Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher © 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce. Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen. 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Table of Contents Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176 1 11 Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Technologies are any technique, material, or device that extends human abilities. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing, fire for warmth and cooking, marks and other techniques for signaling direction, and language for communication. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. They are, to quote Donald Norman (1993), “things that make us smart.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger, oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge, early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare, and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. We tend to forget, for example, that lecturing, still used in many institutions of higher education, is a 2000 year old “technology.” The word comes from the Latin lectura, or “reader.” Starting in the first century AD, various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand, making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. Medieval universities followed the same practice, as books were scarce. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge, from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century, coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. The modern classroom, with rows, the raising of hands, class periods, detentions, and recess, was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. With these reforms, the classroom became industrialized, similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Learning became standardized and linear, with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Do Not Reproduce 1 E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized, linear teaching techniques online. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. There are, in fact, many different ways to learn. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies - just the ability to follow an example. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. A third way to learn is by seeing. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision, visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words, even if the originator of the words is not present. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Schools were started to teach accounting. Students in these schools learned by reading, memorizing, and reciting. Sadly, most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen, followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. Like all new technologies, it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. At the same time, all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. Eventually, all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools, changing the practice of teaching. When a new technology is introduced, there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars), moving pictures (films), and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. When a new technology first comes into use, it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. For example, in 1876 someone at Western Union, the main telegraph company in the world at the time, stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication.” Similarly, Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers.” In 1970, the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision, visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. 2 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking, AT&T was given what would become the Internet. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach, allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability - 24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen; mashups can only be done using computer technology. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. However, for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets, it needs to adhere to architectures, frameworks, and standards. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures, as this is a non-technical guide. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. To realize these advantages, we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander, 2006). The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. Rather than pages, we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content, sometimes gathered from multiple sources, and then integrated into a unique online mix of information, sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira, 2006). Rather than pages, we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content, sometimes gathered from multiple sources, and then integrated into a unique online mix of information, sometimes referred to as a mashup. Do Not Reproduce 3 E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid, with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time, decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid, with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable, a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning, see the call for papers in Learning Grid, Number 3, January, 2005. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.grid.free.fr/publicatio n.php). 4 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example, the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays, presentation and interactive environments, and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www.accessgrid.org). E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. In particular, the IMS Global Consortium (http://www.imsglobal.org) has a number of published documents that, taken together, could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. In Europe, the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.elframework.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning, research, and education administration. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. Major specifications for e-learning, according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004), include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. http://purl.oclc.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. http://imsproject.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. http://sourceforge.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular, interactive learning components, and makes extensive use of XML. http://www.adlnet.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs), enabling the search for content. http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. http://www.aicc.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. At the same time, relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. At the same time, relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. Do Not Reproduce 5 E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971), perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Instead, the new model of teaching involves facilitation. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. This is especially true for adult education. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.” In late 2005, John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -- Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. They noted that “…in education, we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. In business, we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. Rather, what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute, When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology, reinforces this theme. Bollier says, “[a] pull economy - the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments - is based on open, flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. Instead of just providing courses, access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated, along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. While packaged courses still have a place, the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Moreover, the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven, 2004). We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail,” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. As Anderson (2004, 2006) has argued, servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. For example, I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Instead, the new model of teaching involves facilitation. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. 6 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots, ambient networks, mobile devices, and wearable computers. Thus, the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. User-created content, often placed in repositories as open source content or software, is becoming commonplace. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners, those learners are now keeping their own records, often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al., 2005). All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Five years ago, perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented, along with selected examples, online resources, and a bibliography. Because this research report is meant as a reference work, the reader can approach any topic in any order. In the last chapter, I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. From this, I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. I hope you will find it useful. Bibliography Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R. Ali, A., Ahmad, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, Cardiff, Wales, UK. http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.DC/0502051 Alexander, Bryan (2006). Web 2.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), March/April 2006. http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti, M., Bertolazzi, R., Reggiani, M., Zanichelli, F. and Conte, G. (2005). Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005, Milan, Italy, June 2005. http://www.idi.ntnu.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.pdf Anderson, Chris (2004). The Long Tail. Wired Magazine, 12(10), October. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12. 10/tail.html Anderson, Chris (2006). The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. New York: Hyperion. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Do Not Reproduce 7 E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti, T., Weiss, M. and McGinnis (2004). A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group, Nov. 19, 2004, Montreal. http://www.cscsi.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis.pdf Bogonikolos, N., Chrysostalis, M., Giotopoulos, K., Likothanassis, S., and Votis, K. (2002). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 16, 2002. http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1.htm Bollier, David (2005). When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. http://www.aspeninstitute.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras, C., Hornig, G., Triantafillou, V., Tsiatsos, T. (2001). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies - ICALT 2001, Madison, WI, USA, Aug. 6-8, 2001, 13-16. http://ru6.cti.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23.pdf Cerri, Stefano (2005). Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005), Dec. 14-16, Porto, Portugal. http://www.iadis.org/celda2005/index.a sp Chatarji, Jagadish (2004). Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Web Services - Dev Shed, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.devshed.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede, C. (1996). Emerging technologies and distributed learning. American Jrnl. of Distance Education 10, 2, 4-36. http://www.virtual.gmu.edu/pdf/ajde.pdf Erl, Thomas (2004). Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen, N. and McGreal, R. (2002). International E-Learning Specifications. Athabasca University, Centre for Distance Ed., Software Evaluation Report R11/0203, March 2002. http://cde.athabascau.ca/softeval/report s/R110203.pdf Friesen, Norm (2006). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Online. http://www.cancore.ca/protocols_en.htm l 8 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel, J. and Brown, J.S. (2005). From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Working paper. http://www.johnhagel.com/paper_pushpull .pdf He, Hao (2003). What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .xml.com, Sept. 30, 2003. http://www.xml.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa.html Hockemeyer, C. and Albert, D. (2002). Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 2002 http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1.htm Hohpe, Gregor (2005). Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. ThoughtWorks White paper, January 2005. http://www.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.c om/docs/SOA_World.pdf Knorr, E., Erlanger, L. and Borck, J. (2005). A field guide to software as a service. Infoworld, April 18, 2005. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1.html Kong, W., Luo, J., and Zhang, T. (2005). A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. Proceedings, International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05), 1026-1032. http://csdl2.computer.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/CIT.200 5.56 Marshall, Stephen (2004). E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference, Perth, Australia. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall.pdf Millea, J., Green, I. and Putland, G. (2005). Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. Education.au Limited, for the Australian Dept. of Education and Training. http://www.det.act.gov.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies.pdf Neumann, F. and Geys, R. (2004). SCORM and the Learning Grid. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Stuttgart, Germany. 27 - 28 April 2004. http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2.pdf Norman, Donald (1993). Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Cambridge, MA: Perseus. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius, V. and Vossen, G. (2003). Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence, International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. http://www.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Pierre, Samuel (2006). E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Berlin: Springer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/18 46283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi, Rhonda (2006). Trends in elearning: education versus entertainment? Presentation, Library+information Show, Birmingham, UK, April 26-27, 2006. http://www.alt.ac.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006.pdf Roberts, G., Aalderink, W., Cook, J., Feijen, M., Harvey, J., Lee, S. and Wade, V. (2005). Reflective learning, future thinking: digital repositories, e-portfolios, informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar, Trinity College, Dublin, April 1, 2005. http://www.alt.ac.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILT A_white_paper_2005.pdf Spaniol, M., Klamma, R. and Jarke, M. (2003). ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. In W. Zhou et al. (Eds.): Proceedings, ICWL 2003, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 193– 205. http://www-i5.informatik.rwthaachen.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publicati ons/ATLAS.pdf Urdan, T. and Weggen, C. (2000). Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. Research report, W.R. Hambrecht and Co. http://www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF 5659-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.pdf Werkhoven, Peter (2004). Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. ACTeN E-Content Report No. 9. http://www.acten.net/uploads/images/4 31/experience_machines.pdf Woodill, G. and Oliveira, C. (2006). Mashups, SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. Learning Solutions, May 15, 2006. http://www.operitel.com/publications.aspx Yang, C. and Ho, H. (2005). An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 21, 911-928. http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/JISE/2005/ 200509_06.pdf 10 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Included are related terms, a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it, selected elearning related examples, online resources to learn more about each technology, and a bibliography for each section. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report, allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. Do Not Reproduce 11 Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence, emotional design, emotions, facial recognition, gestures, keystroke patterns, posture, privacy, security, speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret, understand, and react to human emotions. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal, it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. Without the ability to understand emotions, computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. For example, in Italy, the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence, including the ability to recognize and express emotions, and to respond to them effectively.” (Anolli, et al., 2005). In online therapy, too, affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al., 2005). Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. SRI Consulting (http://www.sricbi.com/Explorer/NGT-AC.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing, because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream, computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress, confused, or sad, then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret, understand, and react to human emotions. 12 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy, accuracy, and legality. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard, author of the 1997 groundbreaking book, Affective Computing, heads the MIT lab on affective computing. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.media.mit.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. See: http://www.myself-proj.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.convo.co.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham, UK, maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Access it from: http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion, including studies of emotions in computers. See the links at: http://emotion.nsma.arizona.edu/emotion. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2005. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.informatik.unitrier.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.html In Germany, Dr. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal, listing many links to interesting resources. Check it out at: http://www.bartneck.de/link/affective_p ortal.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, April 12-15, 2005, are available online: http://www.aisb.org.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal, it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic, with many resources. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.unige.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports, bibliographies, and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. Do Not Reproduce 13 Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli, L., Mantovani, F., Balestra, M., Agliati, A., Realdon, O., Zurloni, V., Nortillaro, M. Vescovo, A. and Confalonieri (2005). The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences, September 13, 2005 http://www.dis.uniroma1.it/~lhci/009.pdf Cahour, B., Salembier, P., Brassac, C., Bouraoui, J., Pachoud, B., Vermersch, P., and Zouinar, M. (2005). Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour.doc Chateau, N. and Merisol, M. (2005). AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau.pdf Diamond, David (2003). The Love Machine: building computers that care. Wired Magazine, Issue 11/12, December. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.1 2/love.html Fallman, D. and Waterworth, J. (2005). Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman.pdf Goren-Bar, D., Graziola, I., Pianesi, F., Rocchi, C., Stock, O. and Zancanaro, Z. (2005). I Like It - Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar.doc Hook, K., Isbister, K., and Laaksolahti, J. (2005). Sensual Evaluation Instrument. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook.pdf Kaye, Joseph (2005). Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye.pdf Maldonado, H., Lee, J., Brave, S., Nass, C., Nakajima, H., Yamada, R., Iwamura, K. and Morishima, Y. (2005). We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah, NJ. L. Erlbaum. http://www.stanford.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado.pdf 14 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk, Regan (2005). Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk.pdf Masum, S. and Ishizuka, M. (2005). An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Paper for WEBIST 2005, Miami, May 26, 2005. http://www.miv.t.utokyo.ac.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final.pdf Mentis, Helena (2005). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis.pdf Norman, Donald A. (2004). Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York: Basic. http://www.elearningreviews.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard, R. and Daily, S. (2005). Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005, Portland, OR. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard.pdf Ruebenstrunk, Gerd (1998). Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. E-book http://www.ruebenstrunk.de/emeocom p/content.HTM Steele, M. and Steele, J. (2002). Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(2), Dec. 22, 2002. http://www.iste.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.htm Tao, J., Tan, T. and Picard, R. (2005). Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference, ACII 2005, Beijing, China, October 22-24. Berlin: Picard, Rosalind (1997). Affective Springer. Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 Affective Computing Wiberg, Charlotte (2005). Affective Computing vs. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces, CHI 2005 conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2-7, 2005. http://www.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg.doc Wright, Ian (1997). Emotional Agents. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Birmingham. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.thesis.pdf 16 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence, autonomous agents, avatars, intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. First, software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Second, software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Third, personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Fourth, animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan, 2004). Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge, 1999). In this context, flexible means reactive (responds to its environment), proactive (goal directed), and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility, veracity, benevolence, rationality, and, learning/adaptation. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions, and many of them can actually learn. For example, Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning, which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student, and both may be found in the same program (for example, see the paper by Far et al., 1999). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Dick Stenmark, of the University of Goteberg in Sweden, has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3.informatik.gu.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Do Not Reproduce 17 Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. However, a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong, 2005; Katzlberger, 2005). Viswanath, et al. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. She made mistakes, and the students had to continue to teach her. A second agent in the simulation, Mentor, told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum, 2004) and are, therefore, useful in educational simulations. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. In such situations, agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Agents have beliefs, not only about environments, but also about other agents. Therefore, an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Even though each agent acts independently, they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin, 2000). Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams, acting against other teams of agents. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Massaro et al. (1998) developed a conversational agent, Baldi, which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. 18 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. See the article by Williams et al. (2004): http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning), uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. For details see: www.old.netobjectdays.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. They are available as adaptive coaches, expert role-players, and expert guides. Go to: http://www.extempo.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. See a demo at: http://www.redwoodelearning.com/ CodeBaby Corp. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. See: http://www.codebaby.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents, go to: http://ldt.stanford.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. See: http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents, See: http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Ai /agents.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. Amy Baylor and her colleagues, go to: http://ritl.fsu.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California. For details of this research: http://www.isi.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor, A., & Ebbers, S. (2003). The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications 2003, 459462. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs, not only about environments, but also about other agents. Therefore, an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Do Not Reproduce 19 Agents Baylor, A., & Kim, Y. (2003). The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. In Proceedings, ELearning 2003, 1503-1506. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fusea ction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao, L., & Bengu, G. (2000). Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference, 75-80. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy, S., Ng, S. and Tsang, Y. (2005). Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Educause Quarterly, 28(2), 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523.pdf Clarebout, G., Elan, J., Johnson, W. and Shaw, E. (2002). Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 11(3), 267-286 http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen, J., Clarebout, G., & Johnson, W. (2002). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. 306-311). Norfolk, VA: AACE. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far, B., Koono, Z., & El-Khouly, M. (1999). Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Jrnl. Inter-active Learning Res., 10 (3), 275-285. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro, A. and Palopoli, L. (2002). An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Paper presented, International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems, Large Complex Systems, and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002), Erfurt, Germany. http://www.old.netobjectdays.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623.pdf Guessoum, Zahia (2004). Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. IEEE Distributed Systems Online, 5(7), July. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004.pdf Jafari, Ali (2002). Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. Educause Quarterly, No. 3. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235.pdf Kao, G., Sun, C., & Lin, S. (2005). A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. In Richards, G. (Ed.), Proceedings, e-Learning 2005, 1353-1356. http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger, Thomas (2005). Learning by Teaching Agents. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. www.teachableagents.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation.pdf Kim, Y. (2003). Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. In Proceedings, E-Learning 2003, 16591666. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay, C. and Ho, P. (2005). Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 21-38. http://dl.aace.org/16948 Leelawong, Krittaya (2005). Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. Doctoral Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. www.teachableagents.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.pdf Lin, Fuhua Oscar (2005). Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Hershey, PA: Information Sciences Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood, A.K., and Ferneley, E. (2006). Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 17(2), 143-162. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro, D., Cohen, M., Beskow, J., Daniel, S., and Cole, R. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. http://cslu.cse.ogi.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98.pdf Menczer, Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. Doctoral dissertation, U. of California. http://www.informatics.indiana.edu/fil/ Padgham, L. and Winikoff, M. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius, V., Sandel, O. and Stucky, W. (2004). Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI, IFIP WG12.5 - First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Toulouse, France, August. www.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/BIK/vpa/109.pdf Luengo, V. (1999). Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. In Proceedings, ED-MEDIA, 1999, 1632. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 Agents Perez, R. and Solomon, H. (2005). Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 14(1), 47-59. http://dl.aace.org/16968 Sahin, Ferat (2000). A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Poytechnic and State University. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov, L., and Núñeza, G. (1999). Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS), June 1-4, 1999, St. Petersburg, Russia. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/565321.html Shim, S., Atreya, S., Wesley, L., & Booth, R. (1999). ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 10 (3), 321-333. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone, Peter (1998). Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Doctoral Dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung, J. & Lim, D. (2005). Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings, ED-MEDIA 2005, 14151420. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno, M. (2004). Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2004, 194-201. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno, M. (2005). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. In Richards, G. (Ed.), Proceedings, EDMedia 2005, 3169-3176. http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath, K., Adebiyi, B., Biswas, G. & Leelawong, K. (2004). A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Finland, 61-65. http://www.teachableagents.org/papers/ 158bis.pdf Williams, M., Gilbert, J., & Madsen, N. (2004). Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. In Proceedings, ED-MEDIA 2004, 30003002. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge, Michael (2002). Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://ca.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X.html Yan, Chun. (2004). Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Paper at CLAG2004, Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology, Chicago, April 18-21, 2004. http://research.ac.upc.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 Animation Software Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. 24 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Animation Software Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/ “…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” Do Not Reproduce 25 Animation Software Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/ “…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.” 26 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Animation Software Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm “…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.” 27 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. 28 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Do Not Reproduce 29 Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. (2003), intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner, computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed, it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. While many systems purport to be personalized, they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al, 2002). Talking Head Tutor vs. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions, gestures, and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance, it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation, rather than using a single type of knowledge. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.e. concepts, objects, etc) and how they are interrelated. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb,” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized, they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Do Not Reproduce 30 Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows, using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.” http://www.di.unito.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. (2005a, 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “... found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.” http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis, see: http://lsa.colorado.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks, including student monitoring, ecommerce, and multiagents.” http://www.cs.uregina.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Do Not Reproduce 31 Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. http://www.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. Infrature, describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.” http://www.infrature.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology, question answering (QA) techniques, and INFOMAP, a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.pdf Oguejiofor et al. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.kicinger.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. As a result, designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. http://bach.gast.it.uc3m.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring - Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. http://ariic.library.unsw.edu.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.” http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. http://quantumsimulations.com/index.ht ml To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. 32 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988, Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic - A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily, so that these systems become more realistic, challenging, and engaging. Task Tutor Toolkit - A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily, without programming. Aurora - A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques, intelligent conflict resolution, and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates, see: http://www.stottlerhenke.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment, an adaptive testing algorithm, and an interactive intelligent tutor. http://www.gemini.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base, skill gaps, preferred cadence, and learning style, taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.” http://www.virtuelage.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.ke-corp.com/s10.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. http://pact.cs.cmu.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems. Find out more at: http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney - Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.it.usyd.edu.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Do Not Reproduce 33 Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.autotutor.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.cs.wpi.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. The 2006 conference is in Taipei, Taiwan. http://www.its2006.org/cfp.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing, China. For more info: http://www2.enel.ucalgary.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. The AIED conferences are held every two years, with the next one in 2007. For more information, go to: http://aied.inf.ed.ac.uk/aiedsoc.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. http://aied.inf.ed.ac.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. See: http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/tutor. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. http://www.licef.teluq.uquebec.ca/eng/in dex.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring, see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.” Learn more at: http://www.learningcircuits.org/2000/fe b2000/ong.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. Find it at: http://www.masternewmedia.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education.htm Marvin Minsky, a pioneer in artificial intelligence, recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Read it at: http://www.technologyreview.com/printer _friendly_article.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. 34 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist, G., Kort, B., Reilly, R., Mostow, J. and Picard, R. (2002). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). http://www.ri.cmu.edu/pubs/pub_4073.ht ml Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Roll, I., and Koedinger, K. (2004). Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, & F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems, ITS 2004. http://www.pitt.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04.pdf Aleven, V. and Penstein Rosé, C. (2004). Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions, Maceió, Brazil. http://nth.wpi.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.pdf Alkhalifa, Eshaa (Ed.) (2006). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. Hershey, PA: Idea. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner, Hermann (2002). Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft, 6(1). http://www.sbg.ac.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.pdf Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C. and Patti, V. (2004). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. Artificial Intelligence Review, 22: 3–39. http://www.di.unito.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.pdf Barcena, E. and Read, T. (2004). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read.html Barker, S. and Douglas, P. (2005). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) - Volume I, 482-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ITCC.2005.82 Bhatt, K., Argamon, S. and Evens, M. (2004). Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. In Proceedings, Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004, Chicago. http://lingcog.iit.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 Artificial Intelligence Brusilovsky, Peter (2000). Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). http://www2.sis.pitt.edu/~peterb/papers /ITS00inv.html Brusilovsky, P., Ritter, S. and Schwarz, E. (1997). Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society, Kobe. http://imlab.cs.nccu.edu.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS.ppt Butz, C.J., Hua, S. and Maguire, R.B. (2004). A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04), 159-165. http://www.cs.uregina.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.pdf Chaffar, S. and Frasson, C. (2004). Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, ITS 2004. http://springerlink.metapress.com/(yzmy 11ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/con tribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=iss ue,5,127;journal,639,3296;linkingpublica tionresults,1:105633,1 Cho, Byung-In (2000). Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Inst. of Technology. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/document s/bcdiss.pdf Chorfi, H. and Jemni, M. (2004). PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(4), 433-447. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=189 00 Craig, S., Driscoll, D. and Gholson, B. (2004). Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning, Vicarious Learning, and Pedagogical Agents. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(2), 163-183. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/m i_hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day, M., Lu, C., Yang, J., Chiou, G., Ong, C. and Hsu, W. (2005). Designing an Ontology-based Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging. Proceedings, International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005), http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.pdf Davidovic, Aleksandar (2001). Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems. Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. of South Australia. http://ariic.library.unsw.edu.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ 36 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M (2005a). Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. In ACL05, Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 18-22 July. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Far, B.H. (2006). Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology. http://www.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/far/re s-e/theme05.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/far/.) Fasuga, R. and Sarmanova, J. (2005). Usage of artificial intelligence in education process. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005), Tainan, Taiwan, 1-5 March. http://www.iaalab.ncku.edu.tw/iceer2005 /Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013.pdf Freedman, Reva (2000). What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence, 11(3), Fall, 15-16. http://www.cs.niu.edu/~freedman/papers /link2000.pdf Frize, M. and Frasson, C. (2000). Decision-Support and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 23(4), Aug. http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril.html Gamboa, H. and Fred, A. (2001). Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, ICEIS'2001. http://ltodi.est.ips.pt/hgamboa/Publica/ c2_331.pdf Graesser, A., McNamara, D. and VanLehn, K. (2005). Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query, AutoTutor, and iSTART. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 225-234 http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez, S., Pardo, A. and Kloos, C. (2004). An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Hierarchical Graphs. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. http://bach.gast.it.uc3m.es/~sergut/pub lications/Gutier04b.pdf Harrer, A., McLaren, B., Walker, E., Bollen, L., Sewall, J. (2005). Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration, Empirical Results, and Future Directions. In C.-K. Looi et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Amsterdam. http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/Collab orationAIED05.pdf Do Not Reproduce 37 Artificial Intelligence Hatzilygeroudis, I. and Prentzas, J. (2005). Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Systems. In Z. Ma (Ed.) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications, Hershey, PA: Idea Group. http://mmlab.ceid.upatras.gr/aigroup/iha tz/PAPERS/wbies-book-pub.pdf Jackson, G.T., Person, N.K. and Graesser, A.C. (2004). Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System, Maceió, Brazil. http://home.autotutor.org/jacksont/Publi cations/ITS2004-workshop-Jacksonpaper-formatted.doc Jeschke, S. and Richter, T. (2005). Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent Assistants. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts, Technologies, Applications.Hershey, PA: IDEA Group. http://prints.mulf.tu-berlin.de/46/ Johnson, W.L. and Rizzo, P. (2004). Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory, That's What I'd Do", In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, (ITS). http://www.springerlink.com/index/2GRK L4NNV88MXQ49.pdf Johnson, W.L. and Rizzo, P. (2004). Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory, That's What I'd Do", In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, (ITS). http://www.springerlink.com/index/2GR KL4NNV88MXQ49.pdf Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, (ITS). http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/ PDF/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Khaled, O., Vanoirbeek, C., Laroussi, M., Ahmed, M. & Pettenati, M. (1999). A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And Learning. In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=729 3 Khan, J., Hardas, M. and Ma, Y. (2005). A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Proceedings, International Conference on Web Intelligence, http://www.medianet.kent.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.pdf 38 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Kim, Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents /kjhdiss.pdf Kim, Y., Evens, M., Michael, J. and Trace, D. (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference, MAICS-2002, Chicago, pp. 61-64. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents /yckmai02.pdf Kinshuk, Nikov A. & Patel A. (2001). Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation approach. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction. August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. http://infosys.massey.ac.nz/~kinshuk/pap ers/hcii2001.pdf Kinshuk and Patel, A. (1997). A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In A. Behrooz (Ed.) Knowledge Transfer London, UK: Pace. http://infosys.massey.ac.nz/~kinshuk/pap ers/kt97_dmu.pdf Kinshuk, Patel A. and Russell, D. (2000). A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric Disciplines. Educational Technology & Society, 3(4), 2000. http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_4_200 0/kinshuk.html Kodaganallur, V., Weitz, R. and Rosenthal, D. (2004). VersaTutor – Architecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor Generator. Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. http://www2004.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p474.pdf Koedinger, K. R., & Aleven, V. A. W. M. M. and Heffernan, N. T. (2003). Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Designing, Building, and Testing Cognitive Models. Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003). http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/03BRIMS-063.doc Koutsojannis, C., Hatzilygeroudis, I. and Prentzas, J. (2004). A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology. In Proceedings, Web-based Education Conference, 2004. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=16278 Lee, C.H. and Evens, M. (2004). Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring system. Proceedings of MAICS 2004, Schaumburg, IL. http://nth.wpi.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a Natural-Language Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió, Brazil. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documen ts/chldial04.pdf Do Not Reproduce 39 Artificial Intelligence Looi, C., Mccalla, G., Bredeweg, B., Breuker, J. (2005). Artificial Intelligence in Education. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 86035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis, Evelyn (2005). Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring Sessions. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. Lulis, E., Evens, M. and Michael, J. (2004). Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system. Proceedings, Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. http://springerlink.metapress.com/(pdvzl h55zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contrib ution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue, 71,127;journal,795,3905;linkingpublicati onresults,1:105633,1 Lulis, E., Evens, M. and Michael, J. (2006). Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical students. Proceedings, Control and Applications conference. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=26738 Lulis, E., Freedman, R. and Evens, M. (2005). Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system. In C.K. Looi, G. McCalla, and H. Pain (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED2005, Amsterdam. http://www.booksonline.iospress.nl/Cont ents/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeCont ents.aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma, Zongmin (2005). Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. Hershey, PA: Information Science. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 9140729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Mainzer, Klaus (2004). Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of matter, mind, and mankind. 4th Edition. Berlin: Springer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/35 40002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Martens, Alke (2003a). Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive Modelling, ICCM'03. http://www.informatik.unirostock.de/~martens/Papers/Ma_iccm0 3.pdf Martens, Alke (2003b). Centralize the tutoring prozess [sic] in intelligent tutoring system. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on New Educational Environments, ICNEE. http://www.informatik.unirostock.de/~martens/Papers/Ma_icnee0 3.pdf Martens, A. and Bernauer, J. (2000). A Flexible and Adaptive Tutoring Process for Case-Oriented and Web-Based Training in Medicine. Paper presented at the AMIA 2000 Conference. http://adams.mgh.harvard.edu/PDF_Rep ository/D200221.PDF 40 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Martens, A., Bernauer, J., Illmann, T., Scheurer, C. and Seitz, A. (2000). A Flexible Architecture for Constructing and Executing Tutoring Processes. Paper, GMDS conference, Hanover. http://www.docs-ndrugs.de/publications/gmds00.pdf Martin, James (2000). After the Internet: alien intelligence. Wash., DC: Capitol Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/089 5262800/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 McLaren, B., Bollen, L., Walker, E., Harrer, A., Sewall, J. (2005). Cognitive Tutoring of Collaboration: Developmental and Empirical Steps Towards Realization. In the Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference (CSCL-05). http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/CSCL2005-CameraReady-Final.pdf McLaren, B. M., Koedinger, K. R., Schneider, M., Harrer, A., and Bollen, L. (2004a). Bootstrapping Novice Data: SemiAutomated Tutor Authoring Using Student Log Files. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes. (ITS-2004), August. http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/ITS2004 -BND-Camera-Ready.pdf McLaren, B. M., Koedinger, K. R., Schneider, M., Harrer, A., and Bollen, L. (2004b). Towards Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative, Web-based environment. In M. Matera, S. Comai (Eds.), Engineering Advanced Web Applications: Proceedings of Workshops, Web Engineering. http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu/pubs/McLaren ICWE2004.pdf Mitrovic, A., Suraweera, P., Martin, B. and Weerasinghe, A. (2004). DB-Suite: experiences with three intelligent Webbased database tutors. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(4), 409-432. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=188 99 Moore, Andrew (2001). Learning Gaussian Bayes Classifiers. Online. http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~pift6266/ A04/refs/moore_gaussbc12.pdf MYMIC LLC (2004). Outstanding Research Issues in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Final Report, Simulation Technology Center, US Army RDECCOM. http://www.mymicsurveys.com/site/files /pub_4.pdf Nuzzo-Jones, G., Walonoski, J., Heffernan, N. and Livak, T. (2005). The eXtensible Tutor Architecture: A New Foundation for ITS. Paper presented at WASWBE 2005. http://www.lcc.uma.es/~eva/waswbe05/ papers/nuzzo.pdf Obitko, M., Kurz, L. and Glucksmann, I. (2001). A Framework for Constructing Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems. Paper presented at ICALT. http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2001/presentatio ns/pap-039-obi.pdf Ochs, M. and Frasson, C. (2004). Optimal Emotional Conditions for Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System. Proceedings, Workshop on Emotional and Social Intelligence in Learning Environments. http://www.cogsci.ed.ac.uk/~kaska/Och Frassoncr.doc Do Not Reproduce 41 Artificial Intelligence Oguejiofor, E., Kicinger, R., Popovici, E., Arciszewski, T. and De Jong, K. (2004). Intelligent Tutoring Systems: an ontologybased approach. Paper presented at the AEC2004 Conference. http://www.kicinger.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.pdf Ong, J. and Ramachandran, S. (2000). Intelligent Tutoring Systems: the what and the how. Learning Circuits, Feb. 2000. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2000/feb 2000/ong.htm Ong, L.S., Vijayan, A., Koh, C.S., Lai, C.C., Lim, C.W., Loke, W.F., Low, S.H., Tang, K.Y., Wong, F.L. and Yong, K.L. (2005). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Trauma Management (Trauma-Teach): A Preliminary Report. Annals of Academic Medicine Singapore, 34, 499-504. http://www.annals.edu.sg/pdf/34VolNo8 200509/V34N8p499.pdf Patel, A., Kinshuk, and Russell, D. (2000). Intelligent Tutoring Tools for Cognitive Skill Acquisition in Life Long Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 3(1). http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_20 00/patel.html Pon-Barry, H., Clark, B., Schultz, K., Owen Bratt, E. and Peters, S. (2004a). Contextualizing Learning in a Reflective Conversational Tutor. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. http://godel.stanford.edu/twiki/pub/Publi c/SemlabPublications/ICALT_2004.pdf Pon-Barry, H., Clark, B., Owen Bratt, E., Schultz, K. and Peters, S. (2004b). Evaluating the Effectiveness of SCoT -a Spoken Conversational Tutor. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://wwwcsli.stanford.edu/semlab/muri/papers/IT S_2004_Workshop.pdf Prentzas, J., Hatzilygeroudis, I. and Koutsojannis, C. (2001). A Web-Based ITS Controlled by a Hybrid Expert System. In the Proceedings of the IEEE ICALT-2001. http://mmlab.ceid.upatras.gr/aigroup/ih atz/PAPERS/EPY01.PDF Prentzas, P., Hatzilygeroudis, I. and Garofalakis, J. (2002). A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Using Hybrid Rules as Its Representational Basis. Paper presented at ITS 2002. http://mmlab.ceid.upatras.gr/aigroup/ih atz/PAPERS/ITS02.PDF Razzaq, L. and Heffernan, N. (2004). Tutorial Dialog in an Equation Solving Intelligent Tutoring System. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions, Maceió, Brazil. http://nth.wpi.edu/pubs_and_grants/my _papers/ITS2004/Submitted(not%20fina l)/Leena/etutor_workshop_final.doc Read, T., Bárcena, E. and Pancorbo, J. (2004). Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). http://www.iadat.org/iadate2004/abstra ct_web/IADAT-e2004_26.pdf 42 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Read, T., Bárcena, E. and Pancorbo, J. (2004). Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). http://www.iadat.org/iadate2004/abstract _web/IADAT-e2004_26.pdf Riedl, M., Lane, H.C., Hill, R., and Swartout, W. (2005). Automated Story Direction and Intelligent Tutoring: Towards a Unifying Architecture. Paper presented at the AI and Education 2005 Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments, Amsterdam. http://www.ict.usc.edu/publications/riedlautostory-aiewrk.pdf Rodrigues, M., Novais, P. and Santos, M. (2005). Future challenges in intelligent tutoring systems – a framework. In A. Méndez-Vilas, B. González-Pereira, J. Mesa González, J.A. Mesa González (Eds.) Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies, Proceedings from the International Conference on Multimedia, Information and Communications Technologies in Education, Spain, June. http://www.formatex.org/micte2005/book .htm Rosé, C.P., Torrey, C. and Aleven, V. (2004). Guided Exploratory Learning versus Directed Learning in a Simulation Environment for Thermodynamics: A Pilot Study. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions, Maceió, Brazil. http://nth.wpi.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.pdf Schultz, K., Owen Bratt, E., Clark, B., Peters, S., Ponbarry, H., and Treeratpituk, P. (2003). Scalable, Reusable Spoken Conversational Tutor: SCoT. In Proceedings, AIED Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems. http://godel.stanford.edu/twiki/pub/Publ ic/SemlabPublications/AI-ED-WorkshopFinal.pdf Simon, Herbert (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial. 3rd Ed.. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02 62691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -1348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Smid, J., Svacek, P. and Volf, P. (2002). On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied Informatics, Innsbruck, Austria. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=27013 Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.pdf Thomsen-Gray, Z., Schultz, K., Clark, B., Owen Bratt, E. and Peters, S. (2003). Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003), Sydney, Australia, July 20-24. http://godel.stanford.edu/twiki/pub/Publ ic/SemlabPublications/aied-final.pdf Do Not Reproduce 43 Artificial Intelligence Thornton, Chris (2000). Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02 62700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner, Terrence (2005). The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. Masters Thesis, Worchester Polytechnic Institute. http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/ etd-011106070108/unrestricted/turnert.pdf Ueno, Maomi (2000). Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000), Palmerston North, NZ. http://lttf.ieee.org/iwalt2000/slides/mao mi_uno.ppt Ureel, L. (2004). Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil. http://nth.wpi.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.pdf Vasilakos, T., Devedzic, V., Kinshuk, and Pedrycz, W. (2004). Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 15 (4), pp. 299-318. Norfolk, VA: AACE. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1889 5 Walonoski, Jason (2005). Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Masters Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available /etd-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski.pdf Wiemer-Hastings, Peter (2004). The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor, a second-generation dialog-based tutor. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions, Maceió, Brazil. http://nth.wpi.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/document s/fydiss.pdf Yusko, Jay A. (2005). The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer, Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/document s/jaydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/document s/yzdiss.pdf 44 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA), computer based assessment (CBA), computer mediated assessment (CMA), eassessment, evaluation, online assessment, quizzes, self-evaluation, testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing, informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time, making it hard to escape assess-ment. In a business situation, for example, it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. When combined into a “360° evaluation,” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities, aptitudes, and output. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous, online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests, quizzes, or performance samples. Assessment software can generate templates, samples, rubrics, and documents for assessors to use. More sophisticated forms of automated, computer-based assessment tools, ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model, are already available. For example, the automated scoring of essays, once only done by a human assessor, is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer, 1998 for an introduction to LSA). We can expect that, in the near future, latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner, and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings; practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom, 1956), which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests, quizzes, or performance samples. Do Not Reproduce 45 Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning,” Bateson’s four levels of learning, and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.learningandteaching.info/lear ning/solo.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused, (2) instant feedback to students when desired, (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time, and (4) computer marking, which is usually much more reliable than human marking. However, the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive, and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. See the site at: http://www.questionmark.com The Evaluator, from Resources Management Services in the U.K., offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. Try it at: http://nt.rmsuk.com/evaluator Testcraft, a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group, has recently won awards for its performance. Review it at: http://www.testcraft.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ, an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing, a completely customizable report engine, multilingual support, a customizable look and feel, preview pages for all question types, and adaptive question branching. See: http://www.redinq.com/redinq/html/inde x.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge, skills, abilities, personality, and past work behaviors. Find them at: http://www.brainbench.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product, Diploma. For details, see: http://www.horizonwimba.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer, a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.0.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. 46 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. See more at: http://www.epistema.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). See: http://www.operitel.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team, based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. http://www.flaguide.org/ ETS, the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests, learning tools, surveys, and services useful for outcomes assessment, institutional evaluation, and self-study.” See their offerings at: http://www.ets.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. For information on latent semantic analysis, see: http://lsa.colorado.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. Try it at: http://www.vantagelearning.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting, an assessment management system with extensive authoring, reporting, and adminis-tration features. http://www.pedagogue.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. http://www.respondus.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability, check out the Dialang web site. http://www.dialang.org/english/index.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools,” organized by academic discipline, on its Web site. http://www.uc.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/magazin es.cfm?x=0¤tMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays, once only done by a human assessor, is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers, including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. Check them out at: http://school.discovery.com/schrockguid e/assess.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. http://www.thinkinggear.com/tools/rubric s.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. http://www.ulster.ac.uk/cticomp/CAA.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment. Obtain a copy at: http://www.nestafuturelab.org/research/ reviews/10_01.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.learnflex.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments, with over 1,200 references, is available from: http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80,000 different tests from its database. http://cba.scit.wlv.ac.uk/home.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction, go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.” http://www.oir.uiuc.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. http://www.health.heacademy.ac.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. http://www.umuc.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.tasainstitute.com/029.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments, with a list of 34 strategies. http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessi nglearning/03/online.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. Explore the links at: http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/as sessme/online.htm 48 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. http://www.tcet.unt.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. http://www.quintcareers.com/career_asse ssment.html Bibliography Alfonseca, E., Carro, R. M., Freire, M., Ortigosa, A., Pérez, D., & Rodríguez, P. (2005). Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (3), 53-65. http://www.ifets.info/journals/8_3/6.pdf Atherton, James (2005). Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. Online paper. http://www.learningandteaching.info/learn ing/solo.htm Atkinson, T. and Davies, G. (2004). Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod41.htm#2.3 Bateson, Gregory (1973). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. London: Paladin. http://www.amazon.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein, J. and Hirschman, L. (2001). Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, St. Louis, Missouri. http://www.iltaonline.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.pdf Biggs, J. and Collis, K. (1982). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. New York: Academic Press. http://www.amazon.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. New York: McKay. http://www.amazon.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown, A., Iwashita, N., McNamara, T. and O'Hagan, S. (2001). Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. Online paper. http://www.iltaonline.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 Assessment Tools Brown J. (1997). "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions", Langu-age Learning and Technology, 1. http://llt.msu.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield, Robert (2005). Rethink testing for future success. eSchool News, June 22, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/sho wStoryts.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson, C. V., Inouye, D. K., & Olsen, J. B. (1989). The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational Measurement. New York, NY: Macmillan. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke, Kay (1999). How to Assess Authentic Learning. 3rd Edition. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein, Jill. (2003). The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. In M. Shermis and J. Burstein (Eds.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.assess.com/Books/b39739.htm Burstein, Jill, Marcu, Daniel, and Knight, Kevin (2003). Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. In S. Harabagiu and F. Ciravegna (Eds.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing, IEEE Intelligent Systems. www.computer.org/intelligent/archives.ht m. Burstein, Jill C. and Chodorow, Martin. (2002). Directions in Automated Essay Analysis, In the R. Kaplan (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Oxford. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein, J., Chodorow, M., & Leacock, C. (2003). CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Acapulco, Mexico, August 2003. http://www.ets.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj.pdf. Burstein, Jill. and Marcu, Daniel. (2003). Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. In M. Shermis and J. Burstein (Eds.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.assess.com/Books/b39739.htm 50 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr, Nathan. (2001). Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, St. Louis. http://www.iltaonline.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Writing assessment: a position statement. College Composition and Communication Online. Online newsletter. http://www.ncte.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610.htm Cebrian, B. and Grellett, P. (1998). Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. www.hlc.unimelb.edu.au/worldcall/str5.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -- Proceedings from a Workshop. Board on Testing and Assessment, National Research Council. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.html Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline. (Ed.) (1999). Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline. (2001). Language testing and technology: past and future. Language Learning and Technology, v. 5, n. 2, May. http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult.html Davies, W. M., Howard, Y., Millard, D. E., Davis, H. C. and Sclater, N. (2005). Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference, Loughborough. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA.pdf Dunkel P. (1999). "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests", Language Learning & Technology 2, 2: 77-93. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn, L., Morgan, C., O’Reilly, M. and Parry, S. (2004). The Student Assessment Handbook. London: Falmer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit, University of Tasmania. (2004). Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Online newsletter, March 9. http://www.utas.edu.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion.doc. Foltz, P. W., Laham, D. & Landauer, T. K. (1999). Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. In Proceedings, EdMedia '99. http://wwwpsych.nmsu.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99.html Do Not Reproduce 51 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase, Lawrence. (2002). Seven technologies for assessment. Online paper. http://mason.gmu.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.htm. Gardner, Howard (1993). Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones, Robert. (2001). Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Language Learning and Technology, v. 5, n. 2, May. http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault.html. Howell, Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly, No. 4. http://www.softwaresecure.com/pdf/Pap erTests.pdf Hricko, M. and Howell, S. (Eds.) (2005). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges.Hershey, PA: Information Science. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones, Patrick (2000). Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. http://www.proexam.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.pd f Kenyon, D. and Malabonga, V. (2001). Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Language Learning and Technology, 5(2), May. http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault.html Khan, J., Hardas, M. and Ma, Y. (2005). A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence, Compiegne, France. http://www.medianet.kent.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.pdf Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W., & Laham, D. (1998). Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes, 25, 259284. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/dp1.LSAi ntro.pdf MacDonlad, J., Weller, M. & Mason, R (2002). Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills, C., Potenza, M., Fremer, J., and Ward, W. (Eds.) (2002). Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey, N. and Watt, H. (1999). The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts, Tim (2006). Self, Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. Hershey, PA: Information Science. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö, R. (1979). Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. Reports from the Institute of Education, University of Gothenburg. http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise, K. and Gifford, B. (2006). Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Journal of Technol. Learning, and Assessment, 4(6). http://escholarship.bc.edu/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis, M. D., Burstein, J., & Leacock, C. (2006). Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. In C. A. McArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald, Handbook of writing research. New York, NY: Guilford Press, pp. 403-416. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment, Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Writing, Washington, DC: U.S. Government. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000195. pdf Weiner, Howard. (Ed.) (2000). Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams, D., Howell, S., and Hricko, M. (Eds.) (2005). Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluations. Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill, G. and Skinner, M. (2005). The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. Operitel white paper. http://www.operitel.com Do Not Reproduce 53 Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod, podcasting, radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history, being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. For example, one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes, while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as .5 megabytes. One audio application of interest to educators, which is gaining in popularity, is podcasting. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices, including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3, which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. According to Crofts et al. (2005), the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors, including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence, (i.e., to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history, being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks, the quality of online audio has been greatly improved, compared with even a few years ago. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time, depending on the file size), or by “streaming,” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and, while it is playing, the rest of the file has time to arrive. The quality of online audio depends on many factors, including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs, (i.e., to personalized media). This frag-mentation is being fueled, in part, by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. You can’t add your own notes, and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files, such as those for iPods, helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners. Provides another channel for material review. Assists non-native speakers. Provides feedback to learners. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. http://www.apple.com/itunes/ Audacity is free, open source software for recording and editing sounds. It is available to download for Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux, and other operating systems. http://sourceforge.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. http://www.rds.com/blogs/doug/index.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. http://www.thepodcastnetwork.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://www.scientificcomputing.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. http://www.envision.purdue.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Do Not Reproduce 55 Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including podcasting. http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. http://www.ibritt.com/resources/dc_medi a.htm RECAP Ltd. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://recap.ltd.uk/podcasting/index.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. Audio and video software, shareware, freeware, tools, and utilities for conversion, playback, DJ mixing, CD audio extraction, sound editing, enhancing, recording, and broadcasting are all found on this site. http://www.audiotoolsdirect.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words, phrases, or sentences from audio Web sites. http://www.automaticsync.com/lipsync/in dex.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. http://www.avsmedia.com/AudioTools/in dex.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.com. http://www.edupodder.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.htm For a list of podcasting tools, including software to record and play podcasts, go to: http://www.podcasting-tools.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. http://epnweb.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning, listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators, which is gaining in popularity, is podcasting. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. 56 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www.adobe.com/products/audition/ main.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.bias-inc.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.multitrackstudio.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.cakewalk.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.sonicfoundry.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists,” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. http://www.audiolink.com/home.html Bibliography Buhman, Dion Cory (1999). Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nebraska. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts, S., Dilley, J., Fox, M., Retsema, A. and Williams, B. (2005). Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. First Monday, 10(9), September. http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index.html Curtis, L. and Swenson, P. (2003). Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. In G. Richards (Ed.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003 (pp. 417-419). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth, Brenda (2001). Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1), 45-50. http://dl.aace.org/3455 Girvan, Ray (2005). Sound Sense. Scientific Computing World, April 2005. http://www.scientificcomputing.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.html Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Robin Good’s Blog, May 20, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.htm Jobbings, Dave (2005). Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions), July 2005. http://recap.ltd.uk/articles/podguide.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2005). Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Learning Circuits, June 2005. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng, Peter (2005). Podcasting and Vodcasting. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. http://edmarketing.apple.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er.pdf Noakes, N. and Lomas, C. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs, Podcasts, and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). http://www.educause.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments, content development, rapid e-learning, simulations, Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. In this vein, Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman, 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) processes. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content, most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill, 2005), entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. (For details, please see http://www.brandonhall.com/publications/emerging/emerging. shtml). There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. No authoring tool does everything, and, in the end, all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. As well, many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content, either directly or with third party tools. Further, many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product, see: http://www.microsoft.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content, either directly or with third party tools. Further, many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. Do Not Reproduce 59 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia, Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product, go to: http://www.adobe.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies - Capture Station 2.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio, video, and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://www.accordent.com/ Acroservices - AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint. http://www.acroservices.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain.htm ActiveSlide.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. http://www.activeslide.com Agile - Thinkcap Studio - A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. http://www.thinkingcap.info/ Allen Communications - Designer’s Edge, Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. http://www.allencomm.com Anark - Media – Import 3-D Models, XML, video, music, and images and turn them into 3-D training, visualization, and marketing applications. http://www.anark.com/products/ Articulate - Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. www.articulateglobal.com/presenter.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia, Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Do Not Reproduce 60 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link - Content Point - Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex, Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily, as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. http://www.atlanticlink.co.uk/contentpoint.htm Bernard D&G - TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. http://www.turbodemo.com/eng/index.ht m Brainshark Inc. - Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. http://presentation.brainshark.com/power point-presentations-index.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. http://www.bridge-pt.com/ Business Performance Technology - Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming. http://www.elearningpowertools.com/inde x.htm Composica - Composica Enterprise - A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www.composica.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. Integrates various media, including the following: Drag-and-drop images, video, Flash, rich text, pop-up messages, pointers, buttons, hotspots, and PowerPoint slides. Builds quizzes. http://www.copycatsoftware.com/ Counterpoint - iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. http://www.ilessons.co.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. http://www.lersus.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop - Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats, such as the following: Web, CD Rom, stand alone .exe files, DVD-video, or Macromedia Flash media presentations. http://www.digitalworkshop.com/product s/Pro.shtml Dynamic Media - Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . http://www.dynamicpowertrainer.com/in dex_eng.php e2train - Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics, audio, video, and animation. http://www.e2train.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Do Not Reproduce 61 Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation - EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature, creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files, graphics, and installation files. http://www.eclipsys.com/Solutions/Elear ning.asp Eedo Knowledgeware - Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. http://www.eedo.com/products/forceten. html E-Learning Consulting - Development Kits – Create Flash courses, HTML courses, and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www.e-learningconsulting.com Element K - KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. http://www.elementk.com/index.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema - Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www.epistema.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool, without programming knowledge. http://www.experiencebuilders.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. http://www.gen21.com/ka.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products - Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. http://www.elicitus.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word, and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. http://www.horizonwimba.com/ Hunter Stone - Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. http://www.hunterstone.com Imaira Digital Media - Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. Post the characters on any Web site. http://www.sculptoris.com No authoring tool does everything, and, in the end, all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. 62 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG - LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www.lecturnity.de/ Impatica - Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. http://www.impatica.com/ Information Transfer - Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. http://www.seminar.co.uk/ INTEC - WTDS-Web Training Development System - Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive, multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www.intecllc.com/ Integrated Performance Systems - iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.ipsinc.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.pdf Intuition - Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash, Word, and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www.intuition.ie/software/publisher. shtml Itaca - EasyProf - Used to create presentations without programming skills, combining multimedia content like video, audio, and animations with tests and interactivity. http://www.easyprof.com/home/home.js p Knowledge Planet - Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. Built-in testing engine. http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Knowledge Quest - ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool, create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www.knowledgequest.com/ KnowledgeXtensions - E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.elearninginabox.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based, centralized knowledge base. http://www.knowledgextensions.com/pro dserv.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons, from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations, with no programming and no plugins. http://www.knowledgepresenter.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. Do Not Reproduce 63 Authoring Tools Learn.com - CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. http://www.learn.com/learncenter.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation - DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. Ready-made button and navigation aids. http://www.maxit.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. http://www.maxit.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. - Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www.mckinnonmulherin.com/index.htm MediaMaker - LEARNERLand – Text, graphics, and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. http://www.learnerland.co.uk/ MindIQ - Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter, with a built-in learning management system. http://www.mindiq.com/tbt/dac/index.ph p MindOnSite - Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. Works with SAP Learning Solution. http://www.mindonsite.ch/eLearning/EN /index.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. http://www.mohive.com MyKnowledgeMap - Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. http://www.customcourse.com/ NetPlay Software - NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. http://www.instant-demo.com/ OPTX International - ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures, PowerPoint slides, and other online presentations for play back to students. http://www.screenwatch.com/ Percepsys - SNAP! Studio – A course builder, course publisher, and course player all in one software package. http://www.percepsys.com/coursegen.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. 64 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia - podiaOnDemand - Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video, Audio, Microsoft PowerPoint, JPEGs, GIFs, and Flash. http://www.podia.net/ PointeCast - Publisher Professional - In minutes, turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality, interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www.pointecast.com/ Qarbon - ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://www.qarbon.com Rapid Intake - Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC- or SCORMcompliant, without knowing code. http://www.rapidintake.net ReadyGo - ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. http://www.readygo.com Respondus - StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. http://www.respondus.com/products/stud ymate.shtml Reusable Objects - CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments, either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. http://www.reusableobjects.com/ Savvica - Nuvvo - A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. Courses can be posted. http://nuvvo.com/ Scribe Studio - Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. When content is developed, a customizable, password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. http://www.scribestudio.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://www.sensalearning.com/sensasol ution.cfm Serco (technical) - E-Learning Objects - An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. http://www.teknical.com/Products/elear ning_objects.htm Suddenly Smart - SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. http://www.suddenlysmart.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games, customizable flashcards, image labeling, image hotspot activities, matching games, popups, crosswords, and assessments. http://www.softchalk.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems. Do Not Reproduce 65 Authoring Tools SumTotal - ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www.toolbook.com/learn_assistant .php?from=menu SumTotal - ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations, kiosks, and highly interactive e-learning content. http://www.toolbook.com/learn_assistant .php?from=menu SyberWorks - Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English, French, or Spanish. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. http://www.syberworks.com/product_sa. htm Techsmith - Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www.techsmith.com/camtasia.asp TEDS - Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. http://www.teds.com/products/lc.htm time4you GmbH - IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring, content conversion, and rapid simulation. http://www.time4you.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author - A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web, CD, or Network. http://www.funeducation.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.asp TrainVision - AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.2conformant objects and assessments. http://www.trainvision.com/Technology.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring, templates, and wizards. http://www.lectora.com/ US Government - Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. http://workforceconnections.dol.gov/ Webex - Presentation Studio - Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides, video, audio, images, and text. http://www.webex.com/services/webpresentation-svc.html Westcliff – SCObuilder, SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. http://www.westcliffdata.co.uk/index.php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. 66 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana - XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www.xplana.com/products/products _xwb.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/downloa d_rb40eval.htm Zapatec - Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages, publish blogs, and host online discussions, right in their browser with no additional software required. http://www.bloki.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. See: http://www.brandonhall.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.sht ml Bibliography Holohan, E. Melia, M. McMullen, D. and Pahl, C. (2005). Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. www.win.tue.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull.pdf Murray, T., Blessing, S. and Ainsworth, S. (2003). Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive, interactive and intelligent educational software. Berlin: Springer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu, Lin (2005). A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. http://www.cs.oswego.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu, L. and Riesbeck, C. (2005). The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA), Montreal, June 2005. www.cs.oswego.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005.pdf Ramp, E., De Bra, P., and Brusilovsky, P., (2005). Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005), Vancouver, BC, Canada, October 24-28, 2005, AACE. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. Do Not Reproduce 67 Authoring Tools Ramp, E. W. A. (2005). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Masters Thesis, Technical Univ., Eindhoven, NL. http://www2.sis.pitt.edu/~paws/publicatio ns.htm Tozman, Reuben (2005). The myth about tools. Learning Circuits, June 2005. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.htm Tozman, Reuben (2004). Another new paradigm for instructional design. Learning Circuits, Nov. 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.htm Woodill, Gary (2005). Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Sunnyvale, CA: Brandon Hall Research. http://www.brandonhall.com/publications/emerging/emerging. shtml 68 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents, games, simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. In the context of elearning, avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners, especially in gamebased learning activities. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar, in the broadest sense, is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. In some situations, the avatar may represent an actual human being, but in e-learning, the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application, and generally simulates human activity.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. In the area of psychotherapy, for example, learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. Similarly, a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image, expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.” Maldonado et al. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience, as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Do Not Reproduce 69 Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.codebaby.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www.sculptoris.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. http://www.telsim.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. http://www.redwoodelearning.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. http://www.knowledgeenvironments.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. Try them at: http://www.daden.co.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D, Inc. in cooperation with a number of groups. http://www.vcom3d.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. See: http://www.oddcast.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors,” which are avatars that teach. See them in action at: http://www.tmmy.co.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.html Online Resources In Europe, the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. In the toolkit, users are represent-ed as avatars. The system will be design-ed as a scalable, modular application, offering a large number of supportive functions. http://www.exodus.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. 70 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar, S. and Nodder, C. (2004). The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference, New Zealand. www.naccq.ac.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255.pdf Jung, B., Ahad, A., and Weber, M. (2005). The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 - Training Education & Education International Conference, Nexus Media, 2005. http://isnm.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI.pdf Maldonado, H., Lee, J., Brave, S., Nass, C., Nakajima, H., Yamada, R., Iwamura, K., and Morishima, Y. (2005). We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. In T. Koschmann, D. Suthers, and T.W. Chan (Eds.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. www.stanford.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.pdf Seth, Raj (2003). Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. eLearning Developers’ Journal, Aug. 25, 2003. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 Blogs Related terms Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. 72 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/026 753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. It’s found at: http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. Find it at: http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2 .gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. Do Not Reproduce 73 Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/ blogs.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.pdf 74 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com Bibliography Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105 .htm#feature Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895, 1837604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006.pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/sho wStoryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. Do Not Reproduce 75 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops Description For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001). Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. 76 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desi gn/browsers_list.php3 Bibliography Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems, classroom communication systems, clickers, voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive, as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems, or clickers. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment, classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. The use of clickers has several advantages, including the following (summarized from Cassidy, 2006; Beatty, 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor, giving almost instant feedback. The devices keep students alert and involved. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge, increasing their motivation to learn. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation, management, display, and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application, integrated with other types of learning technologies. However, costs can be an issue, as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs, both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment, classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. 78 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom, training the faculty member to use the software, and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus, the costs and headaches multiply.” In spite of the costs, many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it, suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12, higher education, corporate, and military settings. http://www.einstruction.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. http://www.h-itt.com/index.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. http://www.gtcocalcomp.com/products_int erwrite.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard, allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. http://www.learnstar.com/Default.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. http://www.optiontechnologies.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. http://www.pearsoned.com.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www.pearsonncs.com/cps/index.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.” http://www.qwizdom.com/index.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. http://www.smartroom.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. http://umperg.physics.umass.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs, many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it, suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. Do Not Reproduce 79 Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning, including material on the use of classroom response systems. http://www.active-learning-site.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.elearning.ubc.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. http://www.aclearn.net/display.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty, Ian (2004). Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research, Research Bulletin, Volume 2004, No. 3, Feb. 3. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS.pdf Burnstein, R. and Lederman, (2003). Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. The Physics Teacher, 41(5), 272-275. https://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.pdf Cassidy, Anne (2006). This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Inside CUA, March 3, 2006. http://inside.cua.edu/articleprinter1.cfm ?file=/051103/story2.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). 7 things you should know about…Clickers. Educause Learning Initiative. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002.pdf Mazur, Eric (1997). Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone, Tom (2004). Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. ELearning Dialogue, July 7, 2004. http://www.campustechnology.com/news_issue.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su, Q. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference, Melbourne, Australia. http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application, integrated with other types of learning technologies. 80 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation, social bookmarking, social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place, as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding, doing, and collaborating. The Institute for the Future, in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation, identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository, many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests, many respond, e.g., a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.g., a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.g., through brainstorming), reduction, clarification, organization, evaluation, and consensus building. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. Do Not Reproduce 81 Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace - Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. http://www.teamspace.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe - Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/product s/index.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate, collaborate, organize, and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. http://www.zoho.com/virtualoffice/index.html?ad-main Annotea - Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations, and bookmarks. http://www.w3.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm - This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video, voice and data collaboration, and communication. http://www.avecomm.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists, jot down notes, share files, and upload photos. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. http://www.backpackit.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger - Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication), Presence (see who’s online), and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www.bantu.com/services/faq_basi cs.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail, contacts, calendar, collaborative file management, and instant messaging. http://www.bluetie.com/ Blenks – In-team - Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. http://www.inteam.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation, with templates and workflows for product development, intellectual property management, expert location, and information technology adoption. http://www.brightidea.com There are many different ways to collaborate. 82 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/ Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience. Do Not Reproduce 83 Collaboration Tools Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml Do Not Reproduce 84 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/ Do Not Reproduce 85 Collaboration Tools JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/ 86 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/ Do Not Reproduce 87 Collaboration Tools Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html 88 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server, newsgroup server, e-mail server, chat server, XML-RPC server, FTP server, and more. Use it out of the box, or use it to build a Web application. http://www.webcrossing.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite - WebAsyst enables users to implement customer, project, and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. http://www.webasyst.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. http://www.writely.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet, interact, and share. http://groups.yahoo.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 - Processes email, documents, and other business communications, and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus, expertise, and business relationships. http://www.tacit.com/company/news/pres s/2005.04.25.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco - Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge, stimulates idea generation, connects peers, and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. http://www.tomoye.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla - Intuitive project management software for work teams. Works with Microsoft Project. http://www.axista.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. http://www.brevient.com/project.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox - Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files, giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www.projectdox.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents, files, and data into a single storage area. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. http://www.nexprise.com/ onProject – myonProject - myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical, affordable, online management for projects of any size and scope. http://www.onproject.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator - Instant setup, simple, scaleable, pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. Share multiple projects with multiple users, set user permissions, assign tasks, and share documents, calendars, discussions, feedback, and e-mails. http://www.opmcreator.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting - An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM, project planning, project tracking, and collaboration to timesheet management, invoicing, and payments. http://www.project-open.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team - Web event calendaring, scheduling solutions, and human performance management applications. http://www.peoplecube.com Nagarro - Projistics - In-house tool developed to assist in project management. Access to the tool is also given to clients, fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www.nagarro.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress, identify and resolve potential problems, and communicate with their project teams. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work, and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. http://www.teamdynamix.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team - Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing," virtual collaboration, and asynchronous group meetings http://care.caucus.com/index.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice, video, data, and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www.saba.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.0 - A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. http://www.elluminate.com/ HP - HP Virtual Classroom - Features include Hands up, applaud and meter, attendee list, private/group chat, content button, review button, exit and help, print icon, and save to disk icon. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop, content, navigation, annotation tools, custom stamps, form to submit questions, whiteboard pages, and Web pages. http://education.hp.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK - Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio, visual, and text chat; shared whiteboard and presentation; shared desktop; integrated content management system; breakout rooms; private whiteboards for each participant; URL sharing. http://www.photoninfotech.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze - Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching, learning, and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. For example, Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities, synchronous online lectures, virtual office hours, and collaborative content-building sessions. http://www.adobe.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi - Synchronous Webconferencing software. http://www.batipi.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling, meeting management, and collaboration features. http://www.mixmeeting.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides, and Web conferencing with WebEx. http://www.communiqueconferencing.com /internet_conferencing.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www.convenos.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.0 - A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. http://www.elluminate.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio, video, and Webconferencing specialists. http://www.genesys.