Q.1 Write down the difference between Personnel management and Human Resource management.

[10 Marks] ANS -Personnel Management is basically an administrative recordPersonnel Management is basically an administrative record-- keeping function, at the operational level.keeping function, at the operational level.Personnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms andPersonnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments etc.managing personnel activities for individual departments etc.It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice andIt is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activitiesachieving efficiency in the management of personnel activitieswill result ultimately in achieving organizational success.will result ultimately in achieving organizational success. Role of HRM Recruitment, selection and development of Recruitment, selection and development of manpowermanpower Industrial relationsIndustrial relations Provision of welfare facilitiesProvision of welfare facilities Manpower managementManpower management Information collectionInformation collection Expansion, modernization & automationExpansion, modernization & automation . Features of HRM Managing peopleManaging people People oriented processPeople oriented process Develops employees potentialities Develops employees potentialities Integral partIntegral part Secures cooperation Secures cooperatioROoleFuture orientedFuture oriented Its features include:
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Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Industrial management[2][3]

But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even employee and industrial relations are confusingly listed as

synonyms,although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. Human Resource Management(HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organisations. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. So if we move to actual definitions, Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: “a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled"
Q.2 Write a note on scope of HR in India. [10 Marks] Ans – The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects

from application to retirement. The system records basic demographic and address data, selection, training and development, capabilities and skills management, compensation planning records and other related activities. Leading edge systems provide the ability to "read" applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields, notify employers and provide position management and position control. Human resource management function involves the recruitment, placement, evaluation, compensation and development of the employees of an organization. These include Recruiting, Training and Development, HRIS, Administration and Benefits Management. Essentially, an HR manager builds a company’s culture, handles employee relations, maintains benefits and payroll, recruits new hires among several other responsibilities entrusted to him/her. With a growing trend in the market today and the importance being given to HR, there is an increased need for HR professionals with relevant knowledge and skills.

WLCI trains you for the following careers in Human Resources:
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Talent Acquisition Talent Management and Organisational Development Administration HRIS Employee Relations Compensation and Benefit Management Learning Services

The Employee Relations Law Journal is a legal journal which publishes articles in the field of labor and employment law. The journal covers employment law issues such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, family medical leave, sexual harassment, terminations, age discrimination, alternative dispute resolution, National Labor Relations Board decisions, and trends in employment law. The journal also includes regular columnists. These explore topics such as new employment and labor relations laws, regulations, court cases, developments in employee benefits administration, on-the-job safety and health issues, and labor-management relations. The journal is published quarterly by Aspen Publishers. Service-learning is a method of teaching, learning and reflecting, frequently youth service, throughout the community. As a teaching method, it falls under the philosophy of experiential education. More specifically, it integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, encourage lifelong civic engagement, and strengthen communities for the common good.The Community Service Act of 1990, which authorized the Learn and Serve America grant program, defines service-learning as: "a method under which students or participants learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service that is conducted in and meets the needs of a community; is coordinated with an elementary school, secondary school, institution of higher education, or community service program, and with the community; and helps foster civic responsibility; and that is integrated into and enhances the academic curriculum of the students, or the educational components of the community service program in which the participants are enrolled; and provides structured time for the students or participants to reflect on the service experience."
Q.3 Explain the critical steps in Human Resource Planning system .[10 Marks] Ans –

The function of Human Resources departments is generally administrative and common to all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll processes. Efficient and effective management of "Human Capital" progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. The HR function consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories, skills, capabilities,

accomplishments and salary. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities, organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing specialized Human Resource Management Systems. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain an integrated HRMS. Before the client–server architecture evolved in the late 1980s, many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions. In consequence of the high capital investment necessary to buy or program proprietary software, these internally-developed HRMS were limited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. The advent of client–server, Application Service Provider, and Software as a Service SaaS or Human Resource Management Systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control of such systems. Currently Human Resource Management Systems encompass: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Payroll Work Time Benefits Administration HR management Information system Recruiting Training/Learning Management System Performance Record Employee Self-Service

The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance, calculating various deductions and taxes, and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. This module can encompass all employee-related transactions as well as integrate with existing financial management systems. The work time module gathers standardized time and work related efforts. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods, labor distribution capabilities and data analysis features. Cost analysis and efficiency metrics are the primary functions. The benefits administration module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee participation in benefits programs. These typically encompass insurance, compensation, profit sharing and retirement. The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects from application to retirement. The system records basic demographic and address data, selection, training and development, capabilities and skills management, compensation planning records and other related activities. Leading edge systems provide the ability to "read" applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields, notify employers and provide position management and position control. Human resource management function involves the recruitment, placement, evaluation, compensation and development

of the employees of an organization. Initially, businesses used computer based information systems to:
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produce pay checks and payroll reports; maintain personnel records; pursue Talent Management.

Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Talent Management systems typically encompass:
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analyzing personnel usage within an organization; identifying potential applicants; recruiting through company-facing listings; recruiting through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants.

The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort, crossposting within and across general or industry-specific job boards and maintaining a competitive exposure of availabilities has given rise to the development of a dedicated Applicant Tracking System, or 'ATS', module. The training module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee training and development efforts. The system, normally called a Learning Management System if a stand alone product, allows HR to track education, qualifications and skills of the employees, as well as outlining what training courses, books, CDs, web based learning or materials are available to develop which skills.
Q.4 With reference to the compensation and salary system what are the systems that are helpful to raise the effectiveness of employees.[10 Marks] Ans –

In India, salaries are generally paid on the last working day of the month (Government, Public sector departments, Multinational organizations as well as majority of other private sector companies). Several other companies pay after the month is over, but generally by the 5th of every month. However there are companies pay after this also. Today, the idea of a salary continues to evolve as part of a system of all the combined rewards that employers offer to employees. Salary (also now known as fixed pay) is coming to be seen as part of a "total rewards" system which includes bonuses, incentive pay, and commissions), benefits and perquisites (or perks), and various other tools which help employers link rewards to an employee's measured performance. Organizations that follow a skill based or competency based pay system frequently use board banding to structure their compensation payments to employees. Broad branding simply compresses many traditional salary grades (say 15 to 20 grades) into a few wide salary bands (three or four grades). By having relatively few job grades, this approach tries to play down to play down the value of promotions. Depending on changing market

conditions and organizational needs, employees move from one position to another without raising objectionable questions, (such as when the new grade is available, what pay adjustments are made when duties change etc) As a result movement of employees between departments, divisions and locations becomes smooth. Employees with greater flexibility and broader set of capabilities can always go in search of jobs in other departments, or locations that allow them to use their potential fully. Board banding further helps reduce the emphasis on hierarchy and status. However, broad banding can be a little un-setting to new recruit when he is made to roll on various jobs. Most employees still believe that the existence of many grades helps tem grab promotional opportunities over a period of time. Any organization having fewer grades may be viewed negatively — as having fewer upward promotion opportunities. Moreover a number of individuals may not want to move across the organizations into other areas. Below versus above market compensation: In high tech firms R&D workers might be paid better than their counterparts in the manufacturing division. Blue chip firms such as HLL, Nestle, Procter & Gamble, TCS, Hughes Software Systems might pay above market compensation to certain groups in order to attract (and retain) the cream of the crop. To grow rapidly and to get ahead of others in the race, especially in knowledge based industries most companies prefer to pay above market salaries. Above market wages are typical in well-established manufacturing units operating in a highly competitive environment. Firms paying below market tend to be small young and non-unionized. Open versus secret pay: In real world the issue of paying compensation openly or in secret way may often become a bone of contention between employees and the employer(s). Current research evidence indicates that pay openness is likely to be more successful in organizations with extensive employee involvement and an egalitarian culture that encourages trust and commitment. Open pay eliminates doubts in the minds of employees regarding equity and fairness — because there is equal pay for equal work. But open pay has a downside. First, managers are forced to defend their compensation decisions publicly. The question of how much pay one should get is more or less decided by the manager, based on his own subjective assessment of various factors. In such decision, it is not easy to please everyone. Second, the cost of making a mistake in a pay decision increase when pay is open. Third, to avoid never ending and time wasting arguments with employees managers may eliminate pay differences among subordinates despite differences in performance levels. This may in the end force talented people to leave the organizations. Pay secrecy involves withholding information from the recruits regarding how much others make, what raises others have received and even what pay grades and ranges exist within an organizations. Pay secrecy gives managers some amount of freedom in compensation management, since pay decisions are not disclosed and there is no need to justify or defend them. Employees who do not know how much others are getting have

