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Suan Soo Foo
2/43, Durham Street
St Lucia, QLD 4067
Australia
October 2000
The Dean
School of Engineering
University of Queensland
St Lucia QLD 4072
Dear Sir,
In accordance and partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of
Electrical Engineering (Honours) at the University of Queensland, I hereby submit for
your consideration this thesis entitled:
“Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications”
This work was accomplished under the supervision of Associate Professor Marek E.
Bialkowski.
I declared that the work submitted in this thesis is my own, except as acknowledged in
the text, and has not previous been submitted for a degree at the University of
Queensland or any other institution.
Yours faithfully,
_____________
Suan Soo Foo
ii
Smart Antennas
for
Wireless Applications
Suan Soo Foo
Approved by Assoc. Prof. Bialkowski
University of Queensland
School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering
University of Queensland
Queensland 4072
Australia
iii
Acknowledgements
The author would like to express his appreciation to his supervisor, Associate Professor
M.E. Bialkowski, for providing the opportunity to research this interesting topic, for his
valuable advice and the direction he had shown throughout the year.
Many thanks to Danny Kai Pin Tan for giving the opportunity to work with him and the
tolerant he had shown while working together.
Thanks must also go to the laboratory supervisor, Damian Jones for his assistance and
the patient he had given while using the Microwave Laboratory throughout the thesis
project.
Last but no least, the author would like to extend his thanks to his girlfriend, Chai
Weichiun, and his family for their support and encouragement.
iv
ABSTRACT
The smart antenna is set to play a significant role in the development of nextgeneration
wireless communication system. The purpose of this thesis is to provide the concept on
smart antenna system by studying the performance of antenna array. A brief
introduction will be given before providing the overview of the thesis content.
Antenna theory and the description of different types of antennas will be discussed with
emphasis on array antennas. Two methods of antenna synthesis known as the
WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev will also be introduced before studying the
fundamental parameters of antenna.
With a basic understanding on antenna, this thesis will therefore discuss about the smart
antenna technology. The two types of smart antenna approaches known as the
SwitchingBeam Array and Adaptive Array will be addressed after introducing the
benefits of the smart antenna technology. The smart antenna terminology together with
an adaptive algorithm called the Recursive Least Squares Algorithm will also be
presented.
After a brief introduction to the types multiple access schemes, array antennas
simulation and synthesis using the above mentioned methods and algorithm will be
carried out by varying different limiting parameters. Results will be tabulated and
antenna radiation patterns will also be plotted for discussion before wrapping up with a
conclusion and suggestion on future developments.
v
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Aim of Thesis 2
1.3 Overview of Content 3
Chapter 2 Antennas 4
2.1 Introduction 4
2.2 Types of Antenna 6
2.2.1 Microstrip Antennas 7
2.2.2 Array Antennas 10
2.3 Linear Array Antenna 11
2.4 Planar Array Antenna 12
2.5 Antenna Synthesis 15
2.5.1 WoodwardLawson Method 16
2.5.2 DolphChebyshev Method 18
Chapter 3 Parameters of Antenna 21
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Radiation Pattern 22
3.2.1 Rectangular/Cartesian Plots 23
3.2.2 Polar Plots 24
3.3 Main Lobe 26
3.3.1 Beamwidth – Half power and 10dB 26
3.3.2 Boresight Directivity/Gain 27
3.4 Sidelobes 28
3.5 Fronttoback Ratio 29
3.6 Aperture Size 29
3.7 Polarization 29
vi
Chapter 4 Smart Antenna System 31
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Key Benefits of Smart Antenna Technology 32
4.3 Smart Antenna System 34
4.3.1 SwitchingBeam Array (SBA) 35
4.3.2 Adaptive Array 36
4.4 Beam Forming 38
4.4.1 Null Beam Forming 39
4.4.2 Steering Vector 39
4.5 Recursive Least Squares Algorithm 40
Chapter 5 Multiple Access Schemes 43
5.1 Introduction 43
5.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 44
5.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 45
5.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 46
5.5 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 47
Chapter 6 Analysis of Array Antennas 49
6.1 Aim and Procedures 49
6.2 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design 49
6.3 Simulation on Linear Array Antenna 54
6.3.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 54
6.3.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 56
6.3.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution 57
6.3.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitation, β 59
6.4 Simulation on Planar Array Antenna 61
6.4.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 61
6.4.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 64
6.4.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution 68
6.4.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitation, β
x
and β
y
68
6.5 Discussion 72
Chapter 7 Antenna Synthesis Investigation 74
7.1 Aim and Procedures 74
7.2 WoodwardLawson Synthesis 75
7.2.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 75
7.2.2 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 77
7.3 DolphChebyshev Synthesis 80
7.3.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 80
7.3.2 Effect of Varying Sidelobe Level 82
vii
7.3.3 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 84
7.4 Discussion 87
Chapter 8 Recursive Least Square Algorithm
Analysis 88
8.1 Aim and Procedures 88
8.2 Simulated Results 88
8.3 Discussion 91
Chapter 9 Conclusion and Future Developments 92
9.1 Conclusion 92
9.2 Future Developments 93
References
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
viii
List of Figures
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1a Antenna as a transition device 5
Figure 2.2a Representative shapes of microstrip patch elements 8
Figure 2.2b Typical feed for microstrip antennas 9
Figure 2.3a Linear array of microstrip 11
Figure 2.4a Linear and Planar geometries 13
Chapter 3
Figure 3.2a Rectangular plot of an antenna radiation pattern 24
Figure 3.2b Polar plot of an antenna pattern 25
Figure 3.3a Typical power pattern polar plot 26
Figure 3.4a A radiation pattern showing the sidelobes level and positions 28
Figure 3.7a Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space
for vertical polarization 30
Figure 3.7b Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space
for horizontal polarization 30
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1a Concept of smart antenna system 32
Figure 4.3a Switchbeam array pattern 35
Figure 4.3b Switchbeam network 35
Figure 4.3c Adaptive array pattern 37
Figure 4.3d Network structure of an adaptive array 37
Figure 4.5a Representation of RLS algorithm 41
Chapter 5
Figure 5.2a Spectrum of FDMA systems 44
Figure 5.3a Frame and slot structure with basic TDMA 45
Figure 5.4a Concept of CDMA system 47
ix
Chapter 6
Figure 6.2a VSWR plot for length of 4.75cm 52
Figure 6.2b VSWR plot for length of 4.706cm 53
Figure 6.2c Radiation pattern for single microstrip patch antenna 53
Figure 6.3a Radiation pattern of ¼ λ interelement spacing 55
Figure 6.3b Radiation pattern of λ interelement spacing 55
Figure 6.3c Radiation pattern of a 4elements linear array 56
Figure 6.3d Radiation pattern of a 10elements linear array 57
Figure 6.3e Radiation pattern of a uniform distribution linear array 58
Figure 6.3f Radiation pattern of a Chebyshev distribution linear array 58
Figure 6.3g Radiation pattern of a Taylor distribution linear array 58
Figure 6.3h Radiation pattern with phase excitation 0° 60
Figure 6.3i Radiation pattern with phase excitation 45° 60
Figure 6.3j Radiation pattern with phase excitation 90° 60
Figure 6.4a Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
½λ in xdirection & ½λ in ydirection 63
Figure 6.4b Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
¾λ in xdirection & ¾λ in ydirection 63
Figure 6.4c Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
λ in xdirection & λ in ydirection 63
Figure 6.4d Polar plot for a 3x3 planar array 65
Figure 6.4e Polar plot for a 5x5 planar array 65
Figure 6.4f Polar plot for a 8x8 planar array 65
Figure 6.4g Radiation pattern of uniform distribution planar array 67
Figure 6.4h Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution planar array 67
Figure 6.4i Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution planar array 67
Figure 6.4j Radiation plots of an planar array in Eplane 70
Figure 6.4k Radiation plots of an planar array in Hplane 71
Chapter 7
Figure 7.2a Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array 76
Figure 7.2b Radiation pattern for 10 elements uniform linear array of
½λ wavelength interelement spacing 76
x
Figure 7.2c Radiation pattern of an 8 elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.25λ 78
Figure 7.2d Radiation pattern of an 8 elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.75λ 78
Figure 7.2e Radiation pattern of a 16 elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.25λ 79
Figure 7.2f Radiation pattern of a 16 elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.75λ 79
Figure 7.3a Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using MATLAB
and Ensemble 81
Figure 7.3b Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB sidelobe
level using MATLAB and Ensemble 83
Figure 7.3c Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array with normalized
interelement spacing of 0.5using MATLAB and Ensemble 85
Figure 7.3d Radiation pattern for 16 elements linear array with normalized
interelement spacing of 0.5using MATLAB and Ensemble 86
Chapter 8
Figure 8.2a Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 0° 89
Figure 8.2b Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 45° 90
xi
List of Tables
Chapter 6
Table 6.1 Results of varying interelement spacing in linear array 55
Table 6.2 Results of varying number of element in linear array 56
Table 6.3 Results of varying amplitude distribution in linear array 57
Table 6.4 Results of varying phase excitation in linear array 59
Table 6.5 Results of varying interelement spacing in planar array 62
Table 6.6 Results of varying number of element in planar array 64
Table 6.7 Results of varying amplitude distribution in planar array 66
Table 6.8 Results of varying phase excitation in planar array 69
Chapter 7
Table 7.1 Results of varying number of elements for Woodward
Lawson synthesis 76
Table 7.2 Results of varying interelements spacing for Woodward
Lawson synthesis 77
Table 7.3 Results of varying number of elements for Dolph
Chebyshev synthesis 80
Table 7.4 Results of varying sidelobe level for DolphChebyshev
synthesis 82
Table 7.5 Results of varying interelement spacing for Dolph
Chebyshev synthesis 84
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction
1
C hapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
Since the dawn of civilization, communication has been of foremost importance to
mankind. In the first place, communication was accomplished by sound through voice.
However, as the distance of communication increased, numerous devices were
introduced, such as horns, drums, and so forth. Visual techniques were injected for even
greater distances. Signal flags and smoke signals were used in the daytime while
fireworks in the night. These optical communications utilize the light portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum and it has only been in recent times that the electromagnetic
spectrum, outside the visible region, has been adopted for communication, through the
use of radio.
The radio antenna is a primary component in all radio system. An antenna (also know as
an aerial) is defined as a means for radiating or receiving radio waves [1]. In another
word, radio antennas coupled electromagnetic energy from one medium (space) to
another (e.g., wire, coaxial cable, or waveguide). Therefore, information can be
conveyed between various locations without any intervening structures.
Consequently, the application of wireless communication system has erupted
throughout the world and recent years have witness wireless communications relishing
its fastest growth period in history. Since, fixed antenna systems was first employed in
wireless systems, whereby antenna patterns were cautiously engineered to acquire
desired coverage characteristics, but that could not change to respond dynamically to
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction
2
changing conditions. Besides, the exponential growth and the limiting bandwidth
available for those systems have created problems, which all wireless providers are
working to solve.
One potential solution to the dilemmas is the use of smart antenna systems, a concept
initially developed by the military but now a field that has attracted growing interest for
commercial wireless communication systems [2]. Smart antennas are believed to be the
last major technological innovation that has the capability of leading to massive
increases in wireless communication systems performance.
1.2 Aim of Thesis
The demand for high performance wireless communication systems has led to the
research and studies in this exciting topic. Therefore, it is important to study the basic
concepts of the Smart Antenna System, a system that brings the world of wireless
communication to a new era.
The first move to understanding the smart antenna system leads to the fundamental
studies on antenna theory and their design parameters. Laying a good foundation is
essential, as we will move on to examine the smart antenna system and the algorithm
that earns “smartness” in the antenna system.
The radiation patterns and performance of the antennas will have to be investigated and
thus, further research will be carried out to conceive a better insight by either simulating
or synthesizing different array antennas and different synthesis methods. The area of
study will conclude with analysis on simulations for the smart antenna system
algorithm. Hence, our aim is not only to analysis and study on smart antenna system,
but also how the system can increase capacity in wireless communication system
through Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA).
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction
3
1.3 Overview of Content
The thesis will begin with an introduction on antennas and the types of antennas in
Chapter 2. In addition, the chapter will also provide an indepth description on
microstrip antenna, array antennas and antenna synthesis techniques before considering
the fundamental parameters of antenna in Chapter 3.
Prior to discussing the multiple access schemes in Chapter 5, we will be analyzing the
smart antenna technology in Chapter 4. All simulations on array antennas were
performed and the results in addition to its discussion will be presented in Chapter 6.
Chapter 7 investigated on two types of antenna synthesis methods (WoodwardLawson
and DolphChebyshev) before discussing on the results achieved.
Lastly, Chapter 8 analysis and discussion on the Recursive Least Squares algorithm will
see Chapter 9 draws a summary and concludes the thesis with future developments.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
4
Chapter 2
Antennas
2.1 Introduction
Communications has become the key to momentous changes in the organization of
businesses and industries worldwide as they themselves adjust to the shift toward an
information economy. Information is indeed the lifeblood of modern economies and
antennas provide mother earth a solution to a wireless communication system.
The antenna is a means of coupling electromagnetic energy from a transmission line
into free space, thus allowing a transmitter to radiate, and a receiver to receive the
incoming electromagnetic power. It is a passive device and therefore, the power radiated
by a transmitting antenna cannot be greater than the power entering to the transmitter.
It can also be seen as a transitional structure between freespace and a guiding device
illustrated in Figure 2.1a. The guiding device or transmission line, which may take the
form of a coaxial line or a hollow pipe (waveguide), is used to transport electromagnetic
energy from the transmitting source to the antenna, or from the antenna to the receiver.
In the former example we have a transmitting antenna and in the latter a receiving
antenna.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
5
In addition to transmitting and receiving energy, an antenna in an advance wireless
system is generally required to optimize or accentuate the radiation energy in a
particular direction while suppressing it in others. Physical size may vary greatly and
antennas can be just a lens, an aperture, a patch, an assembly of elements (array), a
reflector, or even a piece of conducting wire.
The antenna is one of the most critical elements for wireless communication systems
and a good design of the antenna can ease system requirements and improve overall
system performance. A typical example is TV for which the overall broadcast reception
can be improved by utilizing a highperformance antenna. The antenna serves to a
communication system the same purpose that eyes and eyeglasses serve to a human [3].
Furthermore, antennas are required in situations whereby it is impossible, impractical,
or uneconomical to provide guiding structures between the transmitter and the receiver.
Efield
Source Transmission line Antenna Radiating freespace wave
Figure 2.1a Antenna as a transition device
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
6
For example, it is economical to employ antennas in broadcasting where the goal is to
send energy out in literally all direction, since one transmitting terminal can serve
unlimited number of receivers. Antennas are also necessary in nonbroadcast radio
applications such as municipal radio (police, fire, and rescue) and in non
communication applications such as radar. In situation where antennas and guiding
structures are feasible, it is usually the amount of attenuation suffered by the signal that
determines the choice. In general, transmission of high frequency waves over long
distances favours the use of antennas, while small distances and low frequencies favour
the use of transmission lines [1].
In this vigorous and dynamic field, the antenna technology has been an indispensable
partner of the communication revolution over the past years. Many major advances that
took place during this era are now in common use. Despite, numerous challenges and
issues are facing us today, especially since the demands for system performance are
ever greater.
2.2 Types of Antenna
There are various types of antennas and they include wire antennas, aperture antennas,
reflector antennas, lens antennas, microstrip antennas and array antennas. However,
emphasis will be on microstrip antennas and array antennas after giving a brief idea on
wire antennas, aperture antennas, reflector antennas and lens antennas.
Wire antennas are the oldest and still the most prevalent of all antenna configurations
and they are seen virtually everywhere. There are different shapes of wire antennas such
as a straight wire (dipole), loop, and helix.
Aperture antennas are mostly utilized for higher frequencies and antennas of this class
are very useful for aircraft and spacecraft applications, because they can be easily flush
mounted onto the surface of the aircraft or spacecraft. Furthermore, they can be coated
with a dielectric material to cushion them hazardous conditions of the environment.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
7
Reflector antennas are sophisticated forms of antennas used for communication over
great distances (millions of miles). They are large in dimension as to achieve high gain
required to transmit or receive signals after millions of miles of travel.
Lenses are mainly employed to collimate incident divergent energy to prevent it from
spreading in undesired directions. Proper modeling the geometrical configuration and
using the correct material for the lenses can transform various forms of divergent energy
into plane waves and these lens antennas are used in most of the applications at higher
frequencies.
2.2.1 Microstrip Antennas
Microstrip antennas became very popular in the 1970s primarily for spaceborne
applications [3]. They are lowprofile antennas that are being used in highperformance
aircraft, spacecraft, satellite and missile applications, where size, weight, cost,
performance, ease of installation, and aerodynamic profile are constraints.
On the other hand, there are also some drawbacks of microstrip antennas. They have a
low efficiency, low power, high Q, poor polarization purity, poor scan performance,
spurious feed radiation and very narrow frequency bandwidth.
Microstrip antennas are classified into three basic types: microstrip patch antennas,
microstrip travellingwave antenna and microstrip slot antennas. The physical structure
of the microstrip antenna is very simple and they may take the form of any geometrical
shape and sizes. Figure 2.2a shows some of the shapes of microstrip patch elements.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
8
However, rectangular and circular patches are most favorable because of the ease
analysis and fabrication, and their attractive radiation characteristics, especially low
crosspolarization radiation. Thus, rectangular microstrip antenna patches are chosen for
our analysis.
Typically, microstrip antenna consists of a conducting patch of any planar geometry on
one side of a dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane on the other side and the
conducting patch is printed on top of a grounded substrate. There are various methods
that can be used to feed microstrip antennas and Figure 2.2b shows the four most widely
adopted techniques: the microstrip line, coaxial probe, aperture coupling and proximity.
(a) Square (b) Rectangular (c) Dipole (d) Circular (e) Elliptical
(f) Triangular (g) Disc sector (h) Circular ring
(i) Ring sector
Figure 2.2a Representative shapes of microstrip patch elements
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
9
Linear and circular polarizations can be achieved with either single elements or array of
microstrip antennas. Arrays of microstrip elements, with single or multiple feeds, may
also be used to introduce scanning capabilities and achieve greater directivity [3].
(i) Microstrip line feed (ii) Probe feed
(iii) Aperturecoupled feed
(iv) Proximitycoupled feed
Figure 2.2b Typical feed for microstrip antennas
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
10
2.2.2 Array Antennas
A directional radiation pattern can be produced when several antennas are arranged in
spaced or interconnected. Such an arrangement of multiple radiating elements is
referred to as an array antenna, or plainly, an array.
Instead of a single large antenna, many small antennas can be used in an array to
achieve a similar level of performance. The mechanical problems associated with a
single large antenna are traded for the electrical problems of feeding several small
antennas. With the advancements in solid state technology, the feed network required
for array excitation is of improved quality and reduced cost [4].
Arrays offer the unique ability of electronic scanning of the main beam, which can be
achieved by altering the phase of the exciting currents in each element antenna of the
array. Thus, it enables the capability of scanning the radiation pattern through space.
The array is hereby known as a phased array. Arrays can be of any form of geometrical
configurations and antenna arrays include the Linear Array, Planar Array and Circular
Array.
The overall field of the array is determined by the vector addition of the fields radiated
by the individual elements and this assumes that the current in each element is the same
as that of the isolated element. In order to render a very directive pattern, it is essential
that the fields from the elements of the array interfere constructively in the required
directions and interfere destructively in the remaining space.
There are five factors that contribute to the shaping of the overall pattern of antenna
array with identical elements and there are:
• Geometrical configuration of the array (linear, circular, rectangular, etc)
• Displacement between the elements
• Excitation amplitude of individual elements
• Excitation phase of individual elements
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
11
• Relative pattern of the individual elements
Some of the above mentioned parameters will thus be used for our simulations analysis.
In addition, this thesis will only be covering on linear and planar arrays.
2.3 Linear Array Antenna
A linear array of discrete elements is an antenna consisting of several individuals and
indistinguishable elements whose centers are finitely separated and fall on a straight
line [5]. One dimension uniform linear array is mere and the most frequently used
geometry with the array elements being spaced equally. Figure 2.3a shows a typical
linear array of microstrip antennas, which is one of the emphases in this report.
The total field of the array is equal to the field of a single element positioned at the
origin multiple by a factor which is widely known as the array factor (AF). The array
factor is a function of geometry of the array and the excitation phase. By varying the
separation d and/or the phase β between the elements, the characteristics of the array
factor and the total field of the array can be controlled [3]. In other words, the farzone
field of a uniform array with any number of identical elements is:
E(total) = [E(single element at reference point)] X [array factor] (2.1)
Figure 2.3a Linear array of microstrip
Microstrip Patch
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
12
Every array will have its own array factor and thus, the array factor is generally a
function of the number of elements, geometrical sequence, relative magnitudes, relative
phases and the interelement spacing. Nevertheless, elements having identical
amplitudes, phases and spacing will result in an array factor of simpler form.
Assuming a N elements array with identical amplitudes but each succeeding element
has a β progressive phase lead current excitation relative to the preceding one (β
represents the phase by which the current in each element leads the current of the
preceding element). The array factor can thus be obtained by considering the elements
to be point sources. However, if the actual elements are not isotropic sources, the total
field can be form by multiplying the array factor of the isotropic sources by the field of
a single element, which is given by:
∑
·
Ψ −
·
N
n
n j
e
1
) 1 (
AF (2.2)
where Ψ= kd cosθ + β
and since the total array factor for the array is a summation of exponentials, it can be
represented by the vector sum of N phasors each of unit amplitude and progressive
phase Ψrelative to the previous one [3].
2.4 Planar Array Antenna
In addition to placing elements along a straight row to form a linear array, individual
elements can be positioned along a rectangular grid to form a rectangular or planar
array, which is capable of providing more variables for controlling and modeling of
beam pattern. Moreover, planar arrays are also more versatile with lower sidelobe levels
and they can be used to scan the main beam of the antenna towards any point in space.
Referring to Figure 2.4a, the array factor can be derived for a planar array.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
13
Placing M elements along the xaxis as shown in Figure 2.4a(i) will have an array factor
represented by
) cos sin )( 1 (
1
1
AF
x x
kd m j
M
m
m
e I
β φ θ + −
·
∑ · (2.3)
where,
I
m1
= Excitation coefficient of individual element
d
x
= Interelement spacing along xaxis
β
x
= Progressive phase shift between elements along xaxis
(i) Linear array
(ii) Planar array
Figure 2.4a Linear and Planar geometries
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
14
A rectangular array shown in Figure 2.4a(ii) will be formed if N elements array with a
distance d
y
apart and with a progressive phase β
y,
is placed in the ydirection. Thus, the
array factor for the entire planar array can be written as
{ ¦
) cos sin )( 1 (
N
1 n 1
) cos sin )( 1 (
1 1
AF
y y x x
kd n j
M
m
kd m j
m n
e e I I
β φ θ β φ θ + −
· ·
+ −
∑ ∑ · (2.4)
or
AF = S
xm
S
yn (2.5)
where
∑
·
+ −
·
M
kd m j
m
x x
e I
1 m
) cos sin )( 1 (
1 xm
S
β φ θ
(2.6)
∑
·
+ −
·
N
kd n j
n
y y
e I
1 n
) cos sin )( 1 (
1 yn
S
β φ θ
(2.7)
From equation (2.5), it can be seen that the pattern of a rectangular array is the product
of the array factors of the arrays in the x and ydirection.
The amplitude of the (m,n)
th
element can be written as shown in equation (2.8) if the
amplitude excitation coefficients of the elements of the array in the ydirection are
proportional to those in the x.
I
mn
= I
m1
I
1n
(2.8)
However, if the amplitude excitation of the array is uniform (I
mn
= I
o
), then equation
(2.4) can be represented by
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
15
∑ ∑
·
+ −
·
+ −
·
N
n
kd n j
M
kd m j y y x x
e e
1
) cos sin )( 1 (
1 m
) cos sin )( 1 (
o
I AF
β φ θ β φ θ
(2.9)
and the normalized form will be
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.

Ψ
,
`
.

Ψ
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.

Ψ
,
`
.

Ψ
·
2
sin
2
sin
1
2
sin
2
sin
1
) , ( AF
n
y
y
x
x
N
N
M
M
φ θ (2.10)
where
ψ
x
= kd
x
sinθcosφ + β
x
(2.11)
ψ
y
= kd
y
sinθsinφ + β
y
(2.12)
The above derivation assumed that each element is an isotropic source. However, if the
antenna is an array of identical elements, the total field can be obtained by applying the
pattern multiplication rule of (2.1) in a manner similar as for the linear array.
2.5 Antenna Synthesis
Till now, attention has been on antenna analysis and design. The analysis problem is the
solving for the antenna radiation characteristics (pattern, directivity, beamwidth,
impedance, efficiency, polarization and bandwidth) for a given antenna configuration.
Practically, it is often necessary to design an antenna system that will produce desired
radiation characteristics. In general, there are common demands to design antenna
whose farfield pattern posses nulls in certain directions or to yield pattern that exhibit a
desired distribution, narrow beamwidth and low sidelobes, decaying minor lobes, and so
forth.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
16
Therefore, there are requirements whereby there is a need to find not only the antenna
configuration but also its geometrical dimensions and excitation coefficient. Hence,
antenna synthesis is an approach that uses a systematic method or combination of
methods to arrive at an antenna configuration which yields a pattern that is either
exactly or approximately the same to the initial specified pattern, while satisfying other
system constrains.
Generally, antenna pattern synthesis can be classified into three categories. The first
group that normally utilizes the Schelkunoff Method requires the antenna patterns to
possess nulls in certain desired direction. The next category, which requires the patterns
to exhibit a desired distribution in the entire visible region, is referred to beam shaping.
It can be achieved by using the Fourier Transform and WoodwardLawson Methods.
Finally, the Binomial Technique and DolphChebyshev Method are usually used to
produce radiation
patterns with narrow beamwidth and low sidelobes. However, only the Woodward
Lawson method and the DolphChebyshev method will be discussed.
2.5.1 WoodwardLawson Method
Woodward and Lawson introduced a very popular antenna pattern synthesis method
used for beam shaping. The synthesis is accomplished by sampling the desire pattern at
various discrete locations. Each pattern sample is associated with a harmonic current of
uniform amplitude distribution and uniform progressive phase, whose corresponding
field is known as a composing function. Each composing function for a linear array is of
an b
m
sin(Nφ
m
)/Nsin(φ
m
) form.
The excitation coefficient b
m
of every harmonic current is such that its field strength is
similar to the amplitude of the desired pattern at its corresponding sampled point. The
total excitation of the source is comprised of a finite summation of space harmonic, and
the corresponding synthesized pattern is represented by a finite summation of
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
17
composing functions with each term representing the field of a current harmonic with
uniform amplitude distribution and uniform progressive phase [3].