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple, quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos, sales presentations, and more. Features include shared documents, e-mail invites, instant messaging, session reports, and phone use. http://www.glance.net/site/getglance/ex amples.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio, video, application sharing, and content display. Allows holding live, online classes, office hours, guest lectures, Webcasts, and meetings. http://www.horizonwimba.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect - Delivers unlimited voice, Web, and videoconferencing. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. Record classes or Webcasts. http://www.interwise.com/ Intralinks - IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces - A secure, virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed, how often, and by whom. http://www.intralinks.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 Collaboration Tools iVocalize - iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings, online seminars, e-learning classrooms, and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. Multilingual. http://www.ivocalize.com/ Linktivity Division, Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing, desktop sharing, pre-recorded broadcasts, polling and quizzes, record and playback, live demos, annotations, notes, broadcasts files, keyboard and voice chat, transparency tools, attendee lists, hand raising, remote control, and a change presenter ability. http://www.linktivity.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing - LiveOffice provides Web-based, compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies, including Web conferencing, teleconferencing, toll-free conference calling, instant messaging, and real-time videoconferencing. http://www.liveoffice.com/website2/even ts_imc.asp Meeting One – Click&Share; Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful, easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document, any application, or an entire desktop. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www.meetingone.com/action.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke - Web and audio conferencing services. http://www.netspoke.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet - To support large deployments, Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. http://www.radvision.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower - Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web, audio, and desktop videoconferencing services. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network, the Internet, and into the enterprise. http://www.raindance.com/rndc/services /services.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint - Combining audio and Web conferencing components, BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. With the convenience of online access through an individual account, BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. http://www.telnetz.com/bridgepoint.asp 92 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences, discussion forums, surveys, and instant messaging capabilities. http://www.edufolio.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite - VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. The suite manages the creation, editing, publishing, and moderation of Webcasts. http://www.vodium.com/home/s_vmps.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room - An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other, send text messages, and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. http://www.voxwire.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video, text messaging, and document collaboration. http://www.wave3software.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center - Powers online meetings, Web conferencing, teleconferencing, conference calling, and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. Solutions include Web meetings, Webinars, e-learning, remote support, and system management. Requires only a browser and a phone. http://www.webex.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 - Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment, set up labs and conduct quizzes, present PowerPoint slideshows, share other applications; tour Web sites, show rich multimedia content and documents, and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session, course, or meeting. http://www.webtrain.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), a graduate school of the University of Toronto. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. http://www.ctcevents.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba, Japan on July 13-14, 2006. http://www.collabtech.org Do Not Reproduce 93 Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools, communities, and businesses to provide collaborative educational, scientific, and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. http://www.globalschoolnet.org/index.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. http://www.writely.com/View.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. Sign up for free at: http://www.collaborationloop.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. http://www.kolabora.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning. http://www.criticalmethods.org/collab/in dex.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. http://cde.athabascau.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/works paces.htm Mitre Corporation, a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest, also has a great list of collaboration tools. http://collaboration.mitre.org/tools.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), also known as “groupware.” http://www.usabilityfirst.com/groupware/ index.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. http://www.springerlink.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults,1:100250,1 Bibliography Alexander, Bryan (2006). Web 2.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), March/April 2006. http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler, M., Buckingham Shum, S., ChenBurger, J., Dalton, J., De Roure, D., Eisenstadt, M., Komzak, J., Michaelides, D., Page, K., Potter, S., Shadbolt, N. and Tate, A. (2004). Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004), Maceió, Brazil. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/12081/ Beshears, Fred (2002). E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum, Nov. 4, 2002. http://www.diglib.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.pdf Bonk, Curtis (2002). Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Chief Learning Officer, Nov. 2002. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck, Bill (2004). Creating an eCommunity. Q2Learning White Paper. http://www.bruck.com/writings.htm Butler, T. and Coleman, D. (2003). Models of collaboration. Collaborative Strategies, September, 2003. http://www.collaborate.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03.html Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2003a). Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing, Live ELearning, Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Robin Good Blog, May 2, 2003. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2003b). Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 3. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004a). The State Of Collaboration Technologies. Robin Good Blog, January 21. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004b). Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, June 5. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Robin Good Blog, June 22. http://www.masternewmedia.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts.htm# Clapp, Matthew (2004). Collaboration First, Then Knowledge Management. CMS Watch, June 30, 2004. http://www.cmswatch.com/Feature/109 Elliot, A., Findlay, J., Fitzgerald, R.N. and Forster, A. (2004). Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Proceedings, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004, 2565-2569. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm/files/pa per_12386.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 Collaboration Tools Elliott, A. (2002). Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. In Crawford, C., Willis, D., Carlsen, R., Gibson, I., McFerrin, K., Price, J., & Weber, R. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. 827-829). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing, J. and Miller, D. (2002). A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. Educational Technology & Society, 5(1). http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing.html Hurst, D. and Thomas, J. (2004). Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. e-Book, University of Athabasca. http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/c h8.html Institute for the Future (2005). Technologies of Cooperation. Institute for the Future White Paper, Palo Alto, CA, January 2005. http://www.rheingold.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.pdf Kaplan, Soren (2002). Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. Learning Circuits, August 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan.html Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. and Jochems, W. (2002). The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. Educational Technology & Society, 5(1). http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.html Munkvold, Bjorn (Ed.) (2003). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. London: Springer-Verlag. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi, J., Aavani, A., and Sharifi, M. (2005). CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. http://wscg.zcu.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.pdf Strijbos, J., Kirschner, P., and Martens, R. (Eds.) (2004). What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark, G., Callan, J., & Purnell, K. (2004). Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. Studies in Learning, Evaluation, Innovation and Development, 1(2). Nov. 24. http://sleid.cqu.edu.au/include/getdoc.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication, messaging, telephony, telepresence, VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging, discussion forums, chat, VoIP, whiteboards, and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard, 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student, and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. For Laurillard, teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. For example, Hegarty et al. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve, including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world, labs, and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer, ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire, UK, students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return, a process referred to as “text mentoring.” http://goldenswamp.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. It is being developed into a transportable, re-usable, and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured, and yet tailored and flexible, pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/deletacademictalk. html The Learning Place in Queensland, Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail, instant messaging, discussion groups, blogs, and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.janison.com.au/eq/default.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. Do Not Reproduce 97 Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion, developed in Brazil. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser, the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. http://www.google.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/hostsi tes.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/2645. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. http://safety.ngfl.gov.uk/schools/docum ent.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs, Mark (2004). Computer Mediated Communication. CAP e-Guide, University of Warwick. http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt, M., Komzak, J. and Cerri, S. (2005). Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6.pdf Eleuterio, M. and Bortolozzi, F. (2004). AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. International Journal on E-Learning, JulySept. 2004, 13-20. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer, ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. http://www.conversate.org/ Online Resources Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including communications tools. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging, chat, and telephony tools. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.htm http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.htm 98 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner, I., Francis, J. and Wales, J. (2002). An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning, (Mlearn 2002), University of Birmingham, UK, June, 20-21. Hegarty, J., Bostock, S. and Collins, D. (2000). Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new, distance-learning course at Keele University, British Journal of Educational Technology, 31 (3), 199-212. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool.pdf Kadirire, James (2005). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.formatex.org/micte2005/4.pdf LaCroix, Pattie (2005). Developing a successful e-mail campaign. CharityVillage.com Library, Jan. 31, 2005 http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/research /rmed35.html Laurik, Sven (2002). E-Learning 1.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Learning Circuits, Aug. 19, 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn.html Laurillard, Diana (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal, R. and Elliott, M. (2004). Technologies of Online Learning. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. e-Book, University of Athabasca. http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/c h5.html Morgan, Nick (2002). The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. Working Knowledge Newsletter, September 23, 2002. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone, A. and Briggs, J. (2002). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). June, 20-21, 2002. http://dircweb.king.ac.uk/papers/Stone_ A.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging, discussion forums, chat, VoIP, whiteboards, and email has become part of the “new learning landscape.” Do Not Reproduce 99 Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies, competency-based training, performance appraisal, skills inventory, skills verification, talent management Description According to Sanders (2001), a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper, 2000). The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Known in the early days as the “quality movement,” it started in 1950 with Dr. W. Edwards Deming, who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. In 1973, David McClelland, a Harvard psychologist, advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model, entering defined competencies into a matrix, and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills, which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this, see below) and performance or talent management systems. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin, 2005). The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance, hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open, organizational and personal goals are tied together, and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www.imsproject.org/competencies /index.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. 100 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model, go to: www.itsc.org.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. https://launchpad.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data, diagnose symptoms, and carry out proper procedures. For a large list of competencies for physicians, see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. http://www.wmich.edu/paprog/clin_events .htm Many companies have their own competency models. For example, the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose, objectives, activities, measurement, and development interventions. Read their white paper at: http://www.cpgvision.com/article16.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional, see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.html The U.S. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. See the list of competencies at: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp., the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. http://www.desire2learn.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.ibm.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.learnflex.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Do Not Reproduce 101 Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www.oracle.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.syberworks.com/skillsman.ht m Online Resources HRSG, a Canadian company, has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees, regardless of industry or sector.” http://www.hrsg.ca/index.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin, Josh (2006). Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Chief Learning Officer, April. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom, Benjamin (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The competent manager: a model for effective performance. London: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper, Ken (2000). Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. New York: AMACOM. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev, Sudipta (2005). Building a skills inventory. Express Computer, April 25, 2005. http://www.expresscomputeronline.com/ 20050425/technologylife01.shtml Hogg, Clare (2005). Competency and competency frameworks. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. (2001). Competency Frameworks. Study 706. London: IDS. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland, David. (1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. American Psychologist, v.28, pp. 1-14. Miller, L., Rankin, N. and Neathy, F. (2001). Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. 102 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin, Godfrey (2005). Competency based learning management. Parkin’s Lot, April 30, 2005. http://parkinslot.blogspot.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.html Radsma, Johanna. (1999). Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Master's thesis, University of Toronto. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867.p df Rankin, N. (2004). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. London: IRS. Rankin, N. and Epstein, P. (2001). The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. London: IRS. Sanders, Ethan (2001). E-Learning Competencies. Learning Circuits, March 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies.html Sternberg, R. and Grigorenko, E. (Eds.) (2003). The Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner, Ellen (2000). Emerging technology trends in e-learning. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy, Fall 2000. http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/e wette.htm Whiddett, S. and Hollyforde, S. (2003). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. 2nd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill, Gary (2004). Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. White paper from Operitel Corporation. http://www.operitel.com Woodill, G. and Cahorn, P. (2005). Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. White paper, Operitel Corporation. http://www.operitel.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell, Michael. (2000). Creating a Culture of Competence. New York: John Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems, LCMS, Learning objects, Repositories, Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop, manage, and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities, such as registering users, displaying a course catalogue, launching courses, and reporting. With the advent of learning objects, it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS), which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. I feel that closed, stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use,” such selfcontained systems have been described as being, in fact, too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. First, simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity, not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” As well, there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups,” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira, 2006), and “topic maps.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. If you could afford it, you could hire a company to build a private, non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them, the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid, and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. Today, the standardized railway system still works while private, nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife, whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop, manage, and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Do Not Reproduce 104 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately, to date, most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. They have designed competitive, rather than complementary, functionality to an ECM, suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia, Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. http://www.atutor.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. According to its official Web site, “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” http://drupal.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. http://plone.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. http://sakaiproject.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once, reuse in many places, and publish to multiple outputs. http://www.author-it.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. http://www.topicmap.com http://www.topicmaps.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. http://www.cmsmatrix.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Bibliography Bonk, Curtis (2005). The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. TravelinEdMan blog, Dec. 18, 2005. http://travelinedman.blogspot.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.html Cisco Corp. (2004). Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. San Jose, Cisco Corporation White Paper. http://www.cisco.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper.pdf Cohen, Ed. (2005). Strategies for managing scalable content. Chief Learning Officer Magazine, March 2005. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups,” Web services and “topic maps.” Do Not Reproduce 105 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie, Scott (2005). “Monoliths,” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. EdTechPost blog, June 9, 2005. http://www.edtechpost.ca/mt/archive/00 0689.html McGee, P., Jafari, A. and Carmean, C. (Eds.) (2005). Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Hershey, PA: Idea Group. McGovern, Gerry (2003). Why content management software hasn’t worked. New Thinking Blog, March 3, 2003. http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms.htm Siemens, George (2003). Content Management: our organized future. elearnspace blog, January 23, 2003. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/cont entmanagement.htm Simon, B., Retalis, S. and Brantner, S. (2003). Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. Budapest, 2003. http://www.softlab.ntua.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster.pdf Weigel, Van (2005). From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. Educause Review, 40(3), May/June, 2005. http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533.asp Woodill, G. and Oliveira, C. (2006). Mashups, SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. Learning Solutions, May 15, 2006. http://www.operitel.com/publications.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software, knowledge discovery, personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux, 2000; Luan and Willett, 2001). De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. As data mining tools and techniques evolve, more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However, it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods, delivery models and infrastructure investment. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. Do Not Reproduce 107 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. http://www.reeltwo.com/index.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers, allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that, when used with a particular data mining algorithm, can generate meaningful results for the teacher. http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. http://www.icosystem.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents, which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. http://pami.uwaterloo.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that, by applying fuzzy logic, rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies, SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. http://www.soul.hkuspace.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve, more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Do Not Reproduce 108 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. Both products are from Convera. http://www.convera.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining, knowledge discovery, text mining, and Web mining. http://www.kdnuggets.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney, Australia. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex.html Bibliography De Veaux, R. (2000). Data Mining: What’s New, What’s Not. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop, Long Beach, California. (cited in Luan and Willett, 2001) http://www.amstatonline.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.pdf Fayyad, U., Piatetsky, G. and Smyth, P. (1996). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, edited U. M Fayyad, G. Piatetsky-Shapiro, P. Smyth, and R. Uthurusamy, AAAI Press/MIT Press, pp. 1--34, 1996. http://www.kdnuggets.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.pdf Freitas, Alex (2002). Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. New York: Springer. http://www.cs.kent.ac.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc.html Hammouda, K. and Kamel, M. (2006). Data Mining in e-Learning. In Pierre, Samuel (Ed.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. New York: Springer. http://pami.uwaterloo.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.pdf Iskander, Robert (2002). Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. School Business Affairs, 68(8), Feb., 13-16 http://asbointl.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages.pdf Jantke, K., Lange, S., Grieser, G., Grigoriev, P., Thalheim, B. and Tschiedel, B. (2004). Learning by doing and learning when doing - dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. In Proceedings, International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004), Porto, Portugal, 238-241. http://www.is.informatik.unikiel.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.2004.pdf Loo, K. and Cheung, B. (2006). Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Innsbruck, Austria, Feb. 1316, 2006. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 Data Mining Luan, J. and Willett, T. (2001). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). RP Conference Presentation. http://www.cabrillo.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm.pdf McCalla, Gord (2004). The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2004 (7). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://wwwjime.open.ac.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.pdf Merceron, A., Oliveira, C., Scholl, M. and Ullrich, C. (2004). Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004), Hiroshima, Japan, 39-40. http://www.ags.unisb.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004.pdf Merceron, A. and Yacef, K. (2004). Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(4), 319-346. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron, A. and K. Yacef (2005). TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 7(1). http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index.asp Merceron, A. and K. Yacef (2004). Train, store, analyze for more adaptive teaching. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004), 52-59. http://archiveedutice.ccsd.cnrs.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef.pdf Monk, David (2005). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 3(1), 41-54. http://www.ejel.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk.pdf Mor, E. and Minguillon, J. (2004). Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference, NYC, May 17-22. http://www2004.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264.pdf Pahl, Claus (2004). Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(4), Oct.-Dec., 47-55. http://dl.aace.org/16915 Romero, C. and Ventura, S. (2006). Data Mining in e-Learning. Advances in Management Information, Vol 4. Billerica, MA: WIT Press. http://www.compmech.com/acatalog/18 45641523.html Ueno, Maomi (2004). Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.pdf 110 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time, such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. For example, in their case study of medical education, Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors, and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004), the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support, with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. http://www.decisionarium.tkk.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com/ Facilitate.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm, 2) categorize, 3) vote/prioritize, 4) develop an action plan, 5) carry out a survey, and 6) document results. http://www.facilitate.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time, such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. Do Not Reproduce 111 Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. http://www.whichbook.net/index.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. http://www.sal.hut.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. http://www.utoronto.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. http://www.meetingworks.com/index.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. For newsletters, books, and information on this area, see: http://www.dssresources.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.” http://dmoz.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis, Jay (2004). From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. White paper from BNH Expert Software. http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.p df Chakrabarty, Kankana (2005). Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://science.uniserve.edu.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.pdf Ehtamo, H., Hamalainen, R. and Koskinen, V. (2004). An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Online manuscript. http://www.sal.hut.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.pdf Frize, M. and Frasson, C. (2000). Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 23(4), August. http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril.html Hamalainen, Raimo (2003). Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions, Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 12(2-3), 101-110. http://www.sal.hut.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. 112 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke, K., Lange, S., Grieser, G., Grigoriev, P., Thalheim, B. and Tschiedel, B. (2004). Learning by doing and learning when doing - dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. In Proceedings, International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004), Porto, Portugal, 238-241. http://www.is.informatik.unikiel.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.2004.pdf Jantke, K., Memmel, M., Rostanin, O., Thalheim, B. and Tschiedel, B. (2003). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings, Information Systems for a Connected Society, Aachen, Germany, 317-328. http://damit.dfki.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT.pdf Knolmayer, Gerhard (2003). Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Hawaii, Jan. 6-9. http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.pdf Ounapuu, Enn (2004). Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, August 16-18, 2004, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu, Enn (2005). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference, Manchester, June 20-24, 2005. http://www.mc.manchester.ac.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.pdf Power, Dan (2003). A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. http://dssresources.com/history/dsshist ory.html Rhyne, Theresa (1998). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. SIGGRAPH publication. http://www.siggraph.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.html Scott, Jim (2002). Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. CAL-laborate, Vol. 9, Oct. 2002. http://science.uniserve.edu.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott.html Shimizu, T., de Carvaho, M. and Laurindo, F. (2006). Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. Hershey, PA: Idea Publishing. http://www.ideagroup.com/books/details.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink, digital paper, electronic paper, head mounted displays, projectors, monitors, whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual, display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. In the near future, a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners, including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels, lighting up theater size screens. By stacking a second projector, resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels, big enough to be projected on large walls. For air displays, viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. This can be a holographic image,or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices, including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. Finally, digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. In regards to digital paper, eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly, saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. Electronic paper could change that some day.” Selected Examples Samsung, in cooperation with Sony, has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual, display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. Do Not Reproduce 114 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.siliconlight.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. http://www.io2technology.com/technology /overview NTERA, Inc. is the leading enabler of electronic displays, intelligent interfaces, and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. http://www.ntera.com/about.html Promera is a hand-held computer, still/video camera, and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. http://killer.ices.cmu.edu/design/Camera. Projector.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.fogscreen.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. See a demo at: http://www.provisionentertainment.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://www.technorati.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.H.E. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. http://thejournal.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies. In 2005, it published a special issue on “Urban Screens,” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. To access the articles, see: http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. For a list of his publications, see: http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. Do Not Reproduce 115 Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs, H., State, A., Pisano, E., Garrett, W., Hirota, G., Livingston, M., Whitton, M. and Pizer, S. (1996). Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference, Hamburg, Germany. London: Springer. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (ELearn 2005), pages 3053-3068, Vancouver, Canada, Oct. 2005. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn.pdf Wang, Tim (2005). Largest LCD and video projection. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog, Dec. 3, 2005. http://blog.loaz.com/timwang/index.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment, evaluation, résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. My first report in this series, entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://www.angellearning.com/products/e portfolio/default.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. http://www.chalkandwire.com/eportfolio/i ndex.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.livetext.com/college/portfoli os.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality, maximum flexibility, and simple usability. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. http://www.pebblelearning.co.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. http://www.pupilpages.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. http://isle.paisley.ac.uk/default.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary, open source electronic portfolio. http://www.osportfolio.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.htm Educause, a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research, has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios. http://www.educause.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible, Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. http://www.iwebfolio.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Do Not Reproduce 117 E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/epor tfolios.htm IMS, the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning, has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download. http://www.imsglobal.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and, thus, helping to transform education and training. http://www2.educa.ch/dyn/9.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. http://connect.educause.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook, an online resource on collaboration, has a section on eportfolios, with many links. http://www.criticalmethods.org/collab/v. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou, J., (2002). A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. University of Iowa, College of Education http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell, Graham (2005). Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. Online Paper. http://elgg.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper.doc Banks, Bob (2004). e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. FD Learning White Paper. http://ferl.becta.org.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper.pdf Batson, Trent (2002). The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine, Dec. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=6984 Cohn, E. and Hibbitts, B. (2004). Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. Educause Quarterly, Vol 27 No 4, 2004 http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441.pdf Conway, Frederick (2005). Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. THE Journal Online, March. http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/va ult/A5260.cfm 118 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky, J., (2003). Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. (Focus on Teaching), Business Communication Quarterly. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal, P., Love, D., Bryde, B. and McKean, G. (2002). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. Educause Quarterly, 37(2). http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224.pdf Greenberg, Gary (2004). The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. Educause Review, vol. 39, no. 4, July/ August 2004, 28–37. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.pdf Lorenzo, G. and Ittelson, J. (2005). An Overview of e-Portfolios. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. Online. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts, G., Aalderink, W., Cook, J., Feijen, M., Harvey, J., Lee, S., and Wade, V. (2005). Reflective learning, future thinking: digital repositories, e-portfolios, informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar, Trinity College, Dublin, April 1, 2005. http://www.alt.ac.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens, George (2004). ePortfolios. elearnspace, Dec. 16. http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/epo rtfolios.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Online paper. http://www.eradc.org/papers/Learning_l andscape.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh, D., Light, T., Fleming, K., and Haywood, J. (2005). engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 31(3), Fall. http://www.cjlt.ca/content/vol31.3/tosh. html Young, C.A., & Figgins, M.A. (2002). The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry, research, and portfolios. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2(2), 144-169. http://www.citejournal.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments, games, serious games, simulations, virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones, and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM), which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story, play, and learning (Amory, 2003). Dr. Constance Steinkuehler, from the University of Wisconsin, has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition, complex problem solving, identity work, individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia, multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and, as such, ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones, 2005). One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. Marc Prensky (2003), writing about “first person shooter games,” says that “in the mod world, ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam, the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Examples include Hive7, Cyworld, MySpace, Facebook, and Second Life. Try them out at: http://www.hive7.com http://us.cyworld.com/ http://www.myspace.com/ http://www.facebook.com/ http://www.secondlife.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. For a brief review of these tools, see: http://news.com.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. 120 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www.clickteam.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. This game allows users to play, edit, create, and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. http://www.thinkingworlds.com/ In 2005, Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. The toolset, dubbed XNA Studio, allows members of a game development team to work together, helping speed up the game creation process. http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Softimage, a subsidiary of Avid Technologies, has game development tools for the Xbox. You can read about them at Pluginz.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. http://www.pluginz.com/news/548 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/gam es/default.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver, Canada. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. http://www.magnetargames.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. See the selection of games at: http://www.muzzylane.com/ Thiagi, Inc. produces educational games for training. Many of their learning games resources are free. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. For example, see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design, implementation, and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. Started in North America, NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. http://www.nasaga.org/?14@33.mpjgaB KQdAe.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines, along with their Web sites. Review them at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).” http://www.ucalgary.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. Do Not Reproduce 121 Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. http://it.coe.uga.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. http://www.seriousgames.org/index2.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. http://www.seriousgamessummit.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. http://www.digiplay.org.uk/index2.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. Sign up at: http://www.futureplay.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers, researchers, and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www.gdconf.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. http://www.programmersheaven.com/zo ne8/index.htm Dr. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games,” Find his list of publications at: http://www.itc.dk/people/sen/public.htm Dr. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.” Read her research at: http://website.education.wisc.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory, Alan (2003). Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 25-28, 2003. http://www.ukzn.ac.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.pdf 122 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron, Bryan (2006). Developing Serious Games. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen, S. and Michael, D. (2005). Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Gamasutra, Oct. 19, 2005. http://www.uwf.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon (2005). Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. IT-University Copenhagen. http://www.itc.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.pdf Godwin-Jones, Bob (2005). Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Language Learning and Technology, 9(1), Jan. 2005, 17-22. http://llt.msu.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g.pdf Guetl, C., Dreher, H., Williams, R. and Maurer, H. (2005). Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference, June, Montreal. http://www.iicm.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.pdf Michael, D. and Chen, S. (2005). Serious Games: Games That Educate, Train, and Inform. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt, see: http://www.uwf.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.pd f Prensky, Marc (2003). “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Learning on Demand Bulletin, SRI-BI, Fourth Quarter, 2003. http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol.pdf Reynolds, Rob (2006a). Technology Trends for the Year. Xplanazine, January 2, 2006. http://www.xplanazine.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren.php Reynolds, Rob (2006b). Games and Education = Oil and Water. Xplanazine, March 10, 2006. http://www.xplanazine.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa.php Rieber, Lloyd (2005). Multimedia learning in games, simulations and microworlds. In Richard E. Mayer (Ed.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Chapter 33. New York: Cambridge University Press, 549-567. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler, Constance (2005). Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison. http://website.education.wisc.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.pdf Swamy, N. and Swamy, N. (2006). Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan, J., Beers, C., Gupta, R. and Biswas, G. (2005). Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference, 2005. http://jason.teachableagents.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.p df Tye, Jason (2004). Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Masters Thesis, Michigan State University, 2004. http://woz.commtechlab.msu.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis.pdf 124 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing, artificial intelligence, haptics, robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video, looking for particular sequences. Artificial intelligence techniques, such as Markov models, play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence, affective computing, and robotics in elearning. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab, at the University of California, is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.” http://mplab.ucsd.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, FG2006, was held in Southampton, UK, April 10-12 2006. For a list of papers: http://www.fg2006.ecs.soton.ac.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, FG2008, will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13, 2008. http://www.fg2008.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research, including identifying commercial products. http://www.cybernet.com/~ccohen/gest ure.html Research by Dr. Maja Pantic of Imperial College, London, UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.tudelft.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. Do Not Reproduce 125 Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen, Michael (2003). Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. eLearning Developers’ Journal, Aug. 18, 2003. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES.pdf Beringer, Nicole (2001). Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Report No. 3, March. http://www.smartkom.org/reports/Report -NR-03.pdf Borghi, F., Lombardi, L., Porta, M. (2005). Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 2227. http://www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci.html Chang, Shi-Kuo (2000). Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2000. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.11 09/CMPSAC.2000.884693 Chen, Y., Gao, W. and Ma, J. (2000). Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. http://www.iscslp2006.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027.pdf Corradini, A., Wesson, R. and Cohen, P. (2002). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02), October 14-16, Pittsburg, PA, 191-196, http://www.cse.ogi.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.pdf Daugman, J.; (1997). Face and gesture recognition: overview. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions, 19(7), July 1997, 675 676 http://lcv.stat.fsu.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman.pdf Ebert, A., Deller, M. and Bender, M. (2005). An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. In Proceedings, Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat, T., Geiger, G. and Poggio, T. (2004). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul, Korea, 57-64. http://cbcl.mit.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02.pdf 126 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee, C., Lee, J., Park, C. and Kim, D. (1997). Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference, 242-245. http://www.research.rutgers.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.pdf Loi, M., Wong, Y. and Wong, C. (2005). Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Proceedings, Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05), 442-446. http://csdl2.computer.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/ICALT.20 05.150 Nakanishi, Y., Sato, Y. and Koike, H. (2002). EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables, September 2002, 27-30. http://interact.media.mit.edu/mas963/en hencedwall.pdf Ou, J., Fussell, S., Chen, X., Setlock, L. and Yang, J. (2003). Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada http://cims.clayton.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.pdf Peixoto, P. and Carreira, J. (2005). A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. In Proceedings, Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk, Michael (2004). Computer vision in the interface. Communications of the ACM, 47(1), January, 2004. http://www.recveb.ucsb.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004.pdf Wilson, A.D. and Bobick, A.F (1999). Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions, 21(9), Sept. 1999, 884 – 900. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang, C., Lai, S. and Chang, L. (2004). Robust face image matching under illumination variations. Journal on Applied Signal Processing, 2004:16, 2533–2543. http://www.hindawi.com/GetPDF.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design, visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. Horton applied these in his 2000 book, Designing WebBased Training, and in his recent 2006 book, e-Learning By Design. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. In acquiring Macromedia, Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world, given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.avs.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.techillustrator.com/TechIllustrator.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems, the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender - Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling, animation, rendering, post-production, interactive creation, and playback. Download a copy: http://www.blender3d.org/cms/Home.2.0. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.broderbund.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.acdamerica.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. Nevertheless, they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.corel.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.ibm.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.itedo.com/E/1335.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.microsoft.com SmartDraw http://www.smartdraw.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.xaraxtreme.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.com. http://www.3dlinks.com/index.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. The most listings are for 3-D software. http://www.google.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://virtuality3d.co.uk/index.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.co.uk/index.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. In acquiring Macromedia, Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world, given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Do Not Reproduce 129 Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton, William (1991). Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . NY: John Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton, William (2000). Designing WebBased Training. New York: John Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton, William (2006). e-Learning by Design. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang, Fu-Kwan (2004). Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings, ED-Media Conference. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman, A. (2005). The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2, Tools and Techniques for ELearning, Potsdam, Germany, June 1-3. http://www.carto.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5.pdf McConnell, Gloria (2004). Tools Usage Survey Results. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC), Pheonix. http://www.stcphoenix.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.pdf Qiu, X., Pallickara, S. and Uyar, A. (2004). Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference, Tokyo, Japan · Sept 7-10. http://grids.ucs.indiana.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.pdf Tufte, Edward (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte, Edward (1997). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte, Edward (2001). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd Ed. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth, Frances (2004). The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. STC. Carolina Chapter. http://www.stc.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. Haptic devices come in many forms, including pens, gloves, joysticks/ joypads, and force-feedback mice. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics, including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning, especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level, such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. Finally, active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. When used appropriately, haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner, who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. http://wwwpercro.sssup.it/projects/pureform.html http://www.pureform.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4, a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. Read the press release at: http://www.mpbtechnologies.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices - in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope - now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.” http://www.forcedimension.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems - Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. http://www.handshakeinteractive.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Do Not Reproduce 131 Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. http://www.sensegraphics.se/index.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www.sensable.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.asp Body-based devices include gloves, suits, and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. http://www.immersion.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.” http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. http://www.haptics-e.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.” http://www.roblesdelatorre.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new, professional, not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://www.isfh.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa, Italy in March, 2005. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.informatik.unitrier.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Deliverable D4.1. Report delivered January 15, 2005. http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4.1_release-public.pdf Hespanha, J., McLaughlin, M. and Sukhatume, G. (2002). Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www.phptr.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue, M., Matsubara, Y., Iwane, N., Nakamura, M. and Ichitsubo, M. (2005). VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. Proceedings, International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05), 917-921. http://csdl2.computer.org/persagen/DLA bsToc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/ICAL T.2005.306 Kushner, David (2003). Reality bytes. New York Times (Online), July 31, 2003. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. 132 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque, Vincent (2005). Blindness, Technology and Haptics. Research report, Haptics Laboratory, Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University. http://www.cim.mcgill.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.pdf McLaughlin, M. L., Sukhatme, G., Shahabi, C., Medioni, G., and Jaskowiak, J. (2000). The Haptic Museum. Proceedings, Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.usc.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00.pdf Ó hAnluain, Daithí (2003). Reaching through the net to touch. Wired News, July 3, 2003. http://www.matr.net/article-7304.html O’Malley, M. and Hughes, S. (2003). Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.pd f O’Modhrain, M.S. and Essl, G. (2004). PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. 3-5 June 2004. Japan. http://web.media.mit.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2.pdf O’Modhrain, M.S. and Gillespie, R.B. (1997). The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference, Santa Clara, CA, April. http://www.ra.ethz.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239.html Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Haptics. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres.pdf Rowell, Laurie (2004). Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Prentice Hall online article, Oct. 22, 2004. http://www.informit.com/articles/printerf riendly.asp?p=345621 Sakano, Y., Kaneko, H., & Uchikawa, K. (2001). The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. Journal of Vision, 1(3), 250a, http://www.journalofvision.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink, digital paper, display technologies, electronic paper, experience computing, gesture recognition, haptics, handwriting recognition, head mounted displays, human-computer interaction, input devices, projectors, monitors, tangible computing, wearable computing, whiteboards Description devices, and some, like digital ink and paper, are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. Now in the research and development phase, flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Writing will require special digital pens, although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. However, instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. http://www.buffalo.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript.html Sony, Philips, and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). Called Librié, the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. For a review, see: http://www.dottocomu.com/b/archives/ 002571.html For humans to use a computer, they must interact with it through an interface device. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. For humans to use a computer, they must interact with it through an interface device. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment, see: http://www.eink.com/technology/howitwor ks.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. http://killer.ices.cmu.edu/design/Digitalin k.html http://killer.ices.cmu.edu/design/Foldable Display.html In 2005, Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.” http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush, which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors, textures, and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them." http://web.media.mit.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System, consisting of a pen and a charger. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. http://www.logitech.com/index.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. http://www.cs.swan.ac.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site, Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. These methods are 1) touch, 2) roll, 3) throw, 4) bend, and 5) build. http://www.sony.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. http://www.smarttech.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. http://www.lifehacker.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. Although this technology has been around for a few years, it is constantly being improved and updated. http://www.wacom.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links, books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards.cfm Now in the research and development phase, flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Writing will require special digital pens, although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Do Not Reproduce 135 Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards. http://www.edna.edu.au/edna/page458 8.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. http://www.thewirelessdirectory.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems, human computer interaction, and graphic. http://www.cs.usask.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. http://whiteboards.becta.org.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://www.aclearn.net/display.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. See their advice and resources at: http://www.thegrid.org.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years, Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. Following are three such articles: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.html http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.0 8/epapers.html http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.0 4/anoto.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.anoto.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC, with its use of digital ink, is described in a 2002 press release. http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.mspx 136 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667 Do Not Reproduce 137 Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: …there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. 138 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims: For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA). Do Not Reproduce 139 Learning Management Systems An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/ GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. 140 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 141 Learning Management Systems Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206 142 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins, Sam (2005). Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Learning Circuits, October. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.htm Bouras, C. and Tsiatsos, T. (2002). Building educational virtual environments. Proceedings, ICALT2002 Conference. http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.pdf Cohen, Ed. (2006). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Chief Learning Officer, (Online edition), August, 2006. http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo, L., Molinari, A., Ronchetti, M. and Trifonova, A. (2002). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning, University of Birmingham, UK, June 20-21. http://www.science.unitn.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).pdf Dalziel, James (2003). Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. http://www.melcoe.mq.edu.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.pdf Dillenbourg, Pierre (2000). Virtual Learning Environments. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium - building new education strategies for schools. Workshop on virtual learning environments. http://www.eun.org/eun.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.PDF Farmer, James (2005). Un-Managing Learning Management Systems - A possible future for online learning. Incorporated Subversion, Jan. 21, 2005. http://incsub.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins, M., Browne, T. and Walker, R. (2005). VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001, March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Report published by UCISA. http://www.ucisa.ac.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.pdf Morrison, Derek (2004). E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Proceedings of ALT-C, Exeter, November 2004. http://www.bath.ac.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.pdf Sadeghi, J., Aavani, A., and Sharifi, M (2005). CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Proceedings, WSCG Conference 2005, Plzen, Czech Republic, Jan. 31-Feb. 4, 2005. http://wscg.zcu.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.pdf Tsinakos, Avgoustos (2004). The puzzle: virtual learning environments - what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE), 5(2), April. http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 Learning Management Systems Ueno, Maomi (2005). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2005, Vancouver, October 2005. http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel, Van (2005). From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Educause Review, 40(3), May-June, 2005. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533.pdf Wise, L. and Quealy, J. (2006). LMS Governance Project Report. Report for the Melbourne- Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. May 2006 http://www.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport.pdf 144 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring, learning object model (LOM), learning object repository (LOR), rapid learning, reusable learning objects (RLOs), sharable content objects (SCOs), SCORM. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. They are emulations of “software objects,” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. Beyond that, there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). The acronym SCORM, a well-known standard for learning objects, stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. As online educational materials are produced, they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects, usually referred to as “learning object repositories.” To facilitate searching and retrieval, metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. Learning objects have several uses. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. However, it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects, in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning,” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” This use has been more successful, as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks, and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning,” such as a graph, does not mean the intended learning has taken place. Rather, learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability, but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss, 2004; Wiley, 2006). At the simplest level, the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. Do Not Reproduce 145 Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. This idea is based on older, behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen, this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note, “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language, culture, curriculum, computer-use practices, and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor), and they can be general or subject specific. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://www.cdlib.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange, a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. http://learnware.uwaterloo.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes, a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material. http://dspace.org/index.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://www.educanext.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://www.fedora.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education, hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12. http://www.thegateway.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www.goenc.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://ideas.wisconsin.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://www.koha.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST), which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://lester.rice.edu/DesktopDefault.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://www.llearn.net/project.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects, with a focus on information literacy. http://www.lolaexchange.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://www.lrc3.unsw.edu.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects, with almost 15,000 items. http://www.merlot.org/Home.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://nsdl.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions. http://mlor.oise.utoronto.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. http://www.profetic.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.cisco.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects, authored by Rachel Smith, is available at: http://www.nmc.org/guidelines/index.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/archives/ 002089.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections,” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard, CANCORE. http://www.cancore.ca/implementing_proje cts.html For a highly critical view of learning objects, see Teemu Leinonen’s article, “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.dicole.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog, EdTechPost. http://www.edtechpost.ca/mt/archive/000 681.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. http://www.lornet.org/eng/scientifiques.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. http://www.jcdl.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. http://www.uis.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt, C. and Alderman, F.L. (2004). Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio, M., Celentano, M. And Longo, A. (2004). SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Online paper. http://www.dis.uniroma1.it/~lhci/002.doc Christiansen, J. and Anderson, T. (2004). Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(3), March. http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis, B., & Strijker, A. (2003). Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. International Journal on E-Learning, 2(4), 5-16. http://dl.aace.org/14190 Downes, Stephen. (2000). The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 2(1). http://www.irrodl.org/content/v2.1/downes. html Edusource (2003). Software Architecture Document, Version .9. Online document. http://www.edusource.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200.9%2015-11-03.doc Fiaidhi, J. and Mohammed, S. (2004). Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(3), March. http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3.htm Friesen, Norm (2005). CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Online. http://www.cancore.ca/implementing_projec ts.html Friesen, Norm (2006). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Online paper. http://www.cancore.ca/protocols_en.html Heery, Rachel (2006). Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Research Report. http://www.eduserv.org.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.pdf Krauss, Fredinand (2004). The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS, Jan. 14, 2004. http://ideas.blogs.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.html Leeder, D. and Morales, R. (2004). Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm/files/pap er_11841.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire, Warren (2000). A Primer on Learning Objects. Learning Circuits, March. http://www.learningcircuits.org/mar2000/ primer.html McGreal, Rory (Ed.) (2004). Online Education Using Learning Objects. London: Falmer. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal, R., Anderson, T., Babin, G., Downes, S., Friesen, N., Harrigan, K., Hatala, M., MacLeod, D., Mattson, M., Paquette, G., Richards, G., Roberts, T., and Schafer, S. (2004). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1 (3), March. http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison, Derek (2004a). Learning Material Repositories - Rafts or Battleships? - Part 1. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education, July 14, 2004. http://www.bath.ac.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison, Derek (2004b). Learning Material Repositories - Rafts or Battleships? - Part 2. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education, Aug. 12, 2004. http://www.bath.ac.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer, Lori (2002). (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Learning Circuits, April 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.html Murphy, Elizabeth (2004). Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 7(1), March. http://www.usq.edu.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.htm Nejdl, Wolfgang (2004). Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Final Project Report. http://www.learninglab.kth.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.pdf Richards, G., McGreal, R. and Freisen, N. (2002). Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. Paper presented, InSITE conference, June. http://proceedings.informingscience.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. pdf Roselli, T., Rossano, V. and Pragnell, M. (2005). A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction, INTERACT 2005, http://www.dis.uniroma1.it/~lhci/rossanopaper.pdf http://www.dis.uniroma1.it/~lhci/rossanopres.pdf Santally, M., Govinda, M., and Senteni, A. (2004). Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(7). http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.htm Shepherd, Clive. (2000). Objects of Interest. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects.htm Wiley, David A. (2000). Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University. http://opencontent.org/docs/dissertation.p df Wiley, David A. (Ed.). (2002). The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. Online. : http://reusability.org/read/ Wiley, David A. (2006). RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Iterating Toward Openness, Jan. 9. http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content, findability, geocaching, navigation, proximity tools, tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.S. Department of Defense. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies, including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector, location-based systems are found in museums, galleries, and exhibits for a variety of purposes, including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams, galleries, or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information, including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile, users will be able to use a variety of devices, including cell phones, PDAs, laptops, gaming consoles, personal media players, and wearable computers, to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. However, as with any new technology, there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies, including privacy concerns, more demands for a person’s attention, and security issues. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Do Not Reproduce 151 Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40,000 archaeological sites in the state. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp - http://www.cadcorp.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery. Clark Labs - http://www.clarklabs.org/ http://www.museum.state.il.us/research/G ESRI- http://www.esri.com/ Intergraph - http://www.intergraph.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo - http://www.mapinfo.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile, information. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. http://www.frappr.com able to use a http://www.smm.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices, earth, with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database. and to learn about them using a phones, PDAs, http://earth.google.com/ Geographic Information System. laptops, gaming http://www.greatestplaces.org/ consoles, personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players, and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details. The map is wearable readable geographic locations, similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers, to what a GIS system uses. See how this direction. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.google.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.biogeomancer.org/ educational of Mars. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, experiences that people, it is a great tool for teaching science. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.google.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. to model the climate in any place in the world. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.berkeley.edu/ the globe. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. http://www.google.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www.pangonetworks.com/ mapping service. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://local.live.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.” http://www.chimer.org/index.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. See their complete range of products, as well as papers on trends in GIS, at: http://www.esri.com/index.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. http://www.edu.fi/english/page.asp?path=5 00,5372,30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. http://www.confluence.org/ Platial enables anyone to find, create, and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. http://platial.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. http://portal.cetadl.bham.ac.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey, the national mapping agency for Great Britain, maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education, see: http://www.geography.wisc.edu/sco/gis/hi story.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.opensourcegis.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. http://www.eoscenter.com/gis4mt/index.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.gees.ac.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. http://pngis.bc.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://geotags.com http://geotags.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS), CAD, Mapping, and Location-Based industry professionals, enthusiasts, and students. http://www.geocomm.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store, manipulate, and visualize spatial information. http://www.intergraph.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. http://www.directionsmag.com/ Bibliography Benford, Steve (2005). Future LocationBased Experiences. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report, January, 2005. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.pdf Cardinali, Fabrizio (2005). Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile, location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. Online article. http://elearningeuropa.info/index.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower, J. and Borriello, G. (2001). Location systems for ubiquitous computing. IEEE Report. http://www.intelresearch.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2004). We learning: social software and e-learning. Part II. Learning Circuits, Jan 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.htm McLean, Heather (2005). GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Guardian Unlimited, Nov. 15, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/ story/0,,1642288,00.html Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Location Based Devices. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Spohrer, J.C. (1999). Information in places. IBM Systems Journal, 38(4), 1999. http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.pdf Tsirliganis, N., Arnaoutoglou, F., Koutsoudis, A., Pavlidis, G., and Chamzas, C. (2003). 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. DigiCULT Newsletter, Issue 6, Dec. 2003. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX, API clouds, composite applications, hybrid applications, integration, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), tag clouds, Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in schools and universities, has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic, personalized, and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses, learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. A “mashup,” then, is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. Mashups are constructed in several ways, including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects, all expressed in binary code. Many of these objects are software programs, which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Programs can be “stand alone,” that is, run all by themselves, or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. For two or more programs to talk to each other, they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules, or protocol, of how to communicate with each other. For example, HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. Similarly, FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol, the rules for sending files across the Internet. provides access to the API of another Web site, or through “Web services.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. E-learning in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in schools and universities, has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol, the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other, also called “object learners and interoperability.” instructors. Using SOAP, programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. The programs that do this are call “Web Services,” and Do Not Reproduce 155 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl, 2004). Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service, while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data, such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. Many have educational value. http://www.mashupfeed.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.emilychang.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.0 APIs.” It has many examples of mashups, including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. http://www.programmableweb.com/ http://www.programmableweb.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. http://www.deitel.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.htmlhttp://www.deitel.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter.html Rob Hof, a writer for Business Week, has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. http://blogs.businessweek.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data, such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs, such as those for collaboration, document management, communications, etc., thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while, at the same time, providing an informal collaborative environment. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. As Warlick (2006) has noted, online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup, as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.icio.us. http://del.icio.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman, Galen (2006). Enterprise mashups. Infoworld, July 28, 2006. http://ww6.infoworld.com/products/print_fri endly.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.html Hof, Robert (2005). Mix, match, and mutate. Business Week Online, July 25, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063.htm Torres, J., Dodero, J. and Padron, C. (2004). A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Learning Technology newsletter, Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2004 http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.pdf Seimens, George (undated). Web Services. Elearnspace. http://www.elearnspace.org/resources/webs ervices.htm Siviter, Douglas (2004). Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Learning Technology newsletter, Vol. 6, Issue 1, January 2004 http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.pdf Stacey, Paul (2002). E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry, Dec. 6, 2002. http://www.bctechnology.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.html Warlick, David (2006). Curriculum as Mashup. techLEARNING, March 6, 2006. http://www.techlearning.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.html Woodill, G. and Oliveira, C. (2006). Mashups, SOAP, and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Learning Solutions, May 15, 2006. http://www.operitel.com/publications.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Do Not Reproduce 157 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies, pervasive computing, social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects, repositories, search engines, and artificial intelligence are being developed, so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. An ontology, in the context of information technology, refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud, which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin, Ohio, to develop metadata standards. http://dublincore.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. http://iiscs.wssu.edu/o4e/viewhome.do?tm= O4E.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies, metadata, and services. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual, community, and institutional stores. http://simile.mit.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. http://www.cancore.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). http://metadata.cetis.ac.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. http://libraries.mit.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies,” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. http://www.educause.edu/content.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. http://www.imsglobal.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. Do Not Reproduce 158 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel, M., Benayache, A., Lenne, D., Moulin, C., Barry, C. and Chaput, B. (2004). Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 98-111. http://www.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 Chen, H., Perich, F., Finin, T., and Joshi, A. (2004). SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. In Proceedings, International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, Boston, MA. http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/get/a/publication/ 105.pdf Delphi Group (2004). Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Delphi Group report, June 2004. http://www.delphigroup.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP.pdf Friesen, Norm (2005). Can Core: learning object metadata editors. Online article. http://www.cancore.ca/editors.html Gruber, Thomas (2005a). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05), November. http://tomgruber.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.htm Gruber, Thomas (2005b). TagOntology - a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Presentation to Tag Camp, http://www.tagcamp.org/, October 29.. http://tomgruber.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.pdf Henze, N., Dolog, P. and Nejdl, W. (2004). Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 82-97. http://www.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 Kroski, Ellyssa (2005). The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Infotangle, Dec. 7, 2005. http://infotangle.blogsome.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe, Patrick (2006). Defining “taxonomy”. Green Chameleon, April 18, 2006. http://www.greenchameleon.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider, B. and Mosoiu, A. (2003). Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. tags into a BoxesAndArrows, April 21, 2003. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/buil database as they enter data. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras, M., Pouloudi, A. and Poulymenakou, sometimes A. (2002). Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. International Journal on E-Learning, October-December, 2002. http://dl.aace.org/10614 Mathes, Adam (2004). Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. University of Illinois graduate paper. http://www.adammathes.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Understanding Metadata. NISO Press. http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.pdf Oin, J. and Godby, J. (2003). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Trondheim, Norway. http://www.ecdl2003.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.ppt Ricci, Christian (2004). Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. BoxesAndArrows, May 22, 2004. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson, D., Lytras, M., Wagner, G. and Diaz, P. (2004). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 26-28. http://www.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 Tozman, Reuben (2004). Another new paradigm for instructional design. Learning Circuits, Nov. 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.htm Weibel, Stuart (2005). Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. D-Lib Magazine, 11(7/8), July/August, 2005. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.html Wodtke, Christina (2002). Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. BoxesAndArrows, April 9, 2002. http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang, S., Chen, I. and Shao, N. (2004). Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 70-81. http://www.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 160 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing, cell phones, conversational learning, location based technologies, mLearning, personal digital assistants (PDA), personalization, pervasive computing, podcasting, tablets, wearable computing, wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), cellular telephones, MP3 players, laptops, tablet PCs, and wearable computers in teaching and learning. Essentially, it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. times the number of personal computers (PCs), and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009, it is predicted that there will be 2.6 billion units in operation by that year. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time, any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners, particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs), cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits, such telephones, MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy, you are, strong search capabilities, rich players, laptops, communicative skills and community interaction, powerful support for effective tablet PCs, and building, improved identity creation, learning, and performance-based wearable collaborative learning, and mentoring. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location, time and space.” The Mobilearn However, there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. in mobile computing (McLean, 2003), learning architecture [that] will support creation, brokerage, delivery and tracking of learning and information content, using ambient intelligence, location-dependence, personalization, multimedia, instant messaging (text, video) and distributed databases.” Two years ago, there were estimated to be 1.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky, 2004). This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 Mobile Devices Two years ago, there were estimated to be 1.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky, 2004). This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs), and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note, in Japan, Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days, compared to only 50 percent of computer users. Cited in Prensky, (2004). Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.” They have a “firefly watching system,” a “butterfly-watching learning system,” and a “bird watching learning system.” http://www.cs.ccu.edu.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.pdf http://www.cs.ccu.edu.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.pdf http://www.cs.ccu.edu.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe, Israel, US, Australia. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture. http://www.mobilearn.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students, adult participants in the School’s professional development programs, and pre-service teachers. http://gseacademic.harvard.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. Users can access and create location-specific text, audio, pictures, movies, or a combination of media. http://urbantapestries.net/ 162 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. http://www.beta80group.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content. http://urbantapestries.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. http://spotlight-mobile.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. Learn more at: http://www.knowledgepulse.com/home_en. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education,” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education,” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.” http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/2737.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/2717.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/8907.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning, including issues, technologies, applications, resources, activities, links, and a glossary. http://www3.telus.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.htm Jari Laru, of the University of Oulu in Finland, maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://www.mobilelearning.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. For example, the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16, 2006 in Dublin, Ireland. http://www.iadis.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones, in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation,” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. http://llt.msu.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/handler/publi cations.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. http://213.232.94.135/ipodined/news.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. http://mobile.kaywa.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.html Bibliography Alexander, Bryan (2004). Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education, EDUCAUSE Review, Vol. 39, No. 5, Sept. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.pdf Anderson, Paul (2005). Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.pdf Attewell, Jill (2005). Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Report, Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://www.m-learning.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.pdf Chen, Y., Kao, T. and Sheu, J. (2003). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, 347-359. http://www.cs.ccu.edu.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.pdf Colazzo, L., Molinari, A., Ronchetti, M. and Trifonova, A. (2002). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning, Univ. of Birmingham http://www.science.unitn.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).pdf Geddes, B.J. (2004). Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Knowledge Tree e-Journal, No.6. http://knowledgetree.flexiblelearning.net.a u/edition06/download/geddes.pdf Godwin-Jones, Bob (2005). Emerging technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Language Learning and Technology, 9(1), January 2005, 17-22 http://llt.msu.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.html Grew, P. and Pagani, E. (2005). Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. http://www.idi.ntnu.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.pdf Jasola, S. and Sharma, R. (2005). Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(9), September 2005. http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04.htm JISC (2005). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. JISC Guide. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/eli_practice.html Kadirire, James (2005). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. http://www.formatex.org/micte2005/4.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light, Ann (2005). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. UsabilityNews, June 27, 2005. http://www.usabilitynews.com/news/article2 490.asp Liu, T., Wang, H., Liang, J., Chan, T. and Yang, J. (2002). Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109 /WMTE.2002.1039222 McLean, Neil (2003). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.doc Meisenberger, M. and Nischelwitzer, A. (2005). The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile, computer-aided, multimedia-based learning application. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. http://drei.fhjoanneum.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.pdf Mellow, Peter (2005). The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Proceedings, ASCILITE2005 Conference, Brisbane, Australia. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.pdf Metcalf, David (2006). M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Amherst, MA: HRD Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri, Kristóf (2002). Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Presented at WMTE 2002, August 29-30, 2002, Teleborg Campus, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden. http://21st.century.phil-inst.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.htm#Implications Prensky, Marc (2004). What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate, 1(5), June/July 2005. http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross, S., Donnelly, M. and Dobreva, M. (2004). Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.2, Feb. 2004. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.pdf Scagliarini, D., Coralini, A., Vecchietti, E., Cinotti, T., Roffia, L., Galasso, S., Malavasi, M., Pigozzi, M., Romagnoli, E. and Sforza, F. (2001). Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Proceedings, Conference on Virtual reality, Archeology, and Cultural Heritage, Glyfada, Greece. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples, Mike (2005). Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing, Understanding, Learning in the Mobile Age, Budapest, Hungary, April 2005. http://www.fil.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.pdf Sharples, M., Taylor, J. and Vavoula, G. (2005). A theory of learning for the mobile age. Draft paper submitted for publication. http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/getfile.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298, and, http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.pdf Thomas, Michael (2005). E-Learning on the move. Guardian Unlimited, May 23, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/ comment/0,,1490476,00.html von Koschembahr, Christopher (2005). Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. Chief Learning Officer, Feb. 2005. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner, Ellen (2005). Enabling Mobile Learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 40(3), May/June 2005, 40-53. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning, machine translation, natural language generation, natural language understanding, speech recognition, speech synthesis, voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001), “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans, i.e. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation - translating one natural language into another. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations, it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. It can be used as an interface for many different devices, a component of intelligent tutoring systems, an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility, and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. Di Eugenio, et al. (2005a, 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “... found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.” See also Jordan et al. (2004), Kim (2000), Lee et al. (2004), and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento, Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). http://tcc.itc.it/index.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions, rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.lexxe.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni, a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. http://wwwusers.cs.york.ac.uk/~silvia/litReview.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. http://dmoz.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations, it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies. Do Not Reproduce 167 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education, research, and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data, tools, and standards. http://www.ldc.upenn.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. http://www.aaai.org/aitopics/html/natlang. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. http://eduforge.org/softwaremap/trove_list .php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. http://www.elsnet.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html Bibliography Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. pdf Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.” Do Not Reproduce 168 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDisser tation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration, sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments. 170 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. Do Not Reproduce 171 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/in dex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ho me.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/proje ctdata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann.html Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios, learning management systems, personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning, such as search engines, blogs, libraries, discussion forums, e-portfolios, wikis, and social bookmarking sites. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. Secondly, as learners move between institutions, they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution, which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. A PLE is structured by the learner, for the learner. Individualization in an LMS is weak. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility), there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion, chat, whiteboard), but these are only available to members of the course, often only for the purposes of the course. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. Technology needs to be situated. To practice real-world situations, learners need to be in real-world situations. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. In many cases, a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories, work places, social environments, etc.), and, without an offline client to the LMS, there can be no electronic interaction. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. A PLE must support lifelong learning. This requires support over time, amongst institutions, and through a variety of technologies. (Cortlett et al., 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. 174 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development, and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. Running on the learner's PC, it helps the user plan, manage, track, and review his or her learning activity. http://portal.cetadl.bham.ac.uk/ilogbook/de fault.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. http://elgg.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog, Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. http://www.bath.ac.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.elearning.ac.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson, Terry (2006). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck, January 9, 2006. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett, D., Chan, T., Ting, J., Sharples, M. and Westmancott, O. (2005). Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Proceedings of HCI International 2005, 22-27 July 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada. http://www.mlearn.org.za/CD/papers/Corl ett.pdf Farmer, James (2006). A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. Incorporated Subversion, Jan. 11, 2006. http://incsub.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan, Colin (2005). PLE Reference Model. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference, Edinburgh, UK. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. Online case study paper. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development, and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Do Not Reproduce 175 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software, artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. However, it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Furthermore, keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience, and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress, have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Keenoy et al. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation, we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems, learning environments, etc.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser, a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages, and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly, yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size, colour, picture, etc.), but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.g., through a questionnaire), or it can be an implicit model, based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.g., using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). Often, personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. (Filippini-Fantoni, 2005) Once the user data has been collected, there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. These techniques include content-based filtering, collaborative filtering, rule-based filtering, and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni, 2005). Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. However, it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Do Not Reproduce 176 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work, the personalization can be applied to content, navigation, and/or presentation of materials. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e.g., PDAs). http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. http://www.hcrc.ed.ac.uk/ilex/final.html (handheld PCs, wireless networks, dynamic user profiling techniques, dynamic scheduling and planning techniques, and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. A demo is available at: http://www.beta80group.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. http://www.calimera.org/default.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. http://www.emarcon.net/home.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum, allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/English/Per sonal/index.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles - three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user. objects leave “trails” - time-ordered http://www.directa.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. The trails can useomarmo.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.ecdc.nl/publications/papers/M traits. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.noech.pdf kaleidoscope.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. chc021 http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Do Not Reproduce 177 Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. https://www.metmuseum.org/mymetmuse um/index.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. http://www.umuai.org/ Bibliography Abbott, Daisy (2002). The Future of Access (or, Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). PowerPoint presentation. HATII, University of Glasgow. http://www.hatii.arts.gla.ac.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.pdf Beler, A., Borda, A., Bowen, J., and FilippiniFantoni, S. (2004). The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations, with a particular focus on the museum sector. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. http://arxiv.org/pdf/cs.CY/0409055 Boyle T. and Cook J.(2001). Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings, Melbourne. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.pdf Bright, A. Kay, J., Ler, D., Ngo, K., William Niu, W. and Nuguid, A. (2005). Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. http://smart.arces.unibo.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Online paper. http://www.calimera.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.pdf Callaway, C. and Kuflik, T. (2005). Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Online paper. http://adiret.cs.unimagdeburg.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.pd f Cavalluzzi, A., Cozzolongo, G., De Carolis, B., Pizzutilo, S. (2004). Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access, Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. (AVI 2004), Gallipoli, Italy, May 25, 2004. http://www.di.uniba.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04.pdf Ceccaroni, L. and Verdaguer, X. (2004). Magical Mirror: multimedia, interactive services in home automation. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access, Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. (AVI 2004), Gallipoli, Italy, May 25, 2004. http://tmtfactory.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406.pdf 178 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Conlan, O.; Dagger, D.; Wade, V. (2002). Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. Paper presented at ELearn 2002, Montreal, September 2002. https://www.cs.tcd.ie/Owen.Conlan/publicati ons/eLearn2002_v1.24_Conlan.pdf Copa, George (2005). Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum, Barcelona, 2005 www.designshare.com/barcelona/presentati ons/copa-reshaping-education.ppt Correia, N. and Boavida, M. (2002). Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. In Mizzaro, S. and Tasso, C. (Eds.) (2002). Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Málaga, Spain, May 2002. http://www.dimi.uniud.it/~mizzaro/AH2002/ proceedings/pdfs/1correja.pdf Dolog, P., Henze, N., Nejdl, W. and Sintek, M. (2004). Personalization in distributed elearning environments. In Proceedings of WWW2004 - The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference, New York, May 2004. http://www.www2004.org/proceedings/docs /2p170.pdf Eirinaki, M. and Vazirgiannis, M. (2003). Web mining for web personalization. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 3(1), 1–27, February. URL: http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/643477.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney (2004). Comparison of museum/city tour guides. Online paper. http://lrnlab.edfac.usyd.edu.au:8200/grou ps/informal/resources/File.2004-1213.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni, Silvia (2003). Personalization through IT in museums. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference, Ecole du Louvre, Paris. http://www.ichim.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. pdf Filippini-Fantoni, S., Bowen, J. and Numerico, T. (2005). Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. In R. Subramaniam (Ed.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. http://www.jpbowen.com/pub/evsc05b.pdf Fuschi, D. and Cardinalli, F. (2004). Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. DigiCULT .Info, Issue 7, April 2004. http://www.learnexact.com/download/Astr al4RESULTS2004V2.pdf Giroux, S., Moulin, C., Sanna, R., Soro, A., and Paddeu, G. (2003). Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. Online paper. http://iswc2002.semanticweb.org/posters /moulin.pdf Goren-Bar, D., Graziola, I., Kuflik, T., Pianesi, F., Rocchi, C., Stock, O. and Zancanaro, M. (2005). I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. PEACH http://peach.itc.it/papers/gorenbar2005.p df Do Not Reproduce 179 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Green, H., Facer, K., Rudd, T., Dillon, P. and Humphreys, P. (2005). Personalization and Digital Technologies. FutureLab report. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01.htm Hawkey, Roy (2004). Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums, science centres and galleries. FutureLab. http://www.nestafuturelab.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09.pdf Heckmann, Dominik (2003). Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. http://w5.cs.unisb.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Online paper. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Henze, N., Dolog, P. and Nejdl, W. (2004). Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. Educational Technology & Society, Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning, 7(4):70-81, October 2004. http://www.l3s.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final.p df Iwazaki, K., Yasuda, T., Yokoi, S., and Okamoto, T. (2002). The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02), IEEE Computer Society. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941.pdf Johnson, Martin (2004). Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www.ippr.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication.PDF Kay, J., Kummerfeld, B., and Lauder, P. (2002). Personis: A Server for User Models. In: De Bra, P., Brusilovsky, P. and Conejo, R. (eds.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/~piers/papers/ pums.pdf Kay, J., Kummerfeld, B., and Lauder, P. (2001). Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. Online paper. http://www.cs.usyd.edu.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums.pdf Kay, J. and Niu, W. (2005). Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. PIA Conference, 2005. http://adiret.cs.unimagdeburg.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_K ayNiu05.pdf Kay, J. , Lum, A., Niu , W. (2005). A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. Online paper. http://w5.cs.uni-sb.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum.pdf Keenoy, K., de Freitas, S., Levene, M., Jones, A., Brasher, A., Waycott, J., Kaszas, P., Turcsanyi-Szabo, M., and Montandon, L. (2004). Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22.4.1, Final Version. http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1.pdf Do Not Reproduce 180 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Keenoy, K., Levene, M. and Peterson, D. (2004). Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. WP4 Deliverable 4.2, SeLeNe - Self E-Learning Networks. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/selene/reports/D el22.pdf Klobučar, T., Seničar, V., and Blažič, B. (2004). Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies), 2004http://www.e5.ijs.si/eng/ijceel.pdf Kuflik, T., Busetta, P., Penserini, P., and Zancanaro, M. (2004). Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access, Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004), Gallipoli, Italy, May 25, 2004. http://peach.itc.it/papers/avi2004.pdf Kuflik, T., Callaway, C., Goren-Bar, D., Rocchi, C., Stock, O. and Zancanaro, M. (2005). NonIntrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System, UM 2005, 23-30 July 2005, Edinburgh, UK http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/ccallawa/pap ers/PeachUM2005.pdf Kuruc, Jaroslav. (2005). Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. In Mária Bieliková, editor, Proceedings of IIT.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies, Bratislava, pages 249-256. http://www.fiit.stuba.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. Online paper. LSC, UK. http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/elearnpers onalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069.pdf Martinez, Margaret (2002). What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal, May 7, 2002. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h.pdf Mizzaro, S. and Tasso, C. (Eds.) (2002). Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Málaga, Spain, May 2002. http://www.dimi.uniud.it/~mizzaro/AH200 2/proceedings/PerElPub.pdf Mobascher, B., Cooley, R. and Srivastava, J. (2000). Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. Communications of the ACM, 43(8):142–151, August. URL: doi.acm.org/10.1145/345124.345169 http://maya.cs.depaul.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor, Enric and Minguillon, Julia (2004). Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference, New York, May 2004. ACM Press. http://www.www2004.org/proceedings/do cs/2p264.pdf Do Not Reproduce 181 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software National College for School Leadership (2004). Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. Online paper. http://www.ncsl.org.uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement.pdf Ng M.H., Hall W., Maier P., Armstrong R. (2002). Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems, Malaga, Spain, pp.428-431. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/6832/01/ah 02.pdf Niederee, C., Stewart, A., Mehta, B. and Hemmje, M. (2004). A Multi-Dimensional, Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access, Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004), Gallipoli, Italy, May 25, 2004. http://www.ipsi.fraunhofer.de/~mehta/uuc m.pdf Pivec, M., Preis, A., Barrios, V., Gutl, C., Muller, H., Trummer, C. and Modritscher, F. (2004). Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Paper presented at EDEN 2004, Budapest, Hungary, 2004 http://www2.iicm.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final.pdf Sakamura, Ken (2000). Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. http://www.um.utokyo.ac.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.html Schmidt, A., Winterhalter, C. (2004). User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version). In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS), Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning, January 2004. http://www.learninginprocess.com/publicat ions/schmidt-context_aware_delivery.pdf Schoonenboom, J., Lejeune, A., David, J-P., Faure, D., Goita, Y., Turcsányi-Szabó, M., Kaszás, P., Pluhar, Z., Montandon, L., Jones, A., Blake, C., Keenoy, K., and Levene, M. (2004a). Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.2.1, available from www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/trails Schoonenboom, J, Turcsányi-Szabó, M., Kaszás, P., Jones, A., Diagne, F., Lejeune, A., David, J-P., Montandon, L., Keenoy, K., and Levene, M. (2004b). Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection, Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.2.2, available from www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/trails Sehring, H., Bossung, S., Schmidt, J. (2005). Active Learning by Personalisation: Reeves, Stuart. (2005). Flypad Report. Lessons Learnt from Research in Online paper. Conceptual Content Management. http://www.mrl.nott.ac.uk/~str/doc/report_ http://www.sts.tu0605.pdf harburg.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.pdf Do Not Reproduce 182 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Sparacino, Flavia (2002). The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002), Boston, April 17-20, 2002. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~flavia/Papers /flavia_mw2002.pdf Tanikawa, T., Ando, M., Wang, Y., Yoshida, K., Yamashita, J., Kuzuoka, H., and Hirose, M. (2004). A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004), 27-31 March 2004, Chicago, IL, USA, Proceedings. IEEE Computer Society. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceeding s/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257.pdf Vlahakis, V., Pliakas, T., Demiris, A., and Ioannidis, N. (2003). Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous, context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums. Online paper. http://www.miralab.unige.ch/subpages/lifep lus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised.pdf Do Not Reproduce 183 Portals Related terms Collaboration, content management, learning management systems, resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. In the business world, corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization, while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers, vendors, and other roles outside an organization (Collins, 2001). Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization - Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience - Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia, instructorled, and real-time training and documents in a supportive, collaborative environment. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices, which form a dynamic user profile. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian, 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization, including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases, Knowledge Management, and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. As of early 2006, the portal offered information on more than 20,000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. http://www.elearningeuropa.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students, instructors, administrators, and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries, news and announce-ments, document management information, interactive discussion groups, instant messaging, e-mail distribution lists, online meetings with text, audio and/or video, and shared lists for tasks, calendars, and schedules. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default.mspx For a demo of SharePoint, go to: http://www.microsoft.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers, school administrators, students, and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. http://h20219.www2.hp.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.saba.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.htm CyberU – Access to over 3,000 online courses http://www.cyberu.com/home.asp Element K – Access to over 2,300 online courses http://www.elementk.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.executrain.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries, museums, and universities. http://www.fathom.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9,000 publishers worldwide http://www.proquest.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27,000 lesson plans http://www.teach-nology.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.trainingregistry.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16,700 online courses http://www.worldwidelearn.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia, instructor-led, and real-time training and documents in a supportive, collaborative environment. Do Not Reproduce 185 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint, including educational uses. http://blogs.tamtam.nl/mart/CategoryView, category,Education.aspx Bibliography Ateshian, Ron (2004). You’ve come a long way, baby! E-learning portals. Campus Technology Magazine, March 1, 2004. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=9028 Barron, Tom (2000). A Portrait of Learning Portals. Learning Circuits, May 2000. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.htm Brockbank, Bray (2001). Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. http://knowledgemanagement.ittoolbox.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. Campbell, K. and Aucoin, R. (2003). Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. In Jafari, A., and Sheehan, M. (Eds.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins, Heidi (2001). Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. New York: AMACOM. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins, Heidi (2003). Enterprise Knowledge Portals. New York: AMACOM. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari, A., and Sheehan, M. (Eds.) (2003). Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. Reviewed at: http://www.educause.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113.asp Katz, Richard & Associates (2002). Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. San Francisco: JosseyBass. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.asp Terra, J. and Gordon, C. (2003). Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen, Cornelia (2000). E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits, September 2000. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting, Skypecasting, virtual classrooms, web conferencing, webcasting, webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. In fact, the word “lecturing” means “to read.” In the Middle Ages, a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training, there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment, the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. Consequently, if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web, it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Online presentations can be very boring, just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. However, when experts are not readily available, an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom,” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. http://www.lsc.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Experience them at: http://www.macromedia.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. http://www.replayhq.com/site/index.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. In fact, the word “lecturing” means “to read.” In the Middle Ages, a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Do Not Reproduce 187 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching, although many are trying to change this practice. See the TEAL Project at MIT. http://icampus.mit.edu/TEAL). WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. http://cde.athabascau.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing, videoconferencing, online meetings, instant messaging, forums and message boards, groupware, social software for online collaboration, online communities, virtual teams, intranets, and e-learning. http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/index.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free, independent listing of Webinars, Webcasts, and seminars relating to the field of human resources. http://www.humanresourceWebinars.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. http://www.ccimeet.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”. http://www.brandonhall.com/publications/lel/lel.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing, videoconferencing, and Web presentations. http://www.kolabora.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.htm http://www.kolabora.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training, there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. http://www.elluminate.com Hewlett-Packard, in partnership with Dreamworks, has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. While it is expensive, it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. http://www.silicon.com/cxoextra/0,380000 5416,39155030,00.htm http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. http://ajax.acue.adelaide.edu.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell, a columnist at InfoWorld. http://weblog.infoworld.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.html#a1185 http://weblog.infoworld.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart, brain, and kidneys. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.lsc.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.” http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/live. htm http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat, Authorware, Breeze, Captivate, Dreamweaver, Coursebuilder, and Flash. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations, although it does not have to be. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing, virtual classrooms, virtual meetings, Web conferencing, Web seminars, and whiteboarding. http://buyersguide.eweek.com/eweek/webc onferencing.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning, presentation and streaming presentation tools, and using PowerPoint and Breeze. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25,000 software programs for business and presentation tools. http://www.timelyweb.com/downloads/sea rch.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. http://www.presentations.com/presentatio ns/index.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. http://www.filesland.com/software/presen tation.html Using Apreso software, capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. http://www.apreso.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. http://www.programjunction.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1.html Do Not Reproduce 189 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://www.downloadjunction.com/product /software/795/index.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/21593. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal, Armit (2005). Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.01. Digital Inspiration, July 8, 2005. http://labnol.blogspot.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.html Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2003a). Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing, Live ELearning, Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Robin Good Blog, April 30, 2003. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2003b). Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International, May 15, 2003. http://www.masterviews.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2003c). Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 3, 2003. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.htm Duckworth, Christine (2001). An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth.htm Hofman, Jennifer (2004). Live and Online!: tips, techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus, Belinda (2003). Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN), 7(3), Sept. http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus.asp McNally, Russ (2004). How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze... Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal, July 26, 2004. (in two parts) http://www.russellmcnally.com/BreezePart 1.pdf http://www.russellmcnally.com/BreezePart 2.pdf McFerrin, K. and Furr, P. (2002). Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. http://www.aace.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott, P. and Quick, K. (2004). Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. http://kmi.open.ac.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1.pdf Spielman, S. and Winfield, L. (2003). The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology, Choose the Right Vendors, Software, and Equipment, Start Saving Time and Money Today. AMACOM. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell, Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. InfoWorld, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1.html Zielinski, Dave (2002). Choose your presentation tools carefully. Choices are great, but… Presentations Magazine, Dec.. http://www.presentations.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools, extreme e-learning, just-intime e-learning, learning objects, microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. It can refer to learning something quickly, or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. In the first case, very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic, usually when it is needed (Brodsky, 2003). This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. In the second sense of the term, rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. For example, LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks, where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. Tools for rapid e-learning are, by necessity, simple, easy to use, and based on preformed templates for layout and design. According to Ready Go!, a vendor of rapid elearning tools, following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Navigation built in - automatically assures that all navigation works. Instructional design built in. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Deploys easily - does not require any plug-ins. Advanced features, such as creating links, tests, glossary, FAQ, and drill down pages, are built in. Does not require any advanced skills, programming, or HTML knowledge. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash, graphics, and clip art is straight forward and supported . Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints, a demand to produce online content very quickly, or where the online information frequently changes. It is best suited to textbased materials, so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. E-learning produced this way can be very boring, especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible, but not always good for you. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. Standardize approaches, including tools and templates. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. It can refer to learning something quickly, or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Do Not Reproduce 192 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.e., virtual classroom, low- versus high-interaction). Reduce the number of development vendors. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Assign SMEs who are committed, and communicate deliverable expectations. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. To be effective, rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content, deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner, manage the content and the users, and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal, 2003). That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan, schedule and due dates, centrally located files, version control protocols, and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry, 2004). Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.org Web site, which contains information on resources, conferences, and other good stuff. http://www.microlearning.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning,” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. http://www.masie.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. http://www.articulate.com/studio.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite, software that builds online content in four steps – Capture, Edit, Enhance, and Publish. See a demo at: http://www.scate.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.” Find out more: http://www.raptivity.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. See sample templates at: http://www.readygo.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.htm Bibliography Abell, Kendrick (2006). Templates, Reusability, Future-Proofing, and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. Learning Solutions, January 23, 2006. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.pdf Aldrich, Clark (2005). Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations, computer games, and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. San Francisco: Pfieffer. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints, a demand to produce online content very quickly, or where the online information frequently changes. Do Not Reproduce 193 Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald, Dianne (2005). Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Learning Circuits, January. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.htm Bersin, Josh (2004). Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Tips and Techniques, August 2004. http://www.bersin.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.asp Bersin, Josh (2005). Making rapid elearning work. Chief Learning Officer, July 2. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon, Bill (2005). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Paper. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.pdf Brodsky, Mark (2003). When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. LTI Newsline, June. http://www.elearningmag.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail.jsp?id=59278 Cooper, Lane (2002). Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. Larstan Business Reports. http://www.meetingone.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1.pdf Crosman, Penny (2004). E-Learning for short attention spans. Transform Magazine, July 2004. http://www.transformmag.com/showArticle. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross, Jay (2005). Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Chief Learning Officer, April. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries, Jennifer (2004). Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. LTI Newsline, June 30, 2004. http://www.ltimagazine.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.jsp?id=102399 DeVries, J. and Bersin, J. (2004). Rapid eLearning: what works – market, tools, techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www.adobe.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.pdf Gustafson, Joe (2005). Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. LTI Newsline, Mar. 10, 2006. http://www.ltimagazine.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.jsp?id=150619 Hess, Garin (2004). Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Rapid Intake White Paper. http://www.elearningguru.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning.pdf Jimenez, Ray (2005). Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Vignettes for Training White Paper. http://vftraining.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.pdf Jimenez, Ray (2006). Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Learning Solutions, Jan. 9, 2006. http://www.elearningguild.com/articles/ab stracts/index.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse, Kevin (2002). e-Learning Crop Circles. Chief Learning Officer, Nov. 2002. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. (2004a). Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Macromedia White Paper. http://download.macromedia.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.pdf Macromedia Inc. (2004b). Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Macromedia White Paper. http://download.macromedia.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning.pdf Mayberry, Ed (2004). Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. Learning Circuits, June 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry.htm Masie Center (2005). Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming, Simulation, Mobile and Device Based Learning. Press release, April 20, 2005. http://www.trainingpressreleases.com/news story.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford, Stephanie (2006). A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Learning Solutions, January 16, 2006. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f.pdf Shepherd, Clive (2006). Rapid e-learning gets the job done. The Training Foundation online article. http://www.trainingfoundation.com/articles/ default.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam, Nick (2005). E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Chief Learning Officer, February 2005. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal, Eric (2003). What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer, January 2003. http://www.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence, simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children, which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled, Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems, Inc. for underwater exploration. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. http://www.whmsi.com/ http://www.ife.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. http://mindstorms.lego.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.active-robots.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science, technology, engineering, and math. http://www.botball.org/aboutbotball/overview.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. http://robotics.nasa.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. http://www.aad.gov.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Do Not Reproduce 196 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers, one child at a time.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.rec.ri.cmu.edu/index.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. http://www.evolution.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. http://www.euron.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.edurobot.com/r_home.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology, particularly robotics. http://www.kipr.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. http://www.microworlds.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. By donning motion sensors, Mr. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture, lip movements, and vocal tics. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University, go to: http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/ See also: http://www.profetic.org/article.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. Find out more about this group at: http://www.irc.atr.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. http://www.sci.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. It features news, links, and other information on robotics. http://robothaven.net/ Run by NASA, the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. http://robotics.nasa.gov/rcc/index.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. Do Not Reproduce 197 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank, D., Kumar, D., Meeden, L. and Yanco, H. (2005). Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Paper at the American Assoc. Artificial Intelligence Conf. http://www.cs.uml.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.pdf Blank, D., Yanco, H., Kumar, D. and Meeden, L. (2004). Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. http://dangermouse.brynmawr.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.pdf Boersch, I., Heinsohn, J. and Loose, H. (2004). Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium, Germany, Sept. http://zeus.fhbrandenburg.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.pdf Cooper, M., Keating, D., Harwin, W. and Dautenhahn, K. (1999). Robots in the classroom - tools for accessible education. Proceedings, AAATE Conference 1999, November, Düsseldorf, Germany. http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education.pdf Ferrari, M., Ferrari, G. and Hempel, R. (2001). Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. New York: Syngress Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke, U., Hohmann, P. and Wagner, B. (2004). Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). http://www.l3s.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er.pdf http://www.l3s.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.pdf Nourbakhsh, I., Miller, D., Lathan, C. and Mataric, M. (2004). Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference, June. http://www.wtec.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics.pdf Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. Basic Books. New York. http://www.amazon.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Stewart, T. and West, R. (2001). Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, Sept. 28-30. http://rob.ccmlab.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches, data mining, federated search, information retrieval, meta-search engines, resource discovery, search engine optimization, social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet, searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. But, as this section of the report shows, Google is only one of hundreds of search engines, each with their own defining feature sets. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines, such as Google and Altavista, which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Web directories, such as Yahoo, which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. Meta–search engines, such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo, which submit queries, in parallel, to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user, usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics, or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. Ezzy (2006a, 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content - examples are early yahoo.com and Alta Vista. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking - so they take the structure of the Web into account. Examples are Google and Overture. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. They bring into the equation user preferences, collaboration, collective intelligence, a rich user experience, and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search.” The first type searches the Web as it exists, while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. One is the problem of finding relevant, dependable information. While search engines have improved over the past several years, search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Do Not Reproduce 199 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching,” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources, especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines, for a variety of reasons. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser, 2004). Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www.alexa.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio, video, and text. http://www.alltheweb.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.altavista.com/ Answers.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions, get answers http://www.answers.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://search.aol.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www.ask.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. http://www.convera.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://www.faganfinder.com Gada.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. http://www.gada.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. http://www.gigablast.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics, specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media, and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.com’s search service http://a9.com About.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. http://www.about.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic, then fill in the search box. http://www.aeiwi.com/ 200 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://www.gnod.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www.google.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.grokker.com/ Gravee - A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://www.gravee.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www.hotbot.com/ IceRocket – Searches images, blogs, and the Web. http://www.icerocket.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www.jookster.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions, rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.lexxe.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://search.looksmart.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://www.mooter.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://search.msn.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://channels.netscape.com/search/def ault.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://www.otavo.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://dmoz.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://getoutfoxed.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears. http://www.pubsub.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://qube.qelix.com/v2/index.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. http://rollyo.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://www.squidoo.com/ 201 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://www.stumbleupon.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://swicki.eurekster.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. http://tagjag.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www.ujiko.com/v2a/flash.php?langu e=en Vivísimo - Clusters results. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://vivisimo.com/ Wink – Using social networking, users tag their favorite results and block spam. Wink then diplays the results. http://www.wink.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://www.yahoo.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.acronymfinder.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://www.blinkx.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://www.ai.sri.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. Much of this information is hidden from view. http://firstgov.gov/ http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. http://froogle.google.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music, books, and movies. http://www.gnoosic.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://books.google.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://scholar.google.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://www.govmine.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://www.healthfinder.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://icerocket.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://infomine.ucr.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries, reviews, cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.imdb.com/ 202 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries, reviews, cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.imdb.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids, Yahooligans, FactMonster, ArtKIDSRule, AolKIDS, AwesomeLibrary, & KidsClick!. http://kids.ithaki.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www.koders.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www.krugle.com/ Last.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes. http://www.last.fm/ LawCrawler - A legal search engine. http://lawcrawler.findlaw.com/ LitLinker - Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=105 6808.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.liveplasma.com/ MediaFinder - The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. http://www.merl.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.org/ Omgili - A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. http://www.omgili.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. http://www.pandora.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f cgi QBIC - IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine. http://wwwqbic.almaden.ibm.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education. http://www.rawsugar.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). http://www.convera.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu - A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. http://www.searchedu.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www.searchking.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www.seekport.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.” Content-based search engines for pictures. http://wang16.ist.psu.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://smealsearch1.psu.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. http://www.soundspotter.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and, as of this writing, is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.4 billion links. http://www.technorati.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://techsearch.cmp.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web. http://www.truveo.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www.ee.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. http://www.ee.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www.ee.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://nlp.cs.nyu.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. http://www.xcavator.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people, companies, and their relationships. http://www.zoominfo.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. Known as “meta-search” engines, or federated searching, they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web, and tracks a user's search history, bookmarks, and notes. http://a9.com 204 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. http://clusty.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://www.copernic.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www.dogpile.com/ Info – Searches reference works, news sources, health information sources, pictures, eBay, shopping sites, flights, hotels, audio, video, tickets, jobs, apartment rentals, city guides, classifieds, dating and personals, games, greeting cards, maps/directions, movies, lottery results, weather, white pages, yellow pages, and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www.info.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages, with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. http://www.ithaki.net/indexu.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources, including a set of international telephone directories. http://www.ixquick.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results, produces a visual display of the clusters, and links the clusters. http://www.kartoo.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www.search.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. http://www.trovando.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://vivisimo.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. http://www.zapmeta.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. http://www-rocq.inria.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www.intute.ac.uk/ SearchTools.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. http://www.searchtools.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and, therefore, is a valuable resource for researchers. http://www.researchbuzz.com/ 205 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://www.bolton.ac.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. http://searchenginewatch.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep, focused searches on topics they care about. Unlike other search engines, the user's community has total control over the results, and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. This search engine, or swicki, can be published on the user's site. http://swicki.eurekster.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. http://www.searchenginecolossus.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. http://www.netmasters.co.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. For example, CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.citysearch.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. http://firstgov.gov/ http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Users can also browse by subject category. http://infomine.ucr.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword, phrase, or topic - just as a search engine is used for text. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide, TVEyes provides the technology and the content. http://www.tveyes.com/ Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, is against the idea of federated searches. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.downes.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://www.elearning.ac.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni, Y., Frank, A. and Shoham, S. (2005). Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. First Monday, 10(12), December. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index.html 206 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 207 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html Do Not Reproduce 208 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time. The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. Do Not Reproduce 209 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/ One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation. Do Not Reproduce 210 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf Do Not Reproduce 211 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Do Not Reproduce 212 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin, Thomas (2004). Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Greenwich, CT: Manning. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita, L. and Gouarderes, G. (2004). Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Paper presented at the GLS conference. http://wwwsop.inria.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast.pdf Samaras, G., Karenos, K. and Christodoulou, E. (2003). WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. http://www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/selene/reports/D el3.pdf Sampson, D., Lytras, M., Wagner, G. and Diaz, P. (2004). Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 7 (4), 26-28. http://www.ifets.info/journals/7_4/5.pdf Shirky, Clay (2003). The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview. Networks, Economics and Culture, Nov. 7, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism.html Stojanovic, L., Staab, S. and Studer, R. (2001). eLearning based on the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. http://www.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.pdf Tao, F., Davis, H., Millard, D. and Woukeu, A. (2005). The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.pdf Tane, J., Schmitz, C. and Stumme, G. (2004). Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference, May 17–22, 2004, New York, New York, USA. http://www2004.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.pdf Tao, F., Millard, D., Woukeu, A. and Davis, H. (2005). Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.pdf Updegrove, Andy (2005). A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Marketing Profs, August 2, 2005. http://www.marketingprofs.com/login/sign up.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.asp Udell, John (2004). Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. InfoWorld, December 3, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1.html Do Not Reproduce 213 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck, Peter (2003). Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. Online article. http://poorbuthappy.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger, David (2002). The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Darwin, June 14, 2002. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/swiftkick /column.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson, B. and Miller, L. (2003). The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited, June 21, 2003. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/ story/0,10577,981948,00.html Wilson, Scott (2002). Who said that? Metadata, trust, and the Semantic Web. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson, Scott (2005). Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. Scott’s Workblog, January 17, 2005. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). Semantic Web. Online article. http://www.w3.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning, games, microworlds, role-playing, scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. According to High (2004), “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market.” My first report in this series, entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed simulations as an online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning, a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals, especially ones set by themselves, in a dynamic and reflexive environment, i.e. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions; participants will be motivated to evaluate, learn, and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). http://sos.noaa.gov/ Winters et al. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. http://www.icherubini.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. It was decommissioned in 2005, but information about it remains on the Web. http://cave.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. Do Not Reproduce 215 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www.calt.insead.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. http://geowall.geo.lsa.umich.edu/ http://um3d.dc.umich.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall, with many examples to try. http://www.edcenter.sdsu.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. It runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. http://www.shatters.net/celestia/index.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. http://www.edcenter.sdsu.edu/geowall/ind ex.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. However, they are only available for Macintosh computers. http://thinkertools.soe.berkeley.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure, breathing, pulse rate, heart sounds, and murmurs. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. http://crme.med.miami.edu/harvey_about. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport, Mass., has issued "The Calm and The Storm," the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History." http://www.making-history.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory, see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting. http://www.fsl.noaa.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning, Do Not Reproduce 216 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. For example, to play in a virtual fishtank, go to: http://www.virtualfishtank.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. http://www.atghome.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate - Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. http://www.adobe.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser. http://www.adobe.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma - Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. http://www.assima.net/ Biographix - ISLE - Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. http://www.biographix.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool, without programming knowledge. http://www.experiencebuilders.com/ Forio - Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. http://www.forio.com/broadcastoverview.ht m Intermezzon - Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. http://www.intermezzon.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning - STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. http://www.stt-global.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse. http://www.knowledge-director.com/ Knowledge Planet - Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/product s/firefly.asp Knowledge Quest - ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool, create courses specifically on using computer software. http://www.knowledgequest.com/ Kookaburra Studios - KnowledgePresenter Simulator - Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.knowledgepresenter.com/ MaxIT - DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming. Integrates with many media types. http://www.maxit.com/ MaxIT - Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www.maxit.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www.nexlearn.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software, develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths. http://www.percepsys.com/3dTraining.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions, which can then be used to build simulations. http://www.qarbon.com/ Reusable Objects - CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine - Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. http://www.reusableobjects.com/product_r pe.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www.stagecast.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www.stottlerhenke.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.teds.com/products/sim.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.” http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine, including simulations. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.virtualcontrolroom.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology. http://www.icherubini.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie, a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker, has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand. http://www.learning2005.