 1. accuracy of measurements. cost and other resources required. the investigator collects data by having direct contact with units of investigation. If you had a list of everyone living in the town. Nature of the problem to be investigated should be clearly defined in an un-ambigous manner. time. there is a high chance of bias being introduced. However. The organization of investigation is the final step in the process. It is used to make pilot studies. Moreover. called a frame. 4. It encompasses the determination of number of investigators required their traning. supervision work needed. identification of units to be studied. and you randomly selected 100 people from all neighbourhoods. Whether to use data collected from primary or secondary source should be determined in advance. funds required. a quantitative variable would also need to be consistent or controlled. then this called a randomsample. training and attitude of the investigator. a list or framework should be available for the selection of the sample. Objectives could be to obtain certain estimates or to establish a theory or to verify a existing statement to find relationship between characteristics etc. 3. analytical methods. What are the merits & Demerits of Direct personal observation and Indirect Oral Interview? In the direct personal observation method. A town has 15 neighbourhoods. nature of characteristics to be observed. 2. called a frame. 5. and you randomly selected 100 people from all neighborhoods. If you interviewed everyone living in one particular neighbourhood. would you be interviewing a population or a sample from the town? Would this be a random sample? If you had a list of everyone living in the town. It refers to area to be covered. . would this a random sample? [5 Marks] b) If want to do statistic in a particular area and interviewed everyone then it is called as population and if you doing statistic analysis for a town and interviewed only 15 neighborhoods then it is called that interviewing a sample from town. It is also called ³chunk´ which refers to the fraction of the population being investigated which is selected neither by probability nor by judgment.

3) Satisfactory information can be extracted by the investigator through indirect questions. to fit an equation to the data. responsible for the dependent or "response" variable or y variable. cost and manpower.The scope of investigation is narrow . Regression analysis takes the analysis one step further.Investigation is confidential and requires personal attention of the investigator . Merits and demerits of indirect oral interview Merits: 1) It is economical in terms of time. . . The data is collected from a third party or witness or head of institution. This method is generally used by police department. Indirect oral interview is used when area to be covered is large. xn). What is the main difference between correlation analysis and regression analysis? In linear correlation analysis. 5) Additional information can be gathered. 2) Confidential information can be collected. 2) we get more accurate and reliable data. Demerits: 1) It is time consuming and costs more.The direct personal observation method is suitable where . Correlation does not imply causation. 4) Data are homogeneous and comparable. Demerits: 1) The degree of accuracy of information is less.Accuracy of data is important Merits and demerits of direct personal observation Merits: 1) We get original data.. One or more variables are considered independent variables (x1. we identify the strength and direction of a linear relation between two random variables.. 3) Information is likely to be unbiased and reliable. x2. 6) Misinterpretation of questions can be avoided.

In a multiple regression model with 12 independent variables.p = number of predictors or independent variable Discuss what is meant by Quality control and quality improvement. what are the degrees of freedom for error? Explain in multiple regression with p independent variables. n = number observations . . the standard error has n-p-1 degrees of freedom where.

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