The overall pattern produced by this method is as followed. The first composing
function yields a pattern whose main beam position is decided by the value of its
uniform progressive phase with the innermost sidelobes level approximately –13.5dB,
and while the rest of the sidelobes decreases monotonically. Having a similar pattern,
the second composing function will adjust its uniform progressive phase so that its main
lobe corresponds to the innermost nulls of the first composing function. This will
contribute to the fillingin of the innermost null of the first composing function pattern,
in which, the amount of fillingin is restrained by the amplitude excitation of the second
composing function. Thus, this procedure will carry on for the remaining finite number
of composing functions.
When WoodwardLawson method is implemented to synthesized discrete linear arrays,
the pattern of each sample will be written as
]
]
]
−
]
]
]
−
·
) cos (cos
2
1
sin
) cos (cos
2
sin
) (
m
m
m m
kd N
kd
N
b f
θ θ
θ θ
θ (2.13)
l = Nd assumes the array is equal to the length of the line source. The overall array
factor can be written as a superposition of 2M or 2M+1 terms each of the form of (2.13)
[3]. Therefore,
∑
·
]
]
]
−
]
]
]
−
·
M
M m
m
) cos (cos
2
1
sin
) cos (cos
2
sin
b ) ( AF
m
m
kd N
kd
N
θ θ
θ θ
θ (2.14)
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
18
Generally, although WoodwardLawson synthesis technique reconstructs pattern whose
values at the sampled points are similar to the ones of the desired signal, but it is unable
to control the pattern between the sample point. The quality of fit to the desired pattern
f
d
(w) by the synthesis pattern f(w) over the main beam is measured by the ripple, R,
which is defined as
dB
) (
) (
maximum log 20 R
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
·
u f
u f
d
(2.15)
over the main beam. Also of interest is the region between the main beam and sidelobe
region, referred to as the transition region. It is desirable to have the main beam fall off
shapely into the sidelobe region. Thus, the transition width T is introduced and defined
as
T = w
f=0.9
– w
f=0.1
 (2.16)
Where w
f=0.9
and w
f=0.1
are the values of w where the synthesized pattern f equals 90%
and 10% of the local discontinuity in the desired patter [4].
2.5.2 DolphChebyshev Method
Comparing the Uniform, DolphChebyshev and Binomial distribution arrays, the
uniform amplitude arrays will yield the smallest halfpower beamwidth while the
binomial arrays usually possess the smallest sidelobes. On the other hand, Dolph
Chebyshev array is mainly a compromise between uniform and binomial arrays.
Its excitation coefficients are affiliated to the Chebyshev polynomials and a Dolph
Chebyshev array with zero sidelobes (or sidelobes of ∞ dB) is simply a binomial
design. Thus, the excitation coefficients for this case would be the same if both methods
were used for calculation.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
19
The array factor of an array of odd and even number of elements with symmetric
excitation is given by
∑ − ·
·
M
n
n
u n a
1
2M
] ) 1 2 cos[( (even) (AF) (2.17)
∑ − ·
+
·
+
1
1
1 2M
] ) 1 ( 2 cos[ (odd) (AF)
M
n
n
u n a (2.18)
where M is an integer, a
n
is the excitation coefficients and
θ
λ
π
cos
d
u · (2.19)
The array factor is merely a summation of M or M+1 cosine terms. The largest
harmonic of the cosine terms is one less than the total number of elements in the array.
Each cosine term, whose argument is an integer times a frequency, can be rewritten as a
series of cosine functions with the fundamental frequency as the argument [3], which is,
m = 0 cos(mu) = 1
m = 1 cos(mu) = cos u
m = 2 cos(mu) = cos (2u) = 2cos
2
u 1
m = 3 cos(mu) = cos (3u) = 4cos
3
u – 3cos u
m = 4 cos(mu) = cos (4u) = 8cos
4
u – 8cos
2
u + 1 (2.20)
The above are achieved by using the Euler’s formula
[e
ju
]
m
= (cos u + jsin u)
m
= e
jmu
= cos(mu) + jsin(mu) (2.21)
and the trigonometric identity sin
2
u = 1 – cos
2
u.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas
20
Assuming the elements of the array is placed along the zaxis, and thus, replacing cos u
with z in (2.20), will relate each of the expression to a Chebyshev polynomial Tm(z).
m = 0 cos(mu) = 1 = T
0
(z)
m = 1 cos(mu) = z = T
1
(z)
m = 2 cos(mu) = 2z
2
–1 = T
2
(z)
m = 3 cos(mu) = 4z
3
– 3z = T
3
(z)
m = 4 cos(mu) = 8z
4
– 8z
2
+ 1 = T
4
(z) (2.22)
These relations between the cosine functions and the Chebyshev polynomials are valid
only in the range of –1 ≤ z ≤ +1. Because cos(mu) ≤ 1, each Chebyshev polynomial is
Tm(z) ≤ 1 for –1 ≤ z ≤ +1. For z > 1, the Chebyshev polynomials are related too the
hyperbolic cosine function [3].
The recursive formula can be used to determine the Chebyshev polynomial if the
polynomials of the previous two orders are known. This is given by
T
m
(z) = 2zT
m1
(z) – T
m2
(z) (2.23)
It can be seen that the array factor of an odd and even number of elements is a
summation of cosine terms whose form is similar with the Chebyshev polynomials.
Therefore, by equating the series representing the cosine terms of the array to the
appropriate Chebyshev polynomial, the unknown coefficients of the array factor can be
determine. Note that the order of the polynomial should be one less than the total
number of elements of the array.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
21
Chapter 3
Parameters of Antenna
3.1 Introduction
Definitions of various parameters are necessary to describe the performance of an
antenna. Although the parameters may be interrelated, it is however, not a requirement
to specify all of the parameters for complete description of the antenna performance. An
antenna is chosen for operation in a particular application according to its physical and
electrical characteristics. Furthermore, the antenna must perform in a required mode for
the particular measurement system.
An antenna can be characterized by the following elements, not all of which apply to all
antenna types:
1. Radiation resistance;
2. Radiation pattern;
3. Beamwidth and gain of main lobe;
4. Position of magnitude of sidelobes;
5. Magnitude of back lobe;
6. Bandwidth;
7. Aperture;
8. Antenna correction factor;
9. Polarization of the electric field that it transmits or receive;
10. Power that it can handle in the case of a transmitting antenna.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
22
Typically, antenna characteristics are measured in two principal planes and they are
known as the azimuth and elevation planes, which can also be considered as the
horizontal and vertical planes respectively, for landbased antennas. Conventionally, the
angle in the azimuth plane is denoted by the Greek letter phi, φ, while the Greek letter
theta, θ, represents the angle in the elevation plane.
Some characteristics such as beamwidth and sidelobes are the same in both planes for
symmetrical antennas such as circular waveguide horns and reflector. Other
characteristics such as the gain on boresight (i.e., where the azimuth and elevation
planes intersect) can only have a single value. In general, for unsymmetrical antennas
the characteristics are different in the two principal planes, with a gradual transition in
the intervening region between these two planes [6].
Not all of the antenna characteristic factors will be discussed here. The following
subsection will touch on some of the elements, which are essential for the understanding
of this thesis.
3.2 Radiation pattern
The antenna, which radiates or receives the electromagnetic energy in the same way, is
a reciprocal device. Radiation pattern is a very important characteristic of an antenna. It
facilitates a stronger understanding of the key features of an antenna that otherwise
cannot be achieved from the textual technical description of an antenna.
The radiation pattern is peculiar to class of antenna and its electrical characteristics as
well as its physical dimensions. It is gauged at a constant distance in the far field of the
antenna and its radiation pattern is usually plotted in terms of relative power. The power
at boresight, that is, at the position of maximum radiated power, is usually plotted at 0
dB; thus, the power at all other position appears as negative value. In other words, the
radiation power is normalized to the power at boresight. If the power were plotted in
linear units, the normalized power would be one at boreight [6].
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
23
The radiation is usually measured in the azimuth and the elevation planes and the
radiation power is plotted against the angle that is made with boresight direction. If the
antenna were not physically symmetrical about each of its principal planes, then it
would result in an unsymmetrical radiation patter in these planes.
The radiation pattern can be plotted using rectangular/cartesian or polar coordinates.
The rectangular plots can be read more precisely (since the angular scale can be
enlarged), but the polar plots offers a more pictorial representation and are thus easier to
visualize.
3.2.1 Rectangular/Cartesian Plots
Rectangular/Cartesian plots are standard xy plots where the axes are plotted at right
angle to each other. The ycoordinate, which is called the ordinate, is used for the
dependent variable while the xcoordinate, known as abscissa, is used for the
independent variable.
In a radiation plot, the angle with respect to boresight is varied and the magnitude of the
power radiated is measured; thus, the angle is the independent variable and the power
radiated is the dependent variable. Thus, the magnitudes of the powers are the ordinate
while the angles are the abscissa. A typical rectangular plot of an antenna radiation
pattern is shown in Figure 3.2a.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
24
The yaxis can show two sets of scales: one graduated from 0 dB to 4 dB and another
from 0 dB to 8 dB. Scales of 40 dB and 80 dB are calculated by multiplying the scales
by ten. It should be noted that the numbers below should really by negative values of –4
dB and –8 dB because the zero is at the top.
On the hand, the xaxis can show three sets of angular scales of 5°, 30° and 180° on
either side of the zero, representing the angles measured clockwise and anticlockwise
from the boresight position and in standard mathematical convention denoted by
positive and negative signs disregarded on radiation graph paper.
3.2.2 Polar Plots
In a polar plot the angles are plotted radially from boresight and the power or intensity
is plotted along the radius as illustrated in Figure 3.2b.
Figure 3.2a Rectangular plot of an antenna radiation pattern
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
25
This gives a pictorial representation of the radiation pattern of the antenna and is easier
to visualize than the rectangular/cartesian plots. Although the accuracy cannot be
increased as in the case of rectangular plot because the scale of the angular positions can
only be plotted from 0° to 360°, however, the scale of the intensity or power can be
varied.
Each circle on the polar plot represents a contour plot where the power has the same
magnitude and is shown relative to the power at boresight. These levels will always be
less than the power at boresight and values should be shown as negative because the
power is in generally a maximum value at boresight. However, they are normally
written without a sign and should be assumed to be negative, contrary to standard
arithmetic convention.
Figure 3.2b Polar plot of an antenna pattern
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
26
3.3 Main Lobe
The main lobe of the antenna is in the direction of maximum radiation. The
characteristics of an antenna such as beamwidth and gain are associated to the main lobe
alone. The peak/tip of the main beam is called the boresight of the antenna and the
radiation pattern is often positioned so that its boresight corresponds with the zero
angular position of the graph, even when the antenna is not physically symmetrical.
Figure 3.3a gives an idea of the main lobe, its maximum direction and beamwidth of a
typical power pattern polar plot.
3.3.1 Beamwidth – Half power and 10 dB
The beamwidth only relates to the main beam of the antenna and not the sidelobes and
in general, it is inversely proportional to its physical size. In other words, the larger the
antenna, the smaller is its beamwidth for the corresponding frequency. The plane
Figure 3.3a Typical power pattern polar plot
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
27
containing the largest dimension will have the narrowest beamwidth if the antenna does
not have the same dimensions in all planes.
The beam width of an antenna is usually defines in two ways. The most well known
definition is the 3dB or halfpower beamwidth. However, for antennas with very
narrow beams, the 10dB beamwidth can also be applied. The 3dB or halfpower
beamwidth (HPBW) of an antenna is taken as the width at the points on either side of
the main beam where the radiated power is half the maximum value, and it is measured
in degrees or radians. Figure 3.3a shows the two points, halfpower point (left) and half
power (right), where the 3dB beamwidth can be obtained.
3.3.2 Boresight Directivity/Gain
Although the terms directivity (or directive gain) and gain are frequently used
synonymously, but in fact they are not the same. The gain allows for efficiency of the
antenna, whereas directivity does not [6]. As a matter of fact, the gain of the antenna is
the product of the directivity and the efficiency. The IEEE definition of gain of an
antenna relates the power radiated by the antenna to that radiated by an isotropic
antenna (that radiates equally in all direction) and is quoted as a linear ratio or in
decibels [3].
The gain G as a linear ratio is defined as
antena isotropic an by radiated Power
boresight on radiated Power
· G (3.1)
The gain G
dB
expressed in decibels is defined as
(G) 10log 10 · dB G (3.2)
Directivity of an antenna is defined as “the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given
direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity average over all direction. The
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
28
average radiation intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by
4π. If the direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation intensity is
implied” [3].
3.4 Sidelobes
The sidelobes are, strictly speaking, any of the maxima marked, for examples, as A, B,
C, D, E in Figure 3.4a. Nevertheless, in practice only the “nearin” lobes marked A are
referred to as sidelobes. Sometimes, due to the irregularities in the main beam of the
radiation pattern, it may result in small peaks such as those marked F in Figure 3.4a,
which could be mistaken for sidelobes.
Therefore, for this reason, the sidelobes are sometimes defined as the peaks, where the
difference between the peak and an adjacent trough is at least 3dB. The sidelobes are
characterized by their level below the boresight gain and their angular position relative
to boresight. Although the sidelobe level (SLL) is usually cited as a positive quantity,
but it is a value in negative decibels since the radiation pattern is plotted with the
boresight gain at 0dB.
Figure 3.4a A radiation pattern showing the sidelobe levels and positions
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
29
On top of sidelobes and main lobe, there are cases where multiple maxima occur, which
are referred to as grating lobes. Thus, one of the objectives in many designs is to avoid
grating lobes. Often it may be essential to select the largest spacing between elements
but with no grating lobes. However, the largest spacing between elements should be less
than one wavelength in order to avoid any grating lobes.
3.5 Fronttoback Ratio
The measure of the ability of a directional antenna to concentrate the beam in the
required forward direction is known as the fronttoback ratio (F/B). In linear terms, it is
determined as the ratio of the maximum power in the main beam to that in the back lobe
and it is usually expressed in decibels, as the different between the levels on boresight
and at 180° off boresight.
3.6 Aperture Size
The beamwidth is also influenced by the aperture size of an antenna. Generally, the
beamwidth gets narrower and the gain increases with an increasing aperture size at a
given frequency. The aperture size can be defined in two ways: either in terms of
wavelengths, or in terms of the actual physical size, in meters or feet.
3.7 Polarization
The polarization is another importance factor that would affect the radiation pattern.
The polarization of an antenna is defined as the polarization of the wave radiated by the
antenna in a given direction. However, the polarization is considered to be the
polarization in the direction of maximum gain when the direction is not stated.
Polarization may be classified as linear, circular, or elliptical. However, this thesis will
only touch on linear polarization.
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
30
As shown in Figure 3.7a, the electric field varies sinusoidally in one plane for the case
of linear polarization. In this case of a vertical polarization, it is noted that the extremity
of the electric field vector at any fixed point in space is a straight line with maximum
value, which is equal to twice the amplitude of the sinc curve that depicts the variation
of the electric field with time.
While horizontal polarization is illustrated in Figure 3.7b, it is important to note that the
polarization of a receiving antenna must match that of the incident radiation in order to
detect the maximum field.
Figure 3.7a Variation of the electric field with time at a
fixed point in space for vertical polarization
Figure 3.7b Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed
point in space for horizontal polarization
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
31
Chapter 4
Smart Antenna System
4.1 Introduction
The field of wireless communication is growing at a dynamic rate, covering many
technical areas. Its sphere of influence is beyond imagination. An indication of its
importance is perhaps the immeasurable worldwide activities in this industry.
Since the early days of wireless communications, there have been simple antenna
designs that radiate signals omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples in a pool of
water. Without the knowledge of the users’ locations, this unfocused technique
disseminates signals that reaches the intended user with a small percentage of overall
energy radiated out in the environment. Therefore, these strategies overcome the
problem by boosting the power level of the broadcasting signals. Moreover, there is also
additional problem of interference, which is likewise faced by directional antennas: a
system constructed to have certain fixed preferential transmission and reception
directions.
Therefore, the smart antenna systems, as shown in Figure 4.1a, have been introduced in
recent years to improve systems performance by increasing spectrum efficiency,
extending coverage area, tailoring beam shaping, steering multiple beams. Most
importantly, smart antenna system increases longterm channel capacity through Space
Division Multiple Access scheme (See Chapter 5 on Multiple Access Schemes). In
addition, it also reduces multipath fading, cochannel interferences, initial setup cost and
bit error rate (BER).
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
32
In this chapter, the key benefits of the smart antenna technology are covered before
looking through the smart antenna systems and the types of approaches. This chapter
will wrap up with descriptions on the Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Algorithms
after introducing to Beam Forming and Steering Vector.
4.2 Key Benefits of Smart Antenna Technology
An understanding of signal propagation environment and channel characteristics is
significant to the efficient use of a transmission medium. In recent years, there have
been signal propagation problems associated with conventional antennas and
interference is the major limiting factor in the performance of wireless communication.
Thus, the introduction of smart antennas is considered to have the potential of leading to
a large increase in wireless communication systems performance.
A smart antenna system in the wireless communication contributes to the following
major benefits:
Figure 4.1a Concept of smart antenna systems: Able to form different
beam for each user, extending coverage range, minimizing
the impact of noise and interference for each subscriber.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
33
• Larger Range Coverage – Smart antennas provide enhanced coverage through range
extension, hole filling, and better building penetration. Given the same transmitter
power output at the base station and subscriber unit, smart antennas can increase
range by increasing the gain of the base station antenna [8].
• Reduced Initial Deployment Cost – Conventional wireless system networks are
initially often designed to satisfy coverage requirements, even though there are few
subscribers in the network. However, when the number of subscribers increases in
the network, system capacity can be increased at the expense of reducing the
coverage area and introducing additional cell sites. Nevertheless, smart antenna can
ease this problem by providing larger early cell sizes and thus, initial deployment
cost for the wireless system can be reduced through range extension.
• Reduced Multipath Fading – Multipath in radio channels can result in fading or time
dispersion. The effects of multipath fading in wireless communications
environments can be significantly reduced through smart antenna systems. This
reduction variation of the signal (i.e., fading) greatly enhances system performance
because the reliability and quality of a wireless communications system can strongly
depend on the depth and rate of fading [9].
• Better Security – The employment of smart antenna systems diminish the risk of
connection tapping. The intruder must be situated in the similar direction as the user
as seen from the transmitter base station.
• Better Services – Usage of the smart antenna system enables the network to have
access to spatial information about the users. This information can be used to assess
the positions of the users much more precisely than in existing network. This can be
applied in services such as emergency calls and locationspecific billing.
• Increased Capacity – Smart antennas can also improve system capacity. They can
be used to allow the subscriber and base station to operate at the same range as a
conventional system, but a lower power. This may permit FDMA and TDMA
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
34
systems, which will be discussed in the later section, to be rechannelized to reuse
frequency channels more frequently than conventional systems using fixed
antennas, since the carriertointerference ratio is much greater when smart antennas
are used. In CDMA systems, if smart antennas are used to allow subscribers to
transmit less power for each link, then the Multiple Access Interference is reduced,
which increases the number of simultaneous subscribers that can be supported in
each cell.
Although the smart antenna systems are favorable in many ways, there are also
drawbacks which include a more complex transceiver structure compared to traditional
base station transceiver and a growing need for development of efficient algorithm for
realtime optimizing and signal tracking. Thus, smart antenna base stations will no
doubt be much more expensive than conventional base stations and the advantages
should always be evaluated against the cost.
4.3 Smart Antenna System
A smart antenna system can be define as a system which uses an array of low gain
antenna elements with a signalprocessing capability to optimize its radiation and/or
reception pattern automatically in response to the ever changing signal environment.
This can be visualized as the antenna focussing a beam towards the communication user
only.
Truly speaking, antennas are only mechanical construction transforming free
electromagnetic (EM) waves into radio frequency (RF) signals travelling on a shielded
cable or viceversa. They are not smart but antenna systems are. The whole system
consists of the radiating antennas, a combining/dividing network and a control unit. The
control unit is usually realized using a digital signal processor (DSP), which controls
several input parameters of the antenna to optimize the communication link. This shows
that smart antennas are more than just the “antenna,” but rather a complete transceiver
concept.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
35
Smart antenna systems are customarily classified as either Switching Beam Array
(SBA) or Adaptive Array (also known as TrackingBeam Array – TBA) systems, and
they are the two different approaches to realizing a smart antenna.
4.3.1 SwitchingBeam Array (SBA)
In the smart antenna systems, the SBA approach forms multiple fixed beams with
enhanced sensitivity in specific area. These antenna systems will detect signal strength,
and select one of the best, predetermined, fixed beams for the subscribers as they move
throughout the coverage sector. Instead of modeling the directional antenna pattern with
the metallic properties and physical design of a single element, a SBA system couple
the outputs of multiple antennas in such a manner that it forms a finely sectorized
(directional) beams with spatial selectivity.
Figure 4.3a shows the SBA patterns and Figure 4.3b illustrated the design network of a
typical SBA system. The SBA system network illustrated is relatively simple to
implement, requiring only a beamforming network, a RF switch, and control logic to
select a specific beam.
Figure 4.3b A SwitchBeam network uses
a beamforming network to
form M beams from M array
elements
Figure 4.3a SwitchBeam
Systems can select
one of the several
beams to enhance
receive signals.
Beam 2 is selected
here for the desired
signal
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
36
Switched beam systems offer numerous advantages of more elaborate smart antenna
systems at a fraction of the complexity and expense. Nevertheless, there are some
limitations to switched beam array, which comprise of the inability to provide any
protection from multipath components that arrive with DirectionsofArrival (DOAs)
near that of the desire components, and also the inability to take advantage of path
diversity by combining coherent multipath components. Lastly, due to scalloping, the
received power from a user may fluctuate when he moves around the base station.
Scalloping is the rolloff of the antenna pattern as a function of angles as the DOA
varies from the boresight of each beam produced by the beamforming network [8].
In spite of the drawbacks, SBA systems are widespread for various reasons. They
provide some range extension benefits and offer reduction in delay spread in certain
propagation environments. In addition, the engineering costs to implement this low
technology approach are lesser than those associated with more complicated systems.
4.3.2 Adaptive Array
It is possible to achieve greater performance improvements than that obtained using the
SBA system. This can be accomplished by increasing the complexity of the array signal
processing to form the Adaptive Antenna Systems, which is considered to be the most
advance smart antenna approach to date.
The adaptive antenna systems approach communication between a user and the base
station in a different way, in effect adding a dimension in space. By adapting to the RF
environment as it changes, adaptive antenna technology can dynamically modify the
signal patterns to near infinity to optimize the performance of the wireless system.
Adaptive arrays continuously differentiate between the desired signals, multipath, and
interfering signals as well as calculate their directions of arrival by utilizing
sophisticated signalprocessing algorithms. The technique constantly updates its
transmitting approach based on changes in both the desired and interfering signal
locations. It ensures that signal links are maximized by tracking and providing users
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
37
with main lobes and interferers with nulls, because there are neither microsectors nor
predefined patterns.
Although both systems seek to increase gain with respect to the location of the users,
however, only the adaptive system is able to contribute optimal gain while
simultaneously identifying, tracking, and minimizing interfering signals. This can be
seen from Figure 4.3c that only the main lobe is directed towards the user while a null
being directed at a cochannel interferer. Illustrated in Figure 4.3d is the network
structure of an adaptive array.
Figure 4.3c An adaptive antenna can adjust
its antenna pattern to enhance the
desired signal, null or reduce
interference, and collect correlated
multipath power
Figure 4.3d Network structure of an adaptive array
structure
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
38
4.4 Beam Forming
A single output of the array is formed when signals induced on different elements of the
array are combined. A plot of the array response as a function of angle is usually
specified as the array pattern or beam pattern. It can also be known as power pattern
when the power response is plotted.
This method of combining the signals from several elements is understood as beam
forming. The direction in which the array has maximum response is said to be the beam
pointing direction, and thus this is the bearing where the array has the utmost gain.
Conventional beam pointing or beam forming can be achieved by adjusting only the
phase of the signals from different elements. In other words, pointing a beam in the
desired direction. However, the shape of the antenna pattern in this case is fixed, that is,
the side lobes with respect to the main do not change when the main beam is pointed in
different directions by adjusting various phases. Nevertheless, this can be overcome by
adjusting the gain and phase of each signal to shape the pattern as required and the
degree of change will depend upon the number of elements in the array.
For example, signals can also be coupled together without any gain or phase shift in a
linear array, and it is known as broadside to the array, which is, perpendicular to the row
joining all the elements of the array. The array pattern formed thus falls to a low value
on either side of the beam pointing direction and the region of the low value is known as
a null. In this case, it must be noted that the null is actually a position where the array
response is zero and the term should not be misused to denote the low value of the
pattern.
Lastly, it is very convenient to make use of vector notation while working with array
antennas. Thus the term weight vector (w) is introduced. It is important because the
weight vector will have significant impact on the array output.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
39
4.4.1 Null Beam Forming
The flexibility of array weighting to being adjusted to specify the array pattern is an
important property. This may be exploited to cancel directional sources operating at the
same frequency as that of the desired source, provided these are not in the direction of
the desired source [10].
In circumstances where the directions of these interferences are identified, cancellation
is feasible by positioning the nulls in the pattern corresponding to these directions and
concurrently steering the main beam in the direction of the desired signal. This approach
of beam forming by placing nulls in the directions of interferences is commonly referred
to as null beam forming or null steering.
4.4.2 Steering Vector
The steering vector contains the response of all elements of the array to a narrowband
source of unit power. As the response of the array is different in different directions, a
steering vector is associated with each directional source. The uniqueness of this
association depends upon the array geometry [10].
Every component of this vector has unit magnitude for an array of identical elements.
The phase of its ith component is similar to the phase difference between signals
induced on the ith element and the reference element due to the source associated with
the steering vector.
This vector is also known as the space vector because each component of the vector
represents the phase delay that is resulted from the spatial position of the corresponding
element of the array. In addition, it can also be referred to as the array response vector
for it measures the response of the array due to the source under consideration.
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40
4.5 Recursive Least Squares Algorithm
For an adaptive array network as shown in Figure 4.3d, it is essential that the weight
vector to be updated or adapted periodically because the environment (e.g. mobile
environment) is timevariable. Generally, the weight vector computed differs by a small
but significant amount at different cycles.
In addition, because the necessary data to estimate the optimal solution is noisy, it is
beneficial to use an update technique, which uses previous solutions for the weight
vector to smooth the estimate of the optimal response. Thus, an adaptive algorithm is
exploited for updating the weight vector periodically.
There are many types of adaptive algorithms and the majorities are iterative. They
utilized the past information to minimize the computations required at each update
cycle. In iterative algorithms, the current weight vector, w(n), is modified by an
incremental value to form a new weight vector, w(n+1) at each iteration n.
In the later development of adaptive algorithm, the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm
and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm are viewed to be more efficient. However,
in this chapter, we will be only looking at the RLS algorithm as it is regarded to have a
faster convergence speed (the speed for the initial weight vector to reach the optimum
weight vector) compared to LMS. Nevertheless, it is a result of greater computation
complexity. Figure 4.5a illustrated the block diagram representation and signal flow
graph of the RLS algorithm.