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www.jibc.bc.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ccs/elearn/resources. html Bibliography Aldrich, Clark (2004). Six criteria of an educational simulation. Learning Circuits, October 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich.htm Aldrich, Clark (2005). Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations, computer games, and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. San Francisco: Pfieffer. http://www.amazon.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt, Bjorn (2004). The promise of online simulations. Chief Learning Officer, Feb. http://www.clomedia.com/content/template s/clo_feature.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir, A., Taghiyareh, F., Simjour, A., Mazloumian, A. and Bostan, B. (2004). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Paper presented at Robocup conference. http://www.science.uva.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.PDF Blikstein, P. and Wilensky, U. (2005). Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005), Utrecht, Holland. http://www.blikstein.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.pdf Cherubini, M., Rasmussen, J., Gash, H. and McCloughlin, T. (2002). DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. In Interaction Design and Children. International Workshop, 2002. http://www.medialabeurope.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.pdf DeVries, Jennifer (2004). Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Learning Circuits, June. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.htm eSchool News (2004). Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. eSchool News, Aug. 4, 2004. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS tory.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook, Shannon (2004). Making the most of software simulations. Learning Circuits, September, 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.htm High, Kamau (2004). How playing power drives lessons home. Financial Times, Sept. 8, 2004, p. 12. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8.html Do Not Reproduce 219 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer, A., Laser, A.. and Sund Martin, L. (2001). Simulation levels in software training. Learning Circuits, September. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.html Linser, R. and Ip, A. (2002). Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) - case studies. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”, AACE conference, Montréal, October 15-19. http://www.simplay.net/papers/ELearning.html Lunce, Les (2004). Computer simulations in distance education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(10), October. http://itdl.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.ht m Sloman, Aaron (2005). The SimAgent TOOLKIT -- for Philosophers and Engineers. Online report. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.html Sobeih, A., Viswanathan, M. and Hou, J. (2004). Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory, Implementation and Evaluation. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, July. http://www.projects.ncassr.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04.pdf Swaak, J. & de Jong, T. (2001). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17, 284-294. Online paper at: http://lsm.dei.uc.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations.pdf Tjaden, Gary (2003). Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. http://www.protonmedia.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper.pdf Turkle, Sherry (1997). Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. The American Prospect, 8(31), Mar.-Apr., 1997. http://www.prospect.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.html Winters, N., Cherubini, M., and Strohecker, C. (2003). Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. In Association for Computing Machinery, CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, April. http://www.icherubini.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes, infrared (IR) tags, optical tags, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat, ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers, this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. They are programmable and, therefore, easily changed. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt, grease, or water. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al., 2005). Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader; this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). RFID technology is developing rapidly, especially for tagging retail items in stores. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag, which transmits over short distances. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag, while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups, according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise, especially in museums and for outdoor education. While controversial, some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. For a full discussion of this issue, see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. Do Not Reproduce 221 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.checkpointsystems.com/default .aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. http://uitspress.iu.edu/102605_meal.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.” http://vis.iu.edu/index.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton, in a 2005 online article, describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. http://www.toydirectory.com/monthly/articl e.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses, see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. http://www.rfidnews.org/ Bibliography Borck, James (2006). Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. Infoworld, April 13.. http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly, especially for tagging retail items in stores. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning, using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining, A. and Case, C. (2004). Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02.html (Online), Oct. 5, 2004. http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Osawa, N., Noda, K., Tsukagoshi, S., Noma, http://www.msu.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y., Ando, A., Shibuya, T., & Kondo, K. (2005). Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. In Kommers, P., & Richards, G. (Eds.), Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal, June 27, 2005, awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. symbology tags. http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fus http://www.aace.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray, Corey (2004). Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. eSchool News Online, January 1, 2004. http://www.eschoolnews.org/news/showstor y.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran, Aparna (2004). Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Masters Thesis, Michigan State University. http://www.msu.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.pdf Robinton, Andrew (2005). RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. TD Monthly, 4(3), March. http://www.toydirectory.com/monthly/article .asp?id=1222 Ross, S., Donnelly, M. and Dobreva, M. (2003). DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low.pdf Salcedo, R., Ogata, H. and Yano, Y. (2005). Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Proceedings, IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05), 261-263. http://csdl2.computer.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/WMTE.2005.66 Ward, M., van Kranenburg, R., and Backhouse, G. (2006). RFID: frequency, standards, adoption and innovation. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy, metadata, ontologies, search, tagging, taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. For example, Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them, while users of the del.icio.us Web site (http://del.icio.us) post their favorite Web sites, music, and books. As of April 2006, Flickr held over 100 million images. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content, much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. The result is something called a tag cloud, a visualization of what users as a group think is important. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. For instance, researchers at all levels (students, faculty, staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries….First, they act as an “outboard memory,” a location to store links that might be lost to time, scattered across different browser bookmark settings, or distributed in emails, printouts, and Web links. Second, finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. Third, the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research, as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. Fourth, the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects, as each member can upload resources discovered, no matter their location or timing. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. Fifth, following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research, which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. Students, in turn, can learn from their professor’s discoveries.” However, social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning, so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. Do Not Reproduce 224 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do, get inspired, share their stories, connect with others, or check out what everyone wants to do. http://www.43things.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. http://ask.metafilter.com/ Blinklist - Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites, which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. Blink also provides tools to sort, describe, and search for a specific user's Blinks, and to share them. Also, users can see what others are Blinking. http://www.blinklist.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. http://blogmarks.net/ CiteULike - A free service to help academics share, store, and organize the academic papers they are reading. http://www.citeulike.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. They can save references, share references with colleagues, search others’ references. http://www.connotea.org/ Consumating - A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. http://consumating.com/ Del.icio.us - A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites, music, and/or books and find them again. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. http://del.icio.us/ Digg - A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking, blogging, RSS, and non-hierarchical editorial control. With digg, users submit stories for review, but, rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage, the users decide. http://www.digg.com Clipmarks - A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. http://www.clipmarks.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://blog.eventful.com/archives/beta_up date/index.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free, Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://www.feedmarker.com/ Flickr – Store, search, sort, and share photos with others. http://flickr.com/ Furl - Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. Also retrieve it easily. http://www.furl.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning, so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. Do Not Reproduce 225 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster - A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www.jookster.com/ Jots - A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store, share, and discover relevant links. http://jots.com/ Kaboodle - A free, open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN, updated in near real time, and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. http://www.kaboodle.org/news.html Linkroll - Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://www.linkroll.com/ Magnolia - A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. http://ma.gnolia.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes, based on what is happening in the news media. http://www.memeorandum.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://myweb2.search.yahoo.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site, similar to Digg. http://www.netscape.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://www.netvouz.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://www.networkltd.eu/products/networ k_menus.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. http://www.pageflakes.com/ Project Pad - A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://projectpad.northwestern.edu/ppad2 /index.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. http://www.rojo.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. http://www.shadows.com/ Simpy – Search tags, or enter new items and tag them. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://www.simpy.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs. http://www.smugmug.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. http://www.spurl.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu - Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://www.suprglu.com/ SWiK - A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://swik.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story, and share it with others. http://tabblo.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. http://www.tagzania.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. http://unalog.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place, with contributions from users. http://upcoming.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips, allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. http://www.veotag.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. http://www.wink.com Wists – A social shopping site. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. http://www.wists.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.S.A. http://www.yelp.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. If a city is not there, anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. http://www.zvents.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell, a technology columnist for InfoWorld, has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.icio.us. http://weblog.infoworld.com/udell/gems/d elicious.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies, tags, and social bookmarking. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.html http://atomiq.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.html http://www.peterme.com/archives/00055 8.html http://tagsonomy.com/index.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.” http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.icio.us, Flickr, and Digg. http://www.quickonlinetips.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.quickonlinetips.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.quickonlinetips.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags, Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.” http://magazines.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m /6350.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m /7172.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander, Bryan (2006). Web 2.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review, 41(2), March/April 2006. http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin, Andy (2006). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource, May 5, 2006. http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/learning .now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.html Coates, Tom (2005). How to build on bubble-up folksonomies... Plasticbag.org, Sept. 2, 2005. http://www.plasticbag.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.shtml Golder, S. and Huberman, B. (2005). The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. HP Labs Report. http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.pdf Gurber, Tom. (2005). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Keynote address, First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). http://tomgruber.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.htm Hammond, T., Hannay, T., Lund, B. and Scott, J. (2005). Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. D-Lib Magazine, 11(4), April 2005. http://dlib.ejournal.ascc.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.html Lawley, Liz (2005). Social consequences of social tagging. Many2Many, Jan. 20, 2005. http://many.corante.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.php Lund, B., Hammond, T., Flack, M. and Hannay, T. (2005). Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. D-Lib Magazine, 11(4), April 2005. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.html Mathes, Adam (2004). Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. Online paper. http://www.adammathes.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.html McGillicuddy, Shamus (2006). Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. SearchCIO.com, June 21, 2006. http://searchcio.techtarget.com/originalCo ntent/0,289142,sid19_gci1195182,00.ht ml Mejias, Ulises (2004). Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd.pdf 228 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias, Ulises (2005). Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. Ideant, May 20, 2005. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th.html Mote, Nicholas (2004). The New School of Ontologies. Online Paper. http://www.isi.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.pdf Richardson, Will (2005). Tags vs. Trusted Sources. Webblogg-ed, Aug. 2, 2005. http://www.weblogged.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell, Jon (2004). Collaborative knowledge gardening. InfoWorld, August 20, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1.html Udell, Jon (2005). Tag mania sweeps the Web. InfoWorld, July 20, 2005. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1.html Do Not Reproduce 229 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration, communities of practice, social software, tagging, Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. My first report in this series, entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed social networking as an online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors, connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging, e-mail, text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs, photo sharing sites, shared links, peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals, dating sites, classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends, family, and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites, genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et.al. (2005) call an “architecture of participation,” that is, an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM, e-mail, SMS, etc.) Experience Sharing (blogs, photo albums, shared link libraries such as del.icio.us, etc.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates.com, online personals such as Match.com, social networking sites such as Friendster, etc.) Relationship Management (Orkut, Friendster, etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs, online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers, teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters, etc.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. Do Not Reproduce 230 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. The sites are places to meet people with common interests, while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school, work, and the military. http://www.classmates.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www.codeville.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. http://www.diaryland.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links, photos, audio, video, documents, and files and then make them available to others. http://www.esnips.com/signin/index.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth,” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. http://www.faceparty.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks, which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. Facebook has networks for colleges, high schools, workplaces, and geographic regions. http://www.facebook.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. http://www.friendster.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events, in associations, and within “communities of interest.” http://www.intronetworks.com/introNetwor ks.html Last.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. http://www.last.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. List who a person knows and find out who others know. https://www.linkedin.com/ Live Journal - LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal, as a blog, or as a social network. http://www.livejournal.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. Share it with others if desired. http://www.my-diary.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. http://www.myspace.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site, which is then open to other readers. http://www.freeopendiary.com/ Orkut - An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. https://www.orkut.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Do Not Reproduce 231 Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps, with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. http://platial.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. http://www.spartasocialnetworks.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www.stumbleupon.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. Users share their writings and meet each other. http://www.xanga.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal, upload photos, and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. http://360.yahoo.com/reg/sample.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics, with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://www.analytictech.com/ucinet.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. It costs several thousand dollars, which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. http://www.orgnet.com/inflow3.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. If a user asks for the key players in an organization, NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. http://www.netminer.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis, see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html 232 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.pdf Bibliography Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard .edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard .edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,1 648185,00.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163.h tml (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te.pdf Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocial Network.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.htm Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20arti cle.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconte nt.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14.html Do Not Reproduce 235 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_poli tics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online. http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,1 842806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html Do Not Reproduce 236 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. Do Not Reproduce 237 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system, the CAVE, and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. http://www.fakespace.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://www.aim.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. http://www.ebuddy.com/index.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. http://www-142.ibm.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux, BSD, MacOS X, and Windows. http://gaim.sourceforge.net/ Jabber – An open, secure, ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. http://www.jabber.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software, plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://get.live.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. http://messenger.yahoo.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence, Telepresence and Virtual Presence." http://www.percro.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. The driver sits in a box, with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. http://laimuz.unizar.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www.advanced.org/teleimmersion.ht ml http://www.advanced.org/teleimmersion2. html Do Not Reproduce 238 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic, as well as news, history, and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. http://www.virtual-presence.org Bibliography Dreyfus, Hubert (2001). On the Internet. London: Routledge. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund, Nils (2000). The production of presence – distance techniques in education. In Soldek, J. and Pejas, J. (Eds.) ACS 2000 Proceedings, 44-49. http://www2.hig.no/at/nmm/enlund.acs.pdf Fontana, John (2004). Presence applications poised for takeoff. Network World, Sept. 6, 2004. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.html Goldberg, Ken (Ed.) (2000). The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.ieor.berkeley.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society, Network Working Group (2000). Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. Online memo. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2779.txt Knudsen, C. and Naeve, A. (2001). Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). http://kmr.nada.kth.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd.pdf Knudsen, C., Naeve, A. and Handberg, L. (2002). Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Keynote address at the ISEC conference, Banff, Calgary, Alberta, June 1, 2002. http://cid.nada.kth.se/pdf/CID-206.pdf Lynn, Regina (2004). Ins and outs of teledildonics. Wired News, September 24. http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,65 064-0.html Riva, G., Davide, F. and IJsselsteijn, W. (Eds.) (2003). Being There: Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3, January 2005. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. Do Not Reproduce 239 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg, H., Knudsen, C. and Handberg, L. (2001). New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. In Hoyer, H. et al. (Eds.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. Germany: Hagen. http://www.swedishlearninglab.org/docum ents/Sponberg.Learning.modes.pdf Udell, Jon (2005). When time-shifting and telepresence collide. InfoWorld, Jan. 28. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1.html Do Not Reproduce 240 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television, IPTV, screencasting, streaming video, telepresence, television, tlearning, video blogging, videocasting, vodcasting, vlog Description Video, in all its formats, is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. A new version of television, Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. My first report in this series, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed video as an online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams, PDAs, cell phones, amateur and professional video cameras, even a video plug-in for Skype, the largest Internet telephone service. Video blogging has become common, and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet, games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions, educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. However, making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb, 2002). Once video goes on the Internet, bandwidth becomes an issue. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). Video, in all its formats, is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Do Not Reproduce 241 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further, video on the Internet is not readily searchable, although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. In spite of the limitations, according to Foroohar (2006), sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. Britain's largest telecom firm, BT, recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. http://www.apple.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform,” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. http://participatoryculture.org/ In 1999, DFILM launched the MovieMaker, which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. It is still going strong at: http://www.dfilm.com/index_about.html Dialcom Networks, a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time, has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype, the Internet telephone service. http://www.dmeurope.com/default.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. See samples at: http://www.on2.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. http://www.brightcove.com For an example of a video blog, see Rocketboom, a three-minute videoblog. http://www.rocketboom.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. http://www.rocketboom.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams, PDAs, cell phones, amateur and professional video cameras, even a video plug-in for Skype, the largest Internet telephone service. As the following examples show, there is a lot of movement in the field of online video, with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio, video, and multimedia content to customers, partners, employees, or students through a high quality, low bandwidth video stream. http://www.medialogic.co.uk/index.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina, with IPTV, the “triple play” of video, voice, and data services increases the profits by subscriber, improves the satisfaction of the client, and maintains loyalty. http://www.axor.com.ar/iptv_en.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. http://video.google.com Do Not Reproduce 242 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. See examples at: http://www.addictingclips.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device, whether dial-up, cellular, PDA, desktop, or set-top box. http://www.xstreamengine.com/pressreleas es.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. http://www.bittorrent.com/ BitTorrent.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. http://www.bittorrent.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.” Users can upload video clips for free. http://www.ourmedia.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. See the current selection at: http://video.google.com/nara.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. http://vpb.concord.org/ At YouTube, users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web, plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www.youtube.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos, tag them, and divide them into chapters or segments. http://www.veotag.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. http://www.veoh.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio, video, and visual resources. http://eduscapes.com/seeds/index.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. https://www.spider.hpc.navy.mil/index.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video. For example, read “Ten video sharing services compared.” http://www.dvguru.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.com Do Not Reproduce 243 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent, through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. http://www.masternewmedia.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones, termed “mobile television.” http://www.masternewmedia.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.” http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.” http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. http://www.iptv-industry.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. http://www.thinkofit.com/webconf/video.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. http://www.elearnspace.org/doing/media. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. The site already contains nearly 6,500 vlogs organized by popularity, by alphabet, and by tags, which users can submit. www.mefeedia.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot, but business models are fuzzy.” http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/articl e.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere, D. and Bates, P. (2003). Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/pdf/1443.pdf Bardia, Pradeep (2004). Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. Online article at: http://www.streamingmedia.com/article.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates, Peter (2003). t-learning Study - A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. http://www.pjb.co.uk/tlearning/contents.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005a). Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Robin Good Blog, Dec. 1, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005b). Beyond Wireless Broadband, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. Robin Good Blog, Dec. 2, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax.htm IBM (2006). The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. IBM Institute for Business Value study. http://www1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.pdf Klass, Brian (2005). Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Campus Technology, Mon. Nov. 7, 2005. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=7769 Meng, Peter (2005). Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions, discussions and Curtis, L. and Swenson, P. (2003). implications. University of Missouri, IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. http://edmarketing.apple.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. In Richards, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. 417-419). content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fusea .pdf ction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle, Tom (2005). What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review, Foroohar, Rana (2005). Changing Channels. Feb. 2005, 8-9. Newsweek (International Ed.), June 6, 2005. http://www.bcr.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8018601/si 8.php te/newsweek/ Taplin, Jonathan. (2005). The IPTV Revolution. Online paper. Friedman, Matthew (2005). Telcos face http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.pdf tough road deploying IPTV. Networking Pipeline, April 26, 2005. http://www.networkingpipeline.com/showArt Thornhill, S., Asensio, M. and Young, C. (Eds.) (2002). Video Streaming: a guide for icle.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. Manchester, UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Goldfarb, Brian (2002). Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.umist.ac.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Durham, NC: Duke University. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.pdf http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality, augmented virtuality, desktop virtual reality, distributed virtual environments, mixed reality, simulation, virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Depending on the level of realism achieved, and the aim of the virtual experience, virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. http://solipsis.netofpeers.net/wiki2/index. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies department. http://ancient.arts.ubc.ca/index.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators, designers, inventors, and storytellers. http://www.kahootz.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. By using aspects of game play, Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. To do this, they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. The space is persistent. Videoconferencing is not required. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity, interaction, exchange enabling, and re-experiencing or re-using past events. Creed, skin color, and look do not count much in virtual spaces. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. Do Not Reproduce 246 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. http://www.equator.ac.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative), Shape has developed the augurscope, a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www.shapedc.org/highlights/augur.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. http://www.ergonetz.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses, including education. For example, an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://www.secondlife.com http://www.healthdatamanagement.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. http://www.activeworlds.com/edu/index.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. http://www.informationinplace.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. http://vrlab.epfl.ch/About/about_index.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. http://www.opencroquet.org/index.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities,” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching, Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.html http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.html The U.S. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. https://www.spider.hpc.navy.mil/index.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved, and the aim of the virtual experience, virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. Do Not Reproduce 247 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. http://www.intuition-eunetwork.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education, East Carolina University, maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. http://vr.coe.ecu.edu/vrel.htm Bibliography Bouras, C., Hornig, G., Triantafillou, V. and Tsiatsos, T. (2001). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. http://ru6.cti.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.pdf Bouras, C., Philopoulos, A. and Tsiatsos, T. (2001). e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 24, 175-199. http://ru6.cti.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4.pdf Bouras, C. and Tsiatsos, T. (2006). Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Research report. http://ru6.cti.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). Technology Area - Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University, Campus Technology, August 9, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 27, 2004. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.htm Dickey, Michelle (2003). 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. http://www.oln.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.pdf Hoare, Stephen (2004). Virtual teaching aids become a reality. Guardian Unlimited, Sept. 28, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/ story/0,10577,1314022,00.html Jones, G. and Hicks, J. (2004). 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. http://courseweb.unt.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2004). Trend: augmented reality check. Learning Circuits, Dec. 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld, C. and Sester, M. (2004). Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 35, ISPRS, Istanbul, 2004. http://www.ikg.unihannover.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld.pdf Katterfeld, C. & Sester, M. (2005). Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference, July 9-16, 2005, La Coruna/Spain. http://www.icc2005.org/htmleng/english.html Liarokapis, F., Petridis, P., Lister, P. and White, M. (2002). Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 1(2). http://www.eng.monash.edu.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.pdf McArdle, G., Monahan, T., Bertolotto, M. and Mangina, E. (2005). Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Proceedings, Web Based Education 2005 conference. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.actapress.com/Reference.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai, R., Conlan, O. and Seyedarabi, F. (2005). Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. https://www.cs.tcd.ie/Owen.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.p df Prasolova-Førland, Ekaterina (2005). Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Proceedings, Web-based Education 2005 conference. http://www.actapress.com/PaperInfo.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen, Gerard (2002). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning, No. 1. http://www.elearning.unibo.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen.pdf Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. (Section on Virtual Reality). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3, January 2005. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps, cognitive collage, cybercartography, dynamic displays, Flash, geographical information systems, GIS, graphics, images, location based systems, pattern recognition, mapping, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross, et al. 2003). My first report in this series, entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed visualization as an online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education, new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input, data filtering, data mapping, and data rendering. The educational advantages of visualization are many. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. Finally, visualization can represent alternative points of view, allowing for innovation or new understandings. On the other hand, a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money, so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users, learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.dpc.ucar.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. See some amazing demos at: http://www.inxight.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. Do Not Reproduce 250 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. http://www.semagix.com/solutions.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site, such as a blog. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. For an example, see ZoomClouds. http://www.zoomclouds.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator, which showcases their potential. http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. http://www.unifiedfield.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin, Texas uses VRCO Full Circle, Museum Edition, a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software, which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. http://www.tmm.utexas.edu/index.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. http://www.vrco.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.typorganism.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.0 as an approach authoring system. See: to education, http://www.alice.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information, allowing 2-D image stitcher. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode. whatsoever, AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.esrin.esa.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography, VR, and will require visualization applications. Free demo at: ew_68.pdf tracking. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation, delivery, and display (without glasses!). http://www.ddd.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer, Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.html http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. http://www.vista.bham.ac.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.” http://richie.idc.ul.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles,” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. http://chatcircles.media.mit.edu/ Paul Nixon, a young graphic designer, has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. See his list of resources at: http://www.nixlog.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. http://www.skyscraper.org/timeformations/ intro.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations. Be sure to explore the “zoo.” http://www.lecielestbleu.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.com Web site in Tokyo. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. http://www.marumushi.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body - in English or Spanish. http://www.medtropolis.com/VBody.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. It has images of space and the earth from space. Sample the collection at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html For a practical application of visualization, see ‘Scientists seek “map of science,”’ BBC News, April 7th, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. http://www.medibolt.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. Sample their efforts at: http://www.feedtank.com/index.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. http://www.semagix.com/solutions.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. http://www.ontopia.net/omnigator/models /index.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality. See their tool set and examples of their work. http://www.vrvis.at/home.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www.cs.indiana.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. http://makingmaps.owu.edu/postcartoaag06.html 252 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors, including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.ambientdevices.com/cat/dashb oard/index.html Top Tier http://www.mccrackendesign.com/applicatio n.html XCelsius - http://www.xcelsius.com CenterView - http://www.corda.com WorkPlace - http://www.ibm.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.idashboards.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. See this technology in action. http://www.arcscience.com/omni.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. http://clustrmaps.com/index.htm Using time as an added dimension, United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. http://www.unifiedfield.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete, anatomically detailed, 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in the U.S. http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search, retrieval, and information presentation. http://www.vicodi.org/about.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. http://research.amnh.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.html How do users visualize very large data sets, for example, one million items. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions. at the University of Maryland. http://www.spotfire.com http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. http://www.timemap.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. They have worked with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. http://www.topozone.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns, associations, networks, trends, and anomalies in data. http://www.visualanalytics.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. http://tangible.media.mit.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information, especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. http://www.intergraph.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://www.advizorsolutions.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://www.musanim.com/mam/mam.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. http://research.microsoft.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. http://www.esri.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. http://www.mapinfo.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. http://www.softill.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://www.oziexplorer.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages, including the following: Voxler, for 3-D data visualization; MapViewer, for thematic and analytical mapping; Didger, for digitizing and coordinate conversion; Grapher, for 2D and 3-D graphing; and, Strater, for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.golden.com Do Not Reproduce 254 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. http://www.accurender.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages, including the following: Bryce, for 3-D landscaping and animation; Carrara, for 3-D modeling, animation, and rendering; and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. http://www.daz3d.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities, many of which are unique. http://www.formz.com Pixologic is 2.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://www.pixologic.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation, modeling, and rendering software. http://www.okino.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. Clicking a related term extends the process. Try a demo at: http://www.visualthesaurus.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.” http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/index.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.” http://vis.iu.edu/index.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. http://www.masternewmedia.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/ Ell, P., A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences, is available online. http://www.agocg.ac.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. Following are two: http://graphics.stanford.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist, together with their estimated depth of influence. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. http://www.liveplasma.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.topicmap.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. http://www.topicmaps.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace, both visualization companies, to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. http://www.vrco.com/ http://www.fakespace.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/research/resea rch.htm http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry, as part of his doctoral work at MIT. He finished his PhD. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.com/ Bibliography Alpert, Sherman (2003). Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(1), 3149 http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson, K. and Woodill, G. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. Proceedings, Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www.complexityandeducation.ualber ta.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.pdf Bergmann, J., Paier, M. and Resetarits, A. (2003). Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. Working Paper, EXYSTENCE network, http://www.complexityscience.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.pdf Bertin, Jacques (1967). Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes, les réseaux, les cartes. 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Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(4), 329-351. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm/files/paper _5994.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark, Ruth (2003). More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. eLearning Developers’ Journal, August 11. http://www.elearningguild.com/articles/abst racts/index.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell, P. (1998). Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences, available online at http://www.agocg.ac.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.pdf Goldfarb, Brian (2002). Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Durham, NC: Duke University. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones, J., Morales, C. and Knezek, G. (2005). 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. 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Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 46: 461-488. http://nivea.psycho.univparis5.fr/CanJ/CanJ.html Rhyne, Theresa (1998). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Siggraph. http://www.siggraph.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.html Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. (Section on Visualization). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3, January 2005. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 Visualization Technologies Scaife, Mike and Rogers, Yvonne (1996). External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 45, No. 2, August, pp. 185–213 http://www.slis.indiana.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.pdf Shneiderman, B. (2004). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. 4th Edition. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Spence, Robert. (2001). Information Visualization. Harlow, England: AddisonWesley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley, David (2002). Computers, Visualization, and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. M.E. Sharpe. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley, David (2005). From multimedia to multisensory education. Threshold, Fall. http://www.ciconline.org/threshold Tufte, Edward (2001). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd Edition. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/index Tufte, Edward (1997). Visual Explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/index Tufte, Edward (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/index Ware, Colin. (2004). Information Visualization: perception for design. 2nd Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman, Matt (2002). Digital Information Graphics. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones, communications tools, Internet telephony, Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years, the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone, but it is rapidly improving. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. Internet telephony is relatively simple, requiring an Internet hookup, headphones or speakers, and a microphone. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities, in remote communities, and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. In the near future, Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching, a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson, 1996). Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Using VoIP, bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. http://www.infoworld.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. http://www.avaya.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony;Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. http://www.envisioninc.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service, with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. http://www.skype.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. http://www.jajah.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years, the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. Do Not Reproduce 259 VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. Join the discussion at: http://voip.weblogsinc.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. http://www.voipreview.org Bibliography Cherry, Steven (2005). Seven Myths about Voice over IP. IEEE Spectrum Online, March 2005. http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2005). The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. http://www.cogs.susx.ac.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.pdf Ganchev, I., Stojanov, S. and O’Droma, M. (2005). Mobile distributed e-learning center. