Introduction

DBMS: It is software used to store, manage and access the data from the database. In DBMS data will be stored in the form of tables. DBMS: FOXPRO, DBASE, MSACCESS. RDBMS: ORACLE, SYBASE, INGRESH, INFORMIX, DB2, MYSQL, SQLSERVER. Oracle is platform independent where as SQL server is platform dependent. License for oracle will be high when compare to SQL server. DBMS FEATURES: 1) Redundancy can be reduced and inconsistency can be avoided. Redundancy means duplicate data or duplicate records. Inconsistency means incorrect data. If table contains redundancy then inconsistency data may exist in the table. By using constraints redundancy can be reduced and inconsistency avoided. 2) Security Authentication: checking user id and password. Authorization: checking user permissions. 3) Data integrity If the data integrity is not existing then table can store meaningless data. If it is existing then valid or meaningful data can be stored in the table. This is done by using constraints. 4) Atomicity All the commands in the transaction will execute or none of them will execute Transaction: set of sql commands will execute as unit. ACID properties: A atomicity C consistency I isolation D duration

DCL. M:1 means multiple parent rows in parent table will have relation with one child row in child table. They are used to define the different ways of storing data in the database. 1:Many. TCL. 2) Conceptual data model: It is used to concentrate on what data is stored and which type of relations existing between the data. Many: Many 1:M means one parent row in parent table will have relation with multiple child rows in child table. DDL. This model supports 1:M and M:1. The famous conceptual data model is entity relation ship [ER]. The data and relations will be represented diagrammatically. If any value is deleted then the values depending on deleted value will not be re arranged . With this draw back network data model came into existing. 1) Physical data model: It is used to concentrate on how the data is physically stored in the database. 3) Logical data model: It is used to concentrate on what data is stored and relations existing between data. DQL 3) Multiple table can be joined 4) Multiple relations can be created Like 1:1.RDBMS FEATURES: 1) Large amount of data can be stored 2) Structured Query Language Sub versions: DML. Five types of logical data models a) Hierarchical data model: In this model data will be stored in the form of tree data structures (inverted tree view). This model supports 1:M relation but M:1 is mot possible. Eg: IMS (information management system) b) Network data model: In this model data will be stored in the form of tree data structure. Accessing the data and data manipulations are very difficult in this model. Many:1. Data models: After invention of DBMS different data models came into existing.

Eg: IDS (information data store) c) Relational data model: In this model data will be stored in the form of rows and columns and data independency is in this model. 8i.0. object store. Eg: Oracle 7.3 are RDBMS Oracle 8. Data independency means each value in the table is an independent value. 7.oracle financials . This model introduced by E. Eg: cacters. 10g. If any changes made with the values in the table then the changes will not effect other values in the table.F codd who is also introduced 12 codd rules. 11i. So that all the relational data bases should follow these rules Eg: SQL Server d) Object data model: In this model object oriented programming concepts will be implemented.i. 9i. With this draw back relational data model came into existence. e) Object relational data model: It is a combination of object and relational data model. 11g are ORDBMS I-internet technologies G-grid computing 11i. automatic arrangement will not be there.e.

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