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Givesome Disadvantage of MIS? Ans. Definition :Organized approach to the study of information needs of a management at every level in makingoperational, tactical, and strategic decisions. Its objective is to design and implement man-machine procedures, processes, and routines that provide suitably detailed reports in an accurate, consistent, andtimely manner. Modern, computerized systems continuously gather relevant data, both from inside andoutside the organization. This data is then processed, integrated, and stored in a centralized database (or data warehouse) where it is constantly updated and made available to all who have the authority to accessit, in a form that suits their purpose. Characteristics of MIS: MIS is mainly designed to take care of the needs of the managers in the organization.MIS aids in integrating the information generated by various departments of the organization.MIS helps in identifying a proper mechanism of storage of data.MIS also helps in establishing mechanism to eliminate redundancies in data.MIS as a system can be broken down into sub systems.The role and significance of MIS in business and its classification is explained. It is possible to understandthe various phases of development in MIS based on the type of system required in any organization. Functions of MIS 1. Data processingIt includes the collection, transmission, storage, processing and output of data. It simplifies the statisticsand reduces to the lowest cost by supplying an unified format. 2. Function of predictionIt predicts the future situation by applying modern mathematics, statistics or simulation. 3. Function of planIt arranges reasonably the plans of each functional department in accordance with the restrictions afforded by enterprises and provides the appropriate planning reports according to different management. 4. Function of controlIt monitors and inspects the operation of plans and comprises with the differences between operation and plan in accordance with the data afforded by every functional department, and be assistant to managers tocontrol timely each method by analyzing the reasons why the differences comes into being. 5. Function of assistanceIt derives instantly the best answers of related problems by applying to various of mathematics’ mode andanalyzing a plentiful data stored in computers in the hope of using rationally human resource, financialresource, material resource and information resource for relative abundant economic benefits. Disadvantages of MIS 1.highly senstive requires constant monitoring. 2.buddgeting of MIS extremely difficult.
3.Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs. 4.lack of flexiblity to update itself. 5.effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker,attitude of worker etc.. Q2. Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example? Ans.Knowledge-based system focuses on systems that use knowledge-based techniques to support humandecision-making, learning and action it is a computer system that is programmed to imitate human problem-solving by means of artificial intelligence and reference to a database of knowledge on a particular subject. Also it based on the methods and techniques of artificial intelligence and their core components arethe knowledge base and the inference mechanisms.Decision Support Systems (DSS) DSS is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all l the resourcesavailable and make use in the decision making. In management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. To solve such problems you may have to usecomplex theories. The models that would be required to solve such problems may have to be identified.DSS requires a lot of managerial abilities and managers judgment. You may gather and present the following information by using decision support application: • Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, datawarehouses, and data marts • Comparative sales figures between one week and the next • Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions • The consequences of different decision alternatives, given past experience in a context that is described. Manager may sometimes find it difficult to solve such problems. E.g. – In a sales problem if there ismultiple decision variables modeled as a simple linear problem but having multiple optima, it becomesdifficult to take a decision. Since any of the multiple optima would give optimum results. But the strategyto select the one most suitable under conditions prevailing in the market, requires skills beyond the model.It would take some trials to select a best strategy. Under such circumstances it would be easy to takedecision if a ready system of databases of various market conditions and corresponding appropriatedecision is available. A system which consists of database pertaining to decision making based on certainrules is known as decision support system. It is a flexible system which can be customized to suit theorganization needs. It can work in the interactive mode in order to enable managers to take quick decisions.You can consider decision support systems as the best when it includes high-level summary reports or charts and allow the user to drill down for more detailed information. A DSS has the capability to update its decision database. Whenever manager feels that a particular decision is unique and not available in the system, the manager can chose to
update the database with suchdecisions. This will strengthen the DSS to take decisions in future..There is no scope for errors in decision making when such systems are used as aid to decision making.DSS is a consistent decision making system. It can be used to generate reports of various lever managementactivities. It is capable of performing mathematical calculations and logical calculation depending upon themodel adopted to solve the problem. You can summarize the benefits of DSS into following: • Improves personal efficiency • Expedites problem solving • Facilitates interpersonal communication • Promotes learning or training • Increases organizational control • Generates new evidence in support of a decision • Creates a competitive advantage over competition • Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker • Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) OLAP refers to a system in which there are predefined multiple instances of various modules used in business applications. Any input to such a system results in verification of the facts with respect to theavailable instances.A nearest match is found analytically and the results displayed form the database. The output is sent onlyafter thorough verification of the input facts fed to the system. The system goes through a series of multiplechecks of the various parameters used in business decision making. OLAP is also referred to as a multidimensional analytical model. Many big companies use OLAP to get good returns in business.The querying process of the OLAP is very strong. It helps the management take decisions like whichmonth would be appropriate to launch a product in the market, what should be the production quantity tomaximize the returns, what should be the stocking policy in order to minimize the wastage etc.A model of OLAP may be well represented in the form of a 3D box. There are six faces of the box. Eachadjoining faces with common vertex may be considered to represent the various parameter of the businesssituation under consideration. E.g.: Region, Sales & demand, Product etc. Decision Support Systems (DSS) DSS is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all l the resourcesavailable and make use in the decision making. In management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. To solve such problems you may have to usecomplex theories. The models that would be required to solve such problems may have to be identified.DSS requires a lot of managerial abilities and managers judgment.You may gather and present the following information by using decision support application:Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data martsComparative sales figures between one week and the next
Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions The consequences of different decision alternatives, given past experience in a context that is described. Q3.What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what is meant byBPR? What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data Mining is useful in terms of MIS? Answer:-BPR The existing system in the organization is totally reexamined and radically modified for incorporating thelatest technology. This process of change for the betterment of the organization is called as Business process re-engineering. This process is mainly used to modernize and make the organizations efficient.BPR directly affects the performance. It is used to gain an understanding the process of business and tounderstand the process to make it better and re-designing and thereby improving the system. BPR is mainly used for change in the work process. Latest software is used and accordingly the business procedures are modified, so that documents are worked upon more easily and efficiently. This is known asworkflow management. Signification of BPR Business process are a group of activities performed by various departments, various organizations or between individuals that is mainly used for transactions in business. There may be people who do thistransaction or tools. We all do them at one point or another either as a supplier or customer. You will reallyappreciate the need of process improvement or change in the organizations conduct with business if youhave ever waited in the queue for a longer time to purchase 1 kilo of rice from a Public Distribution Shop(PDS-ration shop). The process is called the check-out process. It is called process because uniformstandard system has been maintained to undertake such a task. The system starts with forming a queue,receiving the needed item form the shop, getting it billed, payment which involves billing, paying amountand receiving the receipt of purchase and the process ends up with the exit from the store. It is thetransaction between customer and supplier. Data Warehousing – Data Warehouse is defined as collection of database which is referred as relationaldatabase for the purpose of querying and analysis rather than just transaction processing. Data warehouse isusually maintained to store heuristic data for future use. Data warehousing is usually used to generatereports. Integration and separation of data are the two basic features need to be kept in mind while creatinga data warehousing. The main output from data warehouse systems are; either tabular listings (queries) withminimal formatting or highly formatted “formal” reports on business activities. This becomes a convenientway to handle the information being generated by various processes. Data warehouse is an archive of information collected from wide multiple sources, stored under a unified scheme, at a single site. This datais stored for a long time permitting the user an access to archived data for years. The data stored and thesubsequent report generated out of a querying process enables decision making quickly. This concept isuseful for big companies having plenty of data on their business
processes. Big companies have bigger problems and complex problems. Decision makers require access to information from all sources. Settingup queries on individual processes may be tedious and inefficient. Data Mining – Data mining is primarily used as a part of information system today, by companies with astrong consumer focus – retail, financial, communication, and marketing organizations. It enables thesecompanies to determine relationships among “internal” factors such as price, product positioning, or staff skills, and “external” factors such as economic indicators, competition, and customer demographics. And, itenables them to determine the impact on sales, customer satisfaction, and corporate profits. Finally, itenables them to “drill down” into summary information to view detail transactional data. With data mining,a retailer could use point-of-sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on anindividual’s purchase history. By mining demographic data from comment or warranty cards, the retailer could develop products and promotions to appeal to specific customer segments. Q4. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement isdetermined for an organization? Answer:-Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system. DFD do not explain how the processes convert the input data into output. They do not explain how the processing takes place.DFD uses few symbols like circles and rectangles connected by arrows to represent data flows. DFD caneasily illustrate relationships among data, flows, external entities an stores. DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail, starting with a summary high level view and proceeding o more detailed lower level views.Rounded rectangles represent processes that transform flow of data or work to be done.Rectangle represents external agents- the boundary of the system. It is source or destination of data.The open-ended boxes represent data stores, sometimes called files or databases. These data storescorrespond to all instances of a single entity in a data model.Arrow represents data flows, inputs and outputs to end from the processes.A number of guideline should be used in DFDChoose meaningful names for the symbols on the diagram. Number the processes consistently. The numbers do not imply the sequence. Avoid over complex DFD. Make sure the diagrams are balanced Data Dictionary The data dictionary is used to create and store definitions of data, location, format for storage and other characteristics. The data dictionary can be used to retrieve the definition of data that has already been usedin an application. The data dictionary also stores some of the description of data structures, such as entities,attributes and relationships. It can also have software to update itself and to produce reports on its contentsand to answer some of the queries. Q5. What is ERP? Explain its existence before and its future after? What are the advantages &Disadvantages of ERP? What is Artificial Intelligence? How is it different from Neural Networks?