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones, Robert (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Language Learning and Technology, 9(3), September, 9-12. http://llt.msu.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .pdf Ottoson, Meredith (1996). A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. http://www.nald.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone, but it is rapidly improving. 260 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing, ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means, like a wristband or jewelry. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann, 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. For example, healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital, training to do their jobs. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing, and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. This can extend professional training in to remote areas, where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Selected Examples In Europe, Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies, including wearable computing. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. http://www.hubuska.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning.p df http://www.learnexact.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor.ppt In January 2006, BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. http://wearables.cs.bris.ac.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating, managing, and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. http://www.checkpointelearning.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere, anytime. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable, the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. The entire system, including batteries, weighs less than three pounds. http://killer.ices.cmu.edu/design/Ion.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Do Not Reproduce 261 Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines, especially for comercial airlines, the automotive industry, and other organizations involved in inspecting, training, or repairing complex machines. http://killer.ices.cmu.edu/design/VuMan.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity, thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. http://www.sportbrain.com/Home/Home.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. http://www.cs.uoregon.edu/research/wear ables/index.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.org is a rich source of references. http://about.eyetap.org/index.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas, S. and Levene, M. (2003). Evaluating the development of wearable devices, personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor, Mmoma (2006). What you’ll wear in 10 years. Wired News, March 24, 2006. http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,70 481-0.html Garfinkel, Simson (2004). Wearable Computing for the Commons. Technology Review (Online), Dec. 1, 2004. http://www.technologyreview.com/read_art icle.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves, C. and Lupisella, M. (2004). Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). http://isd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means, like a wristband or jewelry. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications. http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.html The design of “smart clothing,” including computers built into underwear, is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,704 81-0.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing, especially in the area of wearable cameras. See: http://genesis.eecg.toronto.edu/ http://wearcam.org/index_graphical.html http://www.eecg.toronto.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif, Olga (2005). Wearable computers that you can slip into. Business Week Online, March 8, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. htm Mann, S. and Niedzviecki, H. (2002). Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Toronto: Anchor Books. http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann, Steve (1998). Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing, ICWC98, May 12-13, Fairfax, VA. http://wearcam.org/icwckeynote.html Do Not Reproduce 263 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom, feeds, Really Simple Syndication (RSS), syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you, with all the potential for viruses and spam, Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. When changes are made to a Web site, information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated,” as its content is changed by the author, and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site, this method of finding out what is new is spam free. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”), and Atom is the second. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2.0 format). Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. To read content from a Web feed, a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one, basic text format for quick review. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator, enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices, including cell phones, PDAs, and laptops. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources; blogs; listings of the latest books, CDs, and electronics; photo collections; social bookmarking; job searches; TV guides; podcasts; and course offerings. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore, no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers, Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Instead of having items emailed to you, with all the potential for viruses and spam, Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Do Not Reproduce 264 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix - http://www.topix.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators, each http://www.bytescout.com/myrsstoolbar.ht with its own features. Here is a list of 48: ml 7. Newsgator Aggie - http://bitworking.org/Aggie.html http://www.newsgator.com Amphetadesk 8. NewsIsFree http://www.disobey.com/amphetadesk http://www.newsisfree.com/ Attensa - http://www.attensa.com/ 9. OnFolio - http://www.onfolio.com/ Awasu - http://www.awasu.com/ 0. Pluck - http://www.pluck.com/ BlogExpress 1. Project D.U. Reader http://usablelabs.com/productBlogExpress.h http://www.projectdu.com tml 2. Protopage Bloglet - http://www.bloglet.com/ http://www.protopage.com/v2 BlogLines - http://www.bloglines.com/ 3. PubSub - http://www.pubsub.com/ Brightcove - http://www.brightcove.com 4. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.com/produ http://neosmart.net/dl.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ . EaZy RSS reader 5. Rojo - http://www.rojo.com/today/ http://www.puremis.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.6. RSS Bandit http://www.rssbandit.org/ shtml . Edu_RSS 0.2 7. RSS2Exchange http://www.downes.ca/edurss02.htm http://www.hexamail.com/rss2exchange/ . feedbeep - http://feedbeep.com/ 8. RSSCalendar . FeedBurner http://www.rsscalendar.com/rss/ http://www.feedburner.com 9. RSS-to-Javascript - http://www.rss-to. Feed-Directory - http://www.feedjavascript.com directory.com/ 0. RSS Orbit . FeedForAll - http://www.feedforall.com/ http://www.blogplanet.net/index.shtml . FeedReader 1. RSSReader http://www.feedreader.com/ http://www.rssreader.com/ . Feedroll - http://www.feedroll.com 2. RSS Software . FeedPublish http://www.rssreader.com/ http://www.feedpublish.com/ 3. Sage - http://sage.mozdev.org/ . FeedScout 4. SharpReader http://bytescout.com/feedscout.html http://www.sharpreader.net/ . Feedster - http://www.feedster.com/ 5. StepNewz - http://www.feedzilla.com/ . Feedtier - http://feedtier.somee.com/ 6. Syndirella . Fuzzy Duck http://yole.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.fuzzyd.co.uk/rssreader/ 7. Thunderbird . Gregarius - http://gregarius.net/ http://www.mozilla.com/thunderbird/ . LearningFeeds 8. Videora - http://www.videora.com/ http://www.learningfeeds.com/ Selected Examples 5. 6. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”), and Atom is the second. Do Not Reproduce 265 Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators, including listings for various electronic devices, see: http://www.hebig.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.php. To have a blog aggregated, RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. http://www.wcc.vccs.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.php Online Resources Stephen Downes, senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada, has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. Read his article written specifically for educators. http://www.downes.ca/files/RSS_Educ.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS, a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. http://www.downes.ca/edu_rss.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. http://www.lo.redjupiter.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine, Brian Lamb, and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss, a blog by Alan Levine, Brian Lamb, and D’Arcy Norman, maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://careo.elearning.ubc.ca/cgibin/wiki.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS), and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.contentious.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. http://www.teachinghacks.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. http://timyang.com/wiki/doku.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon, Bill (2003). Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. eLearning Developers’ Journal, May 19, 2003. http://www.elearningguild.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing - Possible Future Evolution. Robin Good Blog, Oct. 31, 2004. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.htm David, Dan (2004). RSS could transform online communications. eSchool News, Aug. 3, 2004. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS tory.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 Web Feeds Downes, Stephen (2002). An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Online paper. http://www.downes.ca/files/RSS_Educ.htm Downes, Stephen (2004). RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. Learning Circuits, June 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jun20 04/downes.htm D’Sousa, Quentin (2006). RSS Ideas for Educators. Version 1.1. Online paper. http://www.teachinghacks.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.pdf Gannett, Anh (2005). RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. USA Today (online), Aug. 1, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x.htm Harrsch, Mary (2003). RSS: the next killer app for education. The Technology Source Archives, University of North Carolina, July/August 2003. http://technologysource.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2004). RSS: a learning technology. Learning Circuits, May 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends.htm Levine, A., Lamb, B. and Norman, D. (2003). Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference, Vancouver, BC, Aug. 5-8, 2003. http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine, Jenny (2005). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. The Shifted Librarian, June 18, 2005. http://www.theshiftedlibrarian.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big.html MediaThink (2004). RSS: the next big thing online. MediaThink White Paper. http://www.mediathink.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.pdf Parparita, Mihai (2006). Namespaced extensions in feeds. Google Reader Blog, Aug. 3, 2006. http://googlereader.blogspot.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.html Powers, Shelly (2005). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.xml.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.html Samuel, Alexandra (2005). 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Otherwise Engaged, Sept. 13, 2005. http://www.alexandrasamuel.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford, T. and Webb, M. (2006). What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). O’Reilly Network, July 7, 2006. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.html?page=1 Udell, Jon (2005). Using RSS for data integration. InfoWorld, March 23, 2005. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1.html Do Not Reproduce 267 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools, social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites; anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. My first report in this series, entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research, 2005), reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. There are now over 1,300,000 articles in English in Wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki, the software used to run Wikipedia, is available for other applications. http://wikipedia.sourceforge.net/features.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. Anyone can add to it. http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. See the progress at: http://edu.tikiwiki.org/tiki-index.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/wiki.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging, custom permissions, an image gallery, RSS, and email notification. http://www.schtuff.com/ For wikis to work, it is important to have several contributors. With some basic instructions, wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Wikis are fully editable Web sites; anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems, features, approaches, and projects. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. Content is ego-less, time-less, and never finished. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. 2. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. 3. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system, can be used by a team for joint writing. 4. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. Do Not Reproduce 268 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. http://www.seedwiki.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. http://www.gilbane.com/artpdf/GR12.10.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki.” Essentially, it is a platform for open collaborative software development. See why it is different. http://www.jot.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. http://kairosnews.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. http://flosse.dicole.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. http://www.learningwiki.com/ Jon Udell, a columnist for Infoworld Magazine, gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time, using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. http://weblog.infoworld.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. A free trial is available. http://www.socialtext.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis, as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work, is provided by diverse set of David Mattison, an archivist with the British systems, Columbia Archives. His article, “Quickiwiki, features, Swiki, Twiki, Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches, and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool,” is projects. a rich source of information on wikis. http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.shtml Brian Lamb, of the University of British Columbia, maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. http://careo.elearning.ubc.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. http://radio.Weblogs.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.html Do Not Reproduce 269 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki.org has lots of resources on wikis. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.” http://writingwiki.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.” http://tlc.ucalgary.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools, including wikis, that she updates regularly. http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader, an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University, produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education, including a section on wiki tools. http://www.ikiw.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. http://whiplash.pbwiki.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/25242. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson, L. (2002). Operation of a Large Scale, General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.nu’s first nine months in service. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://aronsson.se/wikipaper.html Augar, N., Raitman, R. and Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference, Perth, Australia, Dec. 5-8. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.html Ciffolilli, Andrea (2003). Phantom authority, self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. First Monday, 8(12), Dec. http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. Online paper, July. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004.pdf Fountain, Renée (2005). Wiki pedagogy. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. http://www.profetic.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser, Anja (2004). Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. International Journal of Information Ethics, 2, Nov. http://container.zkm.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz, Richard (2003). Why Wikis Work Not. Online article. http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb, Brian (2004). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. Educause Review, Sept.Oct., 36-48. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.pdf Leuf, Bo & Cunnin, W. (2001). The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison, David (2003). Quickiwiki, Swiki, Twiki, Zwiki and the Plone Wars - Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Searcher, April 2003. http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.shtml Rubenking, Neil (2003). Wiki Tools. Online article at PCMag.com. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,14 02872,00.asp Schmitt, David (2004). UniversityWiki. Online article at: http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz, L., Clark, S., Cossarin, M., and Rudolph, J. (2004). Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, April 2004. http://www.irrodl.org/content/v5.1/technote _xxvii.html Stafford, T. and Webb, M. (2006). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Online article, O’Reilly Network, July 7, 2006. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.html Tomkin, Emma (2005). Making the case for a wiki. Ariadne, Issue 42, January. http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue42/ Udell, Jon (2004). The wiki way. InfoWorld, Oct. 19, 2004. http://Weblog.infoworld.com/udell/2004/ 10/19.html Wood, Lauren (2005). Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report, 12(10), 2005. http://gilbane.com/artpdf/GR12.10.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing, with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights, which can then lead to inventions. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products, which, in turn, may or may not be adopted by the significant population. After a product has been successfully launched, there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies, I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs, CD-ROMS, floppy disks, and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. However, adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Do Not Reproduce 272 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata, Ontologies, and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time, many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products, ascend the curve, peak, mature, and decline. But not all technologies will travel this road; some will never leave the development stage, or may never become commercially viable. Some will die quickly, while others will last for decades. In any field, it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. This is due, in part, to the complex, dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. However, change itself seems to be inevitable. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor, professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. For a variety of reasons, this approach is now rapidly changing, both in classrooms and online. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again, in both formal and informal settings. Further, learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires, but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance, without clear guidelines on how to proceed. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. In any field, it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. This is due, in part, to the complex, dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. However, change itself seems to be inevitable. Do Not Reproduce 273 Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. The experience of younger learners with television, video games, and computers, with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading, means that they actually think differently. The technology of e-learning, because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners, demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke, 2003). The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande, 2002, p. 28). Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. In North America, people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions, generally went to work earlier, and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. Their children, the baby boomers, experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s, the space race, libraries, television, movie theaters, mind-altering drugs, the civil rights movement, and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. The children of the baby boomers, born in the 1970s, were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers, video games, gaming consoles, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS, terrorism, ecological disasters, global warming, and the globalization of corporate capitalism. The speed of change increases with each passing year. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above, is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives,” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. Because of this, Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. For the older generation, the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. Once we master the art of reading, the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts, 1994). In contrast, electronic media tends to be on the surface. 274 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention, designers of Sesame Street, commercials, and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. It works for a time, until we become habituated. Then even more movement, surprise, sex, or violence is needed to keep our attention. In approaching electronic educational media, the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. But they are usually disappointed. For example, much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be, especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. Generally, interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. True interactivity is based on feedback loops, whereby the action of one participant, the learner, results in an action by the other participant, the computer, in a back-and-forth exchange. With feedback, learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. However, that is all about to change. Within the next five years, we will see the restructuring of education and training, as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment, with such innovations as information visualization and auralization; digitization of smell, touch and taste; huge data wall displays; wearable computers; and digital ink and electronic paper. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life,” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena, and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. In the next wave, networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes, the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas, portfolios, creative products, and the mapping of everything. It is already a place for massively multiple player games; shortly, it will be a giant collaborative workspace. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. In approaching electronic educational media, the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level, the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn- are usually ing paths, or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. technologies, which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. Two hundred years ago, you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there, none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Likewise, the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. Guides are optional. Do Not Reproduce 275 Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen, Clayton (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.amazon.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky, Marc. (2001). Digital Game-based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://www.amazon.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff, Douglas (2005). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. New York: Collins. http://www.amazon.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker, Bob (2006). FutureHype: the myths of technology change. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. http://www.amazon.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback, James (1994). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.amazon.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill, Gary (2006). Emerging e-Learning: innovative content, technologies and services for the next 5 years. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, May 2006. http://www.operitel.com 276 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory, MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.media.mit.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.51, Den Dolech 2 P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.bartneck.de/link/affective_portal .html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli, Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40, Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.unige.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. Marc Schröder, DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.informatik.umu.se/~muse/ho me.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza, 1515 Broadway, 17th Floor, New York, New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA, Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan, Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.myself-proj.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont, CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.nngroup.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av. D. Manuel I, 27A 2º esq, 2910-595 Setúbal - Portugal Tel.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.webist.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool, L69 7ZF, UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street, Suite 206 Boulder, CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.educause.edu Extempo Systems, Inc. P. O. Box 2124 Menlo Park, CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.extempo.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.computer.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer, 1900 East Tenth St. Bloomington, IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.informatics.indiana.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.rit.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool , L69 7ZF, UK http://www.agentlink.org/ AiLive Inc. 3400 Hillview Avenue, Building 5, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA http://www.ailive.net/ Auburn University Auburn, Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.auburn.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey, CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.isi.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. #1910, 10004-104 Avenue. Edmonton, AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.codebaby.com Do Not Reproduce 278 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. W Toronto, Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.redwoodelearning.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville, Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.org/ Apple Computer, Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.apple.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.O. Box 527, Burlington, VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.ascension-tech.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes, Secretariat, CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.ascilite.org.au/index.php/Main _Page Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.autodesk.com/ Avid Technology, Inc. Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.avid.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd. PO Box 24478, 110 Cuba Mall, Wellington, New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.catoolkit.com/home.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Alchemy Mindworks P.O. Box 5200, Huntsville, Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.mindworkshop.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls, SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.animationfactory.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.animats.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group, LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North, Suite 108-414 San Antonio, Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.eitechnologygroup.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab.htm Macromedia, Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco, CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.macromedia.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.massivesoftware.com/ NewTek, Inc. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. San Antonio, TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.newtek.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley, Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.S.A. Tel: +1.818.460.6450 http://www.siggraph.org/ SWiSHzone.com Pty Ltd The Basement, 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.swishzone.com/index.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/index.html Ulead Systems 970 W. 190th Street, Suite #480 Torrance, CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive, Suite 100 Menlo Park, California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.aaai.org/home.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg, PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.aclweb.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis , TN 38152 USA http://www.autotutor.org Do Not Reproduce 280 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology, University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin, TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.pact.cs.cmu.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Egry J. u. 1. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.eden-online.org/eden.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 - 10th Street S.W. Calgary, Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.gemini.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street, Stuart Building 235 Chicago, IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.cs.iit.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09, University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.it.usyd.edu.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600, 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.ke-corp.com/index.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université, 100 Sherbrooke St. West Montreal, Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.licef.teluq.uquebec.ca/eng/ind ex.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.cs.cmu.edu Quantum Simulations, Inc. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville, PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.com Do Not Reproduce 281 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360 San Mateo, CA , 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.stottlerhenke.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester, MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.cs.wpi.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.W. Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.enel.ucalgary.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.cis.unisa.edu.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street, Suite 1500 Montreal, Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.virtuelage.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. East Adelphi, Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.umuc.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court, Suite K, Chantilly, VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.brainbench.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.scit.wlv.ac.uk/home.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Co. Antrim BT37 OQB N. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.ulster.ac.uk/cticomp/CAA.html Do Not Reproduce 282 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue, Suite 2300 New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.horizonwimba.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton, NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.ets.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.colorado.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W. Johnson Street, Suite 753 Madison, WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.flaguide.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.operitel.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle, Suite 105 Princeton, NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.pedagogue.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 100, Norwalk, CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.questionmark.com Quintessential Careers DeLand, FL 32720 USA http://www.quintcareers.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave, Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.redinq.com/redinq/html/index. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.rmsuk.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.O. Box 317 New Hartford, CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.S.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.ingeniousgroup.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.O. Box 305280 Denton, TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.tcet.unt.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall, Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory, MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign, IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.oir.uiuc.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive, Suite 100 Newtown, PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.vantagelearning.com XStream Software, Inc. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www.xstreamsoftware.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.automaticsync.com/lipsync/ind ex.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.avsmedia.com/AudioTools/ind ex.aspx BIAS, Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma, CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.bias-inc.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.multitrackstudio.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.cakewalk.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh, NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.epnweb.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com AudioLink, Inc. 50 Hunt St., Watertown, MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.audiolink.com/home.html Do Not Reproduce 284 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings, Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall, Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www.envision.purdue.edu iTunes Apple Computer, Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.apple.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison, WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.sonicfoundry.com AcroServices c/o L.A. Grime and Associates, Inc. 860 Sandalwood Road, West Perrysburg, OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.acroservices.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street, Suite 200 Boulder, CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www.anark.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P.O.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095, Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.trainvision.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. 136 South Main Street, Suite A300 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.mckinnonmulherin.com/index.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley, CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www.bloki.com Brainshark, Inc. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road, Waltham, MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.brainshark.com/power point-presentations-index.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue, San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. Continental Blvd., Suite 200 El Segundo, CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.accordent.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury, NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www.lifeboatdistribution.com/Index.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix, AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.ciscolearning.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall, Nottingham, NG8 6PE, UK Tel. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.atlanticlink.co.uk/contentpoint.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.copycatsoftware.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue, Suite 2300 New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.horizonwimba.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.learn.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32, 20100 Milan, Italy http://www.bridge-pt.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.customcourse.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville, FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.maxit.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz, Austria http://www.dynamicpowertrainer.com 286 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton, FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www.eclipsys.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil, 38-40, local 3 E-08028 Barcelona, Spain Tel: +34 93 490.64.10 Fax: +34 93 490.64.68 http://www.easyprof.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta, LLC 501 West Franklin Street, Suite 105 Chapel Hill, NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.edufolio.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd ., Suite 29A Nashua, NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.eedo.com/products/forceten.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish, WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.e-learningconsulting.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions, Inc. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar, New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.elearninginabox.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P. O. Box 2827 Redmond, WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.elicitus.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive, P.O. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www.mohive.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston, Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.experiencebuilders.com ExpertAuthor, ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach, CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.knowledgequest.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc. 441 W Main St, Suite B Lehi, Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www.rapidintake.com Do Not Reproduce 287 Companies and Organizations iLessons c/o Counterpoint MTC Ltd Unit 2 Timberlaine Trading Est., Decoy Rd., Worthing, West Sussex, BN14 8ND, UK Tel: +44 (0)1903 538844 Fax: +44 (0)1903 536080 http://www.ilessons.co.uk Impatica Inc. 1725 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 205 Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4 Canada Tel: (613) 736-9982 Fax: (613) 736-9084 http://www.impatica.com Instant Demo c/o NetPlay Software Tamarind Drive, Unanderra Wollongong, NSW, Australia. Fax: +61 2 4272 1338 http://www.instant-demo.com Intiva c/o Business Performance Technology 1224 Mill Street East, Berlin, CT 06023 USA Tel: (860) 828-5650 Fax: (860) 828-3017 http://www.elearningpowertools.com/ Intuition Publisher IFSC House International Financial Services Centre Custom House Quay Dublin 1 Ireland Tel: +353 1 605 4300 Fax: +353 1 605 4301 http://www.intuition.ie/software/publisher. shtml iPerform Course Builder Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St. East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Fax: (847) 836-1818 http://www.ips-inc.com Kallidus Authoring System c/o e2train Limited 1st Floor, 101/102 Cirencester Bus. Park Love Lane, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, GL7 1XD, UK Main Tel: +44 (01285) 883900 Fax: +44 (01285)883901 http://www.e2train.com/products/product s_Author.htm KBridge c/o KnowledgeXtensions, Inc. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar, New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) Fax: (518) 689-3095 http://www.knowledgextensions.com/prod serv.htm Knowledge Assembler c/o Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 USA Tel: (303) 233-2100 Fax: (303) 462-8849 http://www.gen21.com/ka.htm KnowledgeHub Authoring Services c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Fax: (585) 240-7760 http://www.elementk.com 288 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations KnowledgePresenter GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria, BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: 1 (800) 616-5409 Fax: (250) 361-9362 http://www.knowledgepresenter.com/ LEARNERLand c/o MEDIAmaker Ltd MEDIA HOUSE, Padge Road, Beeston Nottingham UK NG9 2RS Tel: +44 (0)115 925 5440 http://www.learnerland.com Learning Composer c/o TEDS Inc. 235 Mountain Empire Road Atkins, VA 24311 USA Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.teds.com Lectora c/o Travantis 311 Elm Street, Suite 200 Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (877) 929-0188 http://trivantis.com Lecturnity c/o imc AG Altenkesseler Straße 17/ D3 66115 Saarbrücken Germany Tel: +49 681/ 94 76 - 0 http://www.lecturnity.de Lersus easyContent c/o Delfi Software Lietzenburgerstr. 46 10789 Berlin Deutschland Tel: +49 (30) 81298133 http://www.lersus.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ MindOnSite – Integral Coaching SA Soleil Levant 6 1170 Aubonne, FRANCE Tel: +41 21 807 01 31 http://www.mindonsite.com/eLearning/EN /index.html Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 www.microsoft.com MindIQ Corporation 7742 Spalding Drive, #205 Norcross, GA 30092-4207 USA Tel: (770) 248-0442 Fax: (770) 248-1949 http://www.mindiq.com/tbt/dac/index.php Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc. 110 Fourth Ave. Courtice, ON, L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo.com Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill, Warwick, CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www.digitalworkshop.com podia Ltd 6th Floor, World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www.podia.net Do Not Reproduce 289 Companies and Organizations PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West, Suite 150 Lindon, Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www.pointecast.com Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications, Inc. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www.webex.com/services/webpresentation-svc.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York, NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www.articulate.com Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software, Inc. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com RapidGuide c/o XStream Software, Inc. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View, CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.readygo.com Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. Redmond, WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.respondus.com Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr. Cedar Ave & Napier Road, Richmond, Johannesburg, South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www.reusableobjects.com SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House, 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.westcliffdata.co.uk/index.php? content=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House, 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.westcliffdata.co.uk/index.php? content=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd. 3rd Floor Magalia, CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www.screenwatch.com 290 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane, Suite 400 New York, NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 http://www.scribestudio.com Seminar Learning System Burleigh House, 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.seminar.co.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W. Gandy Blvd, Suite 200 Tampa, FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.sensalearning.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. Ste 202 Encinitas, CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.4259 Fax: (760) 635.5709 http://www.suddenlysmart.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.percepsys.com/coursegen.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. Redmond, WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.respondus.com/products/study mate.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo, SC, USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.hunterstone.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. 4, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany Tel. +49(0)721.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.83 01 616 http://www.time4you.de/ibt/main/en/site/ time4you/ibt/en/start.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthori ng Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile, 250 The Esplanade Toronto, ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.thinkingcap.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.toolbook.com Trainersoft FunEducation, Inc. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego, CA 92101 USA http://www.funeducation.com Do Not Reproduce 291 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G, Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.turbodemo.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon, 55 South Market St., Suite 1550 San Jose, CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.qarbon.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville, FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.maxit.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana, Inc., 323 Newbury Street Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.xplana.com Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd, Moseley, Birmingham, B13 9SG, United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.daden.co.uk/chatbots.html Knowledge Environments, Inc. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.knowledgeenvironments.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave., 11th Floor New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.oddcast.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. W Toronto, Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.redwoodelearning.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. Dale Mabry Hwy., Ste. 219 Tampa, FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.telsim.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive, Suite 260 Orlando, FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.vcom3d.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. #1910, 10004-104 Avenue. Edmonton, AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.codebaby.com DA Group The Lighthouse, 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.tmmy.co.uk Do Not Reproduce 292 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St., Suite 900 Austin, TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.blogburst.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York, NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue, Suite 209 Moorestown, NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.cramersweeney.com WaveMarket, Inc. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville, CA 94608 USA http://www.wavemarket.com OmniWeb Omni Development, Inc. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle, WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.O. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www.opera.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Mary Apts, 6th Flr., Nesbit Rd, Mazgaon, Mumbai 10, INDIA. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.qelix.com/v2/index.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops, P.O. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls, CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.active-learning-site.com GTCO CalComp, Inc. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia, MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.gtcocalcomp.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street, Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041, USA http://www.flock.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View, CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.mozilla.com Do Not Reproduce 293 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street, SW, Orlando, FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.optiontechnologies.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.pearsoned.com.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.aspx Qwizdom, Inc. 12617 Meridian E, Puyallup, WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.qwizdom.com Smartroom Learning Solutions, Inc. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta, GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.smartroom.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Pleasant St. Amherst, MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.physics.umass.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301, Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.backpackit.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Suite 101E Falls Church, VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.bantu.com Batipi 11 St. Jospeh Street, Suite 103 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.batipi.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.inteam.com BlueTie, Inc. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. Pittsford, NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.bluetie.com Breeze c/o Macromedia, Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco, CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.adobe.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.944.0162 http://www.brevient.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive, Suite# 401, Somerset, NJ - 08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.avecomm.com Do Not Reproduce 294 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ, 1192 East Draper Parkway, Suite 522, Draper, UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.telnetz.com Brightidea.com 404 Fifth Avenue, 6th Floor New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.brightidea.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.caucus.com Centra c/o Saba, 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.saba.com/centra-saba Central Desktop, Inc. 100 North Lake Avenue, #205 Pasadena, CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.centraldesktop.com Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Dr. San Jose, CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems, Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.citrix.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC, 795 Folsom Street, 6th Floor San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.collaborationloop.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. Suite 630 McLean, VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.communiqueconferencing.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street, Suite 600 Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. 232 http://www.communityzero.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Suite 950 Portland, OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.comotivsystems.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph, Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.courseforum.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley, CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.convenos.com Do Not Reproduce 295 Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies, Inc. 1034 N.W. 57th Street Gainesville, FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.digi-net.com Digité, Inc. 82 Pioneer Way, Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.digite.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta, LLC 501 West Franklin Street, Suite 105 Chapel Hill, NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.edufolio.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.elluminate.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton, MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.emc.com Engineering.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr., Suite 305 Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.epam-pmc.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.com LLP PO Box 325, Sanibel FL, 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.same-page.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover, MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.exactamerica.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.ezmeeting.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose, CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.flypaper.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria, VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.forumone.com 296 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980, avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier, France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.genesys.com Glance Networks, Inc. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington, MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.glance.net Global School Net 132 N. El Camino Real, Ste. 395 Encinitas, CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.globalschoolnet.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road, Clevedon, North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.gordano.com GoToMeeting.com c/o Citrix Systems, Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.gotomeeting.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.4517 http://www.grapevinesoftware.net Groove Networks, Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly, MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.groove.net GroupSupport.com B.V. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.groupsupport.com Groupwise c/o Novell, 3100 Steeles Avenue East, Suite 500 Markham, ON, L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.novell.