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41
The RLS algorithm can be summarized as follow [14]:
Initialization
P(0) = δ
1
I (4.1)
w(0) = 0 (4.2)
Weight Update
k(n) = λ
1
P(n1)u(n) / 1+λ
1
u
H
(n)P(n1)u(n) (4.3)
α α(n) = d(n) – w
H
(n1)u(n) (4.4)
w(n) = w(n1) + k(n) α*(n) (4.5)
(i)
(ii)
Figure 4.5a Representation of RLS algorithm: (i) block diagram
(ii) signalflow graph
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42
P(n) = λ
1
P(n1)  λ
1
k(n)u
H
(n)P(n1) (4.6)
Convergence Coefficient
0 < λ <1
where,
δ is a small positive number,
I is the M X M identity matrix,
λ is the forgetting factor
k(n) is the gain vector,
α α(n) is the innovation,
w(n) is the weight vector,
P(n) is the inverse of the correlation matrix Φ Φ(n),
u(n) is the input vector and
d(n) is the desired response.
In the RLS method, the desired signal must be supplied using either a training sequence
or decision direction. For the training sequence approach, a brief data sequence is
transmitted which is known by the receiver. The receiver uses the adaptive algorithm to
approximate the weight vector in the training duration, then retains the weights constant
while information is being transmitted. This technique requires that the environment be
stationary from one training period to the next, and it reduces channel throughput by
requiring the use of channel symbols for training. However, in the decision approach,
the receiver uses recreated modulated symbols based on symbol decisions, which are
used as the desired signal to adapt the weight vector [8].
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43
Chapter 5
Multiple Access Schemes
5.1 Introduction
Due to the recent development of wireless communication systems, the range of
frequencies available for wireless communication technologies can be utilized in
various ways/schemes, and this is referred to as multiple access schemes. These
techniques are adopted to allow numerous users to share simultaneously a finite amount
of signal spectrum.
The distribution of spectrum is required to achieve this high system capacity by
simultaneously allocating the available bandwidth (or available amount of channels) to
multiple users. This must be accomplished without severe degradation in the
performance of the system in order to achieve high quality communications.
Conventionally, there are three major access schemes used to share the available
bandwidth in a wireless communication. Nonetheless, they are known as the frequency
division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), and the code
division multiple access (CDMA).
As a result, there is a lot to debate about which schemes is better. However, the answer
to this depends on the combined techniques, such as the modulation scheme, antifading
techniques, forward error correction, and so on, as well as the requirements of services,
such as the coverage area, capacity, traffic, and types of information [11].
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44
5.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is the most widespread multipleaccess
scheme for land mobile communication system due to its ability to discriminate
channels effortlessly by filters in the frequency domain. In FDMA, every subscriber is
allocated to an individual unique frequency band or channel.
Figure 5.2a shows the spectrum of a FDMA system. The allocated system bandwidth is
divided into bands with bandwidth of W
ch
and guard space between adjacent channels to
prevent spectrum overlapping that may be resulted from carrier frequency instability.
When a user sends a call request, the system will assign one of the available channels to
the user, in which, the channel is used exclusively by that user during a call. However,
the system will reassign this channel to a different user when the previous call is
terminated.
One of the most important advantages in FDMA system is there isn’t any need for
synchronization or timing control and therefore, the hardware is simple. In addition,
there is only a need for flat fading consideration as for antifading technique because the
bandwidth of each channel in the FDMA is sufficiently narrow.
Figure 5.2a Spectrum of FDMA systems
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45
However, there are also various problems associated with FDMA systems and they are:
• Intermodulation interference increases with the number of carriers .
• Variable rate transmission is difficult because such a terminal has to prepare a lot of
modems. For the same reason, composite transmission of voice and nonvoice data
is also difficult.
• High Qvalue for the transmitter and receiver filters is required to guarantee high
channel selectivity [11].
5.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
In the basic time division multiple access (TDMA) protocol, the transmission time axis
is divided into frames of equal duration, and each frame is divided into the same
number of time slots having equal duration. Each slot position within a frame is
allocated to a different user and this allocation stays the same over the sequence of
frames [12]. This means that a particular user may transmit during one particular slot in
every frame and thus, it has the entire channel bandwidth at its disposal during this slot.
Figure 5.3a illustrated the allocation in a basic TDMA frame with four time slots per
frame with the shaded areas representing the guard times in each slot in which
transmission is prohibited in this region. It is essential to have the guard times as it
prevents transmissions of different (spatially distributed) users from overlapping due to
transmission delay differences.
Figure 5.3a Frame and slot structure with basic TDMA
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46
5.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
In code division multiple access (CDMA) systems, the signal is multiplied by a very
large bandwidth signal called the spreading signal. The spreading signal is a pseudo
noise code sequence that as a chip rate which is in orders of magnitudes greater than the
data rate of message [8].
Having its own pseudorandom codeword, all subscribers in a CDMA system use the
same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously. Figure 5.4a(i) displays the
spectrum of a CDMA system. The most distinct feature of CDMA system is that all the
terminals share the whole bandwidth, and each terminal signal is discriminated by the
code.
When each user sends a call request to the base station, the base station assigns on of
the spreading codes to the user. When five users initial and hold the calls as shown in
Figure 5.4(ii), time and frequency are occupied as shown in Figure 5.4(iii) [13].
Therefore, CDMA requires a larger bandwidth as compared to FDMA and TDMA.
Furthermore, there is also a need for code synchronization in CDMA system.
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47
5.5 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
In addition to these techniques, smart antennas provide a new method of multiple access
to the users, which is known as the space division multiple access (SDMA). The SDMA
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Figure 5.4a Concept of a CDMA system:
(i) spectrum of a CDMA system
(ii) a call initiation and holding model for fiveuser case
(iii) channel allocation to each user
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48
scheme, which is commonly referred to space diversity, uses smart antenna to provide
control of space by providing virtual channels in an angle domain. With the use of this
approach, simultaneous calls in various different cells can be established at the same
carrier frequency.
The SDMA scheme is based upon the fact that a signal arriving from a distant source
reaches different antennas in an array at different times due to their spatial distribution,
and this delay is utilized to differentiate one or more users in one area from those in
another area [10].
This technique enables an effective transmission to take place in one cell without
affecting the transmission in another cell. Without the use of an array, this can be
accomplished by having a separate base station for each cell and keeping cell size
permanent, while the use of space diversity enables dynamic changes of cell shapes to
reflect the user movement.
Thus, an array of antennas constitutes to an extra dimension in this system by providing
dynamic control in space and needless to say, it leads to improved capacity and better
system performance.
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49
Chapter 6
Analysis of Array Antennas
6.1 Aim and Procedures
Previous chapters had provided basic concept on antennas and smart antenna systems.
Thus, this will greatly contribute to further understanding the operation of smart antenna
systems. As a result, it would be appropriate to study the basic of antenna arrays, its
radiation pattern and performance.
This chapter will be covering the analysis of linear and planar arrays of microstrip patch
antennas. The design of microstrip patch antennas was studied and implemented before
carrying out simulations using software programs known as the Personal Computer
Antenna Aided Design (PCAAD) and MATLAB.
Various parameters were altered to study the effects that would be reflected on antenna
arrays. The simulated results achieved were tabulated. In addition, polar plots were also
generated to cater for a better visualization and analysis. Last but not least, the chapter
will conclude with some discussions on the results achieved.
6.2 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design
The microstrip rectangular patch antenna is by far the most widely used configuration.
Therefore, we will be designing the rectangular patch for the linear and planar array
simulations. Several factors contribute to the design of a microstrip rectangular patch
antenna. Figure 2.2b(i) shows some of the parameters constrain for the design, which
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas
50
include the length and width of the antenna patch, the type of substrate used and the
substrate thickness.
In addition, the center/resonant frequency must also be determined. A resonant
frequency of 2GHz is chosen because in 1992, the World Administrative Radio
Commission (WARC) of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
formulated a plan to implement a global frequency band in the 2000 MHz range that
would be common to all countries for the universal wireless communication systems
[8].
The dimensions of a rectangular patch antenna can be determined using the following
equations:
Width, W =
2
λ
2 / 1
2
) 1 (
−
]
]
]
+ r ε
(6.1)
Length, L = l
e
∆ −
]
]
]
]
2
) * 2 ( ε
λ
(6.2)
where the effective dielectric constant, εe and l ∆ are given by:
Effective dielectric constant, εe =
2 / 1
12
1
2
1
2
1
−
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

−
+
+
W
t r r ε ε
(6.3)
where t is the thickness of the substrate.
l ∆ = (0.412t)
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

+ −
,
`
.

+ +
8 . 0 258 . 0
264 . 0 3 . 0
t
W
e
t
W
e
ε
ε
(6.4)
Patch size calculation:
Assuming a rectangular linefed configuration.
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51
Assuming resonant frequency, f = 2GHz
Assuming typical substrate of dielectric constant, ε
r
= 2.2
Assuming substrate thickness, t = 0.5 cm
Wavelength, λ = C/f
= (3*10
8
)/2GHz
= 0.15m
where C is the free space velocity of light.
Width, W =
2
λ
2 / 1
2
) 1 (
−
]
]
]
+ r ε
=
2 / 1
2
) 1 2 . 2 (
2
15 . 0
−
]
]
]
+
= 0.0593 m
= 5.93 cm
Effective dielectric constant, εe =
2 / 1
12
1
2
1
2
1
−
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

−
+
+
W
t r r ε ε
=
2 / 1
93 . 5
5 . 0 * 12
1
2
1 2 . 2
2
1 2 . 2
−
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

−
+
+
= 2.02300444384
l ∆ = (0.412t)
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

+ −
,
`
.

+ +
8 . 0 258 . 0
264 . 0 3 . 0
t
W
e
t
W
e
ε
ε
= (0.412*0.5)
]
]
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

+ −
,
`
.

+ +
8 . 0
5 . 0
93 . 5
) 258 . 0 02 . 2 (
264 . 0
5 . 0
93 . 5
) 3 . 0 02 . 2 (
= 0.2597
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52
Length, L = l
e
∆ −
]
]
]
]
2
) * 2 ( ε
λ
= ) 2597 . 0 * 2 (
02 . 2 * 2 (
100 * 15 . 0
−
]
]
]
= 4.75 cm
Nevertheless, after much testing, it was observed from PCAAD simulations that a
length of 4.75 cm (Figure 6.2a) does not produce a minimum voltage standing wave
ratio (VSWR)* compared to a length of 4.706 cm (Figure 6.2b) at 2GHz. Hence, the
new dimension of Length = 4.706 cm and Width = 5.93 cm is selected for applications
to the simulations.
*Note: The reflected waves from the interface between the source and the antenna
create, along with the travelling waves from the source towards the antenna,
constructive and destructive patterns, referred to as standing waves. Thus, when the
impedance of the antenna (load) to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
matched, a desired minimum VSWR is achieved.
Figure 6.2a VSWR plot for length of 4.75 cm
VSWR ≈ 4.6
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53
Figure 6.2c illustrated the radiation pattern of the single microstrip patch antenna with
simulated results of:
Bandwidth = 3.9%
Efficiency = 97.6%
Directivity = 7.2
Figure 6.2b VSWR plot for length of 4.706 cm
VSWR ≈ 4.4
Figure 6.2c Radiation pattern for single microstrip patch antenna
30 20  10 0
Note that the values here will be the same
for all polar plots unless otherwise stated
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54
6.3 Simulation on Linear Array Antenna
Linear array is the simplest and commonly used configuration. Therefore, it is essential
to investigate its performance. There are four basic factors influencing the performance
of the linear array antenna and this section will be examining a linear array of microstrip
patch antennas. The four influencing factors, which consists of the interelement
spacing, number of elements in an array, the amplitude distribution and the phase
excitation, will be varied, and all observation will be monitored. The subsequent
simulations on linear array will be performed using the PCAAD program with the
following predefined parameters:
Microstrip antenna patch length, L = 4.706 cm
Microstrip antenna patch width, W = 5.93 cm
Substrate thickness, t = 0.5 cm
Dielectric constant = 2.2
Center frequency, f = 2GHz
Wavelength, λ = 15 cm
Assuming the element polarization is in the Xdirection.
6.3.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d
The following assumptions are made:
• Phase shift = zero degree
• Amplitude distribution = uniform
• Number of elements in the array = 8
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.1. Figure
6.3a illustrated the radiation pattern for an interelement spacing of ¼wavelength and
Figure 6.3b displayed the pattern for an interelement spacing of one wavelength.
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55
Interelement
Spacing (cm)
Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
λ/8 = 1.875 10.2 46.5 1 main lobe
λ/4 = 3.75 12.9 24.9 2 sidelobes (SLL = 15.1dB)
3λ/8 = 5.625 14.5 16.8 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.8dB)
λ/2 = 7.5 15.7 12.6 6 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4dB)
3λ/4 = 11.25 17.3 8.4 10 sidelobes (SLL = 13.1dB)
λ = 15 16.3 6.3 14 sidelobes (SLL = 13.0dB)
and 2 grating lobes
Table 6.1
Figure 6.3a Radiation pattern of ¼ λ λ interelement spacing
Figure 6.3b Radiation pattern of λ λ interelement spacing
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56
6.3.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N
The following assumptions are made:
• Phase shift = zero degree
• Amplitude distribution = uniform
• Interelement spacing =
2
λ
= 7.5 cm
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.2. Figure
6.3c illustrated the radiation pattern for a 4elemeents linear array while Figure 6.3d
displayed the radiation pattern for a 10elemeents linear array.
Number of element
(N)
Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
2 9.9 51.3 1 main lobe
3 11.5 34.0 2 sidelobes < 20 dB
4 12.7 25.4 2 sidelobes < 20 dB
6 14.4 16.9 4 sidelobes < 20 dB
8 15.7 12.6 6 sidelobes < 20 dB
10 16.6 10.1 8 sidelobes > 20 dB
20 19.6 4.9 18 sidelobes > 20 dB
Figure 6.3c Radiation pattern of a 4elements linear array
Table 6.2
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57
6.3.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution
The following assumptions are made:
• Number of elements = 8
• Interelement spacing =
2
λ
= 7.5 cm
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.3.
Figure 6.3e illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with uniform distribution.
Figure 6.3f illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with Chebyshev distribution.
Figure 6.3g illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with Taylor distribution.
Amplitude Distribution Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
Uniform 15.7 12.6 6 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4dB)
Chebyshev
(SLL = 20 dB)
15.4 14.1 6 sidelobes (SLL = 20.7dB)
Taylor
(SLL = 20 dB)
14.9 16.1 6 sidelobes (SLL = 10.0dB)
Figure 6.3d Radiation pattern of a 10elements linear array
Table 6.3
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58
Figure 6.3e Radiation pattern of uniform distribution array
Figure 6.3f Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution array
Figure 6.3g Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution array
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59
6.3.4 Effect of varying phase excitation, β β
The following assumptions are made:
• Number of elements = 20
• Amplitude distribution = Taylor (SLL = 60 dB)
• Interelement spacing =
2
λ
= 7.4 cm
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.4.
Figure 6.3h illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 0°.
Figure 6.3i illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 45°.
Figure 6.3j illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 90°.
β (degree) Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Main beam angle
(degree)
45 18.5 7.0 15.0
90 18.1 7.8 30.0
135 17.1 10.4 49.0
180 15.9  
225 17.1 10.4 49.0
270 18.1 7.8 30.0
315 18.5 7.0 15.0
360 18.6 6.7 0
Table 6.4
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60
Figure 6.3h Radiation pattern with phase excitation 0° °
Figure 6.3j Radiation pattern with phase excitation 90° °
Figure 6.3i Radiation pattern with phase excitation 45° °
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61
6.4 Simulation on Planar Array Antenna
A planar array provides more variables for controlling and modeling of beam patterns as
compared to the linear array. They are more flexible and can provide more symmetrical
patterns with lower sidelobes. In addition, they can be used to scan the main beam of
the antenna toward any point in space.
Therefore, this section will be exploring the radiation patterns of a planar array by
varying various parameters. The parameters include the interelement spacing, number
of elements in the array and the amplitude distribution. The effect on beam steering of
the planar array will also be investigated. The subsequent simulations on planar array
will be performed using the PCAAD and MATLAB with the following predetermined
parameters:
Microstrip antenna patch length, L = 4.706 cm
Microstrip antenna patch width, W = 5.93 cm
Substrate thickness, t = 0.5 cm
Dielectric constant = 2.2
Center frequency, f = 2GHz
Wavelength, λ = 15 cm
Assuming the element polarization is in the Xdirection.
6.4.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d
The following assumptions are made:
• Number of elements = 5 x 5
• Amplitude distribution = uniform
• Phase shift = zero degree
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62
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.5. Figure
6.4a illustrated the radiation pattern for a planar array with ½wavelength interelement
spacing in both X and Y directions while Figure 6.4b illustrated the radiation pattern for
a planar array with ¾wavelength interelement spacing in both X and Y directions.
Lastly, Figure 6.4c displayed the radiation pattern for a planar array with full
wavelength interelement spacing in both X and Y directions.
X (cm) Y (cm) Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Comments
¼ λ ¼ λ 14.1 38.8 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.1dB)
¼ λ ½λ 16.6 38.8 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.1dB)
¼ λ ¾λ 18.2 38.8 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.1dB)
¼ λ λ 18.7 38.8 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.1dB)
½λ ¼ λ 16.7 20.3 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.5dB)
½λ ½λ 19.2 20.3 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.5dB)
½λ ¾λ 20.8 20.3 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.5dB)
½λ λ 21.2 20.3 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.5dB)
¾λ ¼ λ 18.1 13.6 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.7dB)
¾λ ½λ 20.6 13.6 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.7dB)
¾λ ¾λ 22.2 13.6 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.7dB)
¾λ λ 22.7 13.6 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.7dB)
λ ¼ λ 16.4 10.2 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.4dB) and
2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater
than main lobe beamwidth
λ ½λ 18.6 10.2 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.4dB) and
2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater
than main lobe beamwidth
λ ¾λ 20.0 10.2 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.4dB) and
2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater
than main lobe beamwidth
λ λ 20.8 10.2 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.4dB) and
2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater
than main lobe beamwidth
Table 6.5
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63
Figure 6.4a Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
½λ λ in Xdirection & ½λ λ in Ydirection
Figure 6.4b Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
¾λ λ in Xdirection & ¾λ λ in Ydirection
Figure 6.4c Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of:
λ λ in Xdirection & λ λ in Ydirection
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64
6.4.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N
From the previous simulated results, the interelement spacing of ½λ in both X
direction and Ydirection is chosen for this simulation.
The following assumptions are made:
• Amplitude distribution = uniform
• Phase shift = zero degree
PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.6. Figure
6.4d illustrated the radiation pattern for a 3x3 planar array while Figure 6.4e presented
the radiation pattern for a 5x5 planar array. The radiation pattern for an 8x8 planar array
is shown in Figure 6.4f.
Number of
Element (X*Y)
Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth Comments
2 * 2 11.8 51.3 1 main lobe
2 * 3 13.4 51.3 1 main lobe
2 * 4 14.5 51.3 1 main lobe
2* 5 15.4 51.3 1 main lobe
3 * 2 13.4 34.0 2 side lobes > 20 dB
3 * 3 15.0 34.0 2 side lobes > 20 dB
3 * 4 16.1 34.0 2 side lobes > 20 dB
3 * 5 17.0 34.0 2 side lobes > 20 dB
4 * 2 14.7 25.4 2 side lobes > 20 dB
4 * 3 16.3 25.4 2 side lobes > 20 dB
4 * 4 17.4 25.4 2 side lobes > 20 dB
4* 5 18.3 25.4 2 side lobes > 20 dB
5 * 2 15.6 20.3 4 side lobes > 20 dB
5 * 3 17.2 20.3 4 side lobes > 20 dB
5 * 4 18.3 20.3 4 side lobes > 20 dB
5* 5 19.2 20.3 4 side lobes > 20 dB
6 * 6 20.8 16.9 4 side lobes > 20 dB
7 * 7 22.1 14.5 6 side lobes
8 * 8 23.2 12.6 6 side lobes
Table 6.6
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Figure 6.4d Polar plot for a 3x3 planar array
Figure 6.4f Polar plot for a 8x8 planar array
Figure 6.4e Polar plot for a 5x5 planar array
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6.4.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution
The simulations will be using the interelement spacing of ½λ in both Xdirection and
Ydirection with the following assumptions:
• Number of elements = 5 x 5
• Phase shift = zero degree
PCAAD simulations were performance and the results achieved were tabulated in
Table 6.7.
Figure 6.4g and Figure 6.4h illustrated the radiation patterns for planar arrays with
uniform amplitude distribution and Chebyshev amplitude distribution respectively
whereas Figure 6.4i presented the radiation pattern for a planar array with Taylor
amplitude distribution.
Amplitude Distribution Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
Uniform
19.2 20.3 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.5dB)
Chebyshev
(SLL = 20 dB)
18.6 23.0 4 sidelobes (SLL = 21.8dB)
Taylor
(SLL = 20 dB)
18.7 22.7 4 sidelobes (SLL = 21.2dB)
Table 6.7
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Figure 6.4g Radiation pattern of uniform distribution array
Figure 6.4h Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution array
Figure 6.4i Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution array
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6.4.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitations, β βx and β βy
Radiation performance of a planar array will be examined by performing various
simulations. Changes will be monitored as the phase excitations, βx and βy, are varied.
The overall pattern, which is formed by combining the radiation pattern of a single
microstrip patch antenna and the array factor of the planar array, will be analyzed.
The overall pattern will be plotted and studied using the Eplane (xz plane) and the H
plane (yz plane). The following assumptions are made for the simulations:
• Number of elements = 2 x 2
• Interelement spacing = 8.3 cm in xdirection; 9 cm in ydirection
(The interelement spacing were found to produce the best beam pattern after some
testing)
• Elements amplitude excitation = 1
MATLAB simulations were performance and the results achieved were tabulated in
Table 6.8.
Figure 6.4j and Figure 6.4k illustrated the radiation patterns for planar arrays with
different phase excitations using the Eplane (φ = 0°) and Hplane (φ = 90°).
Appendix A provides the MATLAB code for this simulation.
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βx
(degree)
βy
(degree)
Amplitude of main beam
(decibels)
Sidelobe level
(decibels)
Main beam angle
(degree)
Eplane (φ φ = 0° °)
0 0 12.04 20.72 0
0 45 11.36 20.73 0
0 90 9.03 20.73 0
0 135 3.70 20.77 0
0 180 Amplitude values are too small
45 45 11.19 10.48 10
90 45 10.69 6.27 20
135 45 9.83 2.98 30
Hplane (φ φ = 90° °)
0 0 12.04 25.39 0
0 45 11.15 14.70 9
0 90 11.23 8.61 17
0 135 10.14 4.01 25
45 45 11.15 14.70 9
90 45 8.83 14.70 9
135 45 3.49 14.70 9
180 45 Amplitude values are too small
Table 6.8
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Radiation plots in Eplane (φ = 0°):
Figure 6.4j Radiation plots of an planar array in Eplane
(i) βx = 0°; βy = 0° (ii) βx = 0°; βy = 45°
(iii) βx = 45°; βy = 45° (iv) βx = 135°; βy = 45°
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Polar plots in Hplane (φ = 90°):
Figure 6.4k Radiation plots of a planar array in Hplane
(i) βx = 0°; βy = 0° (ii) βx = 0°; βy = 45°
(iii) βx = 45°; βy = 45° (iv) βx = 90°; βy = 45°
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6.5 Discussion
After the dimension of microstrip patch antenna was determined, it was employed in the
linear and planar arrays for our simulations.
(i) Linear Array
It was observed that an increase in interelement spacing in a linear array would result
in higher directivity and a smaller 3dB beamwidth. Although this is a favorable
condition, but it was found that the number of undesirable sidelobes also increases with
increasing interelement spading. It was also proven that an interelement spacing of full
wavelength would cause the radiation pattern to have grating lobes and this could be
seen from Figure 6.3b.
Simulations results obtained had also proved that an increase in the number of elements
in a linear array would result in higher directivity and a smaller 3dB beamwidth, but
more sidelobes. However, on the other hand, nonuniform amplitude distribution
(Chebyshev and Taylor) linear array had shown expected results of lower sidelobes
level and a bigger 3dB beamwidth with lower directivity compared to uniform
amplitude distribution array. Lastly, the main beam was found to have the steering
capability as the phase excitation was varied with a suitable amplitude distribution and
interelement spacing. This could be seen form Figure 6.3h, 6.3i, and 6.3j that the beam
rotated in the anticlockwise direction as the phase excitation increases.
(ii) Planar Array
The element polarization was assumed to be in xdirection and it was found from the
simulation results that an increase of interelement spacing in the xdirection would
produce a more focus main beam, but more sidelobes were generated. On the other
hand, it was found that the interelement spacing in y–direction was directly
proportional to the directivity. Decreasing the interelement spacing in the ydirection
would thus, cause a drop in directivity.
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PCAAD simulations also showed that an increase in the number of elements in a planar
array would contribute to a more concentrated main beam with higher directivity, but at
the expense of generating more sidelobes. Therefore, there is always a compromise
between directivity and antenna size. Nonuniform amplitude distributions planar array
had confirmed that they would have a lower sidelobes level compare to uniform
amplitude array. Similar results were yield for linear array.
Finally, the overall radiation pattern, which is formed by combining the radiation
pattern of a single microstrip patch antenna and the array factor of the planar array, was
found to have the capability of beam steering when the phase excitation of β
x
was
varied in Eplane. This was due to the fact that it was in the xz plane (Eplane). There
were only slight changes in the main beam amplitude but a significant change in
sidelobes level when β
x
changes. Variation in β
y
was found only to have effect on the
amplitude of the main beam.
However, when the patterns were plotted in Hplane, all conditions were found to have
an inverse effect. β
y
was in control of the main beam steering and would also caused
changes in the sidelobes level. Thus, variation in β
x
was discovered having the ability to
change the amplitude of the pattern as expected.
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Chapter 7
Antenna Synthesis Investigation
7.1 Aim and Procedures
Chapter 2 had covered the theory on antenna synthesis. In addition, it is important to
analyze the radiation patterns by using different systematic methods that may arrive at
an antenna configuration which will produce an acceptable approximates desired
pattern.
The two techniques, WoodwardLawson Sampling Method and DolphChebyshev
Method, which had been previously discussed, will be investigated in this chapter.
Firstly, the chapter will be covering on the WoodwardLawson method. Simulations
will be carried out by varying the number of elements for synthesis on a sectored pattern
of a linear array. Following that, we will look into the area whereby the interelement
spacing is varied for an 8 and 16 element linear array synthesizing.
The next section will be examining on the DolphChebyshev method where all
observation is analyzed, in the event of changes in the number of elements or sidelobes
level for a linear array. Further investigation is performed by varying the interelement
spacing for an 8 and 16 elements linear array. Finally, the chapter will conclude with
some discussions on the results achieved.
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7.2 WoodwardLawson Synthesis
This section explores the WoodwardLawson method on linear array. The first part will
be analyzing the performance caused by variation in number of elements for synthesis
of a sectored pattern of a linear array while the next part will the analysis of varying
interelement spacing for synthesizing an 8 and 20 element linear array.