Answer:-Manufacturing management systems have evolved in stages over the few decades from a simple means of calculating materials requirements to the automation of an entire enterprise. Around 1980, over-frequentchanges in sales forecasts, entailing continual readjustments in production, as well as the unsuitability of the parameters fixed by the system, led MRP (Material Requirement Planning) to evolve into a newconcept : Manufacturing Resource Planning (or MRP2) and finally the generic concept Enterprise ResourcePlanning (ERP). ERP Before and After Before Prior to the concept of ERP systems, departments within an organization (for example, the human resources(HR)) department, the payroll department, and the financial department) would have their own computer systems. The HR computer system (often called HRMS or HRIS) would typically contain information onthe department, reporting structure, and personal details of employees. The payroll department wouldtypically calculate and store paycheck information. The financial department would typically store financialtransactions for the organization. Each system would have to rely on a set of common data to communicatewith each other. For the HRIS to send salary information to the payroll system, an employee number wouldneed to be assigned and remain static between the two systems to accurately identify an employee. The financial system was not interested in the employee-level data, but only in the payouts made by the payrollsystems, such as the tax payments to various authorities, payments for employee benefits to providers, andso on. This provided complications. For instance, a person could not be paid in the payroll system withoutan employee number.After ERP software, among other things, combined the data of formerly separate applications. This made theworry of keeping numbers in synchronization across multiple systems disappears. It standardized andreduced the number of software specialties required within larger organizations. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages – In the absence of an ERP system, a large manufacturer may find itself with many softwareapplications that do not talk to each other and do not effectively interface. Tasks that need to interface withone another may involve:A totally integrated system The ability to streamline different processes and workflows The ability to easily share data across various departments in an organization Improved efficiency and productivity levels Better tracking and forecasting Lower costs Improved customer service Disadvantages – Many problems organizations have with ERP systems are due to inadequate investment inongoing training for involved personnel, including those implementing and testing changes, as well as alack of corporate policy protecting the integrity of the data in the ERP systems and how it is used.While advantages usually outweigh disadvantages for most organizations implementing an ERP system,here are some of the most common obstacles experienced:Usually many obstacles can be prevented if adequate investment is made and adequate training is involved,however,
success does depend on skills and the experience of the workforce to quickly adapt to the newsystem.Customization in many situations is limited The need to reengineer business processes ERP systems can be cost prohibitive to install and run Technical support can be shoddy ERP’s may be too rigid for specific organizations that are either new or want to move in a new direction in the near future.Artificial Intelligence - Artificial Intelligence is the science and technology based on various functions to develop a system that canthink and work like a human being. It can reason, analyze, learn, conclude and solve problems. Thesystems which use this type of intelligence are known as artificial intelligent systems and their intelligenceis referred to as artificial intelligence. It was said that the computer don’t have common sense. Here in AI,the main idea is to make the computer think like human beings, so that it can be then said that computersalso have common sense. More precisely the aim is to obtain a knowledge based computer system that willhelp managers to take quick decisions in business. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks Artificial intelligence is a field of science and technology based on disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology, linguistics, mathematics and engineering. The goal of AI is to develop computers thatcan simulate the ability to think, see, hear, walk, talk and feel. In other words, simulation of computer functions normally associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning and problem solving.AI can be grouped under three major areas: cognitive science, robotics and natural interfaces.Cognitive science focuses on researching on how the human brain works and how humans think and learn.Applications in the cognitive science area of AI include the development of expert systems and other knowledge-based systems that add a knowledge base and some reasoning capability to informationsystems. Also included are adaptive learning systems that can modify their behavior based on informationthey acquire as they operate. Chessplaying systems are some examples of such systems.Fussy logic systems can process data that are incomplete or ambiguous. Thus, they can solve semi-structured problems with incomplete knowledge by developing approximate inferences and answers, ashumans do. Neural network software can learn by processing sample problems and their solutions. As neural nets startto recognize patterns, they can begin to program themselves to solve such problems on their own. Neural networks are computing systems modeled after the human brain’s mesh like network of interconnected processing elements, called neurons. The human brain is estimated to have over 100 billionneuron brain cells. The neural networks are lot simpler in architecture. Like the brain, the interconnected processors in a neural network operate in parallel and interact dynamically with each other. This enables the network to operate and learn from the data it processes, similar to the human brain. Thatis, it learns to recognize patterns and relationships in the data. The more data examples it receives as input,the better it can learn to duplicate the results of the examples it processes. Thus, the neural networks willchange the strengths of the
interconnections between the processing elements in response to changing patterns in the data it receives and results that occur . Q 6. Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system? What is‘what – if‘analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definition as comparedto the time spends on decision analysis? Answer:-If the manager operates in an environment not known to him, then the decisionmaking system is termed asan open decision-making system. The conditions of this system in contrast closed decision-making systemare: The manager does not know all the decision alternatives. b) The outcome of the decision is also not known fully. The knowledge of the outcome may be a probabilistic one .c) No method, rule or model is available to study and finalise one decision among the set of decisionalternatives. What if analysisDecisions are made using a model of the problem for developing various solution alternatives and testingthem for best choice. The model is built with some variables and relationship between variables consideredvalues of variables or relationship in the model may not hold good and therefore solution needs to be testedfor an outcome, if the considered values of variables or relationship change. This method of analysis iscalled ‘ what if analysis.’Decision Analysis by Analytical ModellingBased on the methods discussed, a decision is made but such decision needs to be analysed for conditionsand assumptions considered in the decision model. The process is executed through analytical modelling of problem and solution. The model is analysed in four ways.What if analysis • Goal Seeking Analysis Sensitivity analysis • Goal Achieving analysi