Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

” The word comes from the Latin lectura. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. the raising of hands. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. with rows. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. the classroom became industrialized. Technologies are any technique. Do Not Reproduce 1 . is a 2000 year old “technology. and recess. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. and language for communication. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. that lecturing. as books were scarce. material. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. still used in many institutions of higher education. Learning became standardized and linear. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. They are. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. for example. Medieval universities followed the same practice. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. class periods. detentions. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. We tend to forget. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. With these reforms. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. The modern classroom. “things that make us smart. or “reader. But learning technologies have a much longer history. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. to quote Donald Norman (1993).” Starting in the first century AD. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. fire for warmth and cooking. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. or device that extends human abilities.

it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. linear teaching techniques online. At the same time. Schools were started to teach accounting. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. For example. A third way to learn is by seeing. 2 © 2006. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Sadly. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. and reciting. in fact. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. memorizing. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. even if the originator of the words is not present. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. When a new technology is introduced. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. When a new technology first comes into use. Students in these schools learned by reading. changing the practice of teaching. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies .” Similarly. Brandon Hall Research . there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar.” In 1970.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Like all new technologies. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. moving pictures (films).just the ability to follow an example. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Thomas Watson. chairman of IBM. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. There are. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). many different ways to learn. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Eventually.

An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. To realize these advantages. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. sometimes referred to as a mashup. and standards.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. However. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . 2006). it needs to adhere to architectures. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. Rather than pages. as this is a non-technical guide. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. 2006). Do Not Reproduce 3 . Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. frameworks. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. AT&T was given what would become the Internet.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Rather than pages. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information.

decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.fr/publicatio n. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic.free. 4 © 2006. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable.php). with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. January.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. 2005. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.grid. Number 3. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. Brandon Hall Research .

Major specifications for e-learning.org). …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. At the same time.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. taken together. In particular. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.ieee. http://ltsc.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). http://www.aicc. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. http://www. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. In Europe. enabling the search for content. presentation and interactive environments.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.adlnet.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. and makes extensive use of XML. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.accessgrid. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. http://imsproject.elframework. research. At the same time.oclc.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. and education administration.imsglobal. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). http://sourceforge. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.org) has a number of published documents that. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. Do Not Reproduce 5 . http://purl. interactive learning components.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.

E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. While packaged courses still have a place. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.” In late 2005. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. This is especially true for adult education. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. As Anderson (2004. Instead of just providing courses. Rather. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. 2006) has argued. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. In business. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.is based on open. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. Brandon Hall Research .” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. Instead. For example. Instead. reinforces this theme. Moreover. 2004).” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. “[a] pull economy . the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. 6 © 2006. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Bollier says. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. They noted that “…in education.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute.

often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Thus. McClatchey. M.. M. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. ambient networks. Ahmad. 41(2).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China.pdf Anderson. Do Not Reproduce 7 . the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti... http://arxiv. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). (2005). Because this research report is meant as a reference work. Chris (2004).html Anderson. M. Umer. Odeh. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. those learners are now keeping their own records. G. online resources. Italy. (2005). Wired Magazine. F. Ali.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. Reggiani. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. June 2005.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. Bryan (2006). http://www. User-created content. http://www. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.idi.DC/0502051 Alexander. March/April 2006. In the last chapter. Five years ago. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. Milan. and a bibliography. and wearable computers. 12(10).wired. http://www.. Web 2. 10/tail. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies.ntnu. R. New York: Hyperion. 2005). Zanichelli.amazon. Chris (2006). I hope you will find it useful. mobile devices. along with selected examples. October. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.org/abs/cs. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. R. A. Bibliography Abbas... M. From this. the reader can approach any topic in any order.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. Cardiff..com/wired/archive/12.educause. http://www. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. and Conte. Z. Wales. Bertolazzi. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. The Long Tail. F.. UK. is becoming commonplace.

Hornig. Portugal. (2002).. Dec.pdf Friesen. and Votis. 19.Dev Shed...bcs. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Brandon Hall Research . V..athabascau.ca/softeval/report s/R110203. Sept.pdf Erl. Switzerland.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1.iadis. and McGinnis (2004). (2001). Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Online. Montreal.htm Bollier. 13. 6-8. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .. Centre for Distance Ed. R. http://ru6. and McGreal. http://cde. (2002). Jagadish (2004). http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Web Services .a sp Chatarji.aspeninstitute. M. Madison. 14-16. Porto.ca/protocols_en. (1996).cti. http://ewic.amazon. 2004. Tsiatsos.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. T.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti. K. Chrysostalis. American Jrnl. 2001. http://www. N. 4-36. http://www. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Likothanassis.. M. 2002. S. Athabasca University. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Aug.devshed. Lausanne. C. Norm (2006).virtual. http://www. WI. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services.ICALT 2001.cscsi. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. Upper Saddle River.pdf Cerri. March 2002. http://www.cancore. International E-Learning Specifications. 2004. http://www. David (2005). Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. C. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.htm l 8 © 2006. Oct.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. T. Weiss. 16.. 2.edu/pdf/ajde.org/celda2005/index. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. 13-16.gmu. N. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. USA.pdf Bogonikolos. G. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)..gr/ru6/publications/95795 23.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Stefano (2005). Thomas (2004).com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.. Nov. http://www. K. of Distance Education 10. Giotopoulos. Triantafillou.

28 April 2004. C.infoworld. Lausanne. Stuttgart. (2005).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc. Infoworld. http://www. W. J. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.gov. and Zhang. Sept. January 2005.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1.. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://ewic.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1.1109/CIT.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . Germany. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). and Geys. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids. http://csdl2.html Hockemeyer. ThoughtWorks White paper. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. SCORM and the Learning Grid. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . 2002 http://ewic.act.S. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment.bcs.htm Hohpe.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. 1026-1032. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.pdf Knorr. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Perth.bcs.amazon. R.ascilite. and Albert. Sept. Switzerland.pdf He.xml. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Cambridge. J.johnhagel. for the Australian Dept.unikarlsruhe.com/paper_pushpull . I. A field guide to software as a service.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel. Hao (2003).det. J.pdf Norman.html Kong.xml. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. MA: Perseus.org. (2003). and Brown. and Vossen. V. Green. (2002). E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. J. D.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. http://www.pdf Neumann.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall. Stephen (2004). T. and Putland.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2. Luo. Education.aifb. (2005). F.200 5.. and Borck. E. http://www. 2003. L. 30.56 Marshall.c om/docs/SOA_World. Working paper. http://www.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies.com. J. (2005).pdf Millea. 27 . http://www. (2004). Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.computer. G..com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa. http://www. Australia. (2005). Proceedings. G. Donald (1993). of Education and Training..au Limited. http://www. 2005. http://www. April 18. Erlanger. Gregor (2005).xml&DOI=10.

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and a bibliography for each section. online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Do Not Reproduce 11 . allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. selected elearning related examples. Included are related terms. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.

facial recognition. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. security. gestures. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. SRI Consulting (http://www.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. keystroke patterns.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. understand. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al.” (Anolli.sricbi. in Italy. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. 2005). computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. confused.. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. emotions. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. 2005). and react to human emotions. and to respond to them effectively. Brandon Hall Research . and react to human emotions. privacy. posture. too. or sad. emotional design.. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. For example. 12 © 2006. Without the ability to understand emotions. In online therapy. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. et al. understand.

and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. UK. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.unitrier. UK. October 22-24. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. bibliographies. 2005. Affective Computing. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. Check it out at: http://www. Access it from: http://www.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.nsma.bham.informatik. and legality. Hatfield. See the links at: http://emotion.aisb. China. listing many links to interesting resources. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.convo.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. April 12-15.de/link/affective_p ortal.myself-proj.media.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.co. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.cs. University of Hertfordshire. See: http://www.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. with many resources. Do Not Reproduce 13 .bartneck. 2005.arizona.mit.org. Dr. are available online: http://www. accuracy.edu/emotion.html In Germany.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. including studies of emotions in computers. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.unige. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.ac.

it/~lhci/009. (2005). M. O. Iwamura.. April 2-7. Balestra.sics. F. Oregon.sics. L. and Laaksolahti..se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau.doc Hook.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour. and Morishima. Realdon. Vermersch. Brandon Hall Research .1 2/love.stanford. Erlbaum..sics. April 2-7. 2005. and Waterworth. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. C. April 2-7. K. D. Brassac. Wired Magazine.doc Chateau. P. 2005. September 13.. (2005). CHI 2005 conference. CHI 2005.. and Confalonieri (2005). Portland. H. and Zancanaro. and Merisol. http://www. Y.html Fallman....se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye... Graziola. NJ. S. R. B. Nass.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook.. Joseph (2005)..pdf 14 © 2006.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. http://www. Oregon. J. I Like It . B.. M. Oregon. A. Portland. J. Isbister. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. April 2-7. Oregon. Issue 11/12. Rocchi. J.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. Bouraoui.dis. CHI 2005. The Love Machine: building computers that care. Salembier. I. 2005. and Zouinar. (2005). Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.com/wired/archive/11. Pachoud. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www... N. http://www. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction..se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. L. D. (2005). Yamada. Z. Portland. Brave.pdf Cahour.. M. Oregon. http://www. December. CHI 2005 conference.. (2005).sics. CHI 2005 conference. Portland. H. 2005 http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. David (2003). http://www. J. O.sics. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. V...sics. April 2-7. K. CHI 2005 conference. F. M. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Zurloni. (2005).pdf Kaye.pdf Diamond. Mantovani.uniroma1. Nakajima.pdf Maldonado. Portland. P. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. K. Vescovo. C. Agliati.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. Oregon.. C. A. Pianesi. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Goren-Bar. Stock. Lee. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. http://www. April 2-7. Nortillaro.wired.

M.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.pdf Mentis. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. Gerd (1998). New York: Basic. and Ishizuka. (2004). CHI 2005.ruebenstrunk. Beijing. 2005. Regan (2005). T. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2002). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Computing. China. (2005).utokyo. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Tan. Cambridge.sics.pdf Ruebenstrunk. (2005).iste. CHI 2005 conference. ACII 2005. OR. J. 2005. 35(2).t.com/gp/product/3 http://www. http://www.de/emeocom p/content.sics. http://www. http://www.htm Tao. MA: MIT. http://www. http://www.sics. Helena (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. R. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. October 22-24.ac.amazon. and Daily. M.HTM Steele. 2005.pdf Norman. http://www. Oregon.amazon.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. Portland. CHI 2005. Donald A. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. S. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Affective Springer.. and Steele.elearningreviews.miv. R. and Picard. April 2-7. Miami. S.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. Portland. Oregon. http://www. 2002. Berlin: Picard. Portland.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. Rosalind (1997). April 2-7.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. E-book http://www. Dec.pdf Masum.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. 22. J. (2005). May 26.

uk/research/cog aff/Wright. http://www.thesis. 2005. Charlotte (2005). April 2-7. Emotional Agents. http://www. CHI 2005 conference.pdf 16 © 2006. Doctoral Dissertation. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg.cs.doc Wright.bham. University of Birmingham. Affective Computing vs. Oregon.Affective Computing Wiberg.ac. Ian (1997). Brandon Hall Research . Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.

of the University of Goteberg in Sweden.gu. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. For example. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site.. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. benevolence. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. 1999). In this context. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. veracity. 2004). autonomous agents. Third. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. and. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Fourth.informatik. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). avatars. and many of them can actually learn. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Second. First. proactive (goal directed). and both may be found in the same program (for example. rationality. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Dick Stenmark. learning/adaptation. see the paper by Far et al. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Do Not Reproduce 17 . 1999).

they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. not only about environments. Brandon Hall Research . A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Mentor. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. useful in educational simulations.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. 2005. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Katzlberger. 2005). However. Baldi. and the students had to continue to teach her. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. A second agent in the simulation. She made mistakes. but also about other agents. Viswanath. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Therefore. 2000). The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Even though each agent acts independently. 18 © 2006. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. In such situations. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. (1998) developed a conversational agent. therefore. Agents have beliefs. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Massaro et al. et al. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. acting against other teams of agents. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. 2004) and are.

The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.codebaby.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.editlib. and expert guides. http://www.uka.de/bibliography/Ai /agents.netobjectdays. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. A.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.org/index. Hypermedia. but also about other agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs. See: http://www. not only about environments. For details of this research: http://www. (2003). expert role-players.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. See: http://www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.. Do Not Reproduce 19 . See: http://liinwww. They are available as adaptive coaches. See the article by Williams et al.old.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.liv. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. 459462.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.fsu.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. go to: http://ritl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.extempo.redwoodelearning.editlib. and Telecommunications 2003.stanford.ira.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.com/ CodeBaby Corp. & Ebbers. go to: http://ldt.isi.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Go to: http://www.org/index. Therefore.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. (2004): http://www. For details see: www.ac. S.csc. See a demo at: http://www.

Educause Quarterly. http://www. Ng.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. W. http://www.org/index. 2005. & Kim. (2005). (2000). July. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. A.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao. http://www. C. J. Johnson.editlib.org/index. 5(7). The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. 1353-1356. G. Sun. & Johnson. L.. Y..cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.. G. G. and Palopoli. 10 (3).editlib.. Z.org/index. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. (2002).).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. G.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Zahia (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. Inter-active Learning Res. 1503-1506.org/newdl/index. 28(2).old.. A. 3. 267-286 http://www. Germany. (2003). M.Agents Baylor.editlib. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Norfolk. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). & Lin. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.pdf Jafari.. e-Learning 2005. Paper presented.org/index..ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. and Shaw. 11(3). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. 275-285.. G. In Richards. http://www.cfm?fusea ction=Reader. & Bengu. Educause Quarterly.. (Ed.educause. http://www. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.pdf Kao. http://www.editlib. Erfurt. Proceedings.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. Ali (2002).aace. E. (2002). Elan. B.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.pdf Guessoum.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. http://csdl. L. & El-Khouly. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. (2005).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. S. No. Large Complex Systems.netobjectdays. W.educause. http://www. 306-311).. S. Hypermedia. J. http://www. Y.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523.pdf Clarebout.. VA: AACE. S. and Tsang. Clarebout. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Koono.org/index. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). (2002). Brandon Hall Research .. ELearning 2003.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro.computer. In Proceedings. 75-80. (1999). Jrnl.

Doctoral dissertation.aifb. In Proceedings. TN. U. C.cse.editlib. and Ferneley.amazon. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. http://www.edu/fil/ Padgham.editlib. V. Doctoral Dissertation.amazon. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.org/16948 Leelawong. http://www.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. 1999. P. 1632.K. E-Learning 2003. Fuhua Oscar (2005). O. In Proceedings.de/BIK/vpa/109. http://dl.pdf Kim. Learning by Teaching Agents. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. A. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Toulouse.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.pdf Lin. 143-162. and Winikoff.aace. Beskow. (1999).com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Nashville. Tennessee. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Krittaya (2005).teachableagents.pdf Luengo. R. Y. and Stucky. 21-38.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. W. http://www. Cohen. International Journal on E-Learning. IFIP WG12. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. (2004). J. France. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. D.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. (2006).ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. of California.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. L.ogi.. and Ho. New York: John Wiley & Sons. V. http://www. M..cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. ED-MEDIA. E.org/index.informatics. http://www. http://www.. Daniel. Sandel. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.pdf Menczer. Vanderbilt University. S. www. Vanderbilt University. 4(1). www.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. August. 17(2).teachableagents.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. www.. Thomas (2005). (2005). http://cslu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. and Cole.5 .org/index. Doctoral Dissertation. 16591666.indiana.unikarlsruhe. Nashville. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Hershey. M.

(2005). M. N.. Brandon Hall Research ..aace.lib.org/index. Proceedings.. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. R. Adebiyi. & Leelawong.edu/565321. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.editlib.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Ferat (2000). H. St. Peter (1998). http://www.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. G.org/index.. In P..teachableagents. and Núñeza. L.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Doctoral Dissertation. (2005). G. Doctoral Dissertation. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. 61-65.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. Kommers & G. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. 1999.editlib. K.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. ED-MEDIA 2005. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). http://dl. http://www. Proceedings. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. D.utexas. (2005). R. Wesley. K. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. L. 10 (3).psu. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS).ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. In Proceedings. (2004). Healthcare.vt. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. J.ist. 3169-3176. Richards (Eds. Government. J. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.). ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov.org/index. Biswas.cs. and Solomon.org/papers/ 158bis. http://www.html Shim. S. June 1-4. ED-MEDIA 2004. 14(1). M. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. B.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno.. http://www. (1999). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Pittsburgh. (1999). and Higher Education 2004.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.org/index. EDMedia 2005.editlib.org/16968 Sahin. Russia. 47-59. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.pdf Williams. http://scholar. http://citeseer. 321-333. PA. In Richards. S.editlib. (Ed. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.. (2004). 30003002. Atreya. http://www.. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. 194-201. http://www.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. & Lim. 14151420. Gilbert.org/newdl/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. Petersburg. Carnegie Mellon University. & Madsen. M. Finland.Agents Perez.aace. (2004). & Booth. G.

http://ca. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.wiley. http://research.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X. Paper at CLAG2004. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. April 18-21. 2004.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 . Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.html Yan. New York: John Wiley & Sons.upc. Michael (2002). (2004). Chicago. Chun.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.ac.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce

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(2003). Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. rather than using a single type of knowledge. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. objects. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. Talking Head Tutor vs.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. etc) and how they are interrelated. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. Do Not Reproduce 30 . they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. concepts. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. While many systems purport to be personalized. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. 2002). They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.e. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. gestures.

http://lsa.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.di. including student monitoring. (2005a. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.iit.uic.cs. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.colorado.. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.cs..colorado. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.” http://www.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. http://www.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. and multiagents.cs.unito. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “.uregina.” http://www. ecommerce.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. see: http://lsa.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Do Not Reproduce 31 .edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.” http://www.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.

Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. Brandon Hall Research .it.enel.uc3m. http://www. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.edu.library.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. http://quantumsimulations.” http://www.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.leaonline. http://www.kicinger. http://ariic.” http://ctat.sinica. http://bach. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. 32 © 2006.edu.ht ml To achieve their goals. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.infrature.com/index.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.com/doi/pdf/10.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.pact. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. http://www.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. question answering (QA) techniques. http://www.cmu.unsw.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.iis. Infrature.pdf Oguejiofor et al. As a result.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.gast.cs. and INFOMAP.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.ucalgary.

so that these systems become more realistic.com/s10.stottlerhenke. Inc. The reality is that.it.cs. Task Tutor Toolkit .htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. and learning style. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.” http://www.pact.virtuelage.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.cmu.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. without programming. and an interactive intelligent tutor.ke-corp. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic . preferred cadence.cs.cmu. an adaptive testing algorithm. skill gaps. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.gemini. http://www. Aurora .A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. Find out more at: http://ctat. Do Not Reproduce 33 . taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. http://pact. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.edu. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. challenging. and engaging. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.usyd. intelligent conflict resolution.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . http://www. Stottler Henke Associates.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. see: http://www.

ca/eng/in dex. For more information.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education. China. go to: http://aied. Taiwan.org/cfp. with the next one in 2007. Find it at: http://www.masternewmedia.licef.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.org/2000/fe b2000/ong. http://www. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.uquebec.” Learn more at: http://www.inf. Brandon Hall Research .Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.autotutor. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. http://www.its2006.uk/aiedsoc. Read it at: http://www.ucalgary.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.ed.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. The AIED conferences are held every two years.ed.enel.aaai.org/AITopics/html/tutor.teluq. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.inf.com/printer _friendly_article. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.ac.htm Marvin Minsky.cs.ac. 34 © 2006.technologyreview.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. See: http://www.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.learningcircuits.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. http://aied. For more info: http://www2.wpi.

Lester.eurodl..pdf Baldoni. http://www. J.unito. I. Eshaa (Ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). & F. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. Argamon. Brazil.2005. 6(1). S.. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.82 Bhatt. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.) (2006).pdf Alkhalifa.html Barker. R.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04.pitt. C.. PA: Idea. T. and Douglas.pdf Barcena. V. (2004).pdf Aleven.doi. S. (2004).cmu. M.sbg. (2005). Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. and Patti. and Evens.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.org/10.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.ri. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . (2002). http://www.wpi.edu/pubs/pub_4073.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . C.ac.di.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.iit.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit. Kort.amazon. B. G. http://lingcog. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. M.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read. and Read. K. Paraguaçu (Eds. K. and Koedinger. Baroglio.. Vicari. and Penstein Rosé.. http://nth. R. B. McLaren.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. In J. P. 22: 3–39. http://www. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. 482-487. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems.Volume I. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. Hermann (2002). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. http://dx. In Proceedings.. Artificial Intelligence Review. V.1109/ITCC. and Picard. Reilly. Mostow. E. (2004). C. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Chicago.. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. http://www. http://www. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. http://www. ITS 2004. Roll. R. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. M. V.).. Maceió.ht ml Aleven. (2004). Hershey.

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which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. 1956). practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. In a business situation. Do Not Reproduce 45 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). samples. are already available. and psychomotor. and documents for assessors to use. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. affective. quizzes. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. Assessment software can generate templates. computer mediated assessment (CMA). We can expect that. aptitudes. and output. quizzes. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. More sophisticated forms of automated. self-evaluation. online assessment. making it hard to escape assess-ment. rubrics. quizzes. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. for example. the automated scoring of essays. or performance samples. evaluation. computer-based assessment tools. once only done by a human assessor. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. in the near future. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). eassessment. computer based assessment (CBA).” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. For example. When combined into a “360° evaluation. or performance samples. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom.

See the site at: http://www. a customizable look and feel. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time.0. 46 © 2006. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. skills. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. See: http://www.info/lear ning/solo. see: http://www.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.xstreamsoftware. from Resources Management Services in the U..brainbench. and past work behaviors.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.K. preview pages for all question types.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment.com/redinq/html/inde x. has recently won awards for its performance. Find them at: http://www. multilingual support.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.redinq.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.testcraft. Review it at: http://www. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. http://www.questionmark. Brandon Hall Research .horizonwimba. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. and (4) computer marking. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. and adaptive question branching. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.com The Evaluator.com/evaluator Testcraft. a completely customizable report engine. For details. Try it at: http://nt. Diploma.rmsuk. personality. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. abilities. However.learningandteaching.

http://www. Try it at: http://www.flaguide. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 .com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.epistema.vantagelearning.respondus.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays.org/english/index. learning tools.com/wwwtools/magazin es. once only done by a human assessor.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. reporting. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.fasfind. http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).uc.dialang. institutional evaluation. See more at: http://www. and services useful for outcomes assessment. and adminis-tration features. http://www.” organized by academic discipline.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.ets.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. on its Web site.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. surveys. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. See: http://www.operitel. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. and self-study.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.org/ ETS. see: http://lsa. check out the Dialang web site.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.colorado.” See their offerings at: http://www. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.pedagogue. http://www. For information on latent semantic analysis. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. http://www. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.

with a list of 34 strategies.com/tools/rubric s.ulster.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.ac.discovery.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.au/assessi nglearning/03/online.nestafuturelab.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA.learnflex.cshe.htm 48 © 2006.thinkinggear.com/schrockguid e/assess.” http://www.heacademy.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.uk/home.ira.scit.uiuc.edu.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.000 different tests from its database.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.com/029. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. http://www. Obtain a copy at: http://www.tasainstitute. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. Check them out at: http://school. Brandon Hall Research . The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.oir. is available from: http://liinwww.org/research/ reviews/10_01. http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.economicsnetwork.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. Explore the links at: http://www. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.uka.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.com/useguide/as sessme/online.ac. http://www. http://www.unimelb.umuc.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.rmcdenver.ac.200 references.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.health. with over 1. http://cba.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.ac.wlv. http://www.

Gregory (1973). L. M. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.iltaonline. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. S. New York: McKay. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.info/learn ing/solo.ifets. Missouri. A. http://www.pdf Biggs.org/en/en_mod41. Educational Technology & Society. Pérez. J. R.3 Bateson. P.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. http://www.quintcareers. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.. S.tcet. New York: Academic Press.pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. London: Paladin. Online paper.amazon. (1956). G. Louis. http://www. 8 (3). http://www.. & Rodríguez.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.info/journals/8_3/6. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. McNamara. http://www. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.pdf Atherton.html Bibliography Alfonseca. http://www.com/career_asse ssment.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. (2001).com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. and Collis. T.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.. J. and O'Hagan. (2001). B.. D.unt. Carro. (1982). and Davies.iltaonline. Freire.ict4lt.. St.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. Online paper. A. Iwashita.. (2004). and Hirschman.amazon. James (2005). K.learningandteaching. T. 53-65. E. http://www.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. M. Ortigosa. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. http://www. http://www.htm Atkinson.amazon.htm#2. N. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. (2005). http://www.

). "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Hillsdale. 2005. K. B. and Knight. Chodorow. (2002). & Leacock. J. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Burstein.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. http://www. Linn (Ed.assess. http://www.com/Books/b39739.assess. Robert (2005). In R.Assessment Tools Brown J. http://www. In M.ets. L. Harabagiu and F. and Marcu.htm Burstein. (1989). Shermis and J. http://www. V.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke..amazon. In the R. Jill. Jill.amazon. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Kaplan (Ed. (2003).edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. www. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Martin. Inouye.eschoolnews. IL: Skylight. & Olsen. Jill.amazon. New York: Oxford. Daniel. Langu-age Learning and Technology.pdf. How to Assess Authentic Learning. (2003). Daniel. http://www. http://www.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. In S.. Ciravegna (Eds. 3rd Edition.computer. June 22.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York. http://www. NY: Macmillan.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Jill C.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Kevin (2003). (1997). Kay (1999).org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Arlington Heights.htm 50 © 2006. http://llt. In M. Marcu. M.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Brandon Hall Research .. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing.com/news/sho wStoryts.org/intelligent/archives. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.com/Books/b39739. (2003).msu. Shermis and J. J. Educational Measurement. C. August 2003.. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.ht m. Mexico. Burstein (Eds. eSchool News. C. Acapulco. Hillsdale. IEEE Intelligent Systems. Burstein (Eds. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. 1. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. D. Burstein. and Chodorow. Rethink testing for future success.

http://llt.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.iltaonline. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -.htm Cebrian. http://www.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). H. v. Y. (1999). (2001). Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. L. N.utas.. http://llt. March 9. The Student Assessment Handbook. K. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. (2001). Howard. London: Falmer.ecs. Louis. Foltz.ncte. http://eprints. http://wwwpsych. St.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. 5.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". n.soton.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. and Sclater. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.ac. Laham. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. and Grellett. Online newsletter. Online newsletter. C. & Landauer. Chalhoub-Deville.msu.hlc. P. Writing assessment: a position statement. http://www. College Composition and Communication Online. D. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (2004). 2. W. In Proceedings.html Davies.amazon. Micheline. E.html Chalhoub-Deville. B.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA.msu.Proceedings from a Workshop. T. University of Tasmania.unimelb. (1999). Loughborough.. http://www. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Davis.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. http://www.edu. (Ed. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. D.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult..au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. M. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. M. Board on Testing and Assessment. May. www. National Research Council. S. Language Learning and Technology. 2: 77-93. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. (2004). Nathan. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. W.pdf Dunkel P. O’Reilly. Language Learning & Technology 2. EdMedia '99. http://www. Language testing and technology: past and future..au/worldcall/str5. Millard. and Parry.doc. C. (1998).nmsu..nap.edu. Micheline. (2005).) (1999).html Do Not Reproduce 51 .edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Morgan. P..

Potenza. Howard (1993).Hershey. & Laham.kent. May. Lawrence.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey.colorado. and Watt.. New York: Basic Books.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. Gardner.pd f Kenyon.pdf Hricko. (1999). 2. (Eds.msu. and Malabonga. 25.htm. n.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. and Howell. (2001). A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.pdf Landauer. C. M. International Journal on E-Learning..LSAi ntro. W. (2001).msu. No. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. (Eds. J. Robert. France. (1998). P. http://www. Fremer. T.amazon. K. D. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. http://www. Y.gmu. Hillsdale. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . Language Learning and Technology. D. Online paper. Foltz. 4. http://llt.pdf MacDonlad.) (2002). v. M. 5. Weller. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. (2002)..edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. Language Learning and Technology. & Mason. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. and Ma. http://llt. http://www.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.html. Seven technologies for assessment. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. Patrick (2000). Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. http://www. M.amazon. http://mason. H.amazon..org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. W. J. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. 5(2). M. Discourse Processes..edu/papers/dp1. N. http://lsa. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. S. Howell. V. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. R (2002). (2005). PA: Information Science. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. May. Hardas.amazon.softwaresecure.) (2005). http://www.com/pdf/Pap erTests. Compiegne... http://www.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones. and Ward.medianet.html Khan. J.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones.proexam. 259284. http://www.

A. Operitel white paper. Mahwah. (2006). & Leacock. (Eds. 403-416. Journal of Technol. http://www. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Howell. Fitzgerald. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. C.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Howard. and Hricko.amazon.ed. Self. M. (2006). NY: Guilford Press. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Washington. PA: Information Science. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education.edu/cgi/viewconten t. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. M. McArthur. Graham.) (2000). pp. and Assessment. J. National Center for Education Statistics. S.amazon.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. K. Hershey. and Writing. (Ed. Measurement and Evaluations.amazon. Learning. (2000).gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.ed.. pdf Weiner.S. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. D. Information Science Publishing. http://escholarship. New York. & J. Burstein. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. M. Tim (2006). University of Gothenburg.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. Problem Solving. S.gov/pubs2000/2000195.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. http://www. B. http://nces..com Do Not Reproduce 53 . Online Assessment. and Gifford. (1979).. G.) (2005).. 4(6).bc. Handbook of writing research. Reports from the Institute of Education. DC: U. and Skinner. http://eric. R. D. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. http://www. http://www. In C. (2005). http://www. Government.operitel.

the quality of online audio has been greatly improved.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence.. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. is podcasting.e. (i. According to Crofts et al. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. which is gaining in popularity. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). or by “streaming. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . For example. while it is playing. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Brandon Hall Research . Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. the rest of the file has time to arrive. podcasting.5 megabytes. (2005). compared with even a few years ago. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. depending on the file size). including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. One audio application of interest to educators. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings.

http://www.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network..edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. open source software for recording and editing sounds. http://sourceforge.rds.e.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.com/blogs/doug/index.purdue. (i. It is available to download for Mac OS X. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. to personalized media). This frag-mentation is being fueled.envision. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. http://www. You can’t add your own notes. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.thepodcastnetwork.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. Provides another channel for material review. http://www. http://www. Microsoft Windows.apple. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. Assists non-native speakers. Do Not Reproduce 55 . such as those for iPods.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. GNU/Linux. in part. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners. and other operating systems.scientificcomputing. http://www. Provides feedback to learners. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.

htm For a list of podcasting tools.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. freeware.48. CD audio extraction. http://www. sound editing. enhancing.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. including software to record and play podcasts.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.htm RECAP Ltd.ltd. phrases.uk/podcasting/index. http://www.avsmedia. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.audiotoolsdirect.podcasting-tools.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.co. recording. http://www.edupodder. go to: http://www. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. 56 © 2006.masternewmedia. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. http://64.automaticsync. http://www. http://recap.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. and broadcasting are all found on this site.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.71. tools. including podcasting.com/resources/dc_medi a.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.ibritt. playback. DJ mixing. which is gaining in popularity. and utilities for conversion. or sentences from audio Web sites. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/lipsync/in dex. Audio and video software.com/AudioTools/in dex.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. http://www. shareware.elearningcentre. http://epnweb.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. Brandon Hall Research . is podcasting. http://www.com. http://www.

. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. University of Nebraska.htm Jobbings.cakewalk. (2005). and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). http://digitalcommons.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. Chesapeake.com/home.sonicfoundry.unl. A. Fox.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 . http://www. Luigi (2005). S.masternewmedia. http://firstmonday. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.multitrackstudio.. 417-419). Retsema. Healthcare. and Swenson.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts. In G.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. http://dl. 45-50. Brenda (2001).com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.editlib. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). (2003). VA: AACE. http://www. J. September. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Doctoral Dissertation. P. Dilley. Dave (2005).adobe. July 2005.. http://www.org/index.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. http://recap. Ray (2005). B. and Williams.aace.bias-inc. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. L. Scientific Computing World. Government. April 2005.html Canali De Rossi.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.html Bibliography Buhman.org/3455 Girvan. Richards (Ed. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.html Curtis.uk/articles/podguide.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.ltd. 2005. M. Dion Cory (1999). May 20. http://www.audiolink. 10(9).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Sound Sense.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.com/products/audition/ main.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.scientificcomputing. First Monday. Robin Good’s Blog.

Eva (2005). http://www.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Podcasts.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er.apple. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. http://edmarketing. and Lomas. Peter (2005). http://www. N. Brandon Hall Research . Learning Circuits. C.pdf Noakes. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. June 2005.educause. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.learningcircuits.