7.2.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N
The sector pattern will be defined as a 0dB between the angle of 30° and 30° with –
60dB elsewhere.
The following assumptions are made:
• Frequency = 2GHz
• Interelement spacing = 0.5λ
Syntheses were carried out using PCAAD and the results achieved were tabulated in
Table 7.1.
Figure 7.2a illustrated the radiation patterns for 8 elements linear array.
A MATLAB code was also written to design a radiation pattern for 10 elements
uniform linear array for interelement spacing of ½wavelength. Refer to Appendix B
for the MATLAB code. Figure 7.2b illustrated the radiation pattern for this design.
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76
Number of
elements
3dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Sidelobe level
(decibels)
Ripple, R
(decibels)
Transition width, T
(degree)
4 41.77 No sidelobes No ripple 46.8
8 50.17 28.4 0.2 22.0
12 53.31 29.6 0.3 14.8
16 54.93 29.8 0.3 10.9
20 55.96 30.0 0.3 8.7
40 57.96 30.3 0.2 5.4
80 58.75 45.5 0.2 2.4
160 59.04 56.3 0.2 1.4
Table 7.1
Figure 7.2a Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array
Figure 7.2b Radiation pattern
for 10 element uniform linear
array of ½wavelength inter
element spacing
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7.2.2 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d
The interelement spacing will be varied for synthesizing the 8 elements and 16
elements linear array. The radiation will be defined as 0dB at the angle of 0° for the
desired main beam and –60dB elsewhere. The frequency used will be 2GHz and the
wavelength is 15cm, which are the same for all other simulations that had been
performed.
Syntheses were carried out using PCAAD and the results achieved were tabulated in
Table 7.2.
Number of
elements
Interelement spacing
(cm)
Sidelobe level
(decibels)
3dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
8
0.125λ
No Sidelobe 52.9 
8
0.25λ
12.8 25.73 2 sidelobes
8
0.375λ
12.9 17.04 4 sidelobes
8
0.5λ
12.8 12.74 6 sidelobes
8
0.625λ
12.9 10.2 8 sidelobes
8
0.75λ
12.9 8.46 10 sidelobes
8
0.875λ
12.9 7.21 12 sidelobes
8
λ
  Grating lobes occurs at
90° and 90°
16
0.125λ
13.2 25.59 2 sidelobes
16
0.25λ
13.2 12.68 6 sidelobes
16
0.375λ
13.2 8.42 10 sidelobes
16
0.5λ
13.3 6.29 14 sidelobes
16
0.625λ
13.3 4.95 18 sidelobes
16
0.75λ
13.2 4.17 22 sidelobes
16
0.875λ
13.2 3.5 26 sidelobes
16
λ
13.3 2.96 Grating lobes occurs at
90° and 90°
Table 7.2
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Figure 7.2c and Figure 7.2d illustrated the radiation patterns of an 8 elements linear
array for an interelement spacing of 0.25λ and 0.75λ respectively.
Figure 7.2c Radiation patterns of an 8 elements
linear array for an interelement
spacing of 0.25λ λ
Figure 7.2d Radiation patterns of an 8 elements
linear array for an interelement
spacing of 0.75λ λ
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Figure 7.2e and Figure 7.2f displayed the radiation patterns of a 16 elements linear array
for an interelement spacing of 0.25λ and 0.75λ respectively.
Figure 7.2f Radiation patterns of an 16
elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.75λ λ
Figure 7.2e Radiation patterns of an 16
elements linear array for an inter
element spacing of 0.25λ λ
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7.3 DolphChebyshev Synthesis
This section studies the DolphChebyshev method on linear array. Investigations are
carried out by varying the number of elements in the array and the sidelobe level of an 8
element linear array. Further observations are monitored by varying the interelement
spacing of an 8 and 16 elements linear array.
7.3.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N
The following assumptions are made for the investigation:
• Normalized interelement spacing = 0.5
• Sidelobe level = 20dB
Syntheses were carried out using the MATLAB program. Appendix C provides the
MATLAB code for synthesis of N element linear array (2 ≤N ≤ 10) using the Dolph
Chebyshev method. All results achieved were tabulated in Table 7.3. In addition, the
results obtained were compared with the Ensemble 5.1 program, which yields similar
details.
Number of
elements
3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
2 59.9°
Main beam with no sidelobe
4 30.0° 2 sidelobes appear
6 20.0° 4 sidelobes appear
8 14.5° 6 sidelobes appear
10 11.0° 8 sidelobes appear
16 6.8° 14 sidelobes appear
22 5.0° 20 sidelobes appear
28 4.0° 26 sidelobes appear
34 3.0° 32 sidelobes appear
40 2.6° 38 sidelobes appear
Table 7.3
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Using the DolphChebyshev method, Figure 7.3a was generated and displayed the
radiation patterns for the 10 elements linear array. Figure 7.3a(i) illustrated the plot
generated from MATLAB while Figure 7.3a(ii) displayed one that was from Ensemble.
Both yielded the same results.
Figure 7.3a
150 100 50 0
0
20
30
10
40
(i) Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using MATLAB
(ii) Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using Ensemble
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7.3.2 Effect of Varying Sidelobe Level
The following assumptions are made for the synthesis:
• Normalized interelement spacing = 0.5
• Number of elements = 8
In this section, syntheses were also carried out using the MATLAB program and all
results achieved were compared with the Ensemble program. Likewise, both programs
generated similar results and the data obtained was tabulated in Table 7.4.
Sidelobe level
(dB)
3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
5 10.0° 6 sidelobes appear
10 11.5° 6 sidelobes appear
15 12.0° 6 sidelobes appear
20 14.5° 6 sidelobes appear
25 15.5° 6 sidelobes appear
30 16.5° 6 sidelobes appear
40 18.0° 6 sidelobes appear
50 19.5° 6 sidelobes appear
60 20.1° 6 sidelobes appear
80 21.8° 6 sidelobes appear
Figure 7.3b was generated and displayed the radiation patterns for the 8 elements linear
array with a 25dB sidelobe level. Figure 7.3b(i) illustrated the plot generated from
MATLAB while Figure 7.3b(ii) displayed the radiation pattern generated by Ensemble.
Table 7.4
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150 100 50 0
0
20
30
10
40
Figure 7.3b
(ii) Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB
sidelobe level using Ensemble
(i) Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB
sidelobe level using MATLAB
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7.3.3 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d
This section will be analyzing on the radiation pattern for various interelement spacing
for 8 and 16 elements linear array.
First and foremost, the following assumption is made:
• Sidelobe level = 20dB
In addition to using the MATLAB program for all syntheses, Ensemble was also used to
verify the results achieved. Correspondingly, both programs produced comparable
results and the data obtained was tabulated in Table 7.5.
Number of
elements
Interelement spacing
(Normalized)
3 dB Beamwidth
(degree)
Remarks
8 0.125 60.0°
Main beam with no sidelobe
8 0.25 29.0° 4 sidelobes appear
8 0.375 19.0° 6 sidelobes appear
8 0.5 14.5° 6 sidelobes appear
8 0.625 11.5° 8 sidelobes appear
8 0.75 9.5° 10 sidelobes appear
8 0.825 8.0° 14 sidelobes appear
8 1 7.0° 2 grating lobes and
12 sidelobes appear
16 0.125 27.0° 4 sidelobes appear
16 0.25 13.5° 8 sidelobes appear
16 0.375 9.0° 12 sidelobes appear
16 0.5 6.8° 14 sidelobes appear
16 0.625 5.4° 18 sidelobes appear
16 0.75 4.5° 22 sidelobes appear
16 0.825 4.0° 26 sidelobes appear
16 1 3.2° 2 grating lobes and
28 sidelobes appear
Table 7.5
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Figure 7.3c illustrated the radiation patterns for an 8 elements linear array with a
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5. Figure 7.3c (i) displayed the linear plot
generated by MATLAB while Figure7.3c (ii) displayed the plot that was produced using
Ensemble.
150 100 50 0
0
20
30
10
40
(i) Radiation pattern for 8 element linear array with
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5 using MATLAB
(ii) Radiation pattern for 8 element linear array with
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5 using Ensemble
Figure 7.3c
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Figure 7.3d illustrated the radiation patterns for 16 elements linear array with a
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5. Figure 7.3d (i) displayed the linear plot
generated by MATLAB while Figure7.3d (ii) displayed the plot that was produced
using Ensemble.
150 100 50 0
0
20
30
10
40
(i) Radiation pattern for 16 element linear array with
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5 using MATLAB
(ii) Radiation pattern for 16 element linear array with
normalized interelement spacing of 0.5 using Ensemble
Figure 7.3d
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7.4 Discussion
(i) WoodwardLawson Method
Synthesis results proved that the ripple rate would be higher if there was an increase in
the number of elements in the linear array. It was also observed that the Woodward
Lawson method had low sidelobes level, which is a positive sign for designers.
Although it could be seen that a very good transition width was achieved as the number
of elements in the array increases, but low beam ripple could also be obtained at some
sacrifice in transition width.
Furthermore, the investigated results illustrated that increment in the interelement
spacing resulted in a desired smaller 3dB beamwidth but more sidelobes were
generated. However, the sidelobes level remained the same. Thus, this synthesis method
presented is most useful for shaping main beam of an antenna pattern as the sidelobe
level is at a satisfactory level.
(ii) DolphChebyshev Method
The DolphChebyshev method implemented showed that for a given sidelobe level, a
narrow 3dB beamwidth could be achieved by increasing the number of elements in the
array. Although the number of sidelobes increases with an increase in number of
elements, but the sidelobe level remained the same.
In addition, for a fix number of elements and interelement spacing, it was found that
the 3dB beamwidth increases when the sidelobe level decreases but the number of
sidelobes did not change. Examining the tabulated results also illustrated that the 3dB
beamwidth decreases with an increasing interelement spacing. However, the number of
sidelobes multiples. Grating lobes were also generated when an interelement spacing
was equal to the wavelength. Last but not least, the result shows that this synthesis
technique can be applied for achieving a narrow beamwidth accompanied by low
sidelobes level.
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Chapter 8
Recursive Least Squares Algorithm
Analysis
8.1 Aim and Procedures
After covering the basic concept of Recursive Least Squares algorithm in Chapter 4, the
objective of this chapter will be analyzing the radiation pattern of a uniform linear array
using the RLS approach. The MATLAB code for the RLS algorithm was formulated
and thus, compiling the codes on the computer will carry out the all the desired
simulations.
Refer to Appendix D for the MATLAB code.
8.2 Simulated Results
The following assumption are made for the simulations:
• Frequency = 2GHz
• Wavelength = 15cm
• Interelement spacing = 7.5cm
• Forgetting factor = 0.95
• No noise in received data
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 8: Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis
89
The radiation patterns were presented in both linear and polar plots. Figure 8.2a
illustrated the patterns of a 4 element linear array at 0° and Figure 8.2b illustrated the
radiation pattern of a 4 element linear array at 45°.
Figure 8.2a Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 0° °
(ii) Polar plot
(i) Linear plot
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90
Figure 8.2b Radiation pattern for 4 element linear array at 45° °
(ii) Polar plot
(i) Linear plot
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91
8.3 Discussion
Compiling the MATLAB code on Recursive Least Squares algorithm, the radiation
patterns of a 4 element linear array plotted were the consequences of the optimal weight
vector at the steady state multiply with the steering vector from the range of 90° to 90°.
Regardless of numerous signal sources, only the optimal weight vector obtained
provided the maximal radiation pattern for each individual desired signal source at the
desired angle.
Nevertheless, the simulations performed were based on a known steering direction
whereby an angle for the signal source was designated. The radiation patterns plotted
were at 0° and 45°. However, it must be noted that there may be some mismatch in the
timevariable signal environment as it requires to track the direction of the signal
source. Nevertheless, although the RLS algorithm was found to have a faster
convergence speed, but there is a greater computation complexity as shown in the
MATLAB code provided in Appendix D.
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Chapter 9
Conclusion and Future Developments
9.1 Conclusion
This thesis had provided an introduction to basic antenna theory and a sound description
on the types of antennas that we would be using. Although the aim of thesis is the study
on smart antenna system, but the fundament antenna concept and the parameters of
antenna were examined. Thus, this had led to a better understanding on antennas.
Upon having a valuable knowledge on antenna, a detailed description on smart antenna
system was presented. That includes the benefits of smart antenna system, the
switchingbeam array and adaptive array approaches, beam forming and the recursive
least squares algorithm.
In addition, the range of frequencies available for wireless communication technologies
can be utilized in various ways/schemes. Thus, the multiple access schemes, which
consist of the FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and SDMA, were introduced. It was also
discussed how channel capacity in wireless communication could be increased through
SDMA.
We had also investigated on the radiation pattern and performance of array antennas.
From the results of the simulations, it was seen that radiation patterns were related to
the number of elements in the array, the interelement spacing, amplitude distribution
and the phase excitation. Thus, there is always a compromise between the influencing
parameters.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 9: Conclusion and Future Developments
93
The next section had examined on antenna synthesis where investigations were carried
out using the WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev method. It was concluded that
different synthesis methods would have to be applied in order to yield different desired
radiation pattern. However, it was also possible for different methods to be integrated
together, thus forming an optimal desired pattern. Last but not least, an adaptive
algorithm known as the Recursive Least Squares algorithm was analyzed and had
shown that a smooth estimation optimal response could be obtained.
In conclusion, this thesis had met the objective of studying and analyzing on the
performance of the smart antenna system. It had also provided a sense of achievement
as significant amount of work had been accomplished. However, there are still other
important areas that require further work and they will be illustrated in the last section.
9.2 Future Developments
Although this thesis had provided significant study on the smart antenna system for the
wireless communication environment, but there are still other equally important areas
that require our attention. They include analysis on circular array in addition to an in
depth investigation on planar array.
Further research can also be done on different methods of antenna synthesis as this
thesis had covered only the WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev methods. The
other techniques include the Schelkunoff Polynomial Method, Fourier Transform
Method and Taylor LineSource (OneParameter).
The implementation of the complex smart antenna system requires adaptive algorithms
for estimation of the optimal response and reducing the effects of noise in the time
variable environment. Although recent evolution had made it feasible, there is always a
challenge to improve these algorithms for faster and more complex processing as the
world enters into the future of a wireless dimension.
References
1. K.F. Lee: “Principles of Antenna Theory,” John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1984.
2. G.T. Okamato: “Smart Antenna Systems and Wireless LANs,” Kluwer
Academic, Massachusettes, 1999.
3. C.A. Balanis: “Antenna Theory,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.
4. W.S. Strutzman and G.A. Thiele: “Antenna Theory and Design,” John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1981.
5. M.T. Ma: “Theory and Application of Antenna Arrays,” John wiley & Sons,
New York, 1974.
6. T. Macnamara: “Handbook of Antennas for EMC,” Artech House, London,
1995.
7. P.H. Lehne and M. Pettersen, “An Overview of Smart Antenna Technology for
Mobil Communications System,” Surveys,
http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys/4q99issue/lehne.html
8. J.C. Liberti Jr. and T.S. Rappaport: “Smart Antennas for Wireless
Communications: IS95 and Third Generation CDMA Applications,” Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1999.
9. I.E. Sutherland et al., “Experimental Evaluation of Smart Antenna System
Performance for Wireless Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. 46, No. 6, Jun. 1998, pp. 794757.
10. L.C. Godara, “Applications of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communication, Part
I: Performance, Improvement, Feasibility and Systems Considerations,”
Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 7, Jul. 1997, pp. 10291060.
11. S. Sampei: “Applications of Digital Wireless Technologies to Global Wireless
Communications,” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997.
12. R. Prasad: “CDMA for Wireless Personal Communications,” Artech House,
Boston, 1996.
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Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1996.
14. S.Haykin: “Adaptive Filter Theory,” Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1991.
Appendix A
% Planar Array
teta = 90:1:90;
theta = teta*pi/180;
ph = 0; % Eplane, phi = 90 for Hplane
phi = ph*pi/180; % Convert to radian
bx = 0; % Phase shift in xdirection
by = 0; % Phase shift in ydirection
beta_x = (bx/180)*pi; % Convert to radian
beta_y = (by/180)*pi; % Convert to radian
x = 8.3; % Interelement spacing in xdirection
y = 9; % Interelement spacing in ydirection
k = (2*pi)/(3e10/2e9); % Wave number
% Progreesive phase value in xdirection
phix = k*x*sin(theta).*cos(phi) + beta_x;
% Progreesive phase value in ydirection
phiy = k*y*sin(theta).*sin(phi) + beta_y;
ix1 = 1; % Excitation of each element
ix2 = 1;
iy1 = 1;
iy2 = 1;
% Array factor of array in the xdirection
Sx = ix1+ix2*exp(j*phix);
% Array factor of array in the ydirection
Sy = iy1+iy2*exp(j*phiy);
load A:\eplane.dat % load data of single element
Edb = eplane(:,2);
E = 10.^(Edb/20); % Covert to ratio
subplot(2,2,1); % Define plot area
% Plot radiation pattern of a Single microstrip element
h = polar(theta',abs(E));
set(h,'color','red');
h = ylabel('Single Element');
set(h,'color','red');
subplot(2,2,2); % Define plot area
AF = abs(Sx.*Sy); % Array factor of planar array
% Plot radiation pattern of array factor of planar array
h1 = polar(theta,AF);
set(h1,'color','magenta');
h1 = ylabel('Array Factor');
set(h1,'color','magenta');
subplot(2,2,3); % Define plot area
overall = abs(AF'.*E); % Pattern multiplication
% Plot overall radiation pattern of planar array
h2 = polar(theta',overall); set(h2,'color','blue');
h2 = ylabel('Overall pattern');
set(h2,'color','blue');
subplot(2,2,4); % Define plot area
range_x = pi*(90/pi);
range_x1 = pi*(90/pi);
theta = linspace(range_x1,range_x,181);
h3 = plot(theta',overall); % Plot in rectangular pattern
% Initialize yaxis for linear plot
x_axis = pi*(90/pi);
% Initialize yaxis for linear plot
x_axis1 = pi*(90/pi);
axis([x_axis1 x_axis exp(4) 5]); % Plot linear pattern
set(h3,'color','green');
h3 = ylabel('Linear Plot');
set(h3,'color','green');
grid;
Appendix B
%This program uses the WoodwardLawson synthesis, to design
a %radiation pattern for a 10 elements uniform linear
%array with an element spacing of one half the wavelength.
t = 0:1:180;
theta = t*pi/180;
p5m = 1; n5m = 1; %cos(thetam)
p4m = 0.8; n4m = 0.8;
p3m = 0.6; n3m = 0.6;
p2m = 0.4; n2m = 0.4;
p1m = 0.2; n1m = 0.2;
p0m = 0;
b5m = 0; nb5m = 0; %Excitation at the sample
points
b4m = 0; nb4m = 0;
b3m = 1; nb3m = 1;
b2m = 1; nb2m = 1;
b1m = 1; nb1m = 1;
b0m = 1;
a5 = cos(theta)  p5m;
%Pattern of each composing function
AF5 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a5))./(sin((pi.*a5)./2)).*b5m)./10;
a4 = cos(theta)  p4m;
AF4 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a4))./(sin((pi.*a4)./2)).*b4m)./10;
a3 = cos(theta)  p3m;
AF3 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a3))./(sin((pi.*a3)./2)).*b3m)./10;
a2 = cos(theta)  p2m;
AF1 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a2))./(sin((pi.*a2)./2)).*b2m)./10;
a1 = cos(theta)  p1m;
AF2 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a1))./(sin((pi.*a1)./2)).*b1m)./10;
a0 = cos(theta)  p0m;
AF0 = ((sin(5.*pi.*a0))./(sin((pi.*a0)./2)).*b0m)./10;
an1 = cos(theta)  n1m;
AFn1 = ((sin(5.*pi.*an1))./(sin((pi.*an1)./2)).*nb1m)./10;
an2 = cos(theta)  n2m;
AFn2 = ((sin(5.*pi.*an2))./(sin((pi.*an2)./2)).*nb2m)./10;
an3 = cos(theta)  n3m;
AFn3 = ((sin(5.*pi.*an3))./(sin((pi.*an3)./2)).*nb3m)./10;
an4 = cos(theta)  n4m;
AFn4 = ((sin(5.*pi.*an4))./(sin((pi.*an4)./2)).*nb4m)./10;
an5 = cos(theta)  n5m;
AFn5 = ((sin(5.*pi.*an5))./(sin((pi.*an5)./2)).*nb5m)./10;
%Summation of composing functions
total = AF5 + AF4 + AF3 + AF2 + AF1 + AF0 + AFn1 + AFn2 +
AFn3 + AFn4 + AFn5;
tot = abs(total);
polar(theta,tot);%Plot polar pattern
pause
plot(t,tot); %Plot linear pattern
xlabel('Theta (Degrees)');
ylabel('Normalized Magnitude');
grid;
Appendix C
clc; % Clear screen
clear; % Clear all variables
% Prompt user for number of elements in an array.
disp(' ')
disp('Please enter the number of elements in the array.')
disp(' ')
disp('Assuming that the array has at least 2 elements')
disp('but not more than 10 elements.')
disp(' ')
N = input(['Number of elements in the array = ']);
% Prompt user for the required Side Lobe Level.
clc;
disp(' ')
disp('Please enter the required side lobe level in
decibels.')
disp(' ')
SLL = input(['Side lobe level(dB) = ']);
R = 10^(SLL/20); % Convert to ratio
Zo = cosh((1/(N1))*acosh(R)); % Determine Zo
% Prompt user for the Normalised Interelement Spacing.
clc;
disp(' ')
disp('Please enter one of the following interelement
spacing (Normalised).')
disp(' ')
disp('Press "a" for 1/4 wavelength.')
disp('Press "b" for 1/2 wavelength.')
disp('Press "c" for 3/4 wavelength.')
disp('Press "d" for full wavelength.')
disp(' ')
a=0.25;
b=0.5;
c=0.75;
d=1;
spacing = input(['Interelement spacing (Normalised) = ']);
t = 0:1:179;
theta = t*pi/180; % Convert to radian
u = pi*spacing*cos(theta);
clc;
disp(' ')
disp(['Number of elements = ' num2str(N)])
disp(['Side lobe level = ' num2str(SLL) ' dB'])
disp(['Interelement spacing (Normalised) = '
num2str(spacing)])
if N<=10
if N == 2;
AFp = [1]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [1*Zo]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(1,1); % Normalized with respect to the amplitude
% of the elements at the edge
AF = abs(Xo(1,1)*cos(u)); % Determine the array factor
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
%values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N == 3;
AFp = [0,2;
1,1]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [2*Zo^2; % Chebyshev polynomial
1];
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(2,1); % Normalized with respect to the amplitude
% of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF = abs(Xo(1,1)+Xo(2,1)*cos(2*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N==4;
AFp = [0,4;
1,3]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [4*Zo^3;
3*Zo]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(2,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF = abs(Xo(1,1)*cos(u)+Xo(2,1)*cos(3*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N == 5;
AFp = [0,0,8;
0,2,8;
1,1,1]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [8*Zo^4;
8*Zo^2;
1]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(3,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF = abs(Xo(1,1)+Xo(2,1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(4*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N==6;
AFp = [0,0,16;
0,4,20;
1,3,5,]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [16*Zo^5;
20*Zo^3;
5*Zo]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(3,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF = abs(Xo(1,1)*cos(u)+Xo(2,1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(5*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N == 7;
AFp = [0,0,0,32;
0,0,8,48;
0,2,8,18
1,1,1,1]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [32*Zo^6;
48*Zo^4;
18*Zo^2;
1]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(4,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF =
abs(Xo(1,1)+Xo(2,1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(4*u)+Xo(4,1)*cos(6
*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); %Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N==8;
AFp = [0,0,0,64;
0,0,16,112;
0,4,20,56;
1,3,5,7,]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [64*Zo^7;
112*Zo^5;
56*Zo^3;
7*Zo]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(4,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF =
abs(Xo(1,1)*cos(u)+Xo(2,1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(5*u)+Xo(4,1
)*cos(7*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N == 9;
AFp = [0,0,0,0,128;
0,0,0,32,256;
0,0,8,48,160;
0,2,8,18,32;
1,1,1,1,1]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [128*Zo^8;
256*Zo^6;
160*Zo^4;
32*Zo^2;
1]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(5,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF =
abs(Xo(1,1)+Xo(2,1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(4*u)+Xo(4,1)*cos(6
*u)+Xo(5,1)*cos(8*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum
% values for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
elseif N==10;
AFp = [0,0,0,0,256;
0,0,0,64,576;
0,0,16,112,432;
0,4,20,56,120;
1,3,5,7,9]; % Polynomial of excitation coefficient
AFc = [256*Zo^9;
576*Zo^7;
432*Zo^5;
120*Zo^3;
9*Zo]; % Chebyshev polynomial
X = AFp\AFc; % Determine the excitation coefficient
Xo = X/X(5,1); % Normalized with respect to the
% amplitude of the elements at the edge
% Determine the array factor
AF =
abs(Xo(1,1)*cos(u)+Xo(2,1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3,1)*cos(5*u)+Xo(4,1
)*cos(7*u)+Xo(5,1)*cos(9*u));
subplot(2,2,1);
polar(theta,AF); % Generate polar plot
AF1=20*log10(AF); % Convert to decibels
max=max(AF1); % Setting maximum value of the
% array factor to "max"
AF2=AF1max; % Set values of array factor
% with respect to maximum value
theta1=(180/pi)*theta;
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(theta1,AF2); % Generate linear plot
axis([0 180 40 0]); % Set maximum and minimum values
%for X and Y scales
grid % Turn grid on
end
else
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp(' ')
disp('Invalid value !!!')
disp(' ')
disp('Press any key to exit........')
pause
end
Appendix D
%Number of element
M = input(['Number of elements in array : ']);
%Direction of desired signal
a = input(['Steering angle in degrees : ']);
x = a*pi/180; %Convert to radian
% initializing the algorithm
I = eye(M); %M X M identity matrix
delta = 1e6; %Small positive constant
P0 = inv(delta)*I; %Initialize the algorithm
w0 = (linspace(0,0,M))'; %Initial weight vector
for n = 1:100 %Number of iterations
B = steeringv(M,x); %Steering vector
X = B'*n;
wq = B';
dn = conj(wq)'*X; %Desired response vector
un = X; %Input data vector
forget = 0.95; %Forgetting factor
pin = un'*P0; %Calculate pi(n)
kn = forget + (pin*un); %Calculate k(n)
Kn = (P0*un)/(kn); %Calculate K(n)
an = dn  (conj(w0)'*un); %Calculate alpha(n)
wn = w0 + (Kn*conj(an)); %Calculate w(n)
Pn = (1/forget)*[P0  [P0*un*un'*P0]/kn];%Calculate P(n)
P0 = Pn;
w0 = wn;
end
for ang = 90:1:90 %linear plot
n = 91 + ang;
angl(n) = ang;
x = ang*pi/180;
A = steeringv(M,x);
out = (w0'*A'); %Multiply with steering vector
output(n) = abs(out);
output1 = output/max(output); %Normalize to unity
xlabel('Angle in degree');
ylabel('Normalize array gain')
plot(angl,output1); %Plot linear pattern
axis tight;
xlabel('Angle (Degrees)');
ylabel('Normalized Array Gain (Ratio)');
grid;
end
pause
ang = 90:1:90;
y = ang*pi/180;
polar(y,output1); %polar plot
function S = steeringv(M,x); %define steering vector
%free space wavelength of 15cm at resonant freq of 2GHz
lamda = 0.15;
d = lamda/2; %interelement spacing
K = 1:M;
%x is DOA of the received signal
S = exp((2*pi*j*(K1)*d*sin(x))/lamda);
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications
Suan Soo Foo Approved by Assoc. Prof. Bialkowski University of Queensland
School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering University of Queensland
Queensland 4072 Australia
ii
Acknowledgements
The author would like to express his appreciation to his supervisor, Associate Professor M.E. Bialkowski, for providing the opportunity to research this interesting topic, for his valuable advice and the direction he had shown throughout the year.
