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The infection is typically not severe but may sometimes lead to dehydration. C Chickenpox ± This infection is caused by the varicella zoster virus. It is highly contagious, being spread through coughing, sneezing, or contact with secretions. The main noticeable symptom is a skin rash. D Dengue Virus ± This virus is mosquito-borne and causes Dengue Fever. This illness occurs predominantly in the tropics and may be life-threatening. E Ebola ± Infection with this virus can lead to hypovolemic shock due to coagulation problems caused by the virus. It is spread through body fluids, conjunctivae, and also orally. F Foot-and-mouth disease virus ± This virus causes foot-and-mouth disease, a disease that spreads rapidly through certain animals but that is extremely rare in humans. Symptoms in humans can include fever, vomiting, malaise, and occasionally skin lesions. H Hepatitis A ± The Hepatitis A virus causes the illness Hepatitis A. The virus is spread through feces-contaminated food and water. The illness itself is usually mild, with symptoms such as fever, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and malaise. Hepatitis B ± This virus causes the disease Hepatitis B. This disease infects the liver and can lead to liver cirrhosis and even liver cancer. The virus is transmitted through infected blood or body fluids with infected blood. Hepatitis C ± Hepatitis C infects the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis C virus. This virus is transmitted from person-to-person through contaminated blood. Herpes ± Herpes is a group of several viruses that infect humans. Diseases caused by the herpes viruses include cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, and shingles. Herpes viruses are spread between people by way of body fluids, through the air, and through contaminated objects and surfaces. HIV ± Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system, which eventually allows other diseases to infect and proliferate in the body. HIV can be spread through blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal fluid. HPV Human Papilomavirus ± The HPV virus is spread through sexual contact. There are hundreds of different strains of HPV, some of which cause no ill health effects. Other strains of the virus can cause genital warts and cancers of the cervix and vulva. I Influenza ± Influenza is commonly known as the flu and is caused by influenza viruses. These viruses can be found in both animals and humans. The flu viruses are spread through humans by way of respiratory secretions. J Japanese Encephalitis ± This is a mosquito-borne virus that produces the disease Japanese encephalitis. It can cause severe symptoms in humans but is not transmitted between them. M Measles ± The measles virus is the cause of the disease measles. The virus only infects humans and is spread through respiratory secretions. Complications may occur and can include pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death. Mumps ± The mumps virus causes the disease mumps in people. The disease is transmitted from person-to-person through respiratory secretions but is generally a self-limiting disease and is not fatal in most circumstances. N Naples Virus ± This is a type of Phlebovirus that has been linked to disease in humans. The virus is transmitted through infected sandflies. P Parvovirus ± Parvovirus B19 is a human parvovirus that causes a disease in humans called fifth disease. This disease occurs most often in children and is characterized by a rash. Other types of parvoviruses are common in animals and cannot be transmitted from animals to humans. R Rabies ± The rabies virus causes a fatal disease in animals and humans. Transmission of the virus often occurs through the saliva of animals.
Rubella ± This virus causes the disease Rubella, and it also causes congenital rubella syndrome in developing fetuses and newborns. The rubella virus is only known to infect humans. S Shingles ± This is a skin rash caused by the varicella zoster virus. In children, this virus causes chickenpox. Symptoms of shingles include skin pain and burning and a rash. Smallpox ± The variola virus causes smallpox. Symptoms of smallpox can include body aches, fever, vomiting, malaise, and a rash of fluid-filled bumps that cover the body. T Toscana Virus ± This virus may be transmitted to humans through the bite of a sandfly. Symptoms of the illness may be mild, such as muscle aches, fever, or headache, or they may become severe, such as meningoencephalitis or meningitis. V Varicella Zoster Virus ± This is the virus that causes chickenpox in children and causes shingles in adults. After a person has had a bout with chickenpox, the virus will lie dormant in the body and may become active again decades later and produce the condition shingles. W West Nile Virus ± This virus can be found in both tropical and temperate areas. It is known to infect several animal species and also humans through infected mosquitoes. Infection symptoms can range from asymptomatic all the way to encephalitis-like symptoms. Y Yellow Fever ± This virus causes the disease yellow fever and is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito. It is found in tropical regions of South America and Africa.
The Little Prince
Viewpoint Though ostensibly a children's book, The Little Prince makes several profound and idealistic observations about life and human nature. For example, Saint-Exupéry tells of a fox meeting the young prince as he exits the Sahara desert. The story's essence is contained in the lines uttered by the fox to the little prince: On ne voit bien qu'avec le c ur. L'essentiel est invisible pour les yeux. ("One sees clearly only with the heart. What is essential is invisible to the eye.") Other key thematic messages are articulated by the fox, such as: "You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed" and "It is the time you have lost for your rose that makes your rose so important." Plot The reader is introduced to the narrator who, as a young boy, drew a boa constrictor eating an elephant. However, he is discouraged from drawing when all adults who look at his picture see a hat, instead. The narrator attempts to explain what his first picture depicts by drawing another one clearly showing the elephant, disturbing the adults as a result. As such, he decides to become a pilot, which eventually leads to a crash in the Sahara desert.