Design. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. and Evaluation) processes. please see http://www. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Do Not Reproduce 59 . 2005). and. (For details. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. In this vein. Implementation. simulations. Further. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Further.microsoft. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. No authoring tool does everything. shtml). in the end. As well. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. content development. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Development. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. either directly or with third party tools.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. see: http://www.brandonhall. either directly or with third party tools. rapid e-learning. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food).

com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. video.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint. XML.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. visualization.acroservices. http://www.Capture Station 2.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.adobe. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www.thinkingcap.activeslide.com Anark .htm ActiveSlide. video.accordent. www. music.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.Thinkcap Studio . http://www.allencomm. http://www. and images and turn them into 3-D training. go to: http://www.com/ Acroservices . http://www.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. and marketing applications.com Agile .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Do Not Reproduce 60 . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.articulateglobal.com/presenter. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.anark.info/ Allen Communications . Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. http://www.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.Designer’s Edge.Media – Import 3-D Models.com/products/ Articulate .

such as the following: Web. stand alone .com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.co. http://www.e2train.htm Composica . as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. CD Rom.com/eng/index. rich text.com/inde x. Do Not Reproduce 61 .com/in dex_eng.htm Bernard D&G .lersus.com/ Counterpoint . http://www.com/product s/Pro. pointers. http://www. Builds quizzes.ht m Brainshark Inc.ilessons.com/power point-presentations-index.php e2train .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.turbodemo. .A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.co.atlanticlink. audio. http://www. DVD-video. video.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.digitalworkshop. hotspots. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop .Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .bridge-pt.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.exe files.dynamicpowertrainer. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. http://www. video. http://www.Composica Enterprise .shtml Dynamic Media . Flash. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.Content Point . http://presentation. or Macromedia Flash media presentations. http://www.brainshark. pop-up messages. http://www.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming. Integrates various media.copycatsoftware.composica.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. and animation. http://www.uk/contentpoint. and PowerPoint slides. buttons.com/ Business Performance Technology .elearningpowertools.

Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.com Imaira Digital Media .eclipsys. graphics.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .sculptoris. and installation files. Import rich media and customize graphics.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .com/products/forceten. Post the characters on any Web site.com/index.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. and.experiencebuilders. http://www. http://www. http://www.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www.com No authoring tool does everything. html E-Learning Consulting . http://www.gen21. without programming knowledge. in the end.com/Solutions/Elear ning.elementk. Brandon Hall Research .elicitus.com/ Hunter Stone .com Element K . http://www.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation .e-learningconsulting.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. http://www. http://www.horizonwimba.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. 62 © 2006. http://www.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. http://www. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. http://www.com/ka. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.hunterstone. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.eedo. HTML courses. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.epistema.

shtml Itaca .Used to create presentations without programming skills. and animations with tests and interactivity.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www.ipsinc. Do Not Reproduce 63 .impatica.EasyProf .uk/ INTEC . http://www. http://www. http://www.seminar.elearninginabox. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.knowledgeplanet.knowledgepresenter.de/ Impatica .E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. Built-in testing engine.asp Knowledge Quest .lecturnity. combining multimedia content like video. http://www. http://www.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.pdf Intuition .intecllc.js p Knowledge Planet . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.knowledgextensions.com/home/home.intuition.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/flashh ome.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/ Information Transfer . with no programming and no plugins.ie/software/publisher.co. centralized knowledge base.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.com/pro dserv. audio.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. Word.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.easyprof.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.knowledgequest.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG .com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen.

customcourse. and other online presentations for play back to students.mindiq. .ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.com/index. Works with SAP Learning Solution. http://www.instant-demo.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.com . course publisher.mohive.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. http://www.screenwatch.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. http://www. http://www.learn. and course player all in one software package.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.uk/ MindIQ . http://www.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. PowerPoint slides. http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www.com/ OPTX International .maxit. http://www.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.ph p MindOnSite . http://www. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. with a built-in learning management system.maxit. 64 © 2006.com/tbt/dac/index. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.percepsys.htm MediaMaker .com/ Percepsys .CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.co. Ready-made button and navigation aids.mindonsite.Authoring Tools Learn.learnerland.com/coursegen. http://www.mckinnonmulherin.ch/eLearning/EN /index.com MyKnowledgeMap .LEARNERLand – Text. graphics. http://www.com/learncenter.com/ NetPlay Software .Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.

com Respondus . http://www. http://www.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.htm Suddenly Smart . and assessments.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.shtml Reusable Objects .com/ Scribe Studio . http://www. http://www.softchalk. When content is developed. http://www. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint. http://www. http://nuvvo. Do Not Reproduce 65 . http://www.Publisher Professional .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .In minutes.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. JPEGs.sensalearning.com/sensasol ution.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. Courses can be posted.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. Audio.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. customizable flashcards.suddenlysmart. image labeling.teknical. crosswords.E-Learning Objects . http://www.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.com/Products/elear ning_objects. http://www. http://www.pointecast.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games.scribestudio.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.net/ PointeCast .cfm Serco (technical) .respondus.reusableobjects.podia.podiaOnDemand . http://www. and Flash.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems. image hotspot activities.rapidintake.com Rapid Intake .net ReadyGo . GIFs.com/products/stud ymate.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.Nuvvo . matching games.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/ Qarbon .readygo. popups. without knowing code.qarbon.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. a customizable.com/ Savvica .or SCORMcompliant. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. interactive Flash presentations and online training. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.

http://www. images. or Spanish.Authoring Tools SumTotal . audio.php?from=menu SyberWorks .php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.toolbook. http://www.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. CD.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www. htm Techsmith .com/learn_assistant .Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.2conformant objects and assessments.htm time4you GmbH .com/products/lc.Presentation Studio . http://www.webex.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. Brandon Hall Research .de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start. and wizards.toolbook.time4you.com/camtasia. 66 © 2006. video. http://www.syberworks.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.westcliffdata.asp TrainVision .dol. http://www.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. and text. http://workforceconnections. content conversion.com/ US Government .h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.php?from=menu SumTotal .html Westcliff – SCObuilder. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.uk/index.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author .asp TEDS . templates.teds. French.trainvision. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.lectora. and rapid simulation.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www. http://www.com/learn_assistant .IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.techsmith. or Network. kiosks.com/product_sa.com/Technology.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. http://www.funeducation.co. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8. and highly interactive e-learning content. http://www.com/services/webpresentation-svc. http://www.gov/ Webex .

De Bra. D. M. and host online discussions. See: http://www..cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. www. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. and Riesbeck. P.editlib.oswego. S. Government. (2005). Illinois.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. publish blogs. McMullen. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. Melia. (2005). (2005). BC. Doctoral Dissertation.cs.com/products/products _xwb. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. Berlin: Springer. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). E. 2005. www. Evanston.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA).cs.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. C. http://www.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005.pdf Murray. http://www.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications..oswego.brandonhall.xstreamsoftware. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. E. http://www.org/index. (2003). http://www. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. http://www. T. and Brusilovsky. P.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. right in their browser with no additional software required. interactive and intelligent educational software. AACE. October 24-28.htm Zapatec . Canada.win. Healthcare. Do Not Reproduce 67 . S. http://www... L.bloki. and Pahl.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.tue. June 2005.amazon.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana .xplana. Blessing. Montreal.pdf Ramp.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. Lin (2005). C. Northwestern University. Vancouver.com/downloa d_rb40eval. and Ainsworth.

http://www2. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Another new paradigm for instructional design.htm Woodill. http://www. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. NL..pitt. 2004. Learning Circuits.sis. W. Learning Circuits. E. Brandon Hall Research . Reuben (2004). Sunnyvale. shtml 68 © 2006.htm Tozman.learningcircuits. A. The myth about tools.brandonhall.htm Tozman.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.edu/~paws/publicatio ns. Gary (2005).org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. http://www. June 2005.learningcircuits.Authoring Tools Ramp. Masters Thesis.com/publications/emerging/emerging. (2005). Reuben (2005). Eindhoven. Nov. Technical Univ. http://www.

Do Not Reproduce 69 . the avatar may represent an actual human being. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.” Maldonado et al. In the area of psychotherapy. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. In some situations. In the context of elearning. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. for example. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. in the broadest sense.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Similarly. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. and generally simulates human activity. games. especially in gamebased learning activities. but in e-learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.

the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.oddcast. http://www.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. Brandon Hall Research .html Online Resources In Europe.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. In the toolkit.redwoodelearning.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.co.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars.co. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.codebaby. http://www.sculptoris. http://www.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. http://blogoehlert.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. in cooperation with a number of groups.tmmy.” which are avatars that teach. Inc. http://www.telsim.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.vcom3d. Try them at: http://www. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.daden. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. See them in action at: http://www.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. 70 © 2006.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. http://www.exodus.knowledgeenvironments. See: http://www. offering a large number of supportive functions. modular application.typepad. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.

New Zealand. C.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.W.pdf Maldonado. M.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. www.pdf Seth. and T. Nakajima. Yamada. Y.. Suthers.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar.. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. http://www. Koschmann. Ahad.ac. J.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.stanford. S. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . Aug. and Nodder. eLearning Developers’ Journal. and Weber. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. D.naccq. 25. Chan (Eds. Raj (2003). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI. and Morishima.. Nexus Media. Nass. (2004). H.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 .. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. R. B. 2003.. A..nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. 2005. In T. www. K. (2005). C.. Lee.. H. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.Training Education & Education International Conference.elearningguild. Brave. (2005). S.. Iwamura.pdf Jung. http://isnm. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.

blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. if any. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood.” The Catalyst Group. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Similarly. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. screencasting. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. 72 © 2006. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. A form of online publishing. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. education. as the following examples show. video blogging. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. Few. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Brandon Hall Research . and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. who wrote. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Nevertheless.” As well. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. However. Clyde adds. For teachers. Blogs are used for communication. in a note of caution. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. or they can be open to the general public. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing.

elearnspace.g. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. see: http://structuredblogging.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g. Most blog writing is unstructured.blogburst. movie reviews look different than recipes. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www. It’s found at: http://www. His blog. In this approach. http://www.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals.sonyericsson. Do Not Reproduce 73 .2megapixel blogging phone.html http://radio.org/ http://carapace.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.com/ Jenna Sweeny.com/wordpress/ http://informl. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.edtechpost.com/spg.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3. an applications company. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs. For more information. When someone the user knows arrives. if they have subscribed to the blog. http://www.wavemarket.internettime.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. President of an instructional design firm. Canada. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. Find it at: http://www. other than simple word searching.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.cramersweeney.weblogs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location.weblogs. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997).elearnspace.ca/gems/matrix2 . is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. is a great resource.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy. with a wide range of writing styles. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning.us/archives/026 753. http://www. http://www.

blogcatalog.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.google. http://blogpulse.anecdote.co. In March 2006.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies. Get the guide at: http://www. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. “blogs are cool.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.blogspot.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse.metaxucafe.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog. http://www.pdf 74 © 2006. there were 891 educational blogs listed.pewinternet. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.org/socialstudies/ blogs. including educational blogging.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress.mkbergman.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. http://www.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. http://www.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. a librarian. Brandon Hall Research . A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.postgenomic. View them at: http://video. Teresa A. check out this site: http://www3.com.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.71. http://www. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib. Find her work at: http://64.essdack. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent.elearningcentre.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.com/index.48.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.

com/issues/130105 . September/October. Ways to use Weblogs in education. James (2005).com/article2/0. March 24. EduBlog Insights.downes. http://www.htm Catalyst Group (2005).pdf Pierce. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. 39(5). has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.everyhuman. http://www.pdf Clyde.eschoolnews.com/work/theses8.freepint. (2006).ca/cgibin/page. Enterprise blogging. Syracuse University.com Bibliography Bergman. September 2005.com/wwwtools/m/10171.pdf A form of online publishing.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. http://www. Robin Good Blog. Sept. and Fox.174. http://www. New York. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. July 19. Do Not Reproduce 75 .catalystgroupdesign.waypath.pewinternet. July 11. 5.asp Davis.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2005). July 14.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education.fasfind. FreePint Newsletter. 14-26. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging.teachesme. http://www. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio.educause. Master’s Thesis. eWeek.asp Lenhart. EDUCAUSE Review. January 13. Robin Good Blog. 2006. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://anne2. No. http://www.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. A. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes.masternewmedia. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise.mkbergman. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. http://www.htm#feature Coursey.lo w.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.com.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. Stephen (2004).com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes. Dennis (2006). www. AI3 White Paper.com/news/sho wStoryts. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. Anne (2004). Panelists: blogs are changing education. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. Pew Internet and American Life Project.pdf Canali De Rossi. David (2005). Michael (2005).1895. Oct. 2006. Syracuse. 29. go to: http://m. 2005. http://www. S. http://www.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.eweek. Luigi (2004).00. eSchool News Online. 1837604.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006.masternewmedia. Laurel (2005). Educational Blogging. http://www. May 16. or they can be open to the general public.12. Blogs: a global conversation. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.

Netscape. (http://www. http://www. blogs. thin clients. while Opera.com/firefox/).mozilla. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. or at least their influence is decreasing. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). 2001). and “themes. 76 © 2006. Internet Explorer. and photo sharing.mozilla. http://www. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. has a small following. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. Flock was launched in October 2005.mozilla.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Like all technology innovation curves.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox.omnigroup. (http://www. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. For example.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser.opera. the defeat of the Netscape browser. Brandon Hall Research . and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. bookmarking.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. search engines. which owned the rights to Netscape. a browser that has been around for a long time. http://www. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Webtops Description For many. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. they may not be necessary as navigational devices.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser.activeworlds. America Online. http://www. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space.flock. where many applications interact with each other automatically.

2000061733.wikipedia. WashingtonPost.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert. Network World. 2004. 16. http://www.. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.com/desi gn/browsers_list. http://www. OmniWeb 5.typepad. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop. 742. 2006.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. John (2001). Oct.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.pdf LeMay.networkworld.39218173. ZDNet Australia. and Horton.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.com.zdnet.com.wikipedia.00.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers.washingtonpost. Still Perfecting its Pitch.0.php3 Bibliography Cox. K.typepad. Renai (2005). http://db. 2001.cnn.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en. Malik. May 16. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. O. (2002). 2005. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers. Opera Browser.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . E. Michael (2006).acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton. Aug.com. No.html http://blogoehlert.com/getbits.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. called “Webtops.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. http://money. July 30. http://www. 2002. William Horton Consulting. CO. Adam (2004). TidBits.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. M.html Engst.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0.bestdegree. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.com/news/2001 /0129browserless. CNN Money. Boulder.evolt.0: The Powerful Web Browser. across several articles. W.webdevelopersnotes. and Copeland. 21. Jan. http://www. 29.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.tidbits.wikipedia.

2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. 2006. clickers. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. display. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. costs can be an issue. 78 © 2006. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. increasing their motivation to learn. The devices keep students alert and involved. giving almost instant feedback. The use of clickers has several advantages. Brandon Hall Research . management. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. However. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. integrated with other types of learning technologies. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. Beatty. classroom communication systems. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. or clickers. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs.

h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. and military settings.h-itt.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. higher education. http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.qwizdom. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.com/Default.” http://www. the costs and headaches multiply. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.learnstar.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. training the faculty member to use the software. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 79 . suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.einstruction. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.” In spite of the costs.com/products_int erwrite.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.pearsonncs. http://www. http://umperg.com. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook.umass. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.physics.com/index. corporate.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus.optiontechnologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. http://www. http://www.com/cps/index. http://www.pearsoned.gtcocalcomp. http://www.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.com/index.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.smartroom.

3. Ian (2004). R. 2004. integrated with other types of learning technologies. NJ: Prentice Hall. Brandon Hall Research .edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.elearning. No. Inside CUA.amazon.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. and Lederman. Feb. Anne (2006).pdf Burnstein.net/display.cua.active-learning-site.ubc.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty. http://www.aclearn. http://www.jmu. Melbourne.edu/articleprinter1. http://www. 80 © 2006. http://www.educause. (2003). See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. http://www.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. The Physics Teacher. Australia. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. July 7. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. http://www. ELearning Dialogue.utexas. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002.uq.pdf Mazur. Q.pdf Cassidy.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.cisat. Research Bulletin.campustechnology.utexas. Eric (1997). http://www.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. 2006. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. Educause Learning Initiative. 272-275.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. including material on the use of classroom response systems.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. 41(5). Tom (2004). Volume 2004. Upper Saddle River.itee. http://inside. http://www. 3. March 3. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.com/news_issue.edu. https://sharepoint.cfm ?file=/051103/story2.

a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.g. clarification. Do Not Reproduce 81 . and collaborating. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. evaluation. organization.g.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.. The Institute for the Future.. many respond. reduction.. doing.g. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. and consensus building. it requires skill and experience. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. social bookmarking. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. e. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. through brainstorming).

http://www. http://www.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. http://www. jot down notes. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications.com There are many different ways to collaborate. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.advancedreality.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. and communication. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. http://www. calendar. voice and data collaboration.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. intellectual property management.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). 82 © 2006.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .bluetie.brightidea. and upload photos.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.com/virtualoffice/index.bantu. with templates and workflows for product development.avecomm. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).html?ad-main Annotea . collaborative file management. and bookmarks. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.backpackit. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. http://www. contacts. and instant messaging. Presence (see who’s online). http://www.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .w3.com/services/faq_basi cs.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.zoho.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.inteam. and information technology adoption. expert location. organize.com/product s/index. collaborate.com/ Blenks – In-team . share files.teamspace.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.