Many thanks to Danny Kai Pin Tan for giving the opportunity to work with him and the tolerant he had shown while working together.
Thanks must also go to the laboratory supervisor, Damian Jones for his assistance and the patient he had given while using the Microwave Laboratory throughout the thesis project.
Last but no least, the author would like to extend his thanks to his girlfriend, Chai Weichiun, and his family for their support and encouragement.
iii
ABSTRACT
The smart antenna is set to play a significant role in the development of nextgeneration wireless communication system. The purpose of this thesis is to provide the concept on smart antenna system by studying the performance of antenna array. A brief introduction will be given before providing the overview of the thesis content.
Antenna theory and the description of different types of antennas will be discussed with emphasis on array antennas. Two methods of antenna synthesis known as the WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev will also be introduced before studying the fundamental parameters of antenna.
With a basic understanding on antenna, this thesis will therefore discuss about the smart antenna technology. The two types of smart antenna approaches known as the SwitchingBeam Array and Adaptive Array will be addressed after introducing the benefits of the smart antenna technology. The smart antenna terminology together with an adaptive algorithm called the Recursive Least Squares Algorithm will also be presented.
After a brief introduction to the types multiple access schemes, array antennas simulation and synthesis using the above mentioned methods and algorithm will be carried out by varying different limiting parameters. Results will be tabulated and antenna radiation patterns will also be plotted for discussion before wrapping up with a conclusion and suggestion on future developments.
iv
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Aim of Thesis 1.3 Overview of Content
1
1 2 3
Chapter 2 Antennas
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Types of Antenna
2.2.1 Microstrip Antennas 2.2.2 Array Antennas
4
4 6
7 10
2.3 Linear Array Antenna 2.4 Planar Array Antenna 2.5 Antenna Synthesis
2.5.1 WoodwardLawson Method 2.5.2 DolphChebyshev Method
11 12 15
16 18
Chapter 3 Parameters of Antenna
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Radiation Pattern
3.2.1 Rectangular/Cartesian Plots 3.2.2 Polar Plots
21
21 22
23 24
3.3 Main Lobe
3.3.1 Beamwidth – Half power and 10dB 3.3.2 Boresight Directivity/Gain
26
26 27
3.4 Sidelobes 3.5 Fronttoback Ratio 3.6 Aperture Size 3.7 Polarization
28 29 29 29
v
Chapter 4 Smart Antenna System
4.1 Introduction 4.2 Key Benefits of Smart Antenna Technology 4.3 Smart Antenna System
4.3.1 SwitchingBeam Array (SBA) 4.3.2 Adaptive Array
31
31 32 34
35 36
4.4 Beam Forming
4.4.1 Null Beam Forming 4.4.2 Steering Vector
38
39 39
4.5 Recursive Least Squares Algorithm
40
Chapter 5 Multiple Access Schemes
5.1 Introduction 5.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 5.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 5.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 5.5 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
43
43 44 45 46 47
Chapter 6 Analysis of Array Antennas
6.1 Aim and Procedures 6.2 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design 6.3 Simulation on Linear Array Antenna
6.3.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 6.3.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 6.3.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution 6.3.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitation, β
49
49 49 54
54 56 57 59
6.4 Simulation on Planar Array Antenna
6.4.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d 6.4.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 6.4.3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution 6.4.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitation, βx and βy
61
61 64 68 68
6.5 Discussion
72
Chapter 7 Antenna Synthesis Investigation
7.1 Aim and Procedures 7.2 WoodwardLawson Synthesis
7.2.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 7.2.2 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing, d
74
74 75
75 77
7.3 DolphChebyshev Synthesis
7.3.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements, N 7.3.2 Effect of Varying Sidelobe Level vi
80
80 82
3 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing.3.1 Aim and Procedures 8.2 Simulated Results 8.1 Conclusion 9.3 Discussion 88 88 88 91 Chapter 9 Conclusion and Future Developments 9.4 Discussion 87 Chapter 8 Recursive Least Square Algorithm Analysis 8. d 84 7.2 Future Developments 92 92 93 References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D vii .7.
4a Antenna as a transition device Representative shapes of microstrip patch elements Typical feed for microstrip antennas Linear array of microstrip Linear and Planar geometries 5 8 9 11 13 Chapter 3 Figure 3.2a Figure 3.3a Figure 3.1a Figure 2.3c Figure 4.3b Figure 4.4a Spectrum of FDMA systems Frame and slot structure with basic TDMA Concept of CDMA system 44 45 47 viii .List of Figures Chapter 2 Figure 2.2a Figure 2.2b Figure 2.1a Figure 4.2b Figure 3.5a Concept of smart antenna system Switchbeam array pattern Switchbeam network Adaptive array pattern Network structure of an adaptive array Representation of RLS algorithm 32 35 35 37 37 41 Chapter 5 Figure 5.7b Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space for horizontal polarization 30 30 24 25 26 28 Chapter 4 Figure 4.3a Figure 5.3a Figure 4.3d Figure 4.7a Rectangular plot of an antenna radiation pattern Polar plot of an antenna pattern Typical power pattern polar plot A radiation pattern showing the sidelobes level and positions Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space for vertical polarization Figure 3.3a Figure 2.2a Figure 5.4a Figure 3.
4h Figure 6.4b Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: ¾ λ in xdirection & ¾ λ in ydirection Figure 6.4e Figure 6.3g Figure 6.3f Figure 6.2b Figure 6.75cm VSWR plot for length of 4.4g Figure 6.4j Figure 6.4i Figure 6.2a Figure 6.3h Figure 6.4k Polar plot for a 3x3 planar array Polar plot for a 5x5 planar array Polar plot for a 8x8 planar array Radiation pattern of uniform distribution planar array Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution planar array Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution planar array Radiation plots of an planar array in Eplane Radiation plots of an planar array in Hplane 63 65 65 65 67 67 67 70 71 63 63 52 53 53 55 55 56 57 58 58 58 60 60 60 Chapter 7 Figure 7.4c Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: λ in xdirection & λ in ydirection Figure 6.3d Figure 6.2b Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array Radiation pattern for 10 elements uniform linear array of ½ λ wavelength interelement spacing ix 76 76 .706cm Radiation pattern for single microstrip patch antenna Radiation pattern of ¼ λ interelement spacing Radiation pattern of λ interelement spacing Radiation pattern of a 4elements linear array Radiation pattern of a 10elements linear array Radiation pattern of a uniform distribution linear array Radiation pattern of a Chebyshev distribution linear array Radiation pattern of a Taylor distribution linear array Radiation pattern with phase excitation 0° Radiation pattern with phase excitation 45° Radiation pattern with phase excitation 90° Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: ½ λ in xdirection & ½ λ in ydirection Figure 6.Chapter 6 Figure 6.4a VSWR plot for length of 4.2c Figure 6.3j Figure 6.4d Figure 6.3b Figure 6.3i Figure 6.3a Figure 6.2a Figure 7.3c Figure 6.3e Figure 6.4f Figure 6.
3b Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB sidelobe level using MATLAB and Ensemble 83 Figure 7.25λ 79 Figure 7.2d Radiation pattern of an 8 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.Figure 7.2c Radiation pattern of an 8 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.75λ 78 Figure 7.3d Radiation pattern for 16 elements linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0.5using MATLAB and Ensemble 85 Figure 7.3a Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using MATLAB and Ensemble 81 Figure 7.2b Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 0° Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 45° 89 90 x .2a Figure 8.2e Radiation pattern of a 16 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.75λ 79 Figure 7.5using MATLAB and Ensemble 86 Chapter 8 Figure 8.3c Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0.2f Radiation pattern of a 16 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.25λ 78 Figure 7.
3 Results of varying number of elements for DolphChebyshev synthesis Table 7.5 Results of varying interelement spacing for DolphChebyshev synthesis 84 82 80 77 76 xi .8 Results of varying interelement spacing in linear array Results of varying number of element in linear array Results of varying amplitude distribution in linear array Results of varying phase excitation in linear array Results of varying interelement spacing in planar array Results of varying number of element in planar array Results of varying amplitude distribution in planar array Results of varying phase excitation in planar array 55 56 57 59 62 64 66 69 Chapter 7 Table 7.1 Results of varying number of elements for WoodwardLawson synthesis Table 7.6 Table 6.1 Table 6.7 Table 6.4 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.2 Results of varying interelements spacing for WoodwardLawson synthesis Table 7.4 Results of varying sidelobe level for DolphChebyshev synthesis Table 7.List of Tables Chapter 6 Table 6.5 Table 6.
coaxial cable. These optical communications utilize the light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and it has only been in recent times that the electromagnetic spectrum. and so forth. whereby antenna patterns were cautiously engineered to acquire desired coverage characteristics. numerous devices were introduced. Consequently. In the first place. information can be conveyed between various locations without any intervening structures. the application of wireless communication system has erupted throughout the world and recent years have witness wireless communications relishing its fastest growth period in history.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction C hapter 1 Introduction 1. The radio antenna is a primary component in all radio system. An antenna (also know as an aerial) is defined as a means for radiating or receiving radio waves [1]. such as horns. However. has been adopted for communication. communication has been of foremost importance to mankind. Since. or waveguide). In another word. communication was accomplished by sound through voice. radio antennas coupled electromagnetic energy from one medium (space) to another (e. fixed antenna systems was first employed in wireless systems. outside the visible region. as the distance of communication increased.. Signal flags and smoke signals were used in the daytime while fireworks in the night. through the use of radio. drums. but that could not change to respond dynamically to 1 .1 Introduction Since the dawn of civilization.g. Visual techniques were injected for even greater distances. Therefore. wire.
The area of study will conclude with analysis on simulations for the smart antenna system algorithm. Laying a good foundation is essential. Besides. it is important to study the basic concepts of the Smart Antenna System. Smart antennas are believed to be the last major technological innovation that has the capability of leading to massive increases in wireless communication systems performance. as we will move on to examine the smart antenna system and the algorithm that earns “smartness” in the antenna system. Hence. a system that brings the world of wireless communication to a new era. The radiation patterns and performance of the antennas will have to be investigated and thus. a concept initially developed by the military but now a field that has attracted growing interest for commercial wireless communication systems [2]. which all wireless providers are working to solve. our aim is not only to analysis and study on smart antenna system. 2 . 1.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction changing conditions.2 Aim of Thesis The demand for high performance wireless communication systems has led to the research and studies in this exciting topic. further research will be carried out to conceive a better insight by either simulating or synthesizing different array antennas and different synthesis methods. The first move to understanding the smart antenna system leads to the fundamental studies on antenna theory and their design parameters. One potential solution to the dilemmas is the use of smart antenna systems. but also how the system can increase capacity in wireless communication system through Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA). the exponential growth and the limiting bandwidth available for those systems have created problems. Therefore.
3 Overview of Content The thesis will begin with an introduction on antennas and the types of antennas in Chapter 2. the chapter will also provide an indepth description on microstrip antenna. array antennas and antenna synthesis techniques before considering the fundamental parameters of antenna in Chapter 3. Chapter 8 analysis and discussion on the Recursive Least Squares algorithm will see Chapter 9 draws a summary and concludes the thesis with future developments. Lastly. we will be analyzing the smart antenna technology in Chapter 4. All simulations on array antennas were performed and the results in addition to its discussion will be presented in Chapter 6. In addition.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 1: Introduction 1. Chapter 7 investigated on two types of antenna synthesis methods (WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev) before discussing on the results achieved. 3 . Prior to discussing the multiple access schemes in Chapter 5.
It is a passive device and therefore.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Chapter 2 Antennas 2. Information is indeed the lifeblood of modern economies and antennas provide mother earth a solution to a wireless communication system. is used to transport electromagnetic energy from the transmitting source to the antenna. and a receiver to receive the incoming electromagnetic power. 4 .1a. thus allowing a transmitter to radiate.1 Introduction Communications has become the key to momentous changes in the organization of businesses and industries worldwide as they themselves adjust to the shift toward an information economy. The guiding device or transmission line. The antenna is a means of coupling electromagnetic energy from a transmission line into free space. It can also be seen as a transitional structure between freespace and a guiding device illustrated in Figure 2. or from the antenna to the receiver. which may take the form of a coaxial line or a hollow pipe (waveguide). the power radiated by a transmitting antenna cannot be greater than the power entering to the transmitter. In the former example we have a transmitting antenna and in the latter a receiving antenna.
an aperture. antennas are required in situations whereby it is impossible. a reflector. or even a piece of conducting wire. an antenna in an advance wireless system is generally required to optimize or accentuate the radiation energy in a particular direction while suppressing it in others. impractical.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Efield Source Transmission line Antenna Radiating freespace wave Figure 2. 5 . an assembly of elements (array). or uneconomical to provide guiding structures between the transmitter and the receiver. A typical example is TV for which the overall broadcast reception can be improved by utilizing a highperformance antenna.1a Antenna as a transition device In addition to transmitting and receiving energy. Physical size may vary greatly and antennas can be just a lens. Furthermore. The antenna serves to a communication system the same purpose that eyes and eyeglasses serve to a human [3]. The antenna is one of the most critical elements for wireless communication systems and a good design of the antenna can ease system requirements and improve overall system performance. a patch.
emphasis will be on microstrip antennas and array antennas after giving a brief idea on wire antennas. Despite. In situation where antennas and guiding structures are feasible. Aperture antennas are mostly utilized for higher frequencies and antennas of this class are very useful for aircraft and spacecraft applications. they can be coated with a dielectric material to cushion them hazardous conditions of the environment. lens antennas. However. In general. it is economical to employ antennas in broadcasting where the goal is to send energy out in literally all direction. and rescue) and in noncommunication applications such as radar. reflector antennas and lens antennas. and helix. Many major advances that took place during this era are now in common use. it is usually the amount of attenuation suffered by the signal that determines the choice. reflector antennas. especially since the demands for system performance are ever greater. numerous challenges and issues are facing us today. since one transmitting terminal can serve unlimited number of receivers. 2. Antennas are also necessary in nonbroadcast radio applications such as municipal radio (police. microstrip antennas and array antennas. Furthermore. fire. loop. the antenna technology has been an indispensable partner of the communication revolution over the past years. aperture antennas. Wire antennas are the oldest and still the most prevalent of all antenna configurations and they are seen virtually everywhere. In this vigorous and dynamic field. aperture antennas. There are different shapes of wire antennas such as a straight wire (dipole). transmission of high frequency waves over long distances favours the use of antennas.2 Types of Antenna There are various types of antennas and they include wire antennas. while small distances and low frequencies favour the use of transmission lines [1]. 6 . because they can be easily flushmounted onto the surface of the aircraft or spacecraft.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas For example.
low power. The physical structure of the microstrip antenna is very simple and they may take the form of any geometrical shape and sizes.2a shows some of the shapes of microstrip patch elements. They are lowprofile antennas that are being used in highperformance aircraft. They have a low efficiency. Proper modeling the geometrical configuration and using the correct material for the lenses can transform various forms of divergent energy into plane waves and these lens antennas are used in most of the applications at higher frequencies. spurious feed radiation and very narrow frequency bandwidth. 7 . satellite and missile applications. ease of installation.2. They are large in dimension as to achieve high gain required to transmit or receive signals after millions of miles of travel.1 Microstrip Antennas Microstrip antennas became very popular in the 1970s primarily for spaceborne applications [3].Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Reflector antennas are sophisticated forms of antennas used for communication over great distances (millions of miles). Figure 2. and aerodynamic profile are constraints. high Q. performance. microstrip travellingwave antenna and microstrip slot antennas. Microstrip antennas are classified into three basic types: microstrip patch antennas. Lenses are mainly employed to collimate incident divergent energy to prevent it from spreading in undesired directions. poor polarization purity. weight. spacecraft. cost. On the other hand. poor scan performance. where size. 2. there are also some drawbacks of microstrip antennas.
rectangular and circular patches are most favorable because of the ease analysis and fabrication. aperture coupling and proximity.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas (a) Square (b) Rectangular (c) Dipole (d) Circular (e) Elliptical (f) Triangular (i) Ring sector Figure 2. 8 . especially low crosspolarization radiation. rectangular microstrip antenna patches are chosen for our analysis. There are various methods that can be used to feed microstrip antennas and Figure 2.2a (g) Disc sector (h) Circular ring Representative shapes of microstrip patch elements However. coaxial probe. Thus.2b shows the four most widely adopted techniques: the microstrip line. microstrip antenna consists of a conducting patch of any planar geometry on one side of a dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane on the other side and the conducting patch is printed on top of a grounded substrate. and their attractive radiation characteristics. Typically.
may also be used to introduce scanning capabilities and achieve greater directivity [3]. with single or multiple feeds. 9 . Arrays of microstrip elements.2b Typical feed for microstrip antennas Linear and circular polarizations can be achieved with either single elements or array of microstrip antennas.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas (i) Microstrip line feed (ii) Probe feed (iii) Aperturecoupled feed (iv) Proximitycoupled feed Figure 2.
The mechanical problems associated with a single large antenna are traded for the electrical problems of feeding several small antennas.2. the feed network required for array excitation is of improved quality and reduced cost [4].2 Array Antennas A directional radiation pattern can be produced when several antennas are arranged in spaced or interconnected. There are five factors that contribute to the shaping of the overall pattern of antenna array with identical elements and there are: • • • • Geometrical configuration of the array (linear. Arrays can be of any form of geometrical configurations and antenna arrays include the Linear Array. it is essential that the fields from the elements of the array interfere constructively in the required directions and interfere destructively in the remaining space. Instead of a single large antenna. many small antennas can be used in an array to achieve a similar level of performance. it enables the capability of scanning the radiation pattern through space. Planar Array and Circular Array. With the advancements in solid state technology. Arrays offer the unique ability of electronic scanning of the main beam. The array is hereby known as a phased array. an array. The overall field of the array is determined by the vector addition of the fields radiated by the individual elements and this assumes that the current in each element is the same as that of the isolated element. Thus. rectangular. circular. Such an arrangement of multiple radiating elements is referred to as an array antenna.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas 2. which can be achieved by altering the phase of the exciting currents in each element antenna of the array. etc) Displacement between the elements Excitation amplitude of individual elements Excitation phase of individual elements 10 . or plainly. In order to render a very directive pattern.
In other words.3a shows a typical linear array of microstrip antennas. the characteristics of the array factor and the total field of the array can be controlled [3]. Microstrip Patch Figure 2. One dimension uniform linear array is mere and the most frequently used geometry with the array elements being spaced equally.3a Linear array of microstrip The total field of the array is equal to the field of a single element positioned at the origin multiple by a factor which is widely known as the array factor (AF). the farzone field of a uniform array with any number of identical elements is: E(total) = [E(single element at reference point)] X [array factor] (2. which is one of the emphases in this report. this thesis will only be covering on linear and planar arrays. By varying the separation d and/or the phase β between the elements. In addition. The array factor is a function of geometry of the array and the excitation phase.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications • Chapter 2: Antennas Relative pattern of the individual elements Some of the above mentioned parameters will thus be used for our simulations analysis.1) 11 . 2.3 Linear Array Antenna A linear array of discrete elements is an antenna consisting of several individuals and indistinguishable elements whose centers are finitely separated and fall on a straightline [5]. Figure 2.
Nevertheless. elements having identical amplitudes. geometrical sequence. if the actual elements are not isotropic sources. the total field can be form by multiplying the array factor of the isotropic sources by the field of a single element. 12 .4a. The array factor can thus be obtained by considering the elements to be point sources. it can be represented by the vector sum of N phasors each of unit amplitude and progressive phase Ψ relative to the previous one [3]. However. Referring to Figure 2. individual elements can be positioned along a rectangular grid to form a rectangular or planar array. relative magnitudes.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Every array will have its own array factor and thus. which is capable of providing more variables for controlling and modeling of beam pattern. Assuming a N elements array with identical amplitudes but each succeeding element has a β progressive phase lead current excitation relative to the preceding one (β represents the phase by which the current in each element leads the current of the preceding element). 2. relative phases and the interelement spacing. which is given by: AF = ∑ e N n =1 j ( n −1 ) Ψ (2. planar arrays are also more versatile with lower sidelobe levels and they can be used to scan the main beam of the antenna towards any point in space.4 Planar Array Antenna In addition to placing elements along a straight row to form a linear array. Moreover. the array factor is generally a function of the number of elements. phases and spacing will result in an array factor of simpler form. the array factor can be derived for a planar array.2) where Ψ = kd cosθ + β and since the total array factor for the array is a summation of exponentials.
4a Linear and Planar geometries Placing M elements along the xaxis as shown in Figure 2. Im 1 = Excitation coefficient of individual element dx = Interelement spacing along xaxis βx = Progressive phase shift between elements along xaxis 13 .4a(i) will have an array factor represented by j ( m −1 )( kd x sin θ cos φ + β x ) AF = ∑ I e M m =1 m1 (2.3) where.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas (i) Linear array (ii) Planar array Figure 2.
Thus.7) From equation (2. Imn = Im1I1n However.and ydirection. the array factor for the entire planar array can be written as AF = ∑ I ∑ I e N M n =1 1n m =1 m1 { j ( m −1 )( kdx sin θ cos φ + β x ) }e j ( n −1 )( kd y sin θ cos φ + β y ) (2.4) or AF = SxmSyn where (2.8) 14 . The amplitude of the (m.4) can be represented by (2. if the amplitude excitation of the array is uniform (Im n = Io ).5) S =∑I e M xm m =1 N m1 j ( m −1 )( kd x sin θ cos φ + β x ) (2.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas A rectangular array shown in Figure 2.4a(ii) will be formed if N elements array with a distance dy apart and with a progressive phase βy. it can be seen that the pattern of a rectangular array is the product of the array factors of the arrays in the x.8) if the amplitude excitation coefficients of the elements of the array in the ydirection are proportional to those in the x. then equation (2.6) S =∑I e yn n =1 1n j ( n −1 )( kd y sinθ cos φ + β y ) (2. is placed in the ydirection.5).n)th element can be written as shown in equation (2.
The analysis problem is the solving for the antenna radiation characteristics (pattern.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas AF = I ∑ e M o m =1 j ( m −1 )( kdx sin θ cos φ + β x ) ∑e n =1 N j ( n −1 )( kd y sin θ cos φ + β y ) (2. In general. impedance. However. decaying minor lobes. directivity.11) (2. (2. polarization and bandwidth) for a given antenna configuration.9) and the normalized form will be M N 1 sin 2 Ψ 1 sin 2 Ψ AF (θ . attention has been on antenna analysis and design.10) where ψx = kdxsinθcosφ + βx ψy = kdysinθsinφ + βy The above derivation assumed that each element is an isotropic source. efficiency. it is often necessary to design an antenna system that will produce desired radiation characteristics. 15 . Practically. there are common demands to design antenna whose farfield pattern posses nulls in certain directions or to yield pattern that exhibit a desired distribution.5 Antenna Synthesis Till now. the total field can be obtained by applying the pattern multiplication rule of (2. narrow beamwidth and low sidelobes.1) in a manner similar as for the linear array.12) 2. and so forth. φ ) = M Ψ N Ψ sin sin 2 2 x y n x y (2. beamwidth. if the antenna is an array of identical elements.
Each composing function for a linear array is of an bm sin(Nφm )/Nsin(φm ) form. whose corresponding field is known as a composing function. The excitation coefficient bm of every harmonic current is such that its field strength is similar to the amplitude of the desired pattern at its corresponding sampled point. The next category. Each pattern sample is associated with a harmonic current of uniform amplitude distribution and uniform progressive phase. which requires the patterns to exhibit a desired distribution in the entire visible region. antenna pattern synthesis can be classified into three categories.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Therefore. 2. the Binomial Technique and DolphChebyshev Method are usually used to produce radiation patterns with narrow beamwidth and low sidelobes. Generally. antenna synthesis is an approach that uses a systematic method or combination of methods to arrive at an antenna configuration which yields a pattern that is either exactly or approximately the same to the initial specified pattern. there are requirements whereby there is a need to find not only the antenna configuration but also its geometrical dimensions and excitation coefficient. Hence. only the WoodwardLawson method and the DolphChebyshev method will be discussed. and the corresponding synthesized pattern is represented by a finite summation of 16 . while satisfying other system constrains. The synthesis is accomplished by sampling the desire pattern at various discrete locations. Finally. is referred to beam shaping. It can be achieved by using the Fourier Transform and WoodwardLawson Methods.5. However.1 WoodwardLawson Method Woodward and Lawson introduced a very popular antenna pattern synthesis method used for beam shaping. The first group that normally utilizes the Schelkunoff Method requires the antenna patterns to possess nulls in certain desired direction. The total excitation of the source is comprised of a finite summation of space harmonic.
When WoodwardLawson method is implemented to synthesized discrete linear arrays. Therefore.5dB. Thus.14) 17 . the second composing function will adjust its uniform progressive phase so that its main lobe corresponds to the innermost nulls of the first composing function. N sin kd (cosθ − cosθ ) 2 AF (θ ) = ∑ b 1 N sin kd (cosθ − cosθ ) 2 m M m = M m m (2. and while the rest of the sidelobes decreases monotonically. This will contribute to the fillingin of the innermost null of the first composing function pattern. The first composing function yields a pattern whose main beam position is decided by the value of its uniform progressive phase with the innermost sidelobes level approximately –13.13) [3].Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas composing functions with each term representing the field of a current harmonic with uniform amplitude distribution and uniform progressive phase [3]. the pattern of each sample will be written as N sin kd (cosθ − cosθ ) 2 f (θ ) = b 1 N sin kd (cosθ − cosθ ) 2 m m m m (2. Having a similar pattern. in which. The overall array factor can be written as a superposition of 2M or 2M+1 terms each of the form of (2.13) l = Nd assumes the array is equal to the length of the line source. the amount of fillingin is restrained by the amplitude excitation of the second composing function. this procedure will carry on for the remaining finite number of composing functions. The overall pattern produced by this method is as followed.