In the desert, the narrator meets the little prince, who asks him to draw a sheep. Not knowing how to draw a sheep, the narrator shows him the picture of the elephant in the snake. To the narrator's surprise, the prince recognizes the drawing for what it is. After a few failed attempts at drawing a sheep, the narrator draws a box in his frustration, claims that the box holds a sheep inside. Again to the narrator's surprise, the prince is delighted with the result. The little prince's home asteroid, or "planet", is introduced. The asteroid is the size of a house, has three volcanoes (two active, and one dormant) and a rose, among various other objects. The narrator believes this asteroid to be called B-612. The Prince spends his days caring for the asteroid, pulling out the baobab trees that are constantly trying to take root there. The Prince falls in love with the rose, who appears does not return his love due to her vain nature. The Prince loses his trust in the rose after she lies to him, and grows lonely. After he reconciles with his rose, the prince leaves to see what the rest of the universe is like. He visits six other asteroids, each of which is inhabited by a foolish adult. The sixth asteroid is inhabited by a geographer, who asks the prince to describe his home. When the prince mentions the rose, the geographer explains that he does not record roses, calling them "ephemeral". The prince is shocked and hurt by this revelation. The geographer recommends that he visit the Earth. On the Earth, the prince meets a snake that claims to have the power to return him to his home planet, though the prince refuses this offer. The prince then meets a desert flower, who tells him that there are only a handful of men on Earth and that they have no roots, letting the wind blow them around and living hard lives. The prince climbs the highest mountain he has ever seen, in hopes of seeing the whole planet and finding people. However, he only sees a desolate landscape. When the prince calls out, his echo answers him, and he mistakes it for the voices of other humans. Eventually, the prince comes upon a whole row of rosebushes, and becomes downcast because he thought that his rose was the unique. He begins to feel that he is not a great prince at all, as his planet contains only three tiny volcanoes and a flower he now thinks of as common. He lies down in the grass and weeps. As the prince cries, a fox comes across him. The prince tames the fox, who explains to him that his rose really is unique and special, because she is the one whom the prince loves. The fox also explains that, in a way, the prince has tamed the flower, and that this is why the prince now feels responsible for her. The prince then comes across a railway switchman and a merchant. The switchman tells the Prince how passengers constantly rush from one place to another aboard trains, never satisfied with where they are and not knowing what they are after. Only the children amongst them bother to look out of the windows. The merchant tells the prince about his product, a pill which eliminates thirst and is very popular, saving
people fifty-three minutes a week. The prince replies that he would use the time to walk and find fresh water. Back in the present, the narrator is dying of thirst, but finds a well with the help of the prince. The narrator later finds the prince discussing his return home with the snake. The prince bids an emotional farewell to the narrator and states that if it looks as though he has died, it is because his body is too heavy to take with him to his planet. The prince warns the narrator not watch him leave, as it will make him sad. The narrator realizes what will happen, refuses to leave the prince's side. The prince allows the snake to bit him, and falls without making a sound. The next morning, the narrator tries to look for the prince, but is unable to find his body. The story ends with a portrait of the landscape where the prince and the narrator met and where the snake took the prince's life. The narrator makes a plea that anyone encountering a strange child in that area who refuses to answer questions should contact the narrator immediately. Inspiration In The Little Prince, Saint-Exupéry talks about being stranded in the desert beside a crashed aircraft. This account clearly draws on his own experience in the Sahara, an ordeal he described in detail in his book Wind, Sand and Stars. On December 30, 1935 at 14:45, after 18 hours and 36 minutes in the air, Saint-Exupéry, along with his navigator André Prévot, crashed in the Libyan Sahara desert. They were attempting to break the record for the Paris-to-Saigon flight and win a prize of 150,000 francs. Their plane was a Caudron C600 Simoun n° 7042 (serial F-ANRY). The crash site is thought to have been located in the Wadi Natrun. Both survived the crash, only to face rapid dehydration. Their maps were primitive and ambiguous. Lost in the desert with a few grapes, a single orange, and some wine, the pair had only one day's worth of liquid. After the first day, they had nothing. They both began to see mirages, which were quickly followed by more vivid hallucinations. Between the second and the third day, they were so dehydrated that they stopped sweating altogether. Finally, on the fourth day, a Bedouin on a camel discovered them and administered a native rehydration treatment that saved Saint-Exupéry and Prévot's lives. In the desert, Saint-Exupéry had met a fennec (desert sand fox), which most likely inspired him to create the fox character in the book. In a letter written to his sister Didi from Cape Juby in 1918, he tells her about raising a fennec that he adored. Saint-Exupéry may have drawn inspiration for the little prince's appearance from himself as a youth. Friends and family would call him "le Roi-Soleil" ("Sun King"), due to his golden curly hair.