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Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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feedback.webasyst. FTP server.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. calendars. or use it to build a Web application. XML-RPC server.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 . http://www.04.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.axista.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .brevient.com/ onProject – myonProject .tomoye.25.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . and more.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . http://www. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.Instant setup. and share documents. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 .Processes email. simple. Works with Microsoft Project.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. connects peers. stimulates idea generation. and share. Use it out of the box. http://www.projectdox. assign tasks.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and other business communications. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. project. Share multiple projects with multiple users.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.nexprise. e-mail server.opmcreator.tacit. affordable. discussions. files. chat server. documents.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. http://groups.com/project. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/company/news/pres s/2005. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope. newsgroup server. and business relationships. and data into a single storage area.writely. http://www. scaleable. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.Intuitive project management software for work teams.onproject.yahoo. expertise. http://www. http://www. set user permissions. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. and e-mails.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. http://www.webcrossing. interact. http://www.

Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . URL sharing. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. attendee list.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products.0 . breakout rooms. form to submit questions. exit and help. Access to the tool is also given to clients. Brandon Hall Research . private whiteboards for each participant. private/group chat. visual. http://www. annotation tools.HP Virtual Classroom . and collaboration to timesheet management.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.saba.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. integrated content management system. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. and communicate with their project teams. http://www. project tracking. identify and resolve potential problems. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.com/index.In-house tool developed to assist in project management.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting ." virtual collaboration. project planning. review button.com/ HP . invoicing.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. http://education.Features include Hands up.photoninfotech. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. print icon. and save to disk icon. http://www. and text chat. custom stamps.hp. http://www. applaud and meter.caucus. and human performance management applications.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. content button. content.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. data. shared whiteboard and presentation. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.Projistics . http://www. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK .peoplecube.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment.Web event calendaring. video.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. http://www. and payments. http://www. shared desktop. and Web pages. navigation. whiteboard pages.elluminate.project-open.teamdynamix.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.com Nagarro .nagarro. scheduling solutions.

and collaboration features. session reports. video.batipi.interwise. and content display.0 .com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. http://www.glance. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. For example.communiqueconferencing.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. and more. sales presentations.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. Allows holding live. virtual office hours.net/site/getglance/ex amples. Features include shared documents.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. video. http://www. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. http://www.Synchronous Webconferencing software. Record classes or Webcasts. Web.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces .adobe. and Webconferencing specialists.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .genesys. and videoconferencing. http://www.elluminate.com/ Intralinks . http://www. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.intralinks. application sharing.A secure. http://www. meeting management. guest lectures. online classes.com /internet_conferencing. Webcasts.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. http://www. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.mixmeeting.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. synchronous online lectures. how often.horizonwimba. office hours. and by whom. http://www. and phone use. and meetings.convenos.Delivers unlimited voice. http://www.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. and Web conferencing with WebEx. learning. e-mail invites. and collaborative content-building sessions. http://www. instant messaging.

http://www. teleconferencing. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .netspoke.asp Meeting One – Click&Share.com/rndc/services /services. and a change presenter ability. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. http://www.linktivity. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . or an entire desktop.ivocalize.com/ Linktivity Division. and real-time videoconferencing.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .com/bridgepoint. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. Brandon Hall Research .telnetz. notes. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. record and playback. annotations.asp 92 © 2006.To support large deployments. the Internet. hand raising. live demos.Collaboration Tools iVocalize .raindance.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . and desktop videoconferencing services. e-learning classrooms.com/website2/even ts_imc. pre-recorded broadcasts. and into the enterprise. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. any application. toll-free conference calling. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. http://www. polling and quizzes. attendee lists. Multilingual. http://www.LiveOffice provides Web-based.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.radvision. http://www. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. http://www. desktop sharing. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. audio. including Web conferencing. transparency tools. instant messaging.liveoffice. remote control.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.meetingone. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.Web and audio conferencing services. keyboard and voice chat.com/action. online seminars. http://www. broadcasts files. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .

http://www. 2006.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . and system management. Web conferencing. The suite manages the creation. remote support.com/home/s_vmps. show rich multimedia content and documents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. and moderation of Webcasts.edufolio.collabtech. editing. http://carbon.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . http://www. teleconferencing.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.webex.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. http://www.Powers online meetings.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.voxwire. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. Webinars. Japan on July 13-14.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. publishing. and document collaboration. discussion forums. or meeting.ctcevents. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. share other applications. Requires only a browser and a phone. http://www. course. http://www.webtrain.cudenver.vodium. Solutions include Web meetings. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. conference calling. and instant messaging capabilities.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. http://www. text messaging. e-learning. present PowerPoint slideshows. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. send text messages.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.wave3software. tour Web sites. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. http://www. http://www. set up labs and conduct quizzes.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . surveys.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding.

com/groupware/ index.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.springerlink.com/webconf/works paces. http://www.educause.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . also has a great list of collaboration tools.1:100250. http://www.1 Bibliography Alexander. http://cde. also known as “groupware. Sign up for free at: http://www. 41(2). and businesses to provide collaborative educational. Bryan (2006). Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.writely.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.org/collab/in dex.” http://www.thinkofit.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.globalschoolnet. http://www.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).mitre.htm Mitre Corporation.org/tools. http://www. communities.org/index. http://collaboration. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning.com/View. March/April 2006.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.criticalmethods. http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.athabascau. Web 2. http://www.collaborationloop. scientific.kolabora.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.usabilityfirst. http://www. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.

.. Curtis (2002). Dalton. http://www. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. N. June 30. Proceedings. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. 2004. CMS Watch. Collaborative Strategies. Robin Good Blog.. 2003. Potter. 2565-2569. J. (2003).htm# Clapp. Buckingham Shum..bruck. Maceió. June 5. 2002.masternewmedia. J. A. Luigi (2004b)..com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. T. http://www. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005.com/writings. Robin Good Blog. M. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. M.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. The State Of Collaboration Technologies.masternewmedia. Then Knowledge Management..collaborate. Findlay.diglib.masternewmedia. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. 2002. Models of collaboration. Robin Good Blog. 4.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.ecs. Luigi (2003a).pdf Bonk. Live ELearning. D. Nov. Luigi (2004a).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. http://www. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.com/Feature/109 Elliot. http://www.. De Roure.uk/12081/ Beshears.N. 2003. Shadbolt. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.. http://eprints. http://www. Luigi (2003b). (2004). and Forster. S. and Coleman. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. 3. Page.masternewmedia. R. Fitzgerald. D.htm Butler. Robin Good Blog. January 21. Creating an eCommunity. Michaelides.cmswatch.cfm/files/pa per_12386.editlib.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools.htm Canali De Rossi.clomedia. http://www.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. Robin Good Blog. S. Bill (2004). J.org/index. J. September.htm Canali De Rossi. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.htm Canali De Rossi. Q2Learning White Paper. Komzak. A. Eisenstadt.soton.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . and Tate. http://www.ac.html Canali De Rossi. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). June 22. Matthew (2004). Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. K. ChenBurger.. D. Luigi (2005). May 2. http://www. Nov. (2004). http://www.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.. A. Fred (2002)..pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Collaboration First. Sept.masternewmedia. Brazil..

. Educational Technology & Society.amazon. and Thomas.editlib. and Miller. & Weber. W. G. and Sharifi. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.. Technologies of Cooperation. Aavani..). The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.rheingold. M.amazon..learningcircuits.. Chesapeake. Soren (2002). Brandon Hall Research . 1(2). Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. 5(1). D. Willis.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. http://www.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. http://www. A. http://www. January 2005. Callan. K. 5(1). D. (2002). R.. Norwell.cqu. Kirschner. (2005). (Eds. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.pdf Strijbos.. R. In Crawford.pdf Kaplan. and Martens. McFerrin.au/include/getdoc. (2002). Learning Circuits.html Kreijns. J. CA. and Jochems. (2004). Nov. 24. Kirschner. Carlsen.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan. P. J. http://sleid..) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.ieee. http://ifets. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. London: Springer-Verlag. http://wscg.. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. Palo Alto.html Munkvold.html Institute for the Future (2005).php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006.ieee. August 2002. & Purnell.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. I.) (2003). University of Athabasca. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. K.. J.athabascau. Evaluation.html Hurst.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning.edu. (2004). http://www. Bjorn (Ed. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Institute for the Future White Paper. Innovation and Development. VA: AACE. (2002). J. R. Educational Technology & Society. A.Collaboration Tools Elliott. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. J. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. http://www..com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.) (2004). P. http://ifets.zcu. K. 827-829). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. http://cde.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. D. J.ca/online_book/c h8. C. (Eds. Gibson. Studies in Learning. e-Book.org/index... Price.

chat. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. telephony. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. http://www.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. Hegarty et al. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. Do Not Reproduce 97 . and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.” http://goldenswamp.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.janison. re-usable. instant messaging. blogs. discussion groups. For example. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. UK.jisc. It is being developed into a transportable. VoIP. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. a process referred to as “text mentoring. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings.com. messaging. For Laurillard. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. html The Learning Place in Queensland. labs. discussion forums. and yet tailored and flexible.au/eq/default. whiteboards. telepresence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.uk/deletacademictalk.ac.

editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.com/wwwtools/m/2645.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. Komzak. http://m.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.fasfind.conversate. http://ewic.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. http://www. http://www.warwick. 2004.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at.htm http://www.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.elearningcentre.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. JulySept. 13-20. http://www2.ac. and Bortolozzi. http://www.editlib.48. http://www. University of Warwick.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.com/webconf/hostsi tes.ngfl. and telephony tools. M.bcs. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. F. International Journal on E-Learning.co. J. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.org/index.org/index. http://www.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. chat.elearningcentre.google. Computer Mediated Communication. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.gov. http://safety.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.uk/schools/docum ent.co. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.org/ Online Resources Teresa A. including communications tools. Mark (2004). D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.co.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.71. M.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging..pdf Eleuterio. (2005). (2004). He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.elearningcentre.thinkofit.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.htm 98 © 2006. S. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. and Cerri. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. Find her work at: http://64. developed in Brazil. CAP e-Guide. Brandon Hall Research .

199-212.” Do Not Reproduce 99 .com Library.html Laurik. Working Knowledge Newsletter. whiteboards. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.pdf LaCroix.com/cv/research /rmed35. e-Book. Francis. UK. London: Routledge. 20-21. http://www. Learning Circuits. distance-learning course at Keele University. June. VoIP. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. (2004). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. http://www. 19.org/micte2005/4. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.amazon. chat. 2005 http://www. and Collins. 20-21. (2002). J.uk/papers/Stone_ A.. http://cde. University of Birmingham.pdf Kadirire. Pattie (2005).0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. and Wales. S. Nick (2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.athabascau. J. Aug.html Laurillard. I. Bostock. 31 (3). (2000).jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone.html Morgan.edu/item. J. 31. Technologies of Online Learning. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. http://dircweb. J. discussion forums. (Mlearn 2002). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. and Elliott. 2002.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. Diana (1993).ca/online_book/c h5.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. M. http://www. A. D. 2002. June. 2002. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.hbs.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool.learningcircuits. http://hbswk. CharityVillage.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. R. Jan.ac.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review..jisc. Sven (2002). University of Athabasca.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.charityvillage. and Briggs.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. E-Learning 1. (2002).formatex. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape.ac. James (2005). September 23.king. British Journal of Educational Technology. Hegarty.

and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. skills verification.org/competencies /index. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. W. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. a Harvard psychologist. 2000). 2005).” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. skills inventory. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. competency-based training. 100 © 2006. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. skills. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. see below) and performance or talent management systems. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. organizational and personal goals are tied together. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www.imsproject. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. Edwards Deming. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). performance appraisal. In 1973. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. entering defined competencies into a matrix.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. Brandon Hall Research .html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. David McClelland. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.

learnflex. http://www.cpgvision.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Do Not Reproduce 101 .sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies. https://launchpad.itsc. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. See the list of competencies at: http://www.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. For a large list of competencies for physicians.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.desire2learn.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.com/article16..org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies. http://www.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.htm Many companies have their own competency models.wmich. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.S.ncrel. go to: www.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.html The U. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.edu/paprog/clin_events . Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. For example. Read their white paper at: http://www. and carry out proper procedures. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. measurement.ibm. diagnose symptoms.org. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. activities. and development interventions. objectives.learningcircuits. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.

amazon. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. N.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. 2005. a Canadian company. Express Computer. Competency and competency frameworks.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Study 706. Ken (2000). (1982). American Psychologist. L. F. Benjamin (1956). Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. v. David.. April.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. 1-14. regardless of industry or sector. London: IDS. Building a skills inventory. Miller.co.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. http://www.ht m Online Resources HRSG. New York: AMACOM. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.” http://www. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. http://www. http://www. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. April 25.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.cipd. Chief Learning Officer. pp.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. http://www.cipd.amazon.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. (2001). Competency Frameworks.hrsg. http://www.oracle. Rankin.syberworks. (1973).com/ 20050425/technologylife01. Josh (2006).htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services.clomedia. (2001).ca/index. New York: David McKay.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. and Neathy. R.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. http://www.amazon. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Clare (2005). Brandon Hall Research .com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.expresscomputeronline.28. http://www. London: Wiley.co. 102 © 2006.amazon. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.E.com/skillsman.shtml Hogg. Sudipta (2005).

G. (2004). White paper.amazon. http://www. Johanna.com/2. New York: John Wiley. N.learningcircuits. University of Toronto. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. Ellen (2000). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.operitel.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm. R.) (2003). and Hollyforde.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. London: IRS. Ethan (2001).amazon. (2000).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. (2003). Parkin’s Lot. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. (1999). http://www. London: IRS.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 .htm Whiddett. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. http://parkinslot. P. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.collectionscanada. S.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. March 2001. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.1/features/e wette. 2005. (2001). Michael.html Sternberg. http://www. and Expertise. Competency based learning management. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. E-Learning Competencies. http://www. Master's thesis. UK: Cambridge University Press. Learning Circuits. http://www. http://www.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell.p df Rankin. and Cahorn. Gary (2004). (2005). Fall 2000. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.operitel.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Operitel Corporation. Competencies. http://www. Creating a Culture of Competence. The Psychology of Abilities.amazon. and Epstein.html Radsma. N. 2nd ed. http://www. E. Sanders. Rankin. P. Cambridge. S. (Eds. April 30. White paper from Operitel Corporation.blogspot.linezine.com Woodill. and Grigorenko. Godfrey (2005).

the standardized railway system still works while private. Do Not Reproduce 104 . This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. Learning objects. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. With the advent of learning objects. Today. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. manage. such as registering users. 2006). whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. displaying a course catalogue. and reporting. I feel that closed. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity.” As well. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. If you could afford it. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. in fact. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. Repositories.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. LCMS. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. manage. First. launching courses. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. you could hire a company to build a private. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. and “topic maps. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time.

The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. TravelinEdMan blog. http://travelinedman. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.uk Bibliography Bonk. http://www. reuse in many places. http://www. March 2005.clomedia.author-it.cmsmatrix. 2005.html Cisco Corp.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.” http://drupal. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. Strategies for managing scalable content. San Jose.com http://www.topicmaps. (2005). rather than complementary.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. Ed.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.blogspot.cisco. Dec. to date.pdf Cohen.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper.co.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.topicmap.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.e-learningcentre. http://plone.” Web services and “topic maps.atutor. According to its official Web site.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. http://www. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. Cisco Corporation White Paper. http://sakaiproject. Curtis (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. http://www. 18.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . http://www. functionality to an ECM. and publish to multiple outputs. http://www.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. (2004).” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. They have designed competitive. http://www. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.

operitel. G. and Carmean. and Brantner. “Monoliths. Budapest. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 40(3). New Thinking Blog. (2003). January 23. 2003. June 9. S. PA: Idea Group. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. B. and Oliveira. A.edtechpost. http://www. http://www. 2005. May 15.) (2005).com/publications.pdf Weigel. Hershey. March 3. 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. C. Educause Review. http://www. 2003. S. P.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. Learning Solutions. McGovern. Why content management software hasn’t worked. May/June. elearnspace blog.softlab.educause. EdTechPost blog.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.ca/mt/archive/00 0689. 2006..com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms. George (2003). C. 2003. http://www.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . http://www. Jafari.elearnspace. http://www. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Gerry (2003).gerrymcgovern.. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.html McGee.asp Woodill.htm Siemens. Scott (2005). (Eds.ntua. Mashups. Van (2005). (2006).edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533.htm Simon. Content Management: our organized future. Retalis.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster.

As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. 2001). more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. delivery models and infrastructure investment. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. knowledge discovery. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Luan and Willett. 2000. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Do Not Reproduce 107 .

uwaterloo. http://www. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.icosystem. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. http://www.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.hkuspace.soul.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.wfu. http://www.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart. Do Not Reproduce 108 . by applying fuzzy logic. http://pami. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.reeltwo.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. http://imej. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.com/index. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.