Thus. although WoodwardLawson synthesis technique reconstructs pattern whose values at the sampled points are similar to the ones of the desired signal.1 are the values of w where the synthesized pattern f equals 90% and 10% of the local discontinuity in the desired patter [4]. the uniform amplitude arrays will yield the smallest halfpower beamwidth while the binomial arrays usually possess the smallest sidelobes.5. but it is unable to control the pattern between the sample point. DolphChebyshev array is mainly a compromise between uniform and binomial arrays. Thus. the transition width T is introduced and defined as T = wf=0. Its excitation coefficients are affiliated to the Chebyshev polynomials and a DolphChebyshev array with zero sidelobes (or sidelobes of ∞ dB) is simply a binomial design.9 – wf=0.9 and wf=0. 18 . The quality of fit to the desired pattern fd(w) by the synthesis pattern f(w) over the main beam is measured by the ripple.15) over the main beam. which is defined as f (u ) R = 20 log maximum dB f (u ) d (2.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Generally. It is desirable to have the main beam fall off shapely into the sidelobe region. 2. R. Also of interest is the region between the main beam and sidelobe region.16) Where wf=0.2 DolphChebyshev Method Comparing the Uniform. the excitation coefficients for this case would be the same if both methods were used for calculation. referred to as the transition region. On the other hand.1 (2. DolphChebyshev and Binomial distribution arrays.
21) 19 . which is.20) The above are achieved by using the Euler’s formula [eju]m = (cos u + jsin u)m = ejmu = cos(mu) + jsin(mu) and the trigonometric identity sin2 u = 1 – cos2 u.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas The array factor of an array of odd and even number of elements with symmetric excitation is given by (AF) (even) = ∑ a cos[( 2n − 1)u ] 2M n =1 n M (2.18) where M is an integer. m = 0 cos(mu) = 1 m = 1 cos(mu) = cos u m = 2 cos(mu) = cos (2u) = 2cos2 u 1 m = 3 cos(mu) = cos (3u) = 4cos3 u – 3cos u m = 4 cos(mu) = cos (4u) = 8cos4 u – 8cos2 u + 1 (2. The largest harmonic of the cosine terms is one less than the total number of elements in the array. (2. an is the excitation coefficients and u= πd cosθ λ (2. Each cosine term.17) (AF) 2M +1 (odd) = ∑ a cos[ 2(n − 1)u ] n =1 n M +1 (2.19) The array factor is merely a summation of M or M+1 cosine terms. can be rewritten as a series of cosine functions with the fundamental frequency as the argument [3]. whose argument is an integer times a frequency.
This is given by Tm(z) = 2zTm1(z) – Tm2(z) It can be seen that the array factor of an odd and even number of elements is a summation of cosine terms whose form is similar with the Chebyshev polynomials. (2. (2.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 2: Antennas Assuming the elements of the array is placed along the zaxis. each Chebyshev polynomial is Tm(z) ≤ 1 for –1 ≤ z ≤ +1. the unknown coefficients of the array factor can be determine. Because cos(mu) ≤ 1. by equating the series representing the cosine terms of the array to the appropriate Chebyshev polynomial. will relate each of the expression to a Chebyshev polynomial Tm(z). For z > 1. and thus.23) 20 . the Chebyshev polynomials are related too the hyperbolic cosine function [3]. m = 0 cos(mu) = 1 = T0 (z) m = 1 cos(mu) = z = T1 (z) m = 2 cos(mu) = 2z2 –1 = T2 (z) m = 3 cos(mu) = 4z3 – 3z = T3 (z) m = 4 cos(mu) = 8z4 – 8z2 + 1 = T4 (z) These relations between the cosine functions and the Chebyshev polynomials are valid only in the range of –1 ≤ z ≤ +1. replacing cos u with z in (2.20).22) The recursive formula can be used to determine the Chebyshev polynomial if the polynomials of the previous two orders are known. Note that the order of the polynomial should be one less than the total number of elements of the array. Therefore.
5. 4. 21 . Radiation pattern. Radiation resistance. Magnitude of back lobe. Beamwidth and gain of main lobe. 10. Antenna correction factor. Although the parameters may be interrelated. 3. Bandwidth. not a requirement to specify all of the parameters for complete description of the antenna performance. 6. 9. 2. Polarization of the electric field that it transmits or receive. Power that it can handle in the case of a transmitting antenna. it is however. the antenna must perform in a required mode for the particular measurement system. Furthermore. An antenna is chosen for operation in a particular application according to its physical and electrical characteristics.1 Introduction Definitions of various parameters are necessary to describe the performance of an antenna. 8. not all of which apply to all antenna types: 1.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna Chapter 3 Parameters of Antenna 3. 7. An antenna can be characterized by the following elements. Aperture. Position of magnitude of sidelobes.
Conventionally. which can also be considered as the horizontal and vertical planes respectively. which are essential for the understanding of this thesis. the power at all other position appears as negative value. represents the angle in the elevation plane. φ. while the Greek letter theta. for landbased antennas. The following subsection will touch on some of the elements. Not all of the antenna characteristic factors will be discussed here. that is. Other characteristics such as the gain on boresight (i.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna Typically. The power at boresight. is usually plotted at 0 dB. In general. θ. Some characteristics such as beamwidth and sidelobes are the same in both planes for symmetrical antennas such as circular waveguide horns and reflector. If the power were plotted in linear units. where the azimuth and elevation planes intersect) can only have a single value. The radiation pattern is peculiar to class of antenna and its electrical characteristics as well as its physical dimensions. In other words. It is gauged at a constant distance in the far field of the antenna and its radiation pattern is usually plotted in terms of relative power. the normalized power would be one at boreight [6]. for unsymmetrical antennas the characteristics are different in the two principal planes. the angle in the azimuth plane is denoted by the Greek letter phi. antenna characteristics are measured in two principal planes and they are known as the azimuth and elevation planes. thus. It facilitates a stronger understanding of the key features of an antenna that otherwise cannot be achieved from the textual technical description of an antenna. the radiation power is normalized to the power at boresight. with a gradual transition in the intervening region between these two planes [6]. 3. which radiates or receives the electromagnetic energy in the same way.. at the position of maximum radiated power. is a reciprocal device.2 Radiation pattern The antenna. Radiation pattern is a very important characteristic of an antenna.e. 22 .
Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications
Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
The radiation is usually measured in the azimuth and the elevation planes and the radiation power is plotted against the angle that is made with boresight direction. If the antenna were not physically symmetrical about each of its principal planes, then it would result in an unsymmetrical radiation patter in these planes.
The radiation pattern can be plotted using rectangular/cartesian or polar coordinates. The rectangular plots can be read more precisely (since the angular scale can be enlarged), but the polar plots offers a more pictorial representation and are thus easier to visualize.
3.2.1 Rectangular/Cartesian Plots
Rectangular/Cartesian plots are standard xy plots where the axes are plotted at right angle to each other. The ycoordinate, which is called the ordinate, is used for the dependent variable while the xcoordinate, known as abscissa, is used for the independent variable.
In a radiation plot, the angle with respect to boresight is varied and the magnitude of the power radiated is measured; thus, the angle is the independent variable and the power radiated is the dependent variable. Thus, the magnitudes of the powers are the ordinate while the angles are the abscissa. A typical rectangular plot of an antenna radiation pattern is shown in Figure 3.2a.
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Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications
Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
Figure 3.2a
Rectangular plot of an antenna radiation pattern
The yaxis can show two sets of scales: one graduated from 0 dB to 4 dB and another from 0 dB to 8 dB. Scales of 40 dB and 80 dB are calculated by multiplying the scales by ten. It should be noted that the numbers below should really by negative values of –4 dB and –8 dB because the zero is at the top.
On the hand, the xaxis can show three sets of angular scales of 5°, 30° and 180° on either side of the zero, representing the angles measured clockwise and anticlockwise from the boresight position and in standard mathematical convention denoted by positive and negative signs disregarded on radiation graph paper.
3.2.2 Polar Plots In a polar plot the angles are plotted radially from boresight and the power or intensity is plotted along the radius as illustrated in Figure 3.2b.
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Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications
Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna
Figure 3.2b
Polar plot of an antenna pattern
This gives a pictorial representation of the radiation pattern of the antenna and is easier to visualize than the rectangular/cartesian plots. Although the accuracy cannot be increased as in the case of rectangular plot because the scale of the angular positions can only be plotted from 0° to 360°, however, the scale of the intensity or power can be varied.
Each circle on the polar plot represents a contour plot where the power has the same magnitude and is shown relative to the power at boresight. These levels will always be less than the power at boresight and values should be shown as negative because the power is in generally a maximum value at boresight. However, they are normally written without a sign and should be assumed to be negative, contrary to standard arithmetic convention.
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The characteristics of an antenna such as beamwidth and gain are associated to the main lobe alone.3a Typical power pattern polar plot 3. The peak/tip of the main beam is called the boresight of the antenna and the radiation pattern is often positioned so that its boresight corresponds with the zero angular position of the graph. its maximum direction and beamwidth of a typical power pattern polar plot. In other words. even when the antenna is not physically symmetrical.3. The plane 26 .3 Main Lobe The main lobe of the antenna is in the direction of maximum radiation. Figure 3. Figure 3.1 Beamwidth – Half power and 10 dB The beamwidth only relates to the main beam of the antenna and not the sidelobes and in general. the larger the antenna. it is inversely proportional to its physical size. the smaller is its beamwidth for the corresponding frequency.3a gives an idea of the main lobe.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna 3.
halfpower point (left) and halfpower (right).1) The gain GdB expressed in decibels is defined as GdB = 10log 10 (G) (3.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna containing the largest dimension will have the narrowest beamwidth if the antenna does not have the same dimensions in all planes. However.3a shows the two points. The gain allows for efficiency of the antenna. for antennas with very narrow beams.3. 3. and it is measured in degrees or radians. Figure 3. where the 3dB beamwidth can be obtained. The gain G as a linear ratio is defined as G= Power radiated on boresight Power radiated by an isotropic antena (3. but in fact they are not the same. whereas directivity does not [6]. The most well known definition is the 3dB or halfpower beamwidth. the gain of the antenna is the product of the directivity and the efficiency. As a matter of fact. the 10dB beamwidth can also be applied. The IEEE definition of gain of an antenna relates the power radiated by the antenna to that radiated by an isotropic antenna (that radiates equally in all direction) and is quoted as a linear ratio or in decibels [3]. The 27 . The 3dB or halfpower beamwidth (HPBW) of an antenna is taken as the width at the points on either side of the main beam where the radiated power is half the maximum value.2 Boresight Directivity/Gain Although the terms directivity (or directive gain) and gain are frequently used synonymously. The beam width of an antenna is usually defines in two ways.2) Directivity of an antenna is defined as “the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity average over all direction.
Nevertheless. C. The sidelobes are characterized by their level below the boresight gain and their angular position relative to boresight. for this reason. which could be mistaken for sidelobes. strictly speaking. the sidelobes are sometimes defined as the peaks.4a. E in Figure 3. in practice only the “nearin” lobes marked A are referred to as sidelobes. any of the maxima marked.4a A radiation pattern showing the sidelobe levels and positions Therefore. Although the sidelobe level (SLL) is usually cited as a positive quantity. but it is a value in negative decibels since the radiation pattern is plotted with the boresight gain at 0dB.4 Sidelobes The sidelobes are. due to the irregularities in the main beam of the radiation pattern. Figure 3. as A. 28 . D. If the direction is not specified. 3. where the difference between the peak and an adjacent trough is at least 3dB.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna average radiation intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by 4π. B. it may result in small peaks such as those marked F in Figure 3. Sometimes.4a. the direction of maximum radiation intensity is implied” [3]. for examples.
this thesis will only touch on linear polarization. In linear terms. 3. Polarization may be classified as linear. as the different between the levels on boresight and at 180° off boresight. Generally. circular.6 Aperture Size The beamwidth is also influenced by the aperture size of an antenna. The polarization of an antenna is defined as the polarization of the wave radiated by the antenna in a given direction. or elliptical. which are referred to as grating lobes. The aperture size can be defined in two ways: either in terms of wavelengths. the largest spacing between elements should be less than one wavelength in order to avoid any grating lobes. 3.7 Polarization The polarization is another importance factor that would affect the radiation pattern. one of the objectives in many designs is to avoid grating lobes. Thus. or in terms of the actual physical size.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna On top of sidelobes and main lobe. the beamwidth gets narrower and the gain increases with an increasing aperture size at a given frequency. the polarization is considered to be the polarization in the direction of maximum gain when the direction is not stated. However.5 Fronttoback Ratio The measure of the ability of a directional antenna to concentrate the beam in the required forward direction is known as the fronttoback ratio (F/B). Often it may be essential to select the largest spacing between elements but with no grating lobes. 3. it is determined as the ratio of the maximum power in the main beam to that in the back lobe and it is usually expressed in decibels. 29 . in meters or feet. However. However. there are cases where multiple maxima occur.
7a Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space for vertical polarization While horizontal polarization is illustrated in Figure 3. it is important to note that the polarization of a receiving antenna must match that of the incident radiation in order to detect the maximum field. it is noted that the extremity of the electric field vector at any fixed point in space is a straight line with maximum value.7a.Smart Antennas for Wireless Applications Chapter 3: Parameters of Antenna As shown in Figure 3. which is equal to twice the amplitude of the sinc curve that depicts the variation of the electric field with time. In this case of a vertical polarization. the electric field varies sinusoidally in one plane for the case of linear polarization. Figure 3. Figure 3.7b.7b Variation of the electric field with time at a fixed point in space for horizontal polarization 30 .
it also reduces multipath fading. as shown in Figure 4. extending coverage area. these strategies overcome the problem by boosting the power level of the broadcasting signals. smart antenna system increases longterm channel capacity through Space Division Multiple Access scheme (See Chapter 5 on Multiple Access Schemes).Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System Chapter 4 Smart Antenna System 4. Its sphere of influence is beyond imagination. initial setup cost and bit error rate (BER). there have been simple antenna designs that radiate signals omnidirectionally in a pattern resembling ripples in a pool of water. covering many technical areas. Most importantly. In addition. Since the early days of wireless communications.1a. have been introduced in recent years to improve systems performance by increasing spectrum efficiency. steering multiple beams. tailoring beam shaping. An indication of its importance is perhaps the immeasurable worldwide activities in this industry. the smart antenna systems. this unfocused technique disseminates signals that reaches the intended user with a small percentage of overall energy radiated out in the environment. there is also additional problem of interference. Therefore. cochannel interferences.1 Introduction The field of wireless communication is growing at a dynamic rate. which is likewise faced by directional antennas: a system constructed to have certain fixed preferential transmission and reception directions. Therefore. Moreover. Without the knowledge of the users’ locations. 31 .
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications
Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
Figure 4.1a
Concept of smart antenna systems: Able to form different beam for each user, extending coverage range, minimizing the impact of noise and interference for each subscriber.
In this chapter, the key benefits of the smart antenna technology are covered before looking through the smart antenna systems and the types of approaches. This chapter will wrap up with descriptions on the Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Algorithms after introducing to Beam Forming and Steering Vector.
4.2 Key Benefits of Smart Antenna Technology
An understanding of signal propagation environment and channel characteristics is significant to the efficient use of a transmission medium. In recent years, there have been signal propagation problems associated with conventional antennas and interference is the major limiting factor in the performance of wireless communication. Thus, the introduction of smart antennas is considered to have the potential of leading to a large increase in wireless communication systems performance. A smart antenna system in the wireless communication contributes to the following major benefits:
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Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications •
Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
Larger Range Coverage – Smart antennas provide enhanced coverage through range extension, hole filling, and better building penetration. Given the same transmitter power output at the base station and subscriber unit, smart antennas can increase range by increasing the gain of the base station antenna [8].
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Reduced Initial Deployment Cost – Conventional wireless system networks are initially often designed to satisfy coverage requirements, even though there are few subscribers in the network. However, when the number of subscribers increases in the network, system capacity can be increased at the expense of reducing the coverage area and introducing additional cell sites. Nevertheless, smart antenna can ease this problem by providing larger early cell sizes and thus, initial deployment cost for the wireless system can be reduced through range extension.
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Reduced Multipath Fading – Multipath in radio channels can result in fading or time dispersion. The effects of multipath fading in wireless communications environments can be significantly reduced through smart antenna systems. This reduction variation of the signal (i.e., fading) greatly enhances system performance because the reliability and quality of a wireless communications system can strongly depend on the depth and rate of fading [9].
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Better Security – The employment of smart antenna systems diminish the risk of connection tapping. The intruder must be situated in the similar direction as the user as seen from the transmitter base station.
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Better Services – Usage of the smart antenna system enables the network to have access to spatial information about the users. This information can be used to assess the positions of the users much more precisely than in existing network. This can be applied in services such as emergency calls and locationspecific billing.
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Increased Capacity – Smart antennas can also improve system capacity. They can be used to allow the subscriber and base station to operate at the same range as a conventional system, but a lower power. This may permit FDMA and TDMA
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Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications
Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System
systems, which will be discussed in the later section, to be rechannelized to reuse frequency channels more frequently than conventional systems using fixed antennas, since the carriertointerference ratio is much greater when smart antennas are used. In CDMA systems, if smart antennas are used to allow subscribers to transmit less power for each link, then the Multiple Access Interference is reduced, which increases the number of simultaneous subscribers that can be supported in each cell.
Although the smart antenna systems are favorable in many ways, there are also drawbacks which include a more complex transceiver structure compared to traditional base station transceiver and a growing need for development of efficient algorithm for realtime optimizing and signal tracking. Thus, smart antenna base stations will no doubt be much more expensive than conventional base stations and the advantages should always be evaluated against the cost.
4.3 Smart Antenna System
A smart antenna system can be define as a system which uses an array of low gain antenna elements with a signalprocessing capability to optimize its radiation and/or reception pattern automatically in response to the ever changing signal environment. This can be visualized as the antenna focussing a beam towards the communication user only.
Truly speaking, antennas are only mechanical construction transforming free electromagnetic (EM) waves into radio frequency (RF) signals travelling on a shielded cable or viceversa. They are not smart but antenna systems are. The whole system consists of the radiating antennas, a combining/dividing network and a control unit. The control unit is usually realized using a digital signal processor (DSP), which controls several input parameters of the antenna to optimize the communication link. This shows that smart antennas are more than just the “antenna,” but rather a complete transceiver concept.
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1 SwitchingBeam Array (SBA) In the smart antenna systems.3a SwitchBeam Systems can select one of the several beams to enhance receive signals.3b illustrated the design network of a typical SBA system. a SBA system couple the outputs of multiple antennas in such a manner that it forms a finely sectorized (directional) beams with spatial selectivity. The SBA system network illustrated is relatively simple to implement. requiring only a beamforming network. Beam 2 is selected here for the desired signal Figure 4. Instead of modeling the directional antenna pattern with the metallic properties and physical design of a single element.3b A SwitchBeam network uses a beamforming network to form M beams from M array elements 35 . and they are the two different approaches to realizing a smart antenna. These antenna systems will detect signal strength. and select one of the best.Beam Array (SBA) or Adaptive Array (also known as TrackingBeam Array – TBA) systems. the SBA approach forms multiple fixed beams with enhanced sensitivity in specific area. Figure 4. predetermined. fixed beams for the subscribers as they move throughout the coverage sector. and control logic to select a specific beam. Figure 4.3. 4.3a shows the SBA patterns and Figure 4.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System Smart antenna systems are customarily classified as either Switching. a RF switch.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System Switched beam systems offer numerous advantages of more elaborate smart antenna systems at a fraction of the complexity and expense. This can be accomplished by increasing the complexity of the array signal processing to form the Adaptive Antenna Systems. the received power from a user may fluctuate when he moves around the base station. SBA systems are widespread for various reasons. The adaptive antenna systems approach communication between a user and the base station in a different way. Nevertheless.3. They provide some range extension benefits and offer reduction in delay spread in certain propagation environments. It ensures that signal links are maximized by tracking and providing users 36 . Adaptive arrays continuously differentiate between the desired signals. The technique constantly updates its transmitting approach based on changes in both the desired and interfering signal locations. and interfering signals as well as calculate their directions of arrival by utilizing sophisticated signalprocessing algorithms. multipath. due to scalloping. In spite of the drawbacks. which is considered to be the most advance smart antenna approach to date. in effect adding a dimension in space. In addition. adaptive antenna technology can dynamically modify the signal patterns to near infinity to optimize the performance of the wireless system. Scalloping is the rolloff of the antenna pattern as a function of angles as the DOA varies from the boresight of each beam produced by the beamforming network [8]. By adapting to the RF environment as it changes. which comprise of the inability to provide any protection from multipath components that arrive with DirectionsofArrival (DOAs) near that of the desire components. there are some limitations to switched beam array. 4.2 Adaptive Array It is possible to achieve greater performance improvements than that obtained using the SBA system. and also the inability to take advantage of path diversity by combining coherent multipath components. Lastly. the engineering costs to implement this low technology approach are lesser than those associated with more complicated systems.
Illustrated in Figure 4.3c that only the main lobe is directed towards the user while a null being directed at a cochannel interferer.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System with main lobes and interferers with nulls. Although both systems seek to increase gain with respect to the location of the users. because there are neither microsectors nor predefined patterns.3d is the network structure of an adaptive array. null or reduce interference. however. Figure 4.3c An adaptive antenna can adjust its antenna pattern to enhance the desired signal. only the adaptive system is able to contribute optimal gain while simultaneously identifying.3d structure Network structure of an adaptive array 37 . tracking. This can be seen from Figure 4. and minimizing interfering signals. and collect correlated multipath power Figure 4.
perpendicular to the row joining all the elements of the array. It is important because the weight vector will have significant impact on the array output. pointing a beam in the desired direction. Conventional beam pointing or beam forming can be achieved by adjusting only the phase of the signals from different elements. it is very convenient to make use of vector notation while working with array antennas. This method of combining the signals from several elements is understood as beam forming. and it is known as broadside to the array. In other words. For example. A plot of the array response as a function of angle is usually specified as the array pattern or beam pattern. Nevertheless. that is. 38 .4 Beam Forming A single output of the array is formed when signals induced on different elements of the array are combined. this can be overcome by adjusting the gain and phase of each signal to shape the pattern as required and the degree of change will depend upon the number of elements in the array. signals can also be coupled together without any gain or phase shift in a linear array. the shape of the antenna pattern in this case is fixed. However. The direction in which the array has maximum response is said to be the beam pointing direction. which is. and thus this is the bearing where the array has the utmost gain. The array pattern formed thus falls to a low value on either side of the beam pointing direction and the region of the low value is known as a null.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System 4. Thus the term weight vector (w) is introduced. the side lobes with respect to the main do not change when the main beam is pointed in different directions by adjusting various phases. it must be noted that the null is actually a position where the array response is zero and the term should not be misused to denote the low value of the pattern. Lastly. In this case. It can also be known as power pattern when the power response is plotted.
a steering vector is associated with each directional source. 39 . As the response of the array is different in different directions. provided these are not in the direction of the desired source [10]. The phase of its ith component is similar to the phase difference between signals induced on the ith element and the reference element due to the source associated with the steering vector. 4. it can also be referred to as the array response vector for it measures the response of the array due to the source under consideration.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System 4. In circumstances where the directions of these interferences are identified. cancellation is feasible by positioning the nulls in the pattern corresponding to these directions and concurrently steering the main beam in the direction of the desired signal. This may be exploited to cancel directional sources operating at the same frequency as that of the desired source. This approach of beam forming by placing nulls in the directions of interferences is commonly referred to as null beam forming or null steering. The uniqueness of this association depends upon the array geometry [10]. This vector is also known as the space vector because each component of the vector represents the phase delay that is resulted from the spatial position of the corresponding element of the array.4. In addition. Every component of this vector has unit magnitude for an array of identical elements.1 Null Beam Forming The flexibility of array weighting to being adjusted to specify the array pattern is an important property.4.2 Steering Vector The steering vector contains the response of all elements of the array to a narrowband source of unit power.
it is beneficial to use an update technique. it is a result of greater computation complexity. In addition. the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm are viewed to be more efficient. Figure 4.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System 4. In iterative algorithms. an adaptive algorithm is exploited for updating the weight vector periodically. the weight vector computed differs by a small but significant amount at different cycles. in this chapter. However. There are many types of adaptive algorithms and the majorities are iterative.5 Recursive Least Squares Algorithm For an adaptive array network as shown in Figure 4. w(n). They utilized the past information to minimize the computations required at each update cycle. it is essential that the weight vector to be updated or adapted periodically because the environment (e.3d. the current weight vector. Nevertheless. which uses previous solutions for the weight vector to smooth the estimate of the optimal response. Generally. In the later development of adaptive algorithm. mobile environment) is timevariable. is modified by an incremental value to form a new weight vector. w(n+1) at each iteration n. Thus.5a illustrated the block diagram representation and signal flow graph of the RLS algorithm. because the necessary data to estimate the optimal solution is noisy. we will be only looking at the RLS algorithm as it is regarded to have a faster convergence speed (the speed for the initial weight vector to reach the optimum weight vector) compared to LMS. 40 .g.
1) (4.4) (4.5a Representation of RLS algorithm: (i) block diagram (ii) signalflow graph The RLS algorithm can be summarized as follow [14]: Initialization P (0) = δ1I w(0) = 0 Weight Update (4.2) k(n) = λ 1P (n1)u(n) / 1+λ 1uH(n)P (n1)u(n) α (n) = d(n) – wH(n1)u(n) w(n) = w(n1) + k(n) α*(n) (4.3) (4.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System (i) (ii) Figure 4.5) 41 .
However. α (n) is the innovation.λ 1k(n)uH(n)P (n1) Convergence Coefficient (4. w(n) is the weight vector. which are used as the desired signal to adapt the weight vector [8]. In the RLS method. a brief data sequence is transmitted which is known by the receiver. λ is the forgetting factor k(n) is the gain vector. the desired signal must be supplied using either a training sequence or decision direction. δ is a small positive number. in the decision approach.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 4: Smart Antenna System P (n) = λ 1P (n1) . then retains the weights constant while information is being transmitted. and it reduces channel throughput by requiring the use of channel symbols for training. 42 . P(n) is the inverse of the correlation matrix Φ (n). the receiver uses recreated modulated symbols based on symbol decisions. The receiver uses the adaptive algorithm to approximate the weight vector in the training duration. For the training sequence approach.6) 0 < λ <1 where. u(n) is the input vector and d(n) is the desired response. I is the M X M identity matrix. This technique requires that the environment be stationary from one training period to the next.
the range of frequencies available for wireless communication technologies can be utilized in various ways/schemes. Conventionally. traffic. such as the coverage area. capacity. The distribution of spectrum is required to achieve this high system capacity by simultaneously allocating the available bandwidth (or available amount of channels) to multiple users. Nonetheless. forward error correction. and types of information [11]. there are three major access schemes used to share the available bandwidth in a wireless communication. they are known as the frequency division multiple access (FDMA). As a result. and so on. and this is referred to as multiple access schemes. antifading techniques. These techniques are adopted to allow numerous users to share simultaneously a finite amount of signal spectrum. and the code division multiple access (CDMA). such as the modulation scheme.1 Introduction Due to the recent development of wireless communication systems. the answer to this depends on the combined techniques. 43 . This must be accomplished without severe degradation in the performance of the system in order to achieve high quality communications. time division multiple access (TDMA). there is a lot to debate about which schemes is better. However. as well as the requirements of services.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes Chapter 5 Multiple Access Schemes 5.
the system will reassign this channel to a different user when the previous call is terminated. every subscriber is allocated to an individual unique frequency band or channel. the hardware is simple.2a shows the spectrum of a FDMA system.2a Spectrum of FDMA systems One of the most important advantages in FDMA system is there isn’t any need for synchronization or timing control and therefore. In FDMA. 44 . In addition. in which. Figure 5. However. the channel is used exclusively by that user during a call. the system will assign one of the available channels to the user.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is the most widespread multipleaccess scheme for land mobile communication system due to its ability to discriminate channels effortlessly by filters in the frequency domain. there is only a need for flat fading consideration as for antifading technique because the bandwidth of each channel in the FDMA is sufficiently narrow.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes 5. When a user sends a call request. Figure 5. The allocated system bandwidth is divided into bands with bandwidth of Wch and guard space between adjacent channels to prevent spectrum overlapping that may be resulted from carrier frequency instability.