The little prince's reassurance to the Pilot that his dying body is only an empty shell resembles the last words of Antoine's younger brother François: "Don't worry. I'm all right. I can't help it. It's my body" (Airman's Odyssey). The literary device of presenting philosophical and social commentaries in the form of the impressions gained by a fictional extraterrestrial visitor to Earth had already been used by the philosopher and satirist Voltaire in his story "Micromégas" (1752) ± a classic work of French literature with which Saint-Exupéry was likely to be familiar. Man's Search for Meaning Experiences in a concentration camp Frankl identifies three psychological reactions experienced by all inmates to one degree or another: (1) shock during the initial admission phase to the camp, (2) apathy after becoming accustomed to camp existence, in which the inmate values only that which helps himself and his friends survive, and (3) reactions of depersonalization, moral deformity, bitterness, and disillusionment if he survives and is liberated. Frankl concludes that the meaning of life is found in every moment of living; life never ceases to have meaning, even in suffering and death. In a group therapy session during a mass fast inflicted on the camp's inmates trying to protect an anonymous fellow inmate from fatal retribution by authorities, Frankl offered the thought that for everyone in a dire condition there is someone looking down, a friend, family member, or even God, who would expect not to be disappointed. Frankl concludes from his experience that a prisoner's psychological reactions are not solely the result of the conditions of his life, but also from the freedom of choice he always has even in severe suffering. The inner hold a prisoner has on his spiritual self relies on having a faith in the future, and that once a prisoner loses that faith, he is doomed. An example of Frankl's idea of finding meaning in the midst of extreme suffering is found in his account of an experience he had while working in the harsh conditions of the Auschwitz concentration camp: ... We stumbled on in the darkness, over big stones and through large puddles, along the one road leading from the camp. The accompanying guards kept shouting at us and driving us with the butts of their rifles. Anyone with very sore feet supported himself on his neighbor's arm. Hardly a word was spoken; the icy wind did not encourage talk. Hiding his mouth behind his upturned collar, the man marching next to me whispered suddenly: "If our wives could see us now! I do hope they are better off in their camps and don't know what is happening to us." That brought thoughts of my own wife to mind. And as we stumbled on for miles, slipping on icy spots, supporting each other time and again, dragging one another up and onward, nothing was said, but we both knew: each of us was thinking of his wife. Occasionally I looked at the sky, where the stars were fading and the pink light of the morning was beginning to spread behind a dark bank of clouds. But my mind clung to my wife's image, imagining it with an uncanny acuteness. I heard her answering me, saw
her smile, her frank and encouraging look. Real or not, her look was then more luminous than the sun which was beginning to rise. A thought transfixed me: for the first time in my life I saw the truth as it is set into song by so many poets, proclaimed as the final wisdom by so many thinkers. The truth -- that love is the ultimate and the highest goal to which man can aspire. Then I grasped the meaning of the greatest secret that human poetry and human thought and belief have to impart: The salvation of man is through love and in love. I understood how a man who has nothing left in this world still may know bliss, be it only for a brief moment, in the contemplation of his beloved. In a position of utter desolation, when man cannot express himself in positive action, when his only achievement may consist in enduring his sufferings in the right way ± an honorable way ± in such a position man can, through loving contemplation of the image he carries of his beloved, achieve fulfillment. For the first time in my life I was able to understand the meaning of the words, "The angels are lost in perpetual contemplation of an infinite glory...." Frankl also concludes that there are only two races of men, decent men and indecent.[citation
society is free of either of them, and thus there were "decent" Nazi guards and "indecent" prisoners, most notably the kapo who would torture and abuse their fellow prisoners for personal gain. His concluding passage in Part One describes the psychological reaction of the inmates to their liberation, which he separates into three stages. The first is depersonalization²a period of readjustment, in which a prisoner gradually returns to the world. Initially, the liberated prisoners are so numb that they are unable to understand what freedom means, or to emotionally respond to it. Part of them believes that it is an illusion or a dream that will be taken away from them. In their first foray outside their former prison, the prisoners realized that they could not comprehend pleasure. Flowers and the reality of the freedom they had dreamed about for years were all surreal, unable to be grasped in their depersonalization. The body is the first element to break out of this stage, responding by voracious eating and sleeping. Only after the partial replenishing of the body is the mind finally able to respond, as ³feeling suddenly broke through the strange fetters which had restrained it´ (111). This begins the second stage, in which there is a danger of deformation. As the intense pressure on the mind is released, mental health can be endangered. Frankl uses the analogy of a diver suddenly released from his pressure chamber. He recounts the story of a decent friend who became immediately obsessed with dispensing the same violence in judgment of his abusers that they had inflicted on him. Upon returning home, the prisoners had to struggle with two fundamental experiences which could also damage their mental health: bitterness and disillusionment. The last stage is bitterness at the lack of responsiveness of the world outside²a ³superficiality and lack of feeling...so disgusting that one finally felt like creeping into a hole and neither hearing nor seeing human beings any more´ (113). Worse was disillusionment, which was the discovery that suffering does not end, that the longed-for happiness will
not come. This was the experience of those who ± like Frankl ± returned home to discover that no one awaited them. The hope that had sustained them throughout their time in the concentration camp was now gone. Frankl cites this experience as the most difficult to overcome. As time passed, however, the prisoner's experience in a concentration camp finally became nothing but a remembered nightmare. What is more, he knows that he has nothing left to fear anymore, "except his God" (115). Frankl's meaning in life is to help others find theirs.