K.kdnuggets.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. Alex (2002). Both products are from Convera.actapress.cs.cs. http://www.informatik. 2006. K. G. 68(8). (cited in Luan and Willett. 1996.html Hammouda. http://www. and R. Samuel (Ed. pp.. P..kent. Data Mining in e-Learning.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 .pdf Fayyad. http://www.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.. Innsbruck.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. AAAI Press/MIT Press.pdf Loo. In Pierre. Grieser.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Smyth. Australia. knowledge discovery. http://www. U. (1996). http://pami. School Business Affairs. S. and Cheung. Piatetsky. 1--34. Robert (2002). P. and Web mining. and Kamel.is. text mining.unikiel. (2000).pdf Freitas. Data Mining: What’s New. http://www. M Fayyad. G. Feb.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. Grigoriev.uwaterloo.2004. New York: Springer.convera. What’s Not.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Learning by doing and learning when doing . R. 13-16 http://asbointl. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). edited U. Portugal. California.. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. and Smyth.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. 238-241. Porto. Long Beach. and Tschiedel. In Proceedings. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. M. Feb. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.amstatonline. B.ac..pdf Iskander. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. http://www.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.com/PaperInfo. (2004).kdnuggets. 1316. (2006). P.. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Lange. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. 2001) http://www.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. G.usyd. Uthurusamy. B. New York: Springer.pdf Jantke. (2006). B. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.html Bibliography De Veaux.edu. K. Austria. Thalheim.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc.

David (2005). 41-54. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. (2004). 52-59.com/acatalog/18 45641523.pdf Merceron. and Ullrich. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.pdf Pahl.Data Mining Luan. and Minguillon. C. T. http://archiveedutice. A. Advances in Management Information. (2001). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). http://dl. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://imej. S. analyze for more adaptive teaching.pdf McCalla. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Vol 4. Oliveira. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results.ccsd.unisb. A.. http://csdl2. C. Hiroshima. Scholl.ags. and K.org/16915 Romero.open. 2004 (7).pdf Monk.. 39-40. M. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). MA: WIT Press. C. Claus (2004). 3(1). Yacef (2004). International Journal on E-Learning. (2004). Japan. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. and Ventura. A. http://www. (2004).org/index. and Willett.-Dec. 319-346.pdf Merceron. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). http://www2004.wfu. Oct. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. May 17-22. K. J. J. store.aace. 15(4).asp Merceron.pdf Mor.compmech.html Ueno.ac.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk.ejel. and Yacef. Maomi (2004). http://www. 7(1).edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. E. Gord (2004).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Brandon Hall Research . Billerica. http://www. 47-55.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.computer.editlib.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. http://www. and K. http://wwwjime. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. NYC. 3(4).cnrs.pdf 110 © 2006. Train.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Yacef (2005). Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.cabrillo.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. (2006). A. RP Conference Presentation.

which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.une. 2) categorize. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. 3) vote/prioritize.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time.com/ Facilitate. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).decisionarium.bnhexpertsoft. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.edu. in their case study of medical education.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. http://www. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.facilitate. http://www. 5) carry out a survey. Do Not Reproduce 111 . with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. For example. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. and 6) document results.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. 4) develop an action plan.tkk. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004).au/dss/grassgro/ind ex.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.

http://www. 23(4). 12(2-3). Clinical and Investigative Medicine.hut.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.p df Chakrabarty.sal. C..au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. August. http://www.site.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.hut. http://www. see: http://www. M. http://www.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.pdf Frize.bnhexpertsoft. http://science. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.uottawa. http://www. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. and Frasson. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.whichbook. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index. Raimo (2003).pdf Ehtamo.com/index. Kankana (2005).hut.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. http://www. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.net/index.” http://dmoz. For newsletters. (2000).edu.sal. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. 112 © 2006. Online manuscript. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.uniserve. Hamalainen. Brandon Hall Research .dssresources.utoronto. White paper from BNH Expert Software. Jay (2004). R. H. http://www.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. http://www. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. books. and Koskinen. 101-110.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. (2004). V.meetingworks. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.sal. and information on this area.html Hamalainen.

317-328.dfki. and Tschiedel.siggraph. Memmel.actapress. Grigoriev. M. Rostanin.unikiel. P. Learning by doing and learning when doing . B. B.hicss. Porto.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. B.pdf Ounapuu. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. and Tschiedel. SIGGRAPH publication. Vol. 2002. Grieser. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . A Brief History of Decision Support Systems..ac. Enn (2004).edu. June 20-24.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Gerhard (2003). S.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).html Scott. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.uniserve. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. T. August 16-18.informatik.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. USA.is.com/books/details. M. B. Jim (2002). and Laurindo. CAL-laborate.hawaii. http://www. (2004).com/history/dsshist ory. http://www.. 2005. de Carvaho. Dan (2003). Hawaii. http://www. PA: Idea Publishing. 6-9.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott.pdf Power. 238-241. K. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. Thalheim.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 2004. http://dssresources..ideagroup. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Aachen. http://damit.pdf Jantke. O. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.com/PaperInfo. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. G. http://www.pdf Knolmayer. Information Systems for a Connected Society.html Rhyne. F. Thalheim. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. (2003). Hawaii. Enn (2005).2004. Kauai. K..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. In Proceedings. Lange..mc. (2006). Oct. Germany. Portugal.manchester. Hershey. Manchester.. http://science.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. Theresa (1998). In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. 9.html Shimizu.. http://www. Jan. http://www..

Finally. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.co. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. head mounted displays. This can be a holographic image. big enough to be projected on large walls. in cooperation with Sony. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. For air displays. monitors. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. By stacking a second projector. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. projectors. digital paper. lighting up theater size screens. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). Do Not Reproduce 114 . Electronic paper could change that some day. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.theregister. electronic paper. In the near future.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.theregister. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.co. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. In regards to digital paper.” Selected Examples Samsung.

com/technology /overview NTERA. Projector. See a demo at: http://www.unifreiburg. http://www.technorati.ntera.io2technology. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.cmu.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies. http://thejournal. see: http://ad. http://www.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. To access the articles.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.ices. Do Not Reproduce 115 .edu/design/Camera. In 2005.com/about.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. still/video camera. http://killer.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.firstmonday.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.fogscreen. see: http://www. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.siliconlight.html Promera is a hand-held computer.E.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. intelligent interfaces.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://www. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. Inc.H.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.informatik.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. For a list of his publications.provisionentertainment. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.

Canada. 3. (2005). S..pdf Wang. Dec. A. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.. http://ad. In G. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. M. 2005. W. http://www. Richards (Ed. Pisano. Government.. http://blog. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005).ac.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Vancouver. Healthcare. and Pizer. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Garrett. (1996). London: Springer.unifreiburg. State. Oct. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. M. Livingston. Hirota.jisc. Germany.com/timwang/index.uk/index..php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. E. and Ottmann. H..org/citation. T. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. pages 3053-3068. Brandon Hall Research .cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Whitton. Tim (2005).). http://portal. 2005.. K.loaz. G.acm.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. Hamburg.informatik.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Largest LCD and video projection.

http://www. evaluation. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://www.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. 2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www. open source electronic portfolio. Do Not Reproduce 117 . My first report in this series. http://www.ac. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.livetext.com/eportfolio/i ndex. http://isle.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.com/products/e portfolio/default.co.angellearning.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios. http://www.educause. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.uk/default. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www.com/college/portfoli os.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.foliotek. maximum flexibility. http://www.pupilpages.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.htm Educause.paisley.elearningcentre. http://www. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.osportfolio.chalkandwire. and simple usability. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.pebblelearning.iwebfolio. http://www.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.

Vol 27 No 4. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.doc Banks. Graham (2005). Frederick (2005).imsglobal.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. University of Iowa. Online Paper.nottingham. Trent (2002). A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.ac.ch/dyn/9. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. (2004).org. Educause Quarterly.pdf Conway. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. thus.educa. Brandon Hall Research . with many links.htm IMS. http://elgg.amazon. http://connect.pdf Batson.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. http://www.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell.thejournal.becta. helping to transform education and training.com/magazine/va ult/A5260. E.elearnspace. College of Education http://www. http://www2. March. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. (2002).edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://ferl. Dec. has a section on eportfolios.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook..criticalmethods.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. http://www. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download.com/article. J.org/Articles/epor tfolios. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. http://www.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. FD Learning White Paper.educause.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0. and Hibbitts. THE Journal Online.cfm 118 © 2006.asp?id=6984 Cohn. http://www. Bob (2004).uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. http://www. 2004 http://www. http://www. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. B.campustechnology.educause.org/collab/v. an online resource on collaboration.

org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1. http://www. 144-169.A.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. e-portfolios. and Wade.htm Tosh. George (2004)... Gary (2004). ePortfolios.3/tosh. and Haywood. C. D.pdf Lorenzo. (2004). Dec. Aalderink. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Fall. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.alt.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. http://www.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 .elearnspace.educause. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. 31(3). Dublin. (2003). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. S.. B.. http://www. V. & Figgins. April 1.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224... (2002).. J.eradc.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. http://www. D. J. Fleming.pdf Greenberg. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. research.educause. (2005). J. W. (2005). An Overview of e-Portfolios.. (2005). (2002). 2005. and Werdmuller.. J.ca/content/vol31. 4. 28–37. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.. G. http://www. T. 39. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. Business Communication Quarterly. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. Educause Quarterly. Educause Review.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. future thinking: digital repositories. B. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. M. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. http://www. P. Bryde.amazon. G. and portfolios. 2(2).A. Online paper. Online.. 16. G. (Focus on Teaching).cjlt. elearnspace. July/ August 2004. M. http://www. K. vol.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Feijen. D. and Ittelson. and McKean. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. 37(2). Reflective learning..citejournal.educause.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh.. html Young. Love. Trinity College. Lee. no.ac. http://www. Light. Harvey.org/papers/Learning_l andscape. Cook. http://www.

com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. and Second Life. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. Try them out at: http://www. games.com http://us. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.com/ http://www. identity work. Examples include Hive7. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.hive7. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.freescale. Marc Prensky (2003). from the University of Wisconsin. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. and learning (Amory. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage.cyworld. simulations.” says that “in the mod world. 2005). One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. writing about “first person shooter games. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. Brandon Hall Research .com. For a brief review of these tools.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. as such. play. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler.com/ http://www. serious games.secondlife. 120 © 2006.com/ http://www. see: http://news. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. complex problem solving.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Dr. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. MySpace. Facebook.facebook.myspace. 2003). Cyworld. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take.

aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. Inc. http://www. This game allows users to play. http://www.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. http://www.nasaga.com/xna/ Softimage.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools.org/?14@33.siggraph. See the selection of games at: http://www. produces educational games for training.thinkingworlds. Started in North America.mpjgaB KQdAe. dubbed XNA Studio. Do Not Reproduce 121 . http://www.pluginz. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. Review them at: http://esub.ucalgary. http://www. has game development tools for the Xbox.” http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.softimage. helping speed up the game creation process. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. along with their Web sites. create.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. http://www. implementation. Canada.clickteam. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. There is a free 30-day trial version.com/ In 2005. allows members of a game development team to work together.muzzylane. Many of their learning games resources are free. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. You can read about them at Pluginz. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.microsoft.com/news/548 http://www.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). edit.com/solutions/gam es/default. The toolset. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. For example.com/ Thiagi. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.magnetargames.

com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.seriousgamessummit. Sign up at: http://www.futureplay. http://www.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.uga.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.org.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.pdf 122 © 2006.” Read her research at: http://website.htm Dr.education.coe. http://www.org/index2. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.dk/people/sen/public. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference.itc.gdconf.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. http://www.ac. Honolulu.com/zo ne8/index. Alan (2003). June 25-28.wisc.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.uk/index2.programmersheaven. researchers. http://www.ukzn. http://www.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.digiplay.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.htm Dr. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. Hawaii. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 2003. http://it.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.seriousgames.

New York: Cambridge University Press.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Serious Games: Games That Educate. D. Gaming. see: http://www. R. 2006. http://www.. Bryan (2006). Technology Trends for the Year.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. Jan. (2005). H.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Simon (2005). Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. 2005. Xplanazine. IT-University Copenhagen. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Learning on Demand Bulletin.php Rieber. January 2. 2003.cambridge. 549-567. and Inform. and Michael. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.pdf Reynolds.amazon.marcprensky.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.pdf Michael.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol.uwf. 2005. In Richard E.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. http://llt. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. D.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. http://www.xplanazine. Developing Serious Games. Language Learning and Technology. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. June. C. http://www. http://www. Montreal. Fourth Quarter. H.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen.msu. 19. http://www. http://www..itc. Oct. Rob (2006a).com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt.pd f Prensky. Bob (2005). Gamasutra. and Chen. Mayer (Ed. Clifton Park.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue. Marc (2003).iicm.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.xplanazine. Dreher. Multimedia learning in games. and Maurer. Games and Education = Oil and Water.amazon. Rob (2006b). http://www.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 . 2006. Lloyd (2005). http://www. 9(1).com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. simulations and microworlds. (2005). 17-22. Xplanazine. Train.php Reynolds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.pdf Guetl. S. March 10. Chapter 33. http://www.pdf Godwin-Jones. SRI-BI. (2005).uwf. Williams. S.

(2005). Masters Thesis. N. Brandon Hall Research . (2006). Beers.msu.. and Swamy. N.teachableagents.Madison.commtechlab. Michigan State University. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. C.. Gupta. http://jason.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. University of Wisconsin . NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Clifton Park.amazon.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. http://woz. 2005. http://www.wisc. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.education. R.pdf 124 © 2006.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. G. and Biswas. Jason (2004). Doctoral dissertation. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. 2004.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. J. http://website.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis. Constance (2005).p df Tye. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.pdf Swamy.

Maja Pantic of Imperial College.html Research by Dr.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. http://www.ac. was held in Southampton. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. London. 2008.fg2008. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. http://www. April 10-12 2006. haptics.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video.ucsd. such as Markov models. artificial intelligence. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.soton. UK.ecs.” http://mplab. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. at the University of California. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Artificial intelligence techniques. Do Not Reproduce 125 . affective computing. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.cybernet. including identifying commercial products. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.tudelft. and robotics in elearning. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. FG2008. looking for particular sequences. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. For a list of papers: http://www. FG2006.com/~ccohen/gest ure. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.fg2006.

Munich.ogi. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. http://www.html Chang. March. Shi-Kuo (2000). Las Vegas.com/PaperInfo. (2000). F. (2005). Nicole (2001). and Ma.fsu. R.elearningguild. Pittsburg. Lombardi..ieeecomputersociety.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES.pdf Corradini.. (1997). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. Porta. P. Korea. 2000.pdf Ebert. 18. IEEE Transactions. (2004). T.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02...org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. T. J. Aug. and Bender. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. 675 676 http://lcv. Visualization.11 09/CMPSAC. eLearning Developers’ Journal. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. October 14-16. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. Report No. July 2227.stat. Nevada.pdf Daugman.cse. Deller.org/reports/Report -NR-03. Michael (2003).Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen.. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. Y.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. and Poggio. http://www. (2002). W. Brandon Hall Research .asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.pdf 126 © 2006. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. 2003..smartkom. M.actapress.2000. http://cbcl.884693 Chen. A. M.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman.iscslp2006. PA. Wesson. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. http://www. 191-196.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini. In Proceedings.pdf Borghi. L. M. http://www. Face and gesture recognition: overview. 19(7). http://doi. J. July 1997. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. A.pdf Beringer.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci.org/10. Gao. and Cohen.mit. (2005). In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).ercim. Ludwig-Maximilians University.. G. 3. Geiger. http://www. 57-64. http://www.

edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004.clayton. http://www..D. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. Sept. L. J. M. http://www. (2005). S. L. 2004:16. 242-245.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. http://csdl2. Sato.edu/mas963/en hencedwall. Michael (2004)..xml&DOI=10. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. Proceedings. S. Y. X. C. A.20 05. 884 – 900. (2004).pdf Wilson. 442-446. Chen. 47(1). Vancouver.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . http://interact. 2533–2543. C.pdf Ou. and Yang..ucsb. C.org/citation. Robust face image matching under illumination variations.recveb.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Y.150 Nakanishi. Y. J. and Bobick. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. P. and Koike. (2005). Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables.media.. Lee. http://www. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.com/PaperInfo.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). D.. 21(9).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. Canada http://cims.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. A.com/GetPDF. 27-30.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Communications of the ACM. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. J. Wong. (1997). British Columbia. Park. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. September 2002. Setlock. Lai.research. 1999. Computer vision in the interface... Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. J.pdf Loi. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).1109/ICALT. H.computer.hindawi. C. http://www. and Chang. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. (2003). EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.actapress. In Proceedings. and Carreira..acm.mit. 2004. IEEE Transactions. Fussell. http://portal.pdf Peixoto. and Kim. (2002).F (1999). and Wong.rutgers. January.

com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.avs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.autodesk. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp.adobe. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. and in his recent 2006 book. Designing WebBased Training. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 .html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. In acquiring Macromedia. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. e-Learning By Design.com/TechIllustrator. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.techillustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.

php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.com/E/1335.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.siggraph. http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.uk/index. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.0. http://esub. http://www.uk/index.com/index.co.corel. Nevertheless.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. interactive creation.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.acdamerica.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models. Download a copy: http://www.org/cms/Home.ibm.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.blender3d.co. and playback.com SmartDraw http://www. rendering.google. In acquiring Macromedia. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.2.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. animation.itedo.3dlinks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender .microsoft.broderbund. http://www. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.com.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.co. http://virtuality3d. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.smartdraw.elearningcentre. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world. Do Not Reproduce 129 .xaraxtreme. The most listings are for 3-D software. post-production.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.