5. • High Qvalue for the transmitter and receiver filters is required to guarantee high channel selectivity [11]. composite transmission of voice and nonvoice data is also difficult. the transmission time axis is divided into frames of equal duration. there are also various problems associated with FDMA systems and they are: • • Intermodulation interference increases with the number of carriers .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes However. Figure 5. Each slot position within a frame is allocated to a different user and this allocation stays the same over the sequence of frames [12].3a Frame and slot structure with basic TDMA 45 .3a illustrated the allocation in a basic TDMA frame with four time slots per frame with the shaded areas representing the guard times in each slot in which transmission is prohibited in this region. Variable rate transmission is difficult because such a terminal has to prepare a lot of modems. This means that a particular user may transmit during one particular slot in every frame and thus. it has the entire channel bandwidth at its disposal during this slot. It is essential to have the guard times as it prevents transmissions of different (spatially distributed) users from overlapping due to transmission delay differences. Figure 5.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) In the basic time division multiple access (TDMA) protocol. and each frame is divided into the same number of time slots having equal duration. For the same reason.
The most distinct feature of CDMA system is that all the terminals share the whole bandwidth. time and frequency are occupied as shown in Figure 5. all subscribers in a CDMA system use the same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In code division multiple access (CDMA) systems.4(iii) [13]. Figure 5. Therefore. CDMA requires a larger bandwidth as compared to FDMA and TDMA. When each user sends a call request to the base station. Having its own pseudorandom codeword. Furthermore.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes 5. the signal is multiplied by a very large bandwidth signal called the spreading signal. The spreading signal is a pseudonoise code sequence that as a chip rate which is in orders of magnitudes greater than the data rate of message [8]. 46 . and each terminal signal is discriminated by the code.4(ii). there is also a need for code synchronization in CDMA system.4a(i) displays the spectrum of a CDMA system. When five users initial and hold the calls as shown in Figure 5. the base station assigns on of the spreading codes to the user.
smart antennas provide a new method of multiple access to the users. The SDMA 47 . which is known as the space division multiple access (SDMA).4a Concept of a CDMA system: (i) spectrum of a CDMA system (ii) a call initiation and holding model for fiveuser case (iii) channel allocation to each user 5.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 5.5 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) In addition to these techniques.
it leads to improved capacity and better system performance. The SDMA scheme is based upon the fact that a signal arriving from a distant source reaches different antennas in an array at different times due to their spatial distribution. This technique enables an effective transmission to take place in one cell without affecting the transmission in another cell. Thus. uses smart antenna to provide control of space by providing virtual channels in an angle domain. which is commonly referred to space diversity. Without the use of an array. while the use of space diversity enables dynamic changes of cell shapes to reflect the user movement. With the use of this approach. an array of antennas constitutes to an extra dimension in this system by providing dynamic control in space and needless to say.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 5: Multiple Access Schemes scheme. this can be accomplished by having a separate base station for each cell and keeping cell size permanent. and this delay is utilized to differentiate one or more users in one area from those in another area [10]. simultaneous calls in various different cells can be established at the same carrier frequency. 48 .
In addition. Therefore. we will be designing the rectangular patch for the linear and planar array simulations.1 Aim and Procedures Previous chapters had provided basic concept on antennas and smart antenna systems. it would be appropriate to study the basic of antenna arrays. 6. its radiation pattern and performance.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Chapter 6 Analysis of Array Antennas 6. The simulated results achieved were tabulated. Figure 2.2 Microstrip Patch Antenna Design The microstrip rectangular patch antenna is by far the most widely used configuration. The design of microstrip patch antennas was studied and implemented before carrying out simulations using software programs known as the Personal Computer Antenna Aided Design (PCAAD) and MATLAB.2b(i) shows some of the parameters constrain for the design. As a result. Various parameters were altered to study the effects that would be reflected on antenna arrays. Several factors contribute to the design of a microstrip rectangular patch antenna. which 49 . this will greatly contribute to further understanding the operation of smart antenna systems. the chapter will conclude with some discussions on the results achieved. Last but not least. polar plots were also generated to cater for a better visualization and analysis. Thus. This chapter will be covering the analysis of linear and planar arrays of microstrip patch antennas.
50 .8 ∆l (6.3) t + 0. A resonant frequency of 2GHz is chosen because in 1992.258 ) t + 0. the type of substrate used and the substrate thickness.4) Patch size calculation: Assuming a rectangular linefed configuration.1) Length.3) where t is the thickness of the substrate. The dimensions of a rectangular patch antenna can be determined using the following equations: λ (εr + 1) = 2 2 −1 / 2 Width. L λ = − 2∆l ( 2 * εe) (6.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas include the length and width of the antenna patch. εe and ∆l are given by: Effective dielectric constant. In addition. the center/resonant frequency must also be determined.2) where the effective dielectric constant.412t) ( W εe − 0.264 = (0. the World Administrative Radio Commission (WARC) of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) formulated a plan to implement a global frequency band in the 2000 MHz range that would be common to all countries for the universal wireless communication systems [8]. εe εr + 1 + εr − 1 1 + 12t = 2 2 W −1 / 2 (6. W (6. W (εe + 0.
0593 m = 5. εr = 2.93 ( 2.264 = (0.5 + 0.93 2 −1 / 2 = 2.02300444384 W (εe + 0. εe = εr + 1 + εr − 1 1 + 12t 2 2 W −1 / 2 = 2. t = 0.258) 0. λ = C/f = (3*108 )/2GHz = 0.412*0.93 cm Effective dielectric constant.8 5.258 ) t + 0.5) 5. f = 2GHz Assuming typical substrate of dielectric constant. λ (εr + 1) = 2 2 = −1 / 2 Width. W 0.3) t + 0.2 + 1) 2 2 −1 / 2 = 0.2 + 1 2.8 = 0.2597 ∆l 51 .5 cm Wavelength.2 − 1 12 * 0.02 + 0.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Assuming resonant frequency.2 Assuming substrate thickness.412t) ( W εe − 0.3) 0.15m where C is the free space velocity of light.5 + 1 + 2 5.02 − 0.264 = (0.5 + 0.15 ( 2.93 ( 2.
Hence. along with the travelling waves from the source towards the antenna. the new dimension of Length = 4. referred to as standing waves. when the impedance of the antenna (load) to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line matched.02 = 4.93 cm is selected for applications to the simulations. it was observed from PCAAD simulations that a length of 4. VSWR ≈ 4.2a) does not produce a minimum voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)* compared to a length of 4.2a VSWR plot for length of 4.706 cm (Figure 6.75 cm (Figure 6.6 Figure 6. a desired minimum VSWR is achieved. after much testing.2b) at 2GHz.2597) ( 2 * 2.15 *100 = − ( 2 * 0. constructive and destructive patterns.706 cm and Width = 5. Thus. L λ = − 2∆l ( 2 * εe) 0.75 cm Nevertheless.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Length.75 cm 52 . *Note: The reflected waves from the interface between the source and the antenna create.
4 Figure 6.2c Radiation pattern for single microstrip patch antenna 53 .6% = 7.2c illustrated the radiation pattern of the single microstrip patch antenna with simulated results of: Bandwidth Efficiency Directivity = 3.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas VSWR ≈ 4.2b VSWR plot for length of 4.706 cm Figure 6.9% = 97.2 Note that the values here will be the same for all polar plots unless otherwise stated 30 20 .10 0 Figure 6.
54 . which consists of the interelement spacing.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing. Figure 6. it is essential to investigate its performance.2 = 2GHz = 15 cm Assuming the element polarization is in the Xdirection. λ = 4. 6.5 cm = 2. the amplitude distribution and the phase excitation.706 cm = 5. t Dielectric constant Center frequency. number of elements in an array.3. Therefore.3b displayed the pattern for an interelement spacing of one wavelength. W Substrate thickness. L Microstrip antenna patch width.3 Simulation on Linear Array Antenna Linear array is the simplest and commonly used configuration. and all observation will be monitored. f Wavelength.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6. The subsequent simulations on linear array will be performed using the PCAAD program with the following predefined parameters: Microstrip antenna patch length. will be varied. The four influencing factors.1.3a illustrated the radiation pattern for an interelement spacing of ¼ wavelength and Figure 6. d The following assumptions are made: • Phase shift • Amplitude distribution • Number of elements in the array = zero degree = uniform =8 PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6. There are four basic factors influencing the performance of the linear array antenna and this section will be examining a linear array of microstrip patch antennas.93 cm = 0.
7 17.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Interelement Spacing (cm) λ/8 = 1.1 Figure 6.8dB) 6 sidelobes (SLL = 13.3 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 46.875 λ/4 = 3.0dB) and 2 grating lobes Table 6.3 16.25 λ = 15 Directivity 10.6 8.9 14.3b Radiation pattern of λ interelement spacing 55 .5 15.4dB) 10 sidelobes (SLL = 13.3a Radiation pattern of ¼ λ interelement spacing Figure 6.5 24.75 3λ/8 = 5.9 16.5 3λ/4 = 11.2 12.8 12.3 Remarks 1 main lobe 2 sidelobes (SLL = 15.1dB) 14 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4 6.1dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.625 λ/2 = 7.
6 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 51.2 Figure 6.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements.6 10.2.3d displayed the radiation pattern for a 10elemeents linear array.5 cm 2 PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.7 14.6 19.9 12.3c illustrated the radiation pattern for a 4elemeents linear array while Figure 6.0 25.3.3c Radiation pattern of a 4elements linear array 56 . Figure 6. N The following assumptions are made: • Phase shift • Amplitude distribution • Interelement spacing = zero degree = uniform = λ = 7. Number of element (N) 2 3 4 6 8 10 20 Directivity 9.4 16.5 12.1 4.3 34.4 15.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.7 16.9 11.9 Remarks 1 main lobe 2 sidelobes < 20 dB 2 sidelobes < 20 dB 4 sidelobes < 20 dB 6 sidelobes < 20 dB 8 sidelobes > 20 dB 18 sidelobes > 20 dB Table 6.
Figure 6.9 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 12.3. Amplitude Distribution Uniform Chebyshev (SLL = 20 dB) Taylor (SLL = 20 dB) Directivity 15.6 14.3f illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with Chebyshev distribution.3d Radiation pattern of a 10elements linear array 6.1 16.4dB) 6 sidelobes (SLL = 20.0dB) Table 6.3.1 Remarks 6 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4 14. Figure 6.3 57 .3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution The following assumptions are made: • Number of elements • Interelement spacing =8 = λ = 7.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6. Figure 6.7dB) 6 sidelobes (SLL = 10.3e illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with uniform distribution.3g illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with Taylor distribution.5 cm 2 PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.7 15.
3f Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution array Figure 6.3g Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution array 58 .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6.3e Radiation pattern of uniform distribution array Figure 6.
0 0 Table 6.0 15.1 18.8 7.4 10.4 7.4.3j illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 90°.3h illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 0°.3i illustrated the radiation pattern for an array with phase excitation of 45°.9 17. β (degree) 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 Directivity 18.1 17. Figure 6.0 49. β Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.5 18.0 30.0 6.3.5 18.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Effect of varying phase excitation.0 49.0 30.1 18.4 59 . Figure 6.0 7.4 cm 2 PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.7 Main beam angle (degree) 15.6 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 7. Figure 6.4 The following assumptions are made: • Number of elements • Amplitude distribution • Interelement spacing = 20 = Taylor (SLL = 60 dB) = λ = 7.1 15.8 10.
3i Radiation pattern with phase excitation 45° ° Figure 6.3h Radiation pattern with phase excitation 0° ° Figure 6.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6.3j Radiation pattern with phase excitation 90° ° 60 .
The effect on beam steering of the planar array will also be investigated.2 = 2GHz = 15 cm Assuming the element polarization is in the Xdirection. t Dielectric constant Center frequency. 6. The parameters include the interelement spacing. λ = 4. L Microstrip antenna patch width.93 cm = 0. they can be used to scan the main beam of the antenna toward any point in space. W Substrate thickness.4 Simulation on Planar Array Antenna A planar array provides more variables for controlling and modeling of beam patterns as compared to the linear array.4.706 cm = 5.1 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing. In addition.5 cm = 2. f Wavelength.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6. d The following assumptions are made: • Number of elements • Amplitude distribution • Phase shift =5x5 = uniform = zero degree 61 . Therefore. this section will be exploring the radiation patterns of a planar array by varying various parameters. number of elements in the array and the amplitude distribution. The subsequent simulations on planar array will be performed using the PCAAD and MATLAB with the following predetermined parameters: Microstrip antenna patch length. They are more flexible and can provide more symmetrical patterns with lower sidelobes.
0 10.5 62 .4dB) and 2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater than main lobe beamwidth 18.2 20.4dB) and 2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater than main lobe beamwidth 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.7 19. X (cm) ¼λ ¼λ ¼λ ¼λ ½λ ½λ ½λ ½λ ¾λ ¾λ ¾λ ¾λ λ λ λ λ Y (cm) ¼λ ½λ ¾λ λ ¼λ ½λ ¾λ λ ¼λ ½λ ¾λ λ ¼λ ½λ ¾λ λ Directivity 14.5dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.3 20.6 13.1dB) 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.7dB) 6 side lobes (SLL = 12. Lastly.6 13.2 Comments 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.1dB) 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.8 38.6 10.2 20.8 38.2 22.6 10.7dB) 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.6 13.7 16.1dB) 2 sidelobes (SLL = 19.5dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.2 18.5dB) 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.2 Table 6.7 16.1dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4c displayed the radiation pattern for a planar array with full wavelength interelement spacing in both X and Y directions.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.2 18.4dB) and 2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater than main lobe beamwidth 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.1 20. Figure 6.3 20.5.8 10.4a illustrated the radiation pattern for a planar array with ½ wavelength interelement spacing in both X and Y directions while Figure 6.7dB) 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.4 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 38.3 20.8 21.1 16.6 22.7dB) 6 side lobes (SLL = 12.8 20.4b illustrated the radiation pattern for a planar array with ¾ wavelength interelement spacing in both X and Y directions.6 18.2 20.8 38.3 13.5dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.4dB) and 2 grating lobes which beamwidth is greater than main lobe beamwidth 6 side lobes (SLL = 12. Figure 6.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6.4c Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: λ in Xdirection & λ in Ydirection 63 .4b Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: ¾ λ in Xdirection & ¾ λ in Ydirection Figure 6.4a Radiation pattern for interelement spacing of: ½ λ in Xdirection & ½ λ in Ydirection Figure 6.
4 18.4 25.3 17.3 51.2 18.3 20.3 19.2 Effect of Varying Number of Elements.0 14.6 17.5 12.3 34.6 64 . N From the previous simulated results. Number of Element (X*Y) 2*2 2*3 2*4 2* 5 3*2 3*3 3*4 3*5 4*2 4*3 4*4 4* 5 5*2 5*3 5*4 5* 5 6*6 7*7 8*8 Directivity 11.2 20.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.4 14.5 15.3 16.3 15.3 51.4e presented the radiation pattern for a 5x5 planar array.1 23.8 13.4 20. The following assumptions are made: • Amplitude distribution • Phase shift = uniform = zero degree PCAAD simulations were carried out and the results were tabulated in Table 6.4f.0 16.2 3 dB Beamwidth 51.0 34.1 17. Figure 6.3 20.4 25.9 14.4d illustrated the radiation pattern for a 3x3 planar array while Figure 6.6.4.0 25. The radiation pattern for an 8x8 planar array is shown in Figure 6.0 34.8 22.4 25.6 Comments 1 main lobe 1 main lobe 1 main lobe 1 main lobe 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 2 side lobes > 20 dB 4 side lobes > 20 dB 4 side lobes > 20 dB 4 side lobes > 20 dB 4 side lobes > 20 dB 4 side lobes > 20 dB 6 side lobes 6 side lobes Table 6.4 13. the interelement spacing of ½ λ in both Xdirection and Ydirection is chosen for this simulation.7 16.4 15.3 20.0 34.3 51.
4e Polar plot for a 5x5 planar array Figure 6.4f Polar plot for a 8x8 planar array 65 .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6.4d Polar plot for a 3x3 planar array Figure 6.
3 Effect of Varying Amplitude Distribution The simulations will be using the interelement spacing of ½ λ in both Xdirection and Ydirection with the following assumptions: • Number of elements • Phase shift =5x5 = zero degree PCAAD simulations were performance and the results achieved were tabulated in Table 6. Figure 6. Amplitude Distribution Uniform Chebyshev (SLL = 20 dB) Taylor (SLL = 20 dB) Directivity 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) Remarks 19.4h illustrated the radiation patterns for planar arrays with uniform amplitude distribution and Chebyshev amplitude distribution respectively whereas Figure 6.0 22.5dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 21.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.2 18.7.2dB) 66 .7 Table 6.4g and Figure 6.6 18.4i presented the radiation pattern for a planar array with Taylor amplitude distribution.3 23.4.7 4 sidelobes (SLL = 13.8dB) 4 sidelobes (SLL = 21.7 20.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Figure 6.4g Radiation pattern of uniform distribution array Figure 6.4h Radiation pattern of Chebyshev distribution array Figure 6.4i Radiation pattern of Taylor distribution array 67 .
Appendix A provides the MATLAB code for this simulation.4. 9 cm in ydirection (The interelement spacing were found to produce the best beam pattern after some • Elements amplitude excitation =1 MATLAB simulations were performance and the results achieved were tabulated in Table 6. βx and βy Radiation performance of a planar array will be examined by performing various simulations.4 Effect of Varying Phase Excitations.8. The following assumptions are made for the simulations: • Number of elements • Interelement spacing testing) =2x2 = 8. The overall pattern. which is formed by combining the radiation pattern of a single microstrip patch antenna and the array factor of the planar array. The overall pattern will be plotted and studied using the Eplane (xz plane) and the Hplane (yz plane). Changes will be monitored as the phase excitations.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.4j and Figure 6. Figure 6. are varied.3 cm in xdirection. 68 .4k illustrated the radiation patterns for planar arrays with different phase excitations using the Eplane (φ = 0°) and Hplane (φ = 90°). will be analyzed. βx and βy.
49 25.61 4.19 10.27 2.70 Amplitude values are too small 0 9 17 25 9 9 9 Table 6.69 9.03 3.73 20.04 11.36 9.83 12.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications βx (degree) βy (degree) Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Amplitude of main beam (decibels) Sidelobe level (decibels) Main beam angle (degree) Eplane (φ = 0° ) φ ° 0 0 0 0 0 45 90 135 0 45 90 135 180 45 45 45 11.98 10 20 30 0 0 0 0 Hplane (φ = 90° ) φ ° 0 0 0 0 45 90 135 180 0 45 90 135 45 45 45 45 12.23 10.70 8.39 14.73 20.15 11.04 11.14 11.83 3.15 8.77 Amplitude values are too small 10.70 14.70 14.70 20.01 14.72 20.48 6.8 69 .
4j Radiation plots of an planar array in Eplane 70 . βy = 45° Figure 6. βy = 45° (iv) βx = 135°. βy = 45° (iii) βx = 45°.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Radiation plots in Eplane (φ = 0°): (i) βx = 0°. βy = 0° (ii) βx = 0°.
βy = 45° Figure 6.4k Radiation plots of a planar array in Hplane 71 . βy = 45° (iii) βx = 45°. βy = 0° (ii) βx = 0°.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas Polar plots in Hplane (φ = 90°): (i) βx = 0°. βy = 45° (iv) βx = 90°.
it was found that the interelement spacing in y–direction was directly proportional to the directivity. (ii) Planar Array The element polarization was assumed to be in xdirection and it was found from the simulation results that an increase of interelement spacing in the xdirection would produce a more focus main beam. nonuniform amplitude distribution (Chebyshev and Taylor) linear array had shown expected results of lower sidelobes level and a bigger 3dB beamwidth with lower directivity compared to uniform amplitude distribution array. It was also proven that an interelement spacing of full wavelength would cause the radiation pattern to have grating lobes and this could be seen from Figure 6. it was employed in the linear and planar arrays for our simulations. Decreasing the interelement spacing in the ydirection would thus.3j that the beam rotated in the anticlockwise direction as the phase excitation increases. Lastly. on the other hand. but more sidelobes were generated.3h. On the other hand. Although this is a favorable condition. Simulations results obtained had also proved that an increase in the number of elements in a linear array would result in higher directivity and a smaller 3dB beamwidth.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas 6.3i.3b. However. and 6.5 Discussion After the dimension of microstrip patch antenna was determined. 6. (i) Linear Array It was observed that an increase in interelement spacing in a linear array would result in higher directivity and a smaller 3dB beamwidth. the main beam was found to have the steering capability as the phase excitation was varied with a suitable amplitude distribution and interelement spacing. This could be seen form Figure 6. but more sidelobes. 72 . but it was found that the number of undesirable sidelobes also increases with increasing interelement spading. cause a drop in directivity.
Thus. Nonuniform amplitude distributions planar array had confirmed that they would have a lower sidelobes level compare to uniform amplitude array. Finally. βy was in control of the main beam steering and would also caused changes in the sidelobes level. but at the expense of generating more sidelobes. Variation in βy was found only to have effect on the amplitude of the main beam. there is always a compromise between directivity and antenna size. the overall radiation pattern. 73 . Therefore. all conditions were found to have an inverse effect. when the patterns were plotted in Hplane. variation in βx was discovered having the ability to change the amplitude of the pattern as expected. This was due to the fact that it was in the xz plane (Eplane).Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 6: Analysis of Array Antennas PCAAD simulations also showed that an increase in the number of elements in a planar array would contribute to a more concentrated main beam with higher directivity. However. which is formed by combining the radiation pattern of a single microstrip patch antenna and the array factor of the planar array. There were only slight changes in the main beam amplitude but a significant change in sidelobes level when βx changes. Similar results were yield for linear array. was found to have the capability of beam steering when the phase excitation of βx was varied in Eplane.
1 Aim and Procedures Chapter 2 had covered the theory on antenna synthesis. Further investigation is performed by varying the interelement spacing for an 8 and 16 elements linear array. in the event of changes in the number of elements or sidelobes level for a linear array. 74 . Simulations will be carried out by varying the number of elements for synthesis on a sectored pattern of a linear array. In addition. Firstly. the chapter will be covering on the WoodwardLawson method. The next section will be examining on the DolphChebyshev method where all observation is analyzed.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Chapter 7 Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7. The two techniques. WoodwardLawson Sampling Method and DolphChebyshev Method. Following that. the chapter will conclude with some discussions on the results achieved. we will look into the area whereby the interelement spacing is varied for an 8 and 16 element linear array synthesizing. it is important to analyze the radiation patterns by using different systematic methods that may arrive at an antenna configuration which will produce an acceptable approximates desired pattern. which had been previously discussed. Finally. will be investigated in this chapter.
2a illustrated the radiation patterns for 8 elements linear array.2. The following assumptions are made: • Frequency • Interelement spacing = 2GHz = 0.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7.2 WoodwardLawson Synthesis This section explores the WoodwardLawson method on linear array.1. The first part will be analyzing the performance caused by variation in number of elements for synthesis of a sectored pattern of a linear array while the next part will the analysis of varying interelement spacing for synthesizing an 8 and 20 element linear array. Figure 7.2b illustrated the radiation pattern for this design. Refer to Appendix B for the MATLAB code.5λ Syntheses were carried out using PCAAD and the results achieved were tabulated in Table 7. 7.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements. A MATLAB code was also written to design a radiation pattern for 10 elements uniform linear array for interelement spacing of ½ wavelength. N The sector pattern will be defined as a 0dB between the angle of 30° and 30° with – 60dB elsewhere. 75 . Figure 7.
2 Transition width.0 30. T (degree) 46.77 50.2 0.2 0.3 45.2 0.8 22.04 Sidelobe level (decibels) No sidelobes 28.8 30.7 5.4 1.96 57.96 58.2b Radiation pattern for 10 element uniform linear array of ½ wavelength interelement spacing 76 .4 Table 7.3 0.75 59.3 0.6 29.9 8.4 2.5 56.8 10.31 54.2a Radiation pattern for 8 elements linear array Figure 7.0 14.3 0. R (decibels) No ripple 0.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Number of elements 4 8 12 16 20 40 80 160 3dB Beamwidth (degree) 41.3 Ripple.1 Figure 7.17 53.93 55.4 29.
2 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing.9 12. Syntheses were carried out using PCAAD and the results achieved were tabulated in Table 7.2 8.46 7.73 17.95 4.68 8.3 13.96 2 sidelobes 6 sidelobes 10 sidelobes 14 sidelobes 18 sidelobes 22 sidelobes 26 sidelobes Grating lobes occurs at 90° and 90° Table 7.2 13.42 6.75λ 0.8 12.5λ 0.375λ 0.29 4. The frequency used will be 2GHz and the wavelength is 15cm.3 25.3 13.74 10. Number of elements 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Interelement spacing (cm) 0. d The interelement spacing will be varied for synthesizing the 8 elements and 16 elements linear array. which are the same for all other simulations that had been performed.25λ 0.25λ 0.875λ λ Sidelobe level (decibels) No Sidelobe 12.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7.2 13.625λ 0.125λ 0.625λ 0.04 12.5λ 0. The radiation will be defined as 0dB at the angle of 0° for the desired main beam and –60dB elsewhere.2 13.75λ 0.125λ 0.9 12.9 12.2.2 13.21  Remarks 2 sidelobes 4 sidelobes 6 sidelobes 8 sidelobes 10 sidelobes 12 sidelobes Grating lobes occurs at 90° and 90° 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 0.2 13.875λ λ 13.5 2.2.8 12.59 12.9 25.17 3.9  3dB Beamwidth (degree) 52.2 77 .375λ 0.
2c Radiation patterns of an 8 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.2c and Figure 7.75λ λ 78 .25λ λ Figure 7.2d Radiation patterns of an 8 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0. Figure 7.2d illustrated the radiation patterns of an 8 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.25λ and 0.75λ respectively.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Figure 7.