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk, MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.hotcomm.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.hp.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue, Suite 2300 New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.horizonwimba.com Do Not Reproduce 297 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. #115 Rockville, Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.hyperoffice.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Suite #150 Herndon, VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.iceweb.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. 44th St. Phoenix, AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.ilinc.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.interwoven.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough, MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.inquesttechnologies.com Interwise, Inc. 25 First Street, Suite 412 Cambridge, MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.interwise.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway, 11th floor New York, NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.intralinks.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.ivocalize.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News, Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.jdhtech.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive, Suite 100 Tucson, AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.linktivity.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.microsoft.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice, Corp 2780 Skypark Drive, Suite 300 Torrance, CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.liveoffice.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris, France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.mayeticvillage.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower, Suite 1401 Denver, CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.meetingone.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.mitre.org/tools.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles, WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com Near-Time, Inc. 1289 N. Fordham Blvd., Suite A-410 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.near-time.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park, Suite 6500 Woburn, MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.netspoke.com onProject, Inc. 3 Wing Drive, Suite 225 Cedar Knolls, NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.onproject.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo, ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.opentext.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair, London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.opmcreator.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano 10 S. Riverside Plaza, Suite 1450 Chicago, IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.parlano.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham, MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.peoplecube.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157, Harbor, OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.performancesolutionstech.com Do Not Reproduce 299 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc. New No. 35, Suite B, First Main Road Gandhi Nagar,Adyar Chennai,TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.photoninfotech.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Cactus Rd, Suite 445 Scottsdale, Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.projectdox.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní, 51, 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.project-open.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway, Suite 440 San Jose, CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.nagarro.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church, VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.q2learning.com RADVISION Inc. 17-17 State Highway 208, Suite 300 Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.radvision.com Raindance Communications, Inc. 1157 Century Drive Louisville, CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.raindance.com Selden Integrated Systems, Inc. 1175 58th Avenue, Suite 200 Greeley, CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.seldensystems.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.sharemethods.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place, Suite 210 Maynard, MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications, Inc. 3679 Concord Road, P.O. Box 3325 York, PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.cyber-grad.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy, Ste 275 Mill Valley, Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.stalker.com/content/default.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.sumtotalsystems.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto, CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.tacit.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.teamdynamix.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt, Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.teamspace.com Teamware P.O. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.teamware.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau, Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.tomoye.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken, PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.trichys.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder, CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.usabilityfirst.com/groupware/in dex.txl Viack 14811 N. Kierland Blvd., Suite 100 Scottsdale, AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.viack.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway, Suite 100 Austin, TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.vignette.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW, Suite 950 Washington, DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.vodium.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale, FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.wave3software.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East, Suite 810 Toronto, Ontario M2N 6H8, Canada http://www.webofficepoint.com Do Not Reproduce 301 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing, Inc. P.O.Box 2900 Alameda, CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.webcrossing.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331, 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington, Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.webasyst.net WebEx Communications, Inc. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara, CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.webex.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street, Suite 1050 Vancouver, BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.webtrain.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301, Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.backpackit.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.axista.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Do Not Reproduce 302 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.html Do Not Reproduce 303 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com Do Not Reproduce 304 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Do Not Reproduce 305 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Do Not Reproduce 307 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200 Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Ope n InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com Do Not Reproduce 308 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville, FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.maxit.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville, IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.wizdom.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions, Inc. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201, Chantilly, VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.meridianksi.com mGen Enterprise mGen, Inc. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Suite 260 Foxborough, MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.mgen.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. 550 Queen St. East ,Suite 350 Toronto, Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.isnewmedia.com Do Not Reproduce 309 Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.outstart.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems, LTD 671 N. Glebe Road, Suite 700 Arlington, VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.plateau.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.saba.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square, PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. 500 West Madison, Suite 2200 Chicago, IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.ssaglobal.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE, 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500, St. Louis, MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.sselearn.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street, Suite 1280 San Francisco, CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.syntrio.com TEDS Inc. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.teds.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.com, Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks, CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.teralearn.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Fifth Floor Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.technomedia.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal, 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.sumtotalsystems.com Do Not Reproduce 310 Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. 122 West Way, Suite 401A Lake Jackson, Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.fldata.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems, Inc. 240 Bay Street, Victoria, BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.trainingpartner.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus, 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond, Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.gyrus.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100, 10130-103 Street Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.ttg-inc.com Tracker.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs, Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.vbtrain.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC, Inc. 17041 El Camino Real, Suite 101 Houston, Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.risc-inc.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. 4 Expressway Plaza, Suite 200 Roslyn Heights, NY. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.vuepoint.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way, Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.wbtsystems.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies, Inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite # 105 Columbia, MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.avilar.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.O. Box 9752 Boulder, CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.edutools.info/index.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia , SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.xtention.com Do Not Reproduce 311 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street, 4th Floor Oakland, CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.cdlib.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science, The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson, Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee, WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.netera.ca ENC Learning Inc. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus, OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.goenc.com Do Not Reproduce 312 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. 5151 East Broadway, Suite 1600 Tucson, AZ, 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.thegateway.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 - 4464 Markham Street Victoria, British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.llearn.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro, ETRAC, Fondren Library, MS 44, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.rice.edu/DesktopDefault.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown, CT 06459 USA http://www.lolaexchange.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West, Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.lornet.org/eng/scientifiques.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.lrc3.unsw.edu.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe, AZ 85250 USA http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.merlot.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.O. Box 3000 Boulder, CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street, Suite 3100 San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.plos.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. Sterling Court, Norton Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SG1 2JY, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.cadcorp.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester, MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.clarklabs.org Do Not Reproduce 313 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.eoscenter.com/gis4mt/index.cf m ESRI Suite 300, 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers, MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.esri.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville, FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.geocomm.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki, Dept. of Geography, P.O. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.edu.fi/english/page.asp?path= 500,5372,30670 Intergraph Corporation P.O. Box 240000 Huntsville, AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.intergraph.com MapInfo One Global View Troy, NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.mapinfo.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.berkeley.edu PanGo Networks, Inc. 959 Concord Street, Suite 100 Framingham, MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.pangonetworks.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul, MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.smm.org Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen, Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC, V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.cancore.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton , BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.cetis.ac.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center, 6565 Frantz Road Dublin, Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.org Do Not Reproduce 314 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor, PMB #112 Lake Mary, FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.imsglobal.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive, Suite 100 Menlo Park, California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.aaai.org/aitopics/html/natlang .html ELSNET Trans 10, 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.elsnet.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235, Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.lexxe.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia, PA, 19104-2653, USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.ldc.upenn.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive, 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento, Italy http://tcc.itc.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/handler/default .asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV, Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.stockholmchallenge.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg, Austria http://www.knowledgepulse.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.mobilearn.org/ Spotlight Mobile, Inc. 17 SE 3rd Avenue, Suite 501 Portland, Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston, TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.advancedreality.com Do Not Reproduce 315 Companies and Organizations Groove Networks, Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly, MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.groove.net internet2.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive, Suite 300, Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.internet2.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems, Inc. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara, CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.sun.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV, Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.stockholmchallenge.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 - 4464 Markham Street Victoria, British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.llearn.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich, Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.lockss.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York, NY, 10010 USA http://www.overnet.com MoveDigital, Inc. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto, CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.movedigital.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Whisman Road Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.seti.org/site/pp.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Oleg Liber University of Bolton, Deane Rd, Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco, CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.asianart.org 316 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger - Project Coordinator CSI - Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246, 1st Floor A - 1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.elena-project.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212, 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.rmv.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street, 15-4-A Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.virtualmuseum.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway, Suite 600 Alpharetta, Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.executrain.com ProQuest 789 E. Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. 3333 http://www.proquest.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.saba.com Teachnology, Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill, New York 10973 USA http://www.teach-nology.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.trainingregistry.com World Wide Learn Suite 100, Box 172 1039 - 17th Avenue SW Calgary, Alberta, T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.worldwidelearn.com Portals CyberU, Inc. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard, Suite 225 Santa Monica, CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.cyberu.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262, 3º 08021 Barcelona, ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.elearningeuropa.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Do Not Reproduce 317 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.apreso.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.saba.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304, 3016 5th Ave. NE Calgary, Alberta, T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.elluminate.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.genesys.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.mit.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City, NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.lsc.org Macromedia, Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco, CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.macromedia.com Presentations.com 50 S. Ninth St. Minneapolis, MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.333.6526 http://www.presentations.com/presentatio ns/index.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto, CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York, NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.articulate.com Raptivity P. O. Box 2827, Redmond, WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.raptivity.com ReadyGo Inc. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View, CA 94040, USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.readygo.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr., Suite B Orion, Michigan, USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.scate.com Do Not Reproduce 318 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock, Chilcompton, Radstock Somerset, BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.active-robots.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.irc.atr.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway, Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.aad.gov.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. Lindsey Bldg. D, Ste. 100 Norman, OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.botball.org Euron c/o Prof. Henrik I Christensen, Centre for Autonmous Systems, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, SE-100 44 Stockholm, SWEDEN. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.euron.org Evolution Robotics, Inc. 130 W. Union St. Pasadena, CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.evolution.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood, Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.generalrobotics.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic, CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.ife.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman, Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.nasa.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University, Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh, PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.rec.ri.cmu.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems, Inc. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.whmsi.com Do Not Reproduce 319 Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.com 229 West 43rd Street New York, NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.about.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.O. Box 29141 San Francisco, CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.alexa.com Ask.com Headquarters 555 12th Street, Suite 500 Oakland, CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.ask.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street, Suite 60 Quebec, QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.copernic.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles, VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace, Inc. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue, WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.6100 http://www.dogpile.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.convera.com excite.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street, 42nd Floor New York, NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.excite.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan, MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.findlaw.com Google (including Froogle, Google, Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View, CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.google.com Gada.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park, CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.gigablast.com Gnod, Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney, Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg, Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.gnod.net/ 320 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.O. Box 1133 Washington, DC 20013-1133 http://www.healthfinder.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.icerocket.com Info.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800, Chicago, Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.info.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.intute.ac.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.ixquick.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.kartoo.net Koders Inc. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica, CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.koders.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.krugle.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.lalisio.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235, Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.lexxe.com LitLinker c/o ACM, One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway, 17th Floor New York, New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1 056808.1057022 LookSmart, Ltd. 625 Second Street San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.looksmart.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace, Inc. 601 108th Avenue NE, Suite 1200 Bellevue, WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.metacrawler.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159, West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.mooter.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.msn.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC, 22000 AOL Way Dulles, VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.netscape.com Pandora Media, Inc. 360 22nd Street, Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.pandora.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway, 7th floor, New York, NY 10003, USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.cs.nyu.edu/ PubSub Concepts, Inc. 64 Fulton Street, Seventh Floor New York, NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.pubsub.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.almaden.ibm.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Mary Apts, 6th Flr., Nesbit Rd, Mazgaon,, Mumbai 10, INDIA. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.qelix.com/v2/index.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road, Suite 211 Palo Alto , CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.rawsugar.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.convera.com SearchKing, Inc. 2400 N.W. 23rd Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.searchking.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D - 82152 Martinsried http://www.seekport.biz Truveo, Inc. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street, 23rd Floor San Francisco, CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.truveo.com Technorati 665 3rd Street, Suite 207 San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.technorati.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.W. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.ee.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista, Yahoo http://www.yahoo.com Zoom Information Inc. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham, MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.zoominfo.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.O. Box 1558 New Canaan, CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.atghome.com Assima Ltd. 10 Old Bailey, EC4M 7NG London, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.assima.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto, Ontario, M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.biographix.com Captivate c/o Macromedia, Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco, CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.macromedia.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston, Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.experiencebuilders.com Flash c/o Macromedia, Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco, CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.macromedia.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger - Project Coordinator CSI - Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246, 1st Floor A - 1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.elena-project.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI - AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.personal-reader.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent, Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.seco.tkk.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.forio.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg, Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.intermezzon.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way, GreenPark Reading, Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.stt-global.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach, CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.knowledgequest.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria, BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.knowledgepresenter.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.knowledge-director.com MASIE Center, Inc. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.learning2005.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. Newburyport, MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.muzzylane.com NexLearn, LLC 100 South Main Street, Suite 300 Wichita, Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.nexlearn.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder, CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.fsl.noaa.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software, Inc. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd., Suite 200 Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science, The University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT, England http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd., Suite 360 San Mateo, CA , 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.stottlerhenke.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.teds.com Softsim Outstart Studio, 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.outstart.com Stagecast Software, Inc. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame, CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.stagecast.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road, Suite 240 Atlanta, GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.stt-global.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Taschereau Ouest, Suite A-207 Brossard, Québec, J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.eduperformance.com/English/t6 essai.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon, 55 South Market St., Suite 1550 San Jose, CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.qarbon.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville, FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.maxit.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh, ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics, Light & Acoustics, Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.virtualcontrolroom.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima, 1821 Walden Office Square, Suite 400, Schaumburg, IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.assima.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems, Inc. 101 Wolf Drive, Thorofare, NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.checkpointsystems.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Morton Street, Suite 224 Bloomington, IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.iu.edu/index.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.icio.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale, CA 94089 USA http://del.icio.us Eventful c/o EVDB, Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 125 San Diego, California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com Do Not Reproduce 325 Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart, Ltd., 625 Second Street San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.furl.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies, Inc. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.com/ mag.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.gnolia.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles, VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.netscape.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre, Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.networkltd.eu Rojo Networks, Inc. 795 Folsom St., First Floor San Francisco, CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.rojo.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St., Suite 900 Austin, TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.shadows.com Spurl ehf. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.spurl.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge, MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.tagzania.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Menlo Park, CA, 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.zvents.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.O. Box 920089 Needham, MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.analytictech.com Classmates Online, Inc. 2001 Lind Ave. SW, Suite 500 Renton, WA 98055 USA http://www.classmates.com Friendster, Inc. 568 Howard Street San Francisco, CA 94105 USA http://www.friendster.com 326 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text, 655 High Street Palo Alto, California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam, Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.sociosite.net Sparta Social Networks, LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville, MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.spartasocialnetworks.com Jabber Software Foundation P.O. Box 1641 Denver, CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.jabber.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio, 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) - Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.percro.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Suite 1001 Los Angeles, CA 90028 USA http://www.dfilm.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street, Suite 900 San Francisco, CA 94105 USA http://www.bittorrent.com Brightcove, Inc. One Cambridge Center Cambridge, MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.brightcove.com iTunes Apple Computer, Inc 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.apple.com Jabber Software Foundation P.O. Box 1641 Denver, CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.jabber.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road, Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie , New York, 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.advanced.org Fakespace 11 E. Church Street, 4th Floor Marshalltown, Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.fakespace.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto, CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html Do Not Reproduce 327 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio, 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) - Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.percro.org Veoh Networks, Inc. 7220 Trade Street, Suite 115 San Diego, CA 92121 USA http://www.veoh.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara, CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.xstreamengine.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach, VA 23461-1924 https://www.spider.hpc.navy.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street, Suite 206 Bloomington, IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.informationinplace.com Intuition 9, Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou, Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.intuition-eunetwork.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL, IC ISIM VRLAB, Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE, Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.epfl.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education, East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.coe.ecu.edu/vrel.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. 95 Parker Street Newburyport, MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.activeworlds.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67, D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.ergonetz.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside, Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.futurelab.org.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle, WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.accurender.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions, Inc. 1333 Butterfield Rd. Suite 280 Downers Grove, IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.advizorsolutions.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.ambientdevices.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies, Inc. 350 South 400 West, Suite 100 Lindon, UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.corda.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway, Suite 317 San Diego, CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.xcelsius.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300, Draper, UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.daz3d.com ESRI Suite 300, 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road, Danvers, MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.esri.com FeedTank 590 Grand St., Suite 3 Brooklyn, NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.feedtank.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.formz.com Golden Software, Inc. 809 14th Street, Golden, Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.golden.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.V. Williams Building College Park, MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.vista.bham.ac.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street, Suite 110 Troy, MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.idashboards.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.O. Box 240000 Huntsville, AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.intergraph.com/ MapInfo One Global View, Troy, NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.mapinfo.com Do Not Reproduce 329 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.O. Box 884, Tracy, CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.softill.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley, CA 94712 USA http://www.musanim.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive, Unit # 1 Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1T8, Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.okino.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo, Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.ontopia.net Pixologic, Inc. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles, CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.pixologic.com Spotfire, U.S. 212 Elm Street Somerville, MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.spotfire.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.mccrackendesign.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte, Inc. 73 Princeton Street, Suite 305 North Chelmsford, MA 01863 USA http://www.topozone.com Unified Field, Inc. 3 East 28th St, 9th floor New York, NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.unifiedfield.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.microsoft.com Vicodi Edvins Snore, RIDemo Brivibas 183, Riga, LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.vicodi.org Visual Analytics Inc. 20010 Fisher Avenue, 2nd Floor Poolesville, MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.visualanalytics.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP, Inc. 155 Spring Street, Suite 3A New York, NY 10012 USA http://www.visualthesaurus.com Do Not Reproduce 330 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization, Ltd. Donau-City-Strasse 1, A-1220 Vienna, Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.vrvis.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software, Inc. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.inxight.com Web Feeds Attensa, Inc. 111 SW Fifth Avenue, Suite 2260 Portland, OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.attensa.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway, Suite 100 Campbell, CA 95008 USA http://www.bloglines.com Brightcove, Inc. One Cambridge Center Cambridge, MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.brightcove.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech, 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph, 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.feedburner.com FeedForAll PO Box 296, Hanover, MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.feedforall.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Valdeku 100, Tallinn, 11211, Estonia http://www.feedreader.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London, W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.skype.com JAJAH Inc. 2513 Charleston Road, Suite 102 Mountain View, California, 94043 USA http://www.jajah.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. 869 97th Ave N, Unit A2 Naples, FL 34108 USA http://www.sportbrain.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum, ETZ H Electronics Lab, Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.wearable.ethz.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout, Pacific Business Centre #101 - 1001 W. Broadway, Suite 381 Vancouver, BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com Feedster, Inc. 116 New Montgomery Street, Suite 605 San Francisco, CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.feedster.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center, 3rd Floor Cambridge, MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.onfolio.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St., Suite 900 Austin, TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.pluck.com PubSub Concepts, Inc. 64 Fulton Street, Seventh Floor New York, NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.pubsub.com Rojo Networks, Inc. 795 Folsom St., First Floor, San Francisco, CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.rojo.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.V., Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden, Nederland Tel: +31.715135858 http://www.rssreader.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla, Coldbrook Business Corp. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10, P.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland http://www.feedzilla.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive, Building K Mountain View, CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.mozilla.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.microsoft.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 200 2nd Ave. South #358 St. Petersburg, FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.org JotSpot, Inc. 167 Hamilton Ave, 2nd Floor Palo Alto, CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.jot.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto, California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.com 332 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics, 24, 25, 26, 60, 62, 69, 70, 76, 115, 120, 129, 131, 138, 139, 154, 216, 218, 246, 251, 252, 254, 255, 257 Adaptive systems, 18, 19, 33, 36, 46, 47, 51, 67, 110 Adobe, 25, 26, 57, 60, 91, 128, 217, 279, 284, 285, 305 Advantages of e-learning, 3, 46, 78, 174, 221, 230, 246, 250, 275 Affective computing, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 45, 125, 277 Agents, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 31, 35, 111, 209 Air display, 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC), 5, 65, 66 AJAX, 155 Ambient computing, 7, 154, 161, 179, 261 Animation, 24, 25, 26, 27, 61, 69, 129, 218, 255 Architectures, 3, 4, 9, 44, 83, 85, 138, 161, 162, 177, 230 Artificial Intelligence, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 40, 43, 111, 125, 168, 176 assessment, 117 Assessment, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 64, 101, 118, 123, 161, 184, 198, 220 Audio, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 63, 64, 66, 85, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 148, 162, 185, 187, 200, 204, 205, 227, 231, 242, 243, 244, 259, 266 Augmented reality, 183, 235, 246, 247, 248 Authoring tools, 25, 26, 32, 33, 46, 47, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 104, 105, 121, 217, 218, 251, 289 Authorware, 60 Avatars, 17, 69, 70 barcodes, 221 Bayesian probability, 22, 28, 31, 32, 37, 111 Blogs, educational, 34, 55, 56, 67, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 86, 97, 105, 106, 116, 118, 143, 148, 149, 150, 156, 157, 159, 164, 165, 174, 175, 186, 201, 202, 225, 226, 230, 231, 232, 235, 236, 241, 242, 244, 251, 255, 259, 264, 266, 269, 270 Boolean searches, 199 Brandon Hall Research, 2, 3, 4, 59, 67, 68, 117, 140, 142, 188, 194, 215, 230, 241, 250, 266, 268 Broadband, 54, 245 Browsers, 25, 61, 64, 67, 76, 77, 84, 87, 89, 93, 98, 176, 177, 217, 224 Cell phones, 97, 120, 151, 161, 162, 221, 241, 244, 264 Classroom response systems, 78, 79, 80 Clickers, 78, 80 Cognition, 28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 45, 48, 120, 122, 146, 177, 250, 258 cognitive collage, 250 cognitive maps, 250 collaboration, 29, 82, 83, 86, 87, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 110, 120, 143, 156, 160, 161, 173, 184, 201, 202, 209, 224, 225, 226, 246, 247, 260, 268, 269, 275 Collaboration, 3, 61, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 111, 118, 138, 156, 172, 174, 185, 188, 190, 199, 201, 209, 226, 228, 230, 247, 248, 268, 296, 299 Collaborative writing wiki, 268 Communications Tools, 51, 82, 87, 88, 89, 97, 98, 155, 156, 209, 242, 259, 266, 274 Communities of practice, 184, 230 Competency Tracking, 100, 101, 102, 103 Complexity theory, 108, 163, 217, 250, 275 Computer based assessment, 45 Content management, 90, 104, 105, 106, 142, 184 Conversational learning, 18, 97, 161 Cooperation, 22, 96, 114 cybercartography, 250 Dashboards, 253 Data mining, 28, 29, 107, 108, 109, 113, 199 334 © 2006, Brandon Hall Research Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems, 33, 109, 111, 112, 113 Deep Web, 200 Design, 3, 6, 12, 15, 21, 32, 34, 44, 48, 59, 62, 66, 68, 70, 73, 77, 92, 97, 104, 115, 121, 128, 135, 145, 148, 160, 174, 186, 192, 194, 220, 252, 254, 255, 257, 258, 261, 262 Digital Ink and Paper, 114, 115, 134, 135, 136, 275 Director, 60 Displays, 5, 78, 80, 91, 114, 115, 134, 136, 152, 191, 199, 205, 215, 224, 227, 231, 233, 247, 250, 251, 253, 254, 275 Distributed systems, 3, 4, 8, 83, 92, 104, 120, 138, 155, 156, 158, 161, 171, 179, 224, 246, 248, 260 Dreamweaver, 60 dynamic displays, 250 e-Commerce, 31 Emotional design, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 29 e-Portfolios, 7, 10, 45, 117, 118, 119, 174, 236 e-Science, 211 evaluation, 45, 117 Experiential learning, 215 Expert systems, 28, 31, 111 Extreme learning, 192, 193 Facial recognition, 12, 18, 30, 125, 217 Federated searches, 206 Findability, 151 FireFox, 76 Flash, 24, 25, 26, 27, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 70, 128, 189, 192, 194, 217, 250, 287, 323 Folksonomies, 158, 159, 228, 267 formative assessment, 45 Frameworks, e-learning, 3, 5, 9, 31, 32, 43, 96, 99, 102, 120, 139, 171, 198, 210, 257 FrontPage, 59 Fuzzy Logic, 39, 108, 244 Games, 3, 33, 65, 69, 114, 120, 121, 122, 123, 151, 170, 193, 205, 215, 217, 219, 222, 230, 241, 246, 274, 275, 305 Geocaching, 151 Geographic Information System (GIS), 151, 152, 153, 154, 250, 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS), 151, 254 Gesture recogntion, 12, 19, 30, 115, 125, 126 GIF graphic format, 24, 25, 65 Google, 73, 84, 98, 129, 152, 199, 201, 202, 207, 208, 242, 243, 259, 267, 320 graphics, 250 Graphics, 2, 24, 61, 62, 64, 90, 128, 129, 132, 135, 139, 192, 246, 250, 251, 255, 256, 257 Grid computing, 4, 5, 9, 23, 104, 170, 209 Handwriting recognition, 134 Haptics, 125, 131, 132, 133, 134 Head mounted displays, 114, 134 Healthcare applications, 48, 203, 205 History, 1, 54, 76, 113, 153, 177, 196, 199, 204, 216, 239, 252, 273 Human-centered computing, 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI), 15, 134, 262 Hybrid systems, 10, 30, 87, 104, 106, 155, 156, 157 Hype in e-learning, 211, 276 images, 250 Immersive environments, 114, 132, 215, 238, 246, 251, 306 Individualization, 273 Informal learning, 10, 119, 199 Informatics, 21, 28, 34, 236, 278 Infrared tags, 78, 221, 222 Innovation in e-Learning, 7, 76, 80, 82, 94, 122, 138, 155, 223, 228, 250, 273, 276 Instant messaging, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 97, 98, 161, 170, 185, 188, 237, 238 Intelligent tutoring, 12, 17, 18, 19, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 40, 43, 110, 111, 112, 145, 167, 168, 169, 176 Interface devices, 26, 28, 62, 71, 72, 86, 92, 126, 127, 128, 134, 135, 139, 167, 170, 184, 203, 218, 222, 247, 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), 5, 6, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 273 Interoperability, 5, 46, 118, 145, 155, 158 iPod, 54, 55, 56, 242 Knowledge base wiki, 268 Knowledge management, 72, 77, 159, 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki, 268 latent semantic analysis, 45, 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), 31, 43, 45, 47, 169 Learning Content Management Systems, 59, 65, 104, 105, 138, 141, 142, 311 Learning Management Systems, 22, 47, 59, 60, 63, 64, 65, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 120, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 156, 162, 174, 175, 184, 234, 308, 309, 311, 312 learning object model, 145 learning object repository, 145 Learning Objects, 5, 32, 59, 66, 104, 145, 146, 147, 148, 158, 177, 182, 192 Lecturing, 55, 63, 64, 78, 79, 91, 148, 178, 187, 188, 189, 197 Legacy materials, 100, 192 Libraries, 20, 32, 33, 36, 80, 86, 101, 118, 119, 144, 146, 147, 158, 164, 166, 172, 174, 182, 185, 186, 201, 219, 227, 230, 244, 270, 271, 274, 275 Live Presentations and Webinars, 318 Location based tools, 4, 73, 82, 151, 152, 154, 161, 162, 163, 171, 209, 221, 222, 224, 227, 230, 237, 238, 250, 254, 261 Macromedia, 24, 25, 27, 60, 61, 91, 105, 128, 187, 189, 190, 195, 217, 280, 294, 318, 323 mapping, 250 Mashups, 3, 104, 155, 156, 157 Medical applications, 40, 111, 112, 131, 147, 187, 189, 202, 203, 218 Metacognition, 32 Metadata, 5, 82, 145, 158, 159, 160, 171, 209, 224, 314 Meta-search engines, 199, 200, 204, 205, 206 Microformats, 209 Microlearning, 192, 193 Microsoft, 55, 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 76, 79, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 105, 120, 121, 129, 135, 136, 152, 171, 185, 254, 259, 289, 298, 300, 305, 306, 317, 321, 330, 332 Microworlds, 123, 196, 197, 215, 218 M-learning, 161, 164, 165 Mobile computing, 7, 135, 151, 154, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 221, 244, 247, 261, 262, 274, 315 Motion Graphics, 24 Museums, 151, 152, 177, 178, 179, 183 Navigation, 64, 90, 151, 177, 192 Networks, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 31, 44, 54, 85, 111, 171, 177, 201, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 242, 254, 255 Neural networks, 28, 31, 125 Ontologies, 32, 38, 42, 52, 158, 159, 209, 210, 224, 227, 228 Optical tags, 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language, 209 pattern recognition, 250 Pedagogy, 3, 5, 17, 18, 19, 20, 97, 106, 145, 146, 193, 219, 241, 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P), 82, 85, 99, 139, 162, 170, 171, 172, 173, 186, 230, 241, 243, 244, 246, 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 151, 161, 177, 221, 241, 264 Personal learning environments (PLE), 174, 175, 176 Personalization, 3, 6, 17, 28, 30, 32, 33, 55, 88, 107, 117, 145, 155, 159, 161, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 210 Pervasive computing, 7, 12, 115, 158, 159, 161 Podcasting, 5, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 163, 245, 260, 273, 284 Portals, 138, 184, 186, 210 PowerPoint, 59 Presentation tools, 5, 6, 10, 52, 66, 95, 109, 110, 139, 159, 160, 175, 179, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 198, 211, 235, 260, 267, 273, 290, 318 Privacy, 12, 13, 108, 151, 221 Project management, 72, 83, 84, 89, 90, 193 Projectors, 114, 115, 134 Proximity tools, 151 Quizzes, 45, 47, 61, 62, 63, 92, 93 Radio, 54, 72, 73, 78, 170, 221, 222, 223, 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID), 179, 221, 222, 223 Rapid e-learning, 5, 6, 27, 61, 62, 64, 65, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 273, 287, 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning, 145 Repositories, 7, 10, 104, 119, 145, 146, 148, 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF), 209, 212, 214 résumés, 117 Reusability, 60, 145, 146, 147, 149, 150, 194, 212 reusable learning objects, 145 Robotics, 125, 196, 197, 198, 319 Role-playing, 62, 69, 120, 215, 216, 217, 218 Scenarios, 33, 215, 218 Science, 32, 33, 112, 113, 143, 147, 152, 164, 170, 180, 196, 216, 219, 252, 281 SCORM, 145 Screencasting, 72, 187, 188, 190, 241 Search engines, 73, 76, 109, 139, 158, 167, 174, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 226, 242 Security, 12, 85, 151, 156, 221 self-evaluation, 45 Semantic Web, 31, 38, 43, 45, 47, 52, 159, 160, 169, 171, 206, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 251 Serious games, 120, 122, 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA), 3, 4, 8, 9, 51, 138, 155, 156 sharable content objects, 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), 5, 9, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 145, 148, 261 Shockwave, 24, 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), 5, 10, 106, 155, 156, 157 Simulations, 3, 12, 18, 19, 26, 33, 45, 46, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 69, 97, 114, 120, 121, 123, 193, 196, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 246, 255 Single-user wiki, 268 Skypecasting, 187 Smart labels and tags, 179, 221 Social bookmarking, 76, 81, 158, 174, 199, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 264 Social networking, 81, 119, 202, 230, 231, 232, 233, 236, 268 Social networking analysis (SNA), 231, 232 Speech recognition, 167, 169 Streaming video, 241, 244 summative assessment, 45 Symbology tags, 221, 222 Tag clouds, 155 Tagging, 159, 201, 221, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 242, 268 Tags, 86, 115, 152, 158, 203, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 244 Tangible computing, 134, 254 Taxonomies, 4, 45, 46, 49, 158, 159, 160, 209, 224 Team management, 84 Telephony, 97, 98, 259, 260 Telepresence, 97, 237, 238, 240, 241 Television, 241, 242, 243, 244, 274 Tests, 2, 33, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 62, 63, 100, 138, 176, 192 Thin clients, 76 T-Learning, 241, 244 Tours (online), 151, 183, 275 Translation, 167, 171, 255 Turing Test, 28 Ubiquitous computing, 10, 12, 119, 154, 261 Usability, 15, 16, 75, 117, 137, 139, 247 Video, 5, 6, 27, 57, 65, 127, 134, 190, 202, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 273, 302, 327 Videocasting, 241 virtual classroom, 187 Virtual classrooms, 187, 189, 195 Virtual learning environments, 142, 143, 174 Virtual reality, 165, 246 Visualization, 2, 5, 55, 60, 128, 158, 201, 222, 224, 226, 238, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 275 Vlogs, 241 Vodcasting, 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), 5, 6, 88, 97, 259, 260, 273, 331 Wearable computing, 7, 134, 151, 161, 261, 262, 263, 275, 331 Web conferencing, 187, 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS), 76, 98, 208, 225, 226, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 332 Webcasting, 187, 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars, 187 Whiteboards, 84, 87, 90, 97, 114, 115, 116, 134, 135, 136, 137, 174, 184, 307 Wikipedia, 77, 156, 233, 268, 269, 270 Wikis, 5, 6, 80, 86, 232, 233, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 332 Woodill, Gary, 1, 3, 10, 53, 59, 68, 103, 104, 106, 157, 256, 276 Word, 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 82, 168, 209, 214 Do Not Reproduce 338
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