The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Edward (2001). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). and Uyar.stcphoenix. Edward (1990).stc. Richards (Eds. http://www.pdf Tufte.amazon. http://www. X.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Envisioning Information. June 1-3. Frances (2004). Japan · Sept 7-10. http://www. CT: Graphics. William (2006). Edward (1997). Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Carolina Chapter. e-Learning by Design. William (1991). Kommers & G. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Potsdam. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. CT: Graphics Press.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Proceedings. Pheonix. http://www.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. http://www.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. http://www.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. A. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. (2005). STC. Tools Usage Survey Results.indiana. New York: John Wiley. In P. (2004).amazon. http://www.amazon.carto.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. Brandon Hall Research . San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Tokyo. Germany. Cheshire. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. http://www. S.). Designing WebBased Training. http://grids.editlib. Fu-Kwan (2004). Cheshire.com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. http://www.ucs. A. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. William (2000).amazon.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton.amazon. Evidence and Narrative .edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Cheshire.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang..pdf McConnell. Pallickara. NY: John Wiley.pdf Qiu.amazon. Gloria (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman.org/index.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. ED-Media Conference. http://www.

miralab.pureform.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . Haptic devices come in many forms. gloves.unige. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.mpbtechnologies. joysticks/ joypads. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.html http://www. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.sssup. and force-feedback mice.” http://www.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Read the press release at: http://www.forcedimension. http://haptex. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). When used appropriately.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. including pens. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 131 .0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .it/projects/pureform. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. http://wwwpercro. Finally.handshakeinteractive.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.

jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc. http://www.306 Kushner. Nakamura. http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall..1_release-public.. Italy in March..unige. http://csdl2. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. M.miralab.sensegraphics.smh.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). July 31. Deliverable D4.unitrier. Matsubara. (2005).com/title/013065097 8 Inoue. Report delivered January 15.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. and Sukhatume.unipi. M. Brandon Hall Research . 917-921.haptics-e.immersion. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.1.computer.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. http://haptex. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. N.ccii.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom. http://www. McLaughlin. 2005.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.phptr. http://www. Upper Saddle River. Iwane.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.sensable. http://www. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://www. http://www.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. (2002). David (2003). VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.1109/ICAL T. M.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.pdf Hespanha. professional.se/index.2005.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.isfh. G. Reality bytes. New York Times (Online).piaggio. M. J.informatik. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).” http://www. 132 © 2006.roblesdelatorre.xml&DOI=10.com..html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138. and Ichitsubo. 2005. suits.asp Body-based devices include gloves. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.” http://www. 2003. Y. Proceedings.

Chapter on Haptics.informit.pd f O’Modhrain. 3-5 June 2004. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). S. G. 2004.pdf McLaughlin. Donnelly.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. (2001). The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Daithí (2003). G. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Technology and Haptics. (2000). Abbott. http://web. http://www.usc.ethz.. Reaching through the net to touch. CA. Sukhatme. 22. M. 250a. and Gillespie. Centre for Intelligent Machines.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque.S. 2003.pdf Rowell. Shahabi. M. Y. Haptics Laboratory. Prentice Hall online article. L. Oct. Dobreva.. Blindness. H. Santa Clara. Journal of Vision. July 3. http://www. Kaneko. McGill University.pdf Ó hAnluain. http://www. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239.pdf O’Modhrain. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A. http://csdl. 1(3). Japan. G.media.digicult. Medioni. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. D.asp?p=345621 Sakano.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Research report.. C. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. & Uchikawa.B..mcgill. M.. (1997)..html Ross. http://www. http://www. A..html O’Malley. (2004). Proceedings. and Essl. April. (2003).com/articles/printerf riendly. and Jaskowiak. and Hughes. (2005). Laurie (2004). M. M. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. J. K.cim. The Haptic Museum. Wired News. R. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.net/article-7304. and Rusbridge. http://www..computer.S.. S.mit.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. McHugh. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis..org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 . Vincent (2005).info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.matr. M.journalofvision.ra.

digital paper.dottocomu. like digital ink and paper. Writing will require special digital pens. electronic paper. human-computer interaction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. For a review. For humans to use a computer. Now in the research and development phase. experience computing. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. monitors. tangible computing. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. input devices.buffalo. However. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. handwriting recognition. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. head mounted displays. http://www. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.html Sony. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.com/b/archives/ 002571. display technologies. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. haptics. they must interact with it through an interface device. see: http://www. wearable computing.html For humans to use a computer. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. gesture recognition.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. Philips. Called Librié. whiteboards Description devices. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . and some. they must interact with it through an interface device. projectors.

net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.com/technology/howitwor ks.ices.cfm Now in the research and development phase. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. http://killer. http://www.edu/design/Foldable Display. 3) throw.html In 2005.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. Although this technology has been around for a few years. and 5) build.sony.cmu.edu/design/Digitalin k.channelnewsasia. These methods are 1) touch. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.logitech.” http://www.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. http://www.edfacilities.eink. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. http://www. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.fujitsu. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.swan. see: http://www.mit.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface." http://web. http://www.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.cs.media. http://www.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. 4) bend.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.cmu.ac.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.lifehacker.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. http://www.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.wacom. http://www.smarttech. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.ices. Do Not Reproduce 135 . consisting of a pen and a charger.com/index. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. textures. Writing will require special digital pens.html http://killer. it is constantly being improved and updated. http://www. 2) roll.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.

devx.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.edu. See their advice and resources at: http://www.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.anoto.html http://www.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards. is described in a 2002 press release.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.elearningcentre.aclearn.html http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.co.mspx 136 © 2006.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.net/display.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. http://www.usask.wired.wired.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.becta. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. http://www. with its use of digital ink.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.edna. http://whiteboards. human computer interaction.thewirelessdirectory.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.com/wired/archive/9. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://www.wired.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.0 4/anoto.au/edna/page458 8. http://www.com/wired/archive/8. Brandon Hall Research .htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. Following are three such articles: http://www.org. http://www.thegrid. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.org.com/wired/archive/5. http://www. and graphic. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.0 8/epapers.microsoft.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.cs.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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4. 5(2). Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). WSCG Conference 2005. and Walker. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.edu. 2005. Report published by UCISA.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. and Sharifi.edu. August. Derek (2004). C.. http://www.anadolu.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. 2005. Ed. 21. Proceedings of ALT-C.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005. October. Exeter. Incorporated Subversion. Jan. M (2005). Learning Circuits. (2002).unitn. Plzen. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .learningcircuits.ucisa. A. T. Jan.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 .science. Sam (2005).org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. T.pdf Dalziel.ac. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.pdf Sadeghi. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .pdf Morrison. Ronchetti. University of Birmingham. L.. Czech Republic. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Browne.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. R. http://incsub. and Tsiatsos.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. http://lttf.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). UK. Pierre (2000). November 2004. http://www.htm Bouras.zcu. James (2005). ICALT2002 Conference. (2005). The puzzle: virtual learning environments .. Virtual Learning Environments.pdf Cohen. Workshop on virtual learning environments. 31-Feb.ac.melcoe.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. and Trifonova.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. Molinari. June 20-21. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. April.pdf Dillenbourg. James (2003).building new education strategies for schools. M. Avgoustos (2004). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins.. http://www.mq. (2002). A. A. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. http://tojde.ieee. http://www.PDF Farmer. http://www.A possible future for online learning. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Tsinakos. http://www. (2006). Proceedings.nxtbook.. 2006.eun.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Building educational virtual environments.bath. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://wscg. J. Aavani. Chief Learning Officer. Proceedings.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo.org/eun. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. (Online edition). M.

Van (2005). October 2005. Maomi (2005). 2005. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . and Quealy. and Higher Education 2005. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.pdf 144 © 2006. L.educause.pdf Wise.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel.aace.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.edu. 40(3).au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. Report for the Melbourne.infodiv. (2006).org/newdl/index. http://www. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Vancouver.unimelb. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Educause Review. Government.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.Learning Management Systems Ueno. J. LMS Governance Project Report. May 2006 http://www. Healthcare. May-June.

Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. However. learning object repository (LOR). At the simplest level. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. As online educational materials are produced. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. sharable content objects (SCOs). They are emulations of “software objects. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. a well-known standard for learning objects. Rather.” This use has been more successful. rapid learning.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. reusable learning objects (RLOs). 2004.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. intelligent tutoring. Beyond that. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. Learning objects have several uses.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. learning object model (LOM). The acronym SCORM. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects.” such as a graph. Do Not Reproduce 145 . they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. 2006). Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. Wiley. SCORM.

http://www.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. This idea is based on older. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. http://www.cdlib.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. http://learnware.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. http://dspace. http://www.arizona.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.educanext. Brandon Hall Research . and distributes digital research material.downes. computer-use practices. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.fedora. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. preserves. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. stores.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. culture. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. http://web. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. indexes. http://dlist. and they can be general or subject specific. http://www.uwaterloo.sir.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. curriculum.uvic. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.org/index.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.

goenc.net/project.utoronto.unsw. http://portal. with a focus on information literacy. http://www.org/ci/en/ev.merlot. http://lester.koha. http://www.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. http://www.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.000 items. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.oise.edu.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.llearn.thegateway.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12. http://www.edu/DesktopDefault. http://nsdl. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://ideas.org/Home.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.cisco.lolaexchange.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://www.lrc3.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.profetic.publiclibraryofscience.mcli.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://www.maricopa. with almost 15.dist. http://www. http://www.rice.unesco.wisconsin.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 . http://mlor. http://www.

edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . C.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.ca/mt/archive/000 681.org/guidelines/index.jcdl. A. J.it/~lhci/002.org/blog/archives/ 002089. (2004).edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. And Longo. http://www. M.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.uis. and Alderman.L. T.nmc.cancore.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt. http://www.itdl.uniroma1. http://www.dicole. http://www. http://www.uwm. is available at: http://www.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. authored by Rachel Smith. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. CANCORE. http://www.doc Christiansen.dis.uwm.org/eng/scientifiques.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.ca/implementing_proje cts. http://www.edtechpost. M.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.elearnspace.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. EdTechPost.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. and Anderson. Celentano. (2004).lornet.. Online paper. March. 1(3). http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. F.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. (2004). http://www. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.

International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. Rachel (2006). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Harrigan. K.cfm/files/pap er_11841. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. S. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.learningcircuits.amazon..uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.itdl. http://dl.irrodl. http://www. Mattson.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire..pdf Krauss..com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability. & Strijker.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. D. http://www.. http://www. R. http://www. D. G. Research Report.. http://www. http://ideas.9. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design.. N. M. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.. M.org/14190 Downes. Norm (2006).html Leeder.9%2015-11-03. S. http://www. J.. Paquette.cancore.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis.. http://www. and Schafer.org/index. http://www. Online document.html McGreal.edusource.htm Friesen.1/downes. R. March. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.html Friesen.ca/protocols_en. 1 (3). html Edusource (2003).org/content/v2. Hatala. Anderson. Stephen. (2004). B. Friesen.) (2004). and Mohammed. 2004. (2004). Roberts... T. Downes. Jan. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. (2000).cancore. 2(4). A. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Software Architecture Document.org/mar2000/ primer. Online paper. T..html Heery. 2(1). MacLeod.eduserv. London: Falmer.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. Fredinand (2004). and Morales. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.org. 14.. 5-16. (2004).blogs. S. Online Education Using Learning Objects. (2003). March.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 .editlib.doc Fiaidhi. http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. March. Babin.aace. Warren (2000). A Primer on Learning Objects. Learning Circuits. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.itdl.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. Richards. Norm (2005).ca/implementing_projec ts. International Journal on E-Learning. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. Rory (Ed. Version . Online. G. G. 1(3).

M. (2005).bath. http://www. (2006).uniroma1. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. http://opencontent. M.kth. M..edu. http://www.p df Wiley.dis. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.fastrakconsulting. http://www.learningcircuits.org/read/ Wiley.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.Part 1. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.learninglab.. March. (Ed. and Pragnell. 1(7).htm Shepherd. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. http://www. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. pdf Roselli. G. N.).it/~lhci/rossanopres. (2002). http://www.. Online. Elizabeth (2004).pdf http://www. April 2002.htm Wiley. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.ac. INTERACT 2005. Paper presented. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.Part 2..Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. (2000).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.Rafts or Battleships? . Aug. Jan. Brandon Hall Research .html Murphy. http://www.org/docs/dissertation. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. 2004. and Freisen. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.usq.pdf Santally.bath.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. V. Govinda.dis. Learning Circuits. http://proceedings. Clive.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. Rossano. 7(1). Lori (2002). A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Final Project Report. 9. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. (2002). Derek (2004b). Brigham Young University. Learning Material Repositories . 2004. McGreal.it/~lhci/rossanopaper.uniroma1. T. A. http://www. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. R.co. 12. Learning Material Repositories . Objects of Interest. David A.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.pdf Richards.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. Iterating Toward Openness. (2000). (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. InSITE conference.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Wolfgang (2004). David A. (2004).org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. : http://reusability. David A.htm Nejdl. http://www.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Doctoral dissertation.ac. July 14. Derek (2004a).itdl.Rafts or Battleships? .informingscience. http://opencontent. June. and Senteni.

This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. including cell phones. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. geocaching. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Do Not Reproduce 151 . Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. users will be able to use a variety of devices. laptops. However. personal media players. location-based systems are found in museums. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. more demands for a person’s attention. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. and security issues. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. PDAs. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. including privacy concerns. navigation. and wearable computers. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. as with any new technology. galleries. Department of Defense.S. gaming consoles. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. findability. galleries. proximity tools.

com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006.google.museum.esri. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players.cadcorp. and to learn about them using a phones. See how this direction. gaming http://www.intergraph. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp . information. http://local.berkeley. earth.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .google. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. experiences that people.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information.pangonetworks. to what a GIS system uses.http://www.mapinfo. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://earth.com/ Intergraph . the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.il.live.smm.com/ mapping service. PDAs. Clark Labs .http://www.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40.biogeomancer.clarklabs.state. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database.us/research/G ESRI. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.greatestplaces.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.http://www.google.org/ educational of Mars. it is a great tool for teaching science. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.http://www. to model the climate in any place in the world. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.google.org/ consoles.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.000 archaeological sites in the state. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www. laptops. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.frappr. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.com/ Geographic Information System.edu/ the globe. http://www. http://www.http://www.com able to use a http://www.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery. Brandon Hall Research .org/ http://www.

wisc.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. See their complete range of products. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. at: http://www.edu/sco/gis/hi story.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.opensourcegis.geog.cetadl.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.eoscenter.org/index.ordnancesurvey.leeds. http://www.confluence. http://platial. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities. http://www.ac.chimer.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 . maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.co.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.bc.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.uk/oswebsi te/education/index. http://www. http://www. http://pngis.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.bham.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. see: http://www.ac. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.” http://www.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. Earth.fi/english/page.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.gees.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.esri.asp?path=5 00. http://portal. as well as papers on trends in GIS. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.edu.5372. create.ac.geography.com/index. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.com/gis4mt/index. http://www.