2f Radiation patterns of an 16 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0. Figure 7.75λ respectively.25λ λ Figure 7.75λ λ 79 .25λ and 0.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Figure 7.2e Radiation patterns of an 16 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.2e and Figure 7.2f displayed the radiation patterns of a 16 elements linear array for an interelement spacing of 0.
which yields similar details.5° 11.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7. Appendix C provides the MATLAB code for synthesis of N element linear array (2 ≤N ≤ 10) using the DolphChebyshev method.3.0° 3.0° 14.3 DolphChebyshev Synthesis This section studies the DolphChebyshev method on linear array. In addition.8° 5. 7.1 Effect of Varying Number of Elements. Further observations are monitored by varying the interelement spacing of an 8 and 16 elements linear array.0° 20.0° 2. All results achieved were tabulated in Table 7.1 program.0° 4. the results obtained were compared with the Ensemble 5.6° Remarks Main beam with no sidelobe 2 sidelobes appear 4 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 8 sidelobes appear 14 sidelobes appear 20 sidelobes appear 26 sidelobes appear 32 sidelobes appear 38 sidelobes appear Table 7.5 = 20dB Syntheses were carried out using the MATLAB program. Investigations are carried out by varying the number of elements in the array and the sidelobe level of an 8 element linear array.3. N The following assumptions are made for the investigation: • Normalized interelement spacing • Sidelobe level = 0.3 80 .9° 30. Number of elements 2 4 6 8 10 16 22 28 34 40 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 59.0° 6.
Figure 7.3a(ii) displayed one that was from Ensemble. 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 100 150 (i) Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using MATLAB (ii) Radiation pattern for 10 elements array using Ensemble Figure 7. Both yielded the same results.3a(i) illustrated the plot generated from MATLAB while Figure 7.3a was generated and displayed the radiation patterns for the 10 elements linear array.3a 81 .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Using the DolphChebyshev method. Figure 7.
5° 18.0° 14.8° Remarks 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear Table 7.5 =8 In this section. Likewise.1° 21.4.3.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7.5° 20. syntheses were also carried out using the MATLAB program and all results achieved were compared with the Ensemble program. 82 .4 Figure 7.2 Effect of Varying Sidelobe Level The following assumptions are made for the synthesis: • Normalized interelement spacing • Number of elements = 0.5° 12.0° 11. Sidelobe level (dB) 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 10.0° 19.3b was generated and displayed the radiation patterns for the 8 elements linear array with a 25dB sidelobe level.5° 15. Figure 7. both programs generated similar results and the data obtained was tabulated in Table 7.3b(ii) displayed the radiation pattern generated by Ensemble.3b(i) illustrated the plot generated from MATLAB while Figure 7.5° 16.
3b 83 .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 100 150 (i) Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB sidelobe level using MATLAB (ii) Radiation pattern for 8 elements array with 25dB sidelobe level using Ensemble Figure 7.
0° 14. Number of elements 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 Interelement spacing (Normalized) 0. d This section will be analyzing on the radiation pattern for various interelement spacing for 8 and 16 elements linear array.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7.375 0.5° 11.0° 6.0° 19.125 0.8° 5.5° 8.4° 4.0° 13.75 0.5° 9.375 0.75 0.0° 29.625 0.0° 7.5 0.825 1 3 dB Beamwidth (degree) 60. First and foremost.5 84 . Correspondingly.25 0.825 1 0.125 0.5° 9.2° Remarks Main beam with no sidelobe 4 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 6 sidelobes appear 8 sidelobes appear 10 sidelobes appear 14 sidelobes appear 2 grating lobes and 12 sidelobes appear 4 sidelobes appear 8 sidelobes appear 12 sidelobes appear 14 sidelobes appear 18 sidelobes appear 22 sidelobes appear 26 sidelobes appear 2 grating lobes and 28 sidelobes appear Table 7.3 Effect of Varying Interelement Spacing. both programs produced comparable results and the data obtained was tabulated in Table 7.625 0. Ensemble was also used to verify the results achieved.25 0.3.5.5 0.0° 27.5° 4.0° 3. the following assumption is made: • Sidelobe level = 20dB In addition to using the MATLAB program for all syntheses.
Figure 7.3c 85 .5 using Ensemble Figure 7. 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 100 150 (i) Radiation pattern for 8 element linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0.5 using MATLAB (ii) Radiation pattern for 8 element linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0.3c (ii) displayed the plot that was produced using Ensemble.3c (i) displayed the linear plot generated by MATLAB while Figure7.5.3c illustrated the radiation patterns for an 8 elements linear array with a normalized interelement spacing of 0.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Figure 7.
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation Figure 7.3d 86 .5 using Ensemble Figure 7.3d illustrated the radiation patterns for 16 elements linear array with a normalized interelement spacing of 0.3d (i) displayed the linear plot generated by MATLAB while Figure7.5 using MATLAB (ii) Radiation pattern for 16 element linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0. 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 100 150 (i) Radiation pattern for 16 element linear array with normalized interelement spacing of 0.3d (ii) displayed the plot that was produced using Ensemble.5. Figure 7.
the number of sidelobes multiples. 87 . the result shows that this synthesis technique can be applied for achieving a narrow beamwidth accompanied by low sidelobes level. Furthermore. it was found that the 3dB beamwidth increases when the sidelobe level decreases but the number of sidelobes did not change. the investigated results illustrated that increment in the interelement spacing resulted in a desired smaller 3dB beamwidth but more sidelobes were generated.4 Discussion (i) WoodwardLawson Method Synthesis results proved that the ripple rate would be higher if there was an increase in the number of elements in the linear array. In addition. this synthesis method presented is most useful for shaping main beam of an antenna pattern as the sidelobe level is at a satisfactory level. However. but the sidelobe level remained the same. (ii) DolphChebyshev Method The DolphChebyshev method implemented showed that for a given sidelobe level. Although the number of sidelobes increases with an increase in number of elements. but low beam ripple could also be obtained at some sacrifice in transition width. for a fix number of elements and interelement spacing. which is a positive sign for designers. Thus. However. Last but not least. Although it could be seen that a very good transition width was achieved as the number of elements in the array increases. Examining the tabulated results also illustrated that the 3dB beamwidth decreases with an increasing interelement spacing.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 7: Antenna Synthesis Investigation 7. Grating lobes were also generated when an interelement spacing was equal to the wavelength. a narrow 3dB beamwidth could be achieved by increasing the number of elements in the array. It was also observed that the WoodwardLawson method had low sidelobes level. the sidelobes level remained the same.
Refer to Appendix D for the MATLAB code.1 Aim and Procedures After covering the basic concept of Recursive Least Squares algorithm in Chapter 4.2 Simulated Results The following assumption are made for the simulations: • Frequency • Wavelength • Interelement spacing • Forgetting factor • No noise in received data = 2GHz = 15cm = 7. the objective of this chapter will be analyzing the radiation pattern of a uniform linear array using the RLS approach.5cm = 0. 8.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 8: Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis Chapter 8 Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis 8. The MATLAB code for the RLS algorithm was formulated and thus. compiling the codes on the computer will carry out the all the desired simulations.95 88 .
Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 8: Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis The radiation patterns were presented in both linear and polar plots. Figure 8.2a Radiation pattern for 4 elements linear array at 0° ° 89 .2a illustrated the patterns of a 4 element linear array at 0° and Figure 8. (i) Linear plot (ii) Polar plot Figure 8.2b illustrated the radiation pattern of a 4 element linear array at 45°.
2b Radiation pattern for 4 element linear array at 45° ° 90 .Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 8: Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis (i) Linear plot (ii) Polar plot Figure 8.
However. Nevertheless. but there is a greater computation complexity as shown in the MATLAB code provided in Appendix D. although the RLS algorithm was found to have a faster convergence speed. the radiation patterns of a 4 element linear array plotted were the consequences of the optimal weight vector at the steady state multiply with the steering vector from the range of 90° to 90°.3 Discussion Compiling the MATLAB code on Recursive Least Squares algorithm. 91 . Regardless of numerous signal sources.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 8: Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Analysis 8. only the optimal weight vector obtained provided the maximal radiation pattern for each individual desired signal source at the desired angle. the simulations performed were based on a known steering direction whereby an angle for the signal source was designated. Nevertheless. it must be noted that there may be some mismatch in the timevariable signal environment as it requires to track the direction of the signal source. The radiation patterns plotted were at 0° and 45°.
which consist of the FDMA. Although the aim of thesis is the study on smart antenna system. it was seen that radiation patterns were related to the number of elements in the array. this had led to a better understanding on antennas. Upon having a valuable knowledge on antenna. the multiple access schemes. It was also discussed how channel capacity in wireless communication could be increased through SDMA. That includes the benefits of smart antenna system. TDMA. From the results of the simulations. amplitude distribution and the phase excitation. CDMA and SDMA.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 9: Conclusion and Future Developments Chapter 9 Conclusion and Future Developments 9. We had also investigated on the radiation pattern and performance of array antennas. beam forming and the recursive least squares algorithm. the range of frequencies available for wireless communication technologies can be utilized in various ways/schemes.1 Conclusion This thesis had provided an introduction to basic antenna theory and a sound description on the types of antennas that we would be using. the interelement spacing. Thus. In addition. 92 . Thus. Thus. the switchingbeam array and adaptive array approaches. a detailed description on smart antenna system was presented. but the fundament antenna concept and the parameters of antenna were examined. were introduced. there is always a compromise between the influencing parameters.
2 Future Developments Although this thesis had provided significant study on the smart antenna system for the wireless communication environment. However. there are still other important areas that require further work and they will be illustrated in the last section. 93 . it was also possible for different methods to be integrated together. Fourier Transform Method and Taylor LineSource (OneParameter). In conclusion. Further research can also be done on different methods of antenna synthesis as this thesis had covered only the WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev methods. Although recent evolution had made it feasible. Last but not least. thus forming an optimal desired pattern. The other techniques include the Schelkunoff Polynomial Method. It was concluded that different synthesis methods would have to be applied in order to yield different desired radiation pattern. but there are still other equally important areas that require our attention. However. an adaptive algorithm known as the Recursive Least Squares algorithm was analyzed and had shown that a smooth estimation optimal response could be obtained. The implementation of the complex smart antenna system requires adaptive algorithms for estimation of the optimal response and reducing the effects of noise in the timevariable environment. there is always a challenge to improve these algorithms for faster and more complex processing as the world enters into the future of a wireless dimension.Smart Antenna for Wireless Applications Chapter 9: Conclusion and Future Developments The next section had examined on antenna synthesis where investigations were carried out using the WoodwardLawson and DolphChebyshev method. 9. this thesis had met the objective of studying and analyzing on the performance of the smart antenna system. It had also provided a sense of achievement as significant amount of work had been accomplished. They include analysis on circular array in addition to an indepth investigation on planar array.
46.T.” Surveys..A. New Jersey.H. Thiele: “Antenna Theory and Design.org/pubs/surveys/4q99issue/lehne. 3.html 8.” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 2. Pettersen.S. Liberti Jr. and T.C. Macnamara: “Handbook of Antennas for EMC.” John wiley & Sons. G.F. 9. London. 6. Balanis: “Antenna Theory. T. Upper Saddle River.” John Wiley & Sons.” John Wiley & Sons. 5.A. pp. P. M. 1999. Vol. C.References 1. W. 794757. 7. “Experimental Evaluation of Smart Antenna System Performance for Wireless Communications. Rappaport: “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications: IS95 and Third Generation CDMA Applications. “An Overview of Smart Antenna Technology for Mobil Communications System. Lehne and M. 1974. 4. I. J. 6. 1995.E. K. http://www.” John Wiley & Sons. New York.” Prentice Hall. 1999. Jun. Strutzman and G. No. Massachusettes.” Artech House. . Okamato: “Smart Antenna Systems and Wireless LANs. Ma: “Theory and Application of Antenna Arrays. 1981. 1998.” Kluwer Academic.comsoc. 1997.T. New York. New York.S. Sutherland et al. 1984. New York. Lee: “Principles of Antenna Theory.
. Boston. New Jersey.” Proceedings of the IEEE. 11. 85. Godara. 1997. Upper Saddle River. S. 1996. 1991. Improvement. T. New Jersey.10.” Prentice Hall. Rappaport: “Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice. Part I: Performance. Feasibility and Systems Considerations. S.Haykin: “Adaptive Filter Theory.” Artech House.S. No. 10291060. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey. 14. 1997. Prasad: “CDMA for Wireless Personal Communications. Sampei: “Applications of Digital Wireless Technologies to Global Wireless Communications. 1996. L. Vol. 12. Jul.” Prentice Hall. “Applications of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communication.C.” Prentice Hall. R. pp. 7. 13.
set(h.2). % Progreesive phase value in ydirection phiy = k*y*sin(theta). % Progreesive phase value in xdirection phix = k*x*sin(theta).2. % Eplane. load A:\eplane.3. % Excitation of each element % Array factor of array in the xdirection Sx = ix1+ix2*exp(j*phix). 1. phi = ph*pi/180. ph = 0.'red').^(Edb/20). 1.1).'color'.abs(E)).*cos(phi) + beta_x. y = 9. % load data of single element % Covert to ratio % Define plot area % Plot radiation pattern of a Single microstrip element h = polar(theta'.dat Edb = eplane(:.'red'). x = 8.*sin(phi) + beta_y. beta_x = (bx/180)*pi. . 1. bx = 0. subplot(2. E = 10. by = 0. set(h. ix1 ix2 iy1 iy2 = = = = 1. % Array factor of array in the ydirection Sy = iy1+iy2*exp(j*phiy).Appendix A % Planar Array teta = 90:1:90. beta_y = (by/180)*pi. phi = 90 for Hplane % Convert to radian % Phase shift in xdirection % Phase shift in ydirection % Convert to radian % Convert to radian % Interelement spacing in xdirection % Interelement spacing in ydirection % Wave number k = (2*pi)/(3e10/2e9). h = ylabel('Single Element'). theta = teta*pi/180.'color'.
'color'. theta = linspace(range_x1.overall).2.'magenta').'color'.2).'magenta'). axis([x_axis1 x_axis exp(4) 5]). h2 = ylabel('Overall pattern').*E).181).3).subplot(2. h1 = ylabel('Array Factor'). % Plot linear pattern .overall).'blue').'green'). subplot(2.'green').'color'.'color'. % Initialize yaxis for linear plot x_axis1 = pi*(90/pi). % Define plot area % Array factor of planar array % Plot radiation pattern of array factor of planar array h1 = polar(theta.*Sy). set(h3. % Define plot area % Pattern multiplication % Plot overall radiation pattern of planar array h2 = polar(theta'. set(h1. set(h1. subplot(2. range_x1 = pi*(90/pi). h3 = plot(theta'. % Define plot area range_x = pi*(90/pi).AF). AF = abs(Sx. set(h3.4). h3 = ylabel('Linear Plot').2. grid. overall = abs(AF'.range_x.'color'. set(h2.'blue'). % Plot in rectangular pattern % Initialize yaxis for linear plot x_axis = pi*(90/pi).'color'.2. set(h2.
8.Appendix B %This program uses the WoodwardLawson synthesis.*pi.*a3).*a2)).*pi. AF1 = ((sin(5. %Excitation at the sample a5 = cos(theta) .*b5m).p0m./(sin((pi./10./(sin((pi. 1. a3 = cos(theta) . n2m = p1m = 0./10. 0. n3m = p2m = 0. to design a %radiation pattern for a 10 elements uniform linear %array with an element spacing of one half the wavelength.*pi. n5m = p4m = 0. n1m = p0m = 0.*an2)). nb4m nb3m nb2m nb1m = = = = 0. a0 = cos(theta) .*a5).*pi.*pi. b0m = 1. 1.*a4). n4m = p3m = 0./(sin((pi./10./2)). .4. AF0 = ((sin(5./2)).*an2).6.*pi.*b1m). theta = t*pi/180.*a0).*a3)). a2 = cos(theta) .*nb2m). points b4m = 0.*pi.8.*an1).n2m.*nb1m). AF4 = ((sin(5. b2m = 1.2. 0.*b0m)./2)). a1 = cos(theta) . b5m = 0. AFn1 = ((sin(5. t = 0:1:180.p3m.*a1)). b3m = 1. a4 = cos(theta) .p4m./10. p5m = 1.*pi./(sin((pi./(sin((pi./2)).*a4)).2. 0.*b3m)./10.*a5)). 1. 0.n1m.*an1))./(sin((pi.*b4m).p1m./2)). AFn2 = ((sin(5./2)).4.p5m./10.*b2m).*a2).p2m./2))./(sin((pi. AF2 = ((sin(5. 1. an1 = cos(theta) .*a0)).*a1). b1m = 1./10.6. an2 = cos(theta) ./2))./10. %cos(thetam) nb5m = 0. AF3 = ((sin(5. %Pattern of each composing function AF5 = ((sin(5./(sin((pi.
an3 = cos(theta) ./(sin((pi.*pi.%Plot polar pattern pause plot(t. AFn5 = ((sin(5.n4m. AFn4 = ((sin(5./10. grid./10.*an3)). ./10. ylabel('Normalized Magnitude')./2)). %Plot linear pattern xlabel('Theta (Degrees)'). an5 = cos(theta) .*an3)./(sin((pi.*an5).tot)./2)).*nb3m).n5m.*nb5m).*an5)).*pi. %Summation of composing functions total = AF5 + AF4 + AF3 + AF2 + AF1 + AF0 + AFn1 + AFn2 + AFn3 + AFn4 + AFn5./2)).n3m. AFn3 = ((sin(5. an4 = cos(theta) .*nb4m).*an4)./(sin((pi.*an4)).tot). polar(theta. tot = abs(total).*pi.
') disp(' ') SLL = input(['Side lobe level(dB) = ']).') disp(' ') disp('Assuming that the array has at least 2 elements') disp('but not more than 10 elements.') disp(' ') N = input(['Number of elements in the array = ']). c=0.75. disp(' ') . % Convert to radian u = pi*spacing*cos(theta). disp(' ') disp('Please enter the required side lobe level in decibels.Appendix C clc. % Determine Zo % Prompt user for the Normalised Interelement Spacing. clc. % Prompt user for the required Side Lobe Level. theta = t*pi/180.') disp(' ') disp('Press "a" for 1/4 wavelength. clear. spacing = input(['Interelement spacing (Normalised) = ']).') disp('Press "d" for full wavelength. d=1.') disp('Press "b" for 1/2 wavelength. % Clear screen % Clear all variables % Prompt user for number of elements in an array. R = 10^(SLL/20). disp(' ') disp('Please enter one of the following interelement spacing (Normalised).25. t = 0:1:179. % Convert to ratio Zo = cosh((1/(N1))*acosh(R)).') disp('Press "c" for 3/4 wavelength. disp(' ') disp('Please enter the number of elements in the array.5. b=0.') disp(' ') a=0. clc. clc.
2. AFc = [2*Zo^2. X = AFp\AFc. % Generate polar plot % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % Generate linear plot % Set maximum and minimum %values for X and Y scales % Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the amplitude % of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1. 1. max=max(AF1). AFc = [1*Zo]. subplot(2.1)*cos(2*u)).2.1)*cos(u)). AF2=AF1max.2. Xo = X/X(1. AFp = [1]. theta1=(180/pi)*theta.AF).1). . X = AFp\AFc. axis([0 180 40 0]).1)+Xo(2.1]. Xo = X/X(2.1).AF2). AFp = [0. subplot(2. AF1=20*log10(AF).2). polar(theta. plot(theta1.1). 1].disp(['Number of elements = ' num2str(N)]) disp(['Side lobe level = ' num2str(SLL) ' dB']) disp(['Interelement spacing (Normalised) = ' num2str(spacing)]) if N<=10 if N == 2. grid elseif N == 3. % Polynomial of excitation coefficient % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the amplitude % of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1.
axis([0 180 40 0]).0. theta1=(180/pi)*theta. subplot(2. % Generate polar plot % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1.AF2). polar(theta. AF1=20*log10(AF). max=max(AF1). AF2=AF1max.8. X = AFp\AFc.2.1)*cos(u)+Xo(2. 3*Zo]. polar(theta.2.2. AF2=AF1max.4.1. max=max(AF1). theta1=(180/pi)*theta.2. % Generate polar plot AF1=20*log10(AF). 1. grid elseif N == 5.1). 1. AFp = [0. AFp = [0. subplot(2.2).1).1)*cos(3*u)). grid elseif N==4.AF). plot(theta1.8. % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient .2.AF2).AF).3].subplot(2.1). subplot(2.2). Xo = X/X(2.1]. 0. axis([0 180 40 0]). AFc = [4*Zo^3. plot(theta1.
plot(theta1. X = AFp\AFc. X = AFp\AFc. subplot(2. axis([0 180 40 0]). 8*Zo^2.0. 1].1)*cos(5*u)).1). 0. polar(theta.1).1)*cos(u)+Xo(2. % Generate polar plot AF1=20*log10(AF). AFp = [0.AFc = [8*Zo^4. max=max(AF1).2. AFc = [16*Zo^5. theta1=(180/pi)*theta.1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3. Xo = X/X(3. AF2=AF1max.2. AF2=AF1max.20. max=max(AF1). theta1=(180/pi)*theta. % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value . 20*Zo^3.3.1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3. % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1. Xo = X/X(3. subplot(2.1).]. polar(theta.2). % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1.1).1)+Xo(2.AF). 1. subplot(2. grid elseif N==6.1)*cos(4*u)). 5*Zo].4.AF).2. % Generate polar plot AF1=20*log10(AF).16.AF2).5.
1. 1].AF2).1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3.2. 0.112. 0. max=max(AF1).18 1.8.5. theta1=(180/pi)*theta.]. polar(theta. axis([0 180 40 0]).0. subplot(2. AF1=20*log10(AF). axis([0 180 40 0]).0.1).48.3.20.4.2). AF2=AF1max. X = AFp\AFc.56.0. plot(theta1.0.16.1)*cos(4*u)+Xo(4. AFp = [0.2. AFc = [32*Zo^6. subplot(2. grid elseif N==8. 0.32.AF). AFp = [0.subplot(2. 0.1.1)+Xo(2.AF2). plot(theta1.2.1)*cos(6 *u)). Xo = X/X(4.7.8.1. grid elseif N == 7.2).1].1). % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1.2.0.64. 48*Zo^4. 18*Zo^2. % Generate polar plot % Convert to decibels %Setting maximum value of the % array factor to "max" % Set values of array factor % with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Polynomial of excitation coefficient .0.
1].1.0. % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1. 1]. 0.1.2).AF). 32*Zo^2. axis([0 180 40 0]). AF2=AF1max. subplot(2.0.2. X = AFp\AFc. 0.1.0. % Polynomial of excitation coefficient AFc = [128*Zo^8.2. 1.160. 256*Zo^6.32. 7*Zo]. grid elseif N == 9.256. plot(theta1. polar(theta.48. % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge .8. theta1=(180/pi)*theta.2.32. X = AFp\AFc.AFc = [64*Zo^7. 56*Zo^3. subplot(2.AF2). % Generate polar plot AF1=20*log10(AF).1).0.1)*cos(u)+Xo(2. Xo = X/X(4. max=max(AF1).1).0.18.0.1 )*cos(7*u)). 112*Zo^5.8. Xo = X/X(5. 0.1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3.128.1)*cos(5*u)+Xo(4.1). 160*Zo^4. AFp = [0.
120*Zo^3.0.1)*cos(4*u)+Xo(4. 9*Zo].1)*cos(6 *u)+Xo(5.0.5. max=max(AF1).% Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1.576.1).1)*cos(u)+Xo(2. % Convert to decibels % Setting maximum value of the % array factor to "max" . % Polynomial of excitation coefficient AFc = [256*Zo^9.120.432.2. % Generate polar plot AF1=20*log10(AF). % Generate polar plot % % % % % Convert to decibels Setting maximum value of the array factor to "max" Set values of array factor with respect to maximum value % % % % Generate linear plot Set maximum and minimum values for X and Y scales Turn grid on % Chebyshev polynomial % Determine the excitation coefficient % Normalized with respect to the % amplitude of the elements at the edge % Determine the array factor AF = abs(Xo(1. 432*Zo^5.0. 576*Zo^7.2).16.0. AF2=AF1max. AF1=20*log10(AF). grid elseif N==10.112.0. plot(theta1.1)*cos(2*u)+Xo(3.2.AF).3. Xo = X/X(5. subplot(2. 0.1)*cos(5*u)+Xo(4.9].4.1)+Xo(2.64.20. max=max(AF1). X = AFp\AFc. axis([0 180 40 0]).1)*cos(8*u)). subplot(2.256. AFp = [0. 1. subplot(2. polar(theta. 0.0.56.1).7. theta1=(180/pi)*theta.AF2).1)*cos(9*u)).2. 0.AF).1)*cos(3*u)+Xo(3. polar(theta.1 )*cos(7*u)+Xo(5.1).
.AF2=AF1max..') pause end ..2. grid end else % Set values of array factor % with respect to maximum value % Generate linear plot % Set maximum and minimum values %for X and Y scales % Turn grid on disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp(' ') disp('Invalid value !!!') disp(' ') disp('Press any key to exit. axis([0 180 40 0]).. theta1=(180/pi)*theta. plot(theta1..AF2). subplot(2...2).
%Calculate k(n) Kn = (P0*un)/(kn).[P0*un*un'*P0]/kn]. %Direction of desired signal a = input(['Steering angle in degrees : ']). w0 = wn. end for ang = 90:1:90 %linear plot n = 91 + ang. un = X. ylabel('Normalize array gain') plot(angl.M))'. %Multiply with steering vector output(n) = abs(out). P0 = inv(delta)*I.Appendix D %Number of element M = input(['Number of elements in array : ']). %Normalize to unity xlabel('Angle in degree').0. . %Convert to radian %M X M identity %Small positive %Initialize the %Initial weight matrix constant algorithm vector for n = 1:100 B = steeringv(M. X = B'*n. %Calculate alpha(n) wn = w0 + (Kn*conj(an)).%Calculate P(n) P0 = Pn. w0 = (linspace(0. %Calculate K(n) an = dn . wq = B'.x).95. output1 = output/max(output). x = ang*pi/180. out = (w0'*A').(conj(w0)'*un). A = steeringv(M. % initializing the algorithm I = eye(M). dn = conj(wq)'*X. delta = 1e6.output1). %Calculate pi(n) kn = forget + (pin*un). angl(n) = ang.x). x = a*pi/180. %Number of iterations %Steering vector %Desired response vector %Input data vector %Forgetting factor pin = un'*P0. %Calculate w(n) Pn = (1/forget)*[P0 . forget = 0. %Plot linear pattern axis tight.
y = ang*pi/180. . ylabel('Normalized Array Gain (Ratio)').xlabel('Angle (Degrees)').15. %define steering vector %free space wavelength of 15cm at resonant freq of 2GHz lamda = 0. end pause ang = 90:1:90. d = lamda/2.x). K = 1:M. grid. %interelement spacing %x is DOA of the received signal S = exp((2*pi*j*(K1)*d*sin(x))/lamda).output1). polar(y. %polar plot function S = steeringv(M.
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