no objective base for pursuing complaints about their own pay. Secrecy also serves to cover up inequities prevailing within the internal pay structure.
Q.5 What is competency? How it can be linked to the HR system? [10 Marks] Ans - Competence is the ability of an individual to perform a job properly. A

competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. As defined, the term "competence" first appeared in an article authored by Craig C. Lundberg in 1970 entitled, "Planning the Executive Development Program". The term gained traction when in 1973, David McClelland, Ph.D. wrote a seminal paper entitled, "Testing for Competence Rather Than for Intelligence". It has since been popularized by one-time fellow McBer & Company (Currently the "Hay Group") colleague Richard Boyatzis and many others. Its use varies widely, which leads to considerable misunderstanding. Some scholars see "competence" as a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior used to improve performance; or as the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance, management competency might include systems thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. Competency is also used as a more general description of the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities. Competency is sometimes thought of as being shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. In emergencies, competent people may react to a situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed. To be competent a person would need to be able to interpret the situation in the context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have trained in the possible actions in the repertoire, if this is relevant. Regardless of training, competency would grow through experience and the extent of an individual to learn and adapt. Competency has different meanings, and continues to remain one of the most diffuse terms in the management development sector, and the organizational and occupational literature.

Dreyfus and Dreyfus on competency development
Dreyfus and Dreyfus[2] introduced nomenclature for the levels of competence in competency development. The causative reasoning of such a language of levels of competency may be seen in their paper on Calculative Rationality titled, 1. Novice: Rule-based behaviour, strongly limited and inflexible 2. Experienced Beginner: Incorporates aspects of the situation 3. Practitioner: Acting consciously from long-term goals and plans

4. Knowledgeable practitioner: Sees the situation as a whole and acts from personal conviction 5. Expert: Has an intuitive understanding of the situation and zooms in on the central aspects The process of competency development is a lifelong series of doing and reflecting. As competencies apply to careers as well as jobs, lifelong competency development is linked with personal development as a management concept. And it requires a special environment, where the rules are necessary in order to introduce novices, but people at a more advanced level of competency will systematically break the rules if the situations requires it. This environment is synonymously described using terms such as learning organization, knowledge creation, self-organizing and empowerment. The four general areas of competency are: 1. Meaning Competency: The person assessed must be able to identify with the purpose of the organization or community and act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. 2. Relation Competency: The ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be shown. 3. Learning Competency: The person assessed must be able to create and look for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience. 4. Change Competency: The person assessed must be able to act in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life.

McClelland and Occupational Competency
The Occupational Competency movement was initiated by David McClelland in the 1960s with a view to moving away from traditional attempts to describe competency in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes and to focus instead on the specific self-image, values, traits, and motive dispositions (i.e. relatively enduring characteristics of people) that are found to consistently distinguish outstanding from typical performance in a given job or role. It should be noted that different competencies predict outstanding performance in different roles, and that there is a limited number of competencies that predict outstanding performance in any given job or role. Thus, a trait that is a "competency" for one job might not predict outstanding performance in a different role.
Q.6 “Dynamic Learning” is an organization that wants to revise the HR policies. It has conducted a survey and the results of survey indicated that r=there is employee unrest, tardiness, absenteeism, more grievances. This all clearly indicates low morale. Suggest the measures that can be taken to improve employee morale. [10 Marks] Ans - Employee morale describes the overall outlook, attitude, satisfaction, and

confidence that employees feel at work. When employees are positive about their work

environment and believe that they can meet their most important needs at work, employee morale is positive or high. If employees are negative and unhappy about their workplace, and feel unappreciated and as if they cannot satisfy their goals and needs, employee morale is negative or low. Employee morale is defined by the employee's outlook, optimism, self-concept, and assured belief in themselves and their organization, its mission, goals, defined path, daily decisions, and employee appreciation. Faith in self and faith in their organization are both important factors in positive employee morale. Almost anything you do that contributes to a positive work environment for employees helps to build employee morale. When you take care of factors such as these, employee morale can remain high even in turbulent, uncertain times.
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treating employees with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering open and regular communication about factors important to employees, providing feedback and coaching, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positively managing employees within a success framework of goals, measurements, and clear expectations.

You can measure your organization's success in developing and fostering positive employee morale by using the methods described in measuring employee satisfaction. Building positive employee morale is not difficult, but it takes desire, commitment, and attention on the part of management and the organization. Employee motivation, positive employee morale, rewards and recognition are explored in these resources.

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