M.research. 2005.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. and Borriello. http://www. G. Online article.intergraph.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 . Learning Circuits. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.ibm. http://www.directionsmag. 2003. Fabrizio (2005).pdf Tsirliganis.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.. A. A.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Nov.00. C. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.uk/elearning/ story/0.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. (2003). J. http://geotags. Part II. 2005. We learning: social software and e-learning.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45..digicult.. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.jisc. (1999). Mapping. Pavlidis. http://www. enthusiasts. January.pdf Spohrer. Information in places.html Ross. Jan 2004. G. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.htm McLean.. http://www.co.pdf Cardinali. Issue 6..com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. (2005). Dobreva..geocomm. DigiCULT Newsletter. Eva (2004). Donnelly.1642288. M.ac. Guardian Unlimited. N. A.C.com/ Bibliography Benford. Chapter on Location Based Devices. and visualize spatial information. J. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. (2001). and Location-Based industry professionals. IEEE Report. Arnaoutoglou. and students. http://www. 38(4).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags. 15. http://www.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.. http://education. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. IBM Systems Journal.digicult. F.. Future LocationBased Experiences. Heather (2005). Location systems for ubiquitous computing.. 1999. and Chamzas. Abbott. CAD. McHugh. Koutsoudis.intelresearch.com http://geotags. Steve (2005).com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. D. http://elearningeuropa. manipulate. http://www.learningcircuits. http://www.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. and Rusbridge. S.guardian. Dec. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile.info/index.

including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. Many of these objects are software programs.” then. API clouds. For two or more programs to talk to each other. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. A “mashup. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. provides access to the API of another Web site. hybrid applications. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. also called “object learners and interoperability. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. of how to communicate with each other. E-learning in the workplace and. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application.” that is. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). composite applications. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. For example. to a lesser extent. Programs can be “stand alone. in schools and universities. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. in schools and universities. all expressed in binary code.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 .” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Using SOAP. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. to a lesser extent. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. integration.” instructors. or through “Web services. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. tag clouds. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. run all by themselves. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. Similarly. the rules for sending files across the Internet. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. or protocol. personalized. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations.

online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.icio. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. at the same time.Mashups.programmableweb.mashupfeed. http://www.emilychang. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. a writer for Business Week. document management.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. 2004). Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. Many have educational value.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.htmlhttp://www. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.” It has many examples of mashups. providing an informal collaborative environment.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. such as those for collaboration.. etc.wikipedia. Brandon Hall Research . Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.deitel. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. http://www.0 APIs. http://en.deitel.programmableweb.html Rob Hof.com/ http://www.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006.us.icio. As Warlick (2006) has noted. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. communications. http://del. http://blogs. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.businessweek.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. http://www.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.

(2006). 2006. July 25. Issue 1. Enterprise mashups. 6. 2005. J. Robert (2005).elearnspace.pdf Seimens.htm Siviter.com/publications. January 2004 http://lttf. http://www. Infoworld. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. (2004). Elearnspace. http://ww6. SOAP. and Oliveira. 2006. Learning Technology newsletter.com/products/print_fri endly. George (undated). Galen (2006). 6.techlearning.ieee. http://www. http://www.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Douglas (2004). January 2004 http://lttf.ieee.org/resources/webs ervices.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. Dec. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. May 15. Issue 1. match.html Warlick. Learning Technology newsletter. J. Mix. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.operitel. and Padron. David (2006).html Woodill. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. 2006.html Hof. techLEARNING. March 6.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063.infoworld. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. Paul (2002). Vol.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. 6.htm Torres. Web Services. Dodero. July 28.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. Business Week Online. Do Not Reproduce 157 .businessweek. and mutate. 2002. C. http://www. Curriculum as Mashup. Mashups.bctechnology.pdf Stacey. http://www.. C. G. Vol. Learning Solutions.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.

html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. and institutional stores. and artificial intelligence are being developed.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index. community.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. pervasive computing.mit.cetis. An ontology.do?tm= O4E.mit.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. Do Not Reproduce 158 . Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. search engines. http://dublincore. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. repositories. http://libraries. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. http://www.edu/content.imsglobal.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. http://metadata. to develop metadata standards. metadata. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program.cancore. http://www. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.ac. http://simile. and services. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. in the context of information technology. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.wssu. http://iiscs. Ohio. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. http://www.edu/o4e/viewhome.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning.educause.

tagcamp. http://infotangle.info/issues.org/10614 Mathes.. Green Chameleon. Thomas (2005a). http://www. 2002.org/. October-December. W. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. and Mosoiu..ifets. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. 2003. 7(4)..com/view/buil database as they enter data.pdf Friesen. P. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. A.aace..org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.html Gruber.php?id=25 Chen. Perich. http://tomgruber.pdf Henze. M. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).ca/editors. 98-111. Patrick (2006).a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. 7(4). http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . TagOntology . C. In Proceedings. sometimes A.delphigroup. (2004). International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. April 18. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. http://ebiquity.. http://www. http://www. Ellyssa (2005).boxesandarrows. and Joshi.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. (2003). http://www. April 21. A. Pouloudi. Delphi Group report. October 29. International Journal on E-Learning. Barry. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. and Poulymenakou.. C.pdf Delphi Group (2004). (2004). F. Presentation to Tag Camp. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. Boston. 2005.edu/get/a/publication/ 105.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Thomas (2005b). MA. (2004).php?id=25 Kroski.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. T. http://dl.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.cancore. Dolog. A. and Chaput. http://www.info/issues. November. D. Benayache. Adam (2004). Norm (2005). http://www.adammathes. http://tomgruber. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. B. Finin. Dec. 82-97. M. Lenne. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. tags into a BoxesAndArrows. 2006. N.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.blogsome. Moulin. June 2004. Infotangle.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Online article. (2002).. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. B.greenchameleon. http://www. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website.htm Gruber. A. 7. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras.. Defining “taxonomy”. H. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.ifets. and Nejdl. University of Illinois graduate paper.umbc.

70-81. Stuart (2005). http://www. D. Lytras. http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. and Diaz..org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Christian (2004). Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies.ppt Ricci. J. Nov. 26-28. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. P. NISO Press. N. Wagner.ecdl2003.niso. and Shao.learningcircuits. http://www. BoxesAndArrows. 7(4).org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. Reuben (2004). and Godby. Understanding Metadata. Trondheim. 7(4). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Brandon Hall Research . 2004. 2005. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Learning Circuits. http://www.dlib. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 11(7/8). Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Chen. 2004... M. July/August.html Wodtke. (2004).com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.pdf Oin.boxesandarrows. J. G. Another new paradigm for instructional design. I. April 9. S. BoxesAndArrows.ifets. Christina (2002). 2002.info/issues. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Norway.ifets.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).php?id=25 Tozman.boxesandarrows. (2003).info/issues. D-Lib Magazine. http://www.php?id=25 160 © 2006. http://www.htm Weibel. May 22. http://www. (2004). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.Metadata.

it is predicted that there will be 2. podcasting. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . multimedia. location-dependence. times the number of personal computers (PCs). MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. such telephones. brokerage. rich players. personal digital assistants (PDA). tablet PCs. laptops.” The Mobilearn However. there were estimated to be 1. tablets.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). and mentoring. 2003). it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. cellular telephones. location based technologies. personalization. you are. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. learning architecture [that] will support creation. Essentially. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). time and space. pervasive computing. laptops. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. strong search capabilities. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. and building. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. instant messaging (text. mLearning.” Two years ago. powerful support for effective tablet PCs. cell phones. learning. wearable computing. MP3 players. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. video) and distributed databases. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. using ambient intelligence. communicative skills and community interaction. in mobile computing (McLean. 2004). and performance-based wearable collaborative learning.6 billion units in operation by that year. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. conversational learning. improved identity creation. personalization. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time.

ccu. Cited in Prensky. 2004). adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.se/projectd ata.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. movies.ccu.co.cs.Mobile Devices Two years ago.bbc. and pre-service teachers.cs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture. compared to only 50 percent of computer users.” a “butterfly-watching learning system.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. Brandon Hall Research .computer.” They have a “firefly watching system.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.mobilearn.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://urbantapestries.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs).org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. Users can access and create location-specific text.pdf http://www.ccu. Australia. Israel.stockholmchallenge.cs.edu. http://www. in Japan.harvard.edu. (2004). there were estimated to be 1. US. http://news. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. pictures. or a combination of media.” and a “bird watching learning system.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.edu. http://csdl2.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note. http://gseacademic.net/ 162 © 2006.pdf http://www. audio. http://www.” http://www.

” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. http://www. For example. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.knowledgepulse.135/ipodined/news. and a glossary. http://www.iadis.beta80group. applications.telus.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 . links.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.232. technologies.ac.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.co.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault. http://www. http://213. Learn more at: http://www. Gaming. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.94.fasfind.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.uk/handler/publi cations.com/wwwtools/m/2717.fasfind.mobilelearning.com/home_en. resources.fasfind.msu.eee.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.htm Jari Laru.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.com/wwwtools/m/2737.bham.com/wwwtools/m/8907.elearningcentre. 2006 in Dublin. Ireland. http://www. http://spotlight-mobile. http://llt. activities. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://urbantapestries. of the University of Oulu in Finland.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. http://www3.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.” http://m. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. including issues.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.

No.kaywa. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. Sept. Y.jisc.edu.. (2005). http://knowledgetree. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://mobile. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. P. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Gaming.html Bibliography Alexander. of Birmingham http://www. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. EDUCAUSE Review.pdf Chen. January 2005. S. http://www. (2004). Ronchetti. A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 17-22 http://llt. (2005). 9(1). Vol.ac.6. (2003).pdf Anderson.org/micte2005/4. No.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.html Grew.J. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.unitn.html Kadirire. http://www.idi.pdf Geddes.formatex. 5. E.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.pdf Colazzo.net. September 2005. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Paul (2005).com/mobile_learning/i ndex. Jill (2005).flexiblelearning.pdf Attewell. 2(9).htm JISC (2005). Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. J. http://www.msu. http://www. (2002).ac.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Emerging technologies: Messaging.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.pdf Jasola. 19. M. and Trifonova.a u/edition06/download/geddes.. and Sheu. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.ccu. and Pagani.educause.m-learning.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 .jisc. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. http://www. http://www.itdl. Molinari. T. L. and Sharma.pdf Godwin-Jones. 39.ntnu.uk/eli_practice. Univ. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Language Learning and Technology. http://www. Bryan (2004). http://www. Kao. Bob (2005). Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.cs. B.. 347-359. JISC Guide. James (2005).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. A.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. R.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.science. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Report.

Proceedings. Teleborg Campus. 2002.. J. Romagnoli.com/news/article2 490.. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. A.century. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. David (2006). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. T.2.oucs.fhjoanneum. Glyfada...asp Liu.org/10. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. and Nischelwitzer.digicult. Donnelly.1109 /WMTE. M. Presented at WMTE 2002.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate..1039222 McLean.. F. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light.. Peter (2005).pdf Scagliarini. August 29-30. D. Liang. June/July 2005.pdf Metcalf.. Malavasi.phil-inst. UsabilityNews. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.ox.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.amazon. Proceedings.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. M. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Feb.ieeecomputersociety. http://doi. A. computer-aided. (2002). The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. 2005. H. E..usabilitynews. multimedia-based learning application.info/index. June 27.doc Meisenberger. Kristóf (2002). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. 2004. MA: HRD Press. http://www. Greece. Vecchietti. http://21st. Växjö. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. E. Galasso..acm. http://drei. Neil (2003).htm#Implications Prensky. and Cultural Heritage. (2005). M. Pigozzi. (2004). T. Coralini. and Sforza. Marc (2004). Ann (2005)..ascilite. S. M. http://www. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.pdf Mellow. http://www. (2001). J. L. Roffia. Sweden. Wang.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . Amherst. Brisbane. Cinotti. http://www. S.ac.org/citation. and Yang. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.innovateonline. http://www.. 1(5).2002. Växjö University. Australia. http://www.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Archeology. Conference on Virtual reality. Chan. http://portal. T.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. and Dobreva.org.

bham. 40-53.ac. (2005). M.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. 2005. http://education.educause.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298.eee. Learning in the Mobile Age.pdf Thomas.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. 40(3).. Taylor. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. E-Learning on the move. and Vavoula. http://www. Feb. Mike (2005). May/June 2005. Budapest.uk/elearning/ comment/0.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. EDUCAUSE Review.pdf Sharples. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. http://kn. and. http://www.ac. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 .1490476. Chief Learning Officer. Enabling Mobile Learning.html von Koschembahr. Draft paper submitted for publication. Michael (2005). Christopher (2005). A theory of learning for the mobile age.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. G. J.uk/public/getfile. Hungary. 2005. http://www. http://www.guardian. May 23. Ellen (2005).open.co. April 2005.00.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. Guardian Unlimited.com/content/templat es/clo_article.. Understanding.clomedia.fil.

Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.e. rather than just returning Web pages.translating one natural language into another. natural language generation.cs. (2004). speech synthesis. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.it/index.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. Do Not Reproduce 167 . not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing..html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. i. natural language understanding.. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). (2005a. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.ac. machine translation.lexxe.itc.york. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. (2004). “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .” See also Jordan et al. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. speech recognition. http://tcc. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. http://www. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). et al. Kim (2000). Lee et al. http://wwwusers. Di Eugenio. http://dmoz.uk/~silvia/litReview. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.

M.. research. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). http://www. 62-76. (2005b).pdf Di Eugenio. J.pdf Eskenazi. (2004).msu. November 2004 http://imm.cs. http://www.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. http://www.w3. Fossati.pdf Drigas. Volume 1.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. K. http://www. and Vrettaros. (2005a). http://eduforge. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching.cstr. and standards.cs.cs.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity.ac. P.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. B. Yu. and Glass. A. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. http://www. Paper presented at ACL2005. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications.uic. Paul (1994).. 2(2). and Glass.org/aitopics/html/natlang. D.ed. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Language Learning and Technology.org/Voice/Activity. D. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. B.uic. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Makatchev. Doctoral Dissertation. tools. http://www. Haller. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. Yu.demokritos.html Bibliography Bagshaw. January. S.amazon. S. http://llt.aaai. http://www.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. (2004). Cambridge.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. Issue 5.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon.bham.ac. D. http://www. Haller.upenn..php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. D.” Do Not Reproduce 168 .. Maxine (1999).uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP. University of Edinburgh.pdf Coxhead. Fossati.ldc. and VanLehn.elsnet. Online. Peter (2001).org/softwaremap/trove_list .html#fn1 Di Eugenio.. pdf Jacquemin. Christian (2001). MA: MIT Press.. http://www. M. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems.

Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. A.) (1999).colorado. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. (Eds. Chicago. C. MA: MIT Press. A. Donnelly. Cambridge. Chapter on Natural Language Processing.cs.pdf Linckels. Lester.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Ram. D.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Doctoral Dissertation. M. K. http://lsa. Abbott. http://www.amazon.iit. MA: MIT Press. Doctoral dissertation.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 .com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. M. Doctoral Dissertation. M. http://www.pdf Yang.iit. and Rusbridge. K. Chicago. and Martin. http://www. Upper Saddle River. computational linguistics and speech recognition. Vicari.amazon. Dobreva. http://www. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. S.). NJ: Prentice Hall.H. Jung Hee (2000).pdf Steinhart.pdf Lee..edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss..pdf Zhou. M. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. C. Yujian (2000). and Glass. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.digicult. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. J. and F. Illinois Institute of Technology. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. and Moorman. Chicago.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. S. Illinois Institute of Technology.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss.linckels.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04.) (1999). (Eds. (2005).edu/papers/daveDisser tation.pdf Jurafsky. of Colorado. August 31. http://www. (2000). Univ. In J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. and Moorman.. McHugh. Maceió. http://www.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. Feng-Jen (2001)..cs. D. M.cs. Illinois Institute of Technology. and Meinel. Doctoral Dissertation. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. R. (2004).pitt. Paraguaçu (Eds. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Brazil. David (2001).. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. A. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. http://www. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. http://www.iit. Cambridge. http://www.amazon. http://www.iit. Evens. C. (2004).cs. 435-439. A.

2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . thus bypassing a central server. thus bypassing a central server. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working.org/science/setiathome. memory. whose research is based on activity theory. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. instant messaging. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. Collaborative Peer Relationships .seti. chat rooms. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. http://www. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. Brandon Hall Research . and storage. In the future.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. and games. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. Jokela (2003). 170 © 2006. or e-learning environments. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. As personal computers become more powerful.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. movies.

http://p2p.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. Do Not Reproduce 171 . where students meet to share and exchange their productions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival. http://www.cs.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.weblogger. http://edutella. each with its own data schema. http://lockss.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://www. Any computer can join the infrastructure. http://www. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources.com/ eduCommons .com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple. http://picto.washington.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers. http://publius. http://cosl. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary.sun.cs. http://oceanstore. http://wwws.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.edu/piazza. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content.mit.campusmoviefest.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users.berkeley.groove.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity.md3.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously.usu.ucsb. http://www. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money.edu/info/ove rview.lcs.The eduCommons is an open system for creating.stanford. http://data.cdt. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.cs.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks.jxta. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. encyclopedia. and translation servers throughout the Web. sharing.pdos.

Mac.co.” http://www. http://www. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.internet2.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality.bdaweb.advancedreality. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://p2p. and videomakers.limewire.” It also says that there is “no spyware.com/ Overnet is an open source. http://www. for a small fee.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.stockholmchallenge. headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources.edu/apps_list.html MoveDigital.net/index. http://www.fastrakconsulting. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.llearn.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.com/english/content/ho me.its.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. cross platform application (Win.se/proje ctdata.co. http://www.overnet.psu. http://www. no adware.bdaweb. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.movedigital.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe.com/products/in dex. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning. musicians.elearningcentre.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. data. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. allows anyone. http://www.

com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Wolfgang (2002). pp 1051-1058. H. http://www. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.pdf Vassileva.org/index.. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Martin (2004).ac. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning.utexas. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. A. D. Intranet Journal. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Tektonidis.campustechnology. (2004). http://www. January 17. Luigi (2005). Healthcare. June 1.learningcircuits.intranetjournal.com/article.editlib. Susan (2003). Julita (2004). significance and impact.kbs. and Higher Education 2003.editlib. pp. http://www. http://www. July 2001. http://www. http://www.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. and Koumpis.pdf Ratti. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. (2002). AACE Journal 12(3).org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. A. http://voyager.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise. eLearning and future trends. In Cunningham.html Fletcher.edb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. Paivi (2003). N.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . K. Online article. Miriam (Eds.htm Cross.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 1624-1631. Austin. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Robin Good Blog. Bokma. Paul & Cunningham. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing.org/index. http://julita.learningcircuits.).usask. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann..ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.sunderland. Jay (2001). Amsterdam: IOS Press.htm Farago-Walker. January 2002. and Guergachi.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing.. Case Studies. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Judith (2006).pdf Farges. Government.html Jokela. Applications.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. http://www. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises.masternewmedia. R. http://www. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Online paper. Campus Technology.unihannover. Ginty. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. 2006. http://www.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. 301-313. How P2P will change collaborative learning. Jennifer (2002). University of Texas.

Learning happens everywhere and at all times. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. Individualization in an LMS is weak. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. wikis. such as search engines. but these are only available to members of the course. (Cortlett et al. Technology needs to be situated. as learners move between institutions. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. A PLE must support lifelong learning. for the learner. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. e-portfolios. amongst institutions. discussion forums. etc. without an offline client to the LMS. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. Brandon Hall Research . In many cases. learners need to be in real-world situations. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. Secondly. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. To practice real-world situations. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). and social bookmarking sites. and. there can be no electronic interaction.. chat. blogs. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. This requires support over time. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. whiteboard). learning management systems. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. A PLE is structured by the learner. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. libraries. work places. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits.). a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. 174 © 2006. often only for the purposes of the course. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. social environments. and through a variety of technologies.

and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. http://www. Online case study paper. Colin (2005). http://www. January 9. 22-27 July 2005. and Westmancott. James (2006).elearning.za/CD/papers/Corl ett.. Incorporated Subversion. http://www.ac. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. Ting. M.. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Running on the learner's PC. D.jisc.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.ac. O.bham. 2006. T. (2005).uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.mlearn. and review his or her learning activity. http://www. Jan. Do Not Reproduce 175 .php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham. 2006.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. J.jisc.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett. http://www. http://terrya. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.pdf Farmer.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.ac. Las Vegas.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan. Sharples. UK.org.uk/ilogbook/de fault.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. it helps the user plan.uk/index. 11. Chan.cetis. http://portal. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. PLE Reference Model. manage. http://elgg. track. http://www.cetis. Edinburgh.ac. Nevada. http://incsub.. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.bath. Terry (2006).ac.ac. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).cetadl.ac.edublogs.

have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.g. Furthermore. Often. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. learning environments. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. (Filippini-Fantoni. 2005). colour. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation.). rule-based filtering. These techniques include content-based filtering. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. Keenoy et al. or it can be an implicit model. However. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.g.. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. artificial intelligence. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. Do Not Reproduce 176 . However. etc. through a questionnaire). and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. collaborative filtering. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. etc. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. picture. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals.

Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.elenaproject.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. The trails can useomarmo. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user. objects leave “trails” . http://www.g. http://www.firstmonday.beta80group.org/en/index. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. Do Not Reproduce 177 .ca/English/Per sonal/index.uk/ilex/final.nl/publications/papers/M traits.ac.calimera. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. the personalization can be applied to content.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials.ecdc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. navigation. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. http://www..net/home. http://www.org/default.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .ed.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile.virtualmuseum. chc021 http://www.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.pdf kaleidoscope.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.emarcon.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.hcrc. wireless networks.time-ordered http://www. and/or presentation of materials. dynamic user profiling techniques. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.directa. http://www.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.html (handheld PCs.noech. A demo is available at: http://www.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. PDAs). useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.

org/mymetmuse um/index. C. http://www.CY/0409055 Boyle T.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. G.pdf 178 © 2006.Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art. S.uniba. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. and Verdaguer. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.arts. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. Gallipoli. (AVI 2004). and FilippiniFantoni.. T. http://smart.hatii. PowerPoint presentation. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. Brandon Hall Research .. http://www.. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04.org/ Bibliography Abbott.umuai.gla. http://arxiv. http://tmtfactory.cs.pdf Ceccaroni. D. Melbourne. Daisy (2002). A. De Carolis. J. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours..pd f Cavalluzzi. and Nuguid. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. Ler. S.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. University of Glasgow. http://www. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Calimera Project (2005). A. Pizzutilo.unimagdeburg.metmuseum.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. http://www. Cozzolongo. Online paper. Ngo.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. 2004.pdf Callaway. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). Gallipoli. Online paper. (2004). X.(2001). A.. K. May 25. 2004.pdf Beler. William Niu.arces.ac.. and Kuflik. Kay. (2004). Italy. (2004). J. with a particular focus on the museum sector. Italy.. HATII. B.org. Bowen. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Bright. Borda. A. http://www.di. May 25. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.unibo. A.. (2005). W. (2005). The Future of Access (or.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.org/pdf/cs. L. http://adiret. interactive services in home automation. (AVI 2004).org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.ascilite.calimera. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. and Cook J. https://www. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces..

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Brandon Hall Research . and real-time training and documents in a supportive. In the business world. instructorled. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Knowledge Management. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . content management. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. collaborative environment. which form a dynamic user profile. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. learning management systems.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . 2001).Portals Related terms Collaboration.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. vendors.

htm CyberU – Access to over 3.www2. school administrators. and shared lists for tasks.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.000 publishers worldwide http://www. collaborative environment.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. administrators.trainingregistry. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.teach-nology. Do Not Reproduce 185 . instant messaging.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.elementk. and schedules.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.com/home.cyberu.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.microsoft.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.700 online courses http://www.hp. museums. http://h20219. go to: http://www. students. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.executrain. http://www. instructors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. interactive discussion groups.000 lesson plans http://www.300 online courses http://www. and universities. news and announce-ments. online meetings with text.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo.fathom. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.000 online courses http://www. As of early 2006.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.worldwidelearn. audio and/or video. the portal offered information on more than 20.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.microsoft. http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. http://www. document management information.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.proquest. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.saba.elearningeuropa.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. calendars. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. e-mail distribution lists. instructor-led.asp Element K – Access to over 2. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.

R.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. baby! E-learning portals. M. Heidi (2003). Hershey. http://www. You’ve come a long way. Hershey. K. http://www. (Eds. and Sheehan.) (2003). San Francisco: JosseyBass.asp?id=9028 Barron.amazon.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . http://www. C. Tom (2000). http://blogs. http://www. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.tamtam. Reviewed at: http://www. M. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. A.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. New York: AMACOM. (Eds. and Gordon. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. Richard & Associates (2002). J. In Jafari. and Aucoin.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.learningcircuits. Campbell. Campus Technology Magazine. http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing. Ron (2004). Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal.amazon. (2003).com/article..ittoolbox. New York: AMACOM. PA: Information Science Publishing. category. http://knowledgemanagement. Bray (2001).amazon.educause. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. http://www.asp Katz. March 1. A Portrait of Learning Portals. and Sheehan.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.htm Brockbank.educause.amazon. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.asp Terra. (2003). Heidi (2001). Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.learningcircuits. 2004. Learning Circuits.Education.campustechnology. including educational uses. May 2000. September 2000. Cornelia (2000).aspx Bibliography Ateshian.. A.nl/mart/CategoryView.

Skypecasting. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Consequently. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. the word “lecturing” means “to read.replayhq.” In the Middle Ages.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. Do Not Reproduce 187 . In fact. However.macromedia.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. In fact. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. Online presentations can be very boring. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. webcasting. http://www. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.” In the Middle Ages. http://www. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. virtual classrooms. Experience them at: http://www. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. when experts are not readily available. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.com/site/index. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.lsc. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. web conferencing.

html#a1185 http://weblog.htm http://www.humanresourceWebinars.com/cxoextra/0.silicon. http://www. although many are trying to change this practice.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.brandonhall.acue.edu/TEAL).com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. http://weblog. and e-learning. instant messaging. http://cde.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.com/webconf/index.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”. http://www. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.00.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.ccimeet.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.mit.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. online meetings. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. online communities. groupware.kolabora.com/publications/lel/lel. http://www.infoworld.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://www. in partnership with Dreamworks. social software for online collaboration.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 . a columnist at InfoWorld. intranets.masternewmedia.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. virtual teams. videoconferencing. http://ajax.athabascau. While it is expensive. http://www. See the TEAL Project at MIT.kolabora.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.39155030.thinkofit. forums and message boards. videoconferencing. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.hp.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. http://www.380000 5416.htm http://www.adelaide.infoworld.edu.com Hewlett-Packard. http://www. and Web presentations. Webcasts.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. http://icampus.elluminate. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.com/udell/2005/0 2/25. independent listing of Webinars.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. http://www.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.

co. Dreamweaver.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch. http://www. http://www. and kidneys.eweek. brain. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. and Flash.com/presentatio ns/index. virtual meetings.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. http://www.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www. htm http://www.” http://www.programjunction.e-learningcentre.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.elearningcentre. http://www. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. http://www.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. http://buyersguide.filesland.html Do Not Reproduce 189 .uk/eclipse/Resources/live. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.html Using Apreso software. Web seminars.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. Coursebuilder. virtual classrooms.co.co.timelyweb.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.co.elearningcentre.apreso.lsc. http://www.com/downloads/sea rch. and whiteboarding.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1. Captivate.com/eweek/webc onferencing.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.com/software/presen tation. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. presentation and streaming presentation tools.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. Authorware. Web conferencing.co.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.elearningcentre.presentations. although it does not have to be. Breeze.

Christine (2001). http://www.pdf McFerrin. Jennifer (2004). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.htm Canali De Rossi.learningcircuits. 2003.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth.html Canali De Rossi.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools.amazon. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.blogspot. K. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.. Live ELearning.htm Duckworth. 2004. July 26. Russ (2004).fasfind. http://www. http://www. July.aace.masternewmedia.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.downloadjunction.htm Hofman. http://www. April 30. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. Robin Good Blog.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . 2003. Luigi (2003b). http://www.com/wwwtools/m/21593.com/BreezePart 2. http://www.masternewmedia.com/product /software/795/index. Digital Inspiration. 2003. July 8.htm Canali De Rossi.russellmcnally. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). P. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal. and Furr. http://m. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.masterviews.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. Sept. http://labnol..asp McNally. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. Armit (2005). Luigi (2003a). 3.01. Belinda (2003). Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Learning Circuits. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze. Robin Good Blog.aln. 2005. 7(3).russellmcnally. Sept.com/BreezePart 1.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. http://www.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.pdf http://www. http://www. Live and Online!: tips. May 15. Luigi (2003c). (2002). (in two parts) http://www. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.

infoworld.ac. S. and Equipment. 2005. K. InfoWorld. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1..pdf Spielman.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Start Saving Time and Money Today. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Software. Choices are great. 11.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. Dec. P. http://www. http://www.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1.presentations. L.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.amazon. but… Presentations Magazine.open. Dave (2002).html Zielinski. AMACOM. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. Feb. (2004). The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. http://www. http://kmi. and Winfield.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. and Quick. (2003). Choose the Right Vendors.

simple. usually when it is needed (Brodsky.does not require any plug-ins. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. extreme e-learning. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. FAQ.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. just-intime e-learning. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. programming. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Navigation built in . especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. It can refer to learning something quickly. but not always good for you. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. tests. such as creating links. glossary.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Instructional design built in. For example. Standardize approaches. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. In the second sense of the term. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Do Not Reproduce 192 . so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. by necessity. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. 2003). are built in. graphics. a demand to produce online content very quickly. including tools and templates. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Advanced features. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. learning objects. According to Ready Go!. Does not require any advanced skills. In the first case. or HTML knowledge. Tools for rapid e-learning are. It is best suited to textbased materials. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. It can refer to learning something quickly. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. easy to use. or where the online information frequently changes. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. and clip art is straight forward and supported . and drill down pages. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design.automatically assures that all navigation works. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Deploys easily .

org Web site.masie.raptivity. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.. and Publish.readygo.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. Learning Solutions.elearningguild.microlearning. http://www. See sample templates at: http://www. 2003).com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Reduce the number of development vendors. schedule and due dates. 2004). computer games.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. http://www. Assign SMEs who are committed.scate. a demand to produce online content very quickly.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.elearningcentre.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. http://www. Enhance. and other good stuff. Future-Proofing.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. Reusability.amazon. Edit.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Do Not Reproduce 193 . and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer.htm Bibliography Abell. version control protocols. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. Clark (2005). virtual classroom.” Find out more: http://www. January 23. and communicate deliverable expectations. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Templates. Kendrick (2006). Leverage professional project management methods and tools. centrally located files. http://www. low. http://www.e. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. which contains information on resources. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. or where the online information frequently changes. conferences.co.pdf Aldrich. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. manage the content and the users.versus high-interaction).articulate. To be effective. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. 2006. See a demo at: http://www.com/studio. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.

Bill (2005). http://www.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. 2004. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. http://www. Nov.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. http://www.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. LTI Newsline.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning.elearningguild. Learning Solutions.elearningmag. Paper. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Jay (2005). http://www. 2006. http://www.htm Bersin.asp Bersin. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. http://www.pdf Gustafson. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. Larstan Business Reports. http://www.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald. (2004).com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. January.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.pdf Jimenez. 2006.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. Josh (2005).clomedia. J. Penny (2004). http://www. Joe (2005).ltimagazine. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.transformmag.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. 9.pdf Crosman. Ray (2006).asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. Chief Learning Officer.clomedia.com/articles/ab stracts/index. e-Learning Crop Circles. http://www. Jennifer (2004). Mar.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Lane (2002).learningcircuits. J. Ray (2005). http://vftraining. June. June 30.elearningguru. August 2004.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Making rapid elearning work. July 2. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. LTI Newsline. Rapid Intake White Paper. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Chief Learning Officer. Transform Magazine.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Kevin (2002). Jan. LTI Newsline.elearningguild. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. http://www.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 10.adobe. Chief Learning Officer. April. http://www.meetingone. E-Learning for short attention spans. Dianne (2005).com/showArticle. Brandon Hall Research . and Bersin. tools.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.bersin. Tips and Techniques. 2002. Learning Circuits. Josh (2004). Vignettes for Training White Paper.clomedia. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.ltimagazine. Mark (2003). July 2004. Garin (2004).pdf Jimenez. http://www. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.pdf Brodsky.

Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Nick (2005). What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Press release.pdf Macromedia Inc.com/news story.learningcircuits. June 2004.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 .clomedia. http://www.clomedia. http://www.trainingpressreleases.pdf Mayberry. 2005. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Learning Circuits.com/articles/ default. Learning Solutions.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. February 2005.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. April 20. The Training Foundation online article. http://download.macromedia.trainingfoundation. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. http://www. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. http://www.elearningguild. Simulation.macromedia. Clive (2006). Stephanie (2006). Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Eric (2003). http://download.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. (2004a).htm Masie Center (2005). Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. 2006.pdf Shepherd. Chief Learning Officer. Ed (2004). January 2003. Macromedia White Paper. Macromedia White Paper. January 16. http://www. (2004b).com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.

http://robotics.gov. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.active-robots. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. engineering. engineering. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. technology.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Do Not Reproduce 196 .aad.org/aboutbotball/overview. http://www.ife. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.botball.lego. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. and mathematics. Inc.com/ http://www. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. technology.whmsi. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. and math. http://www. for underwater exploration. http://mindstorms. http://www.nasa.

brooklyn.profetic. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.eng.euron. technology. http://www. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.rec. engineering.edu/index. http://www. and other information on robotics.edurobot.edu/~sklar/e r/edu. particularly robotics.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.ed.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. links.gov/rcc/index.irc.kipr. http://www. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.atr. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. and mathematics.com/r_home. http://www.ams. one child at a time. Find out more about this group at: http://www.org/article. Mr. http://robothaven. and vocal tics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.jp/ See also: http://www.microworlds. By donning motion sensors.cmu. go to: http://www.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics. http://robotics. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.cuny.ac.ri. Do Not Reproduce 197 .osaka-u.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.nasa. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. It features news.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.sci. http://www.evolution. lip movements.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.net/ Run by NASA. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.

pdf Stewart. U. Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2001). Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.. http://www. D. and Meeden. Ottawa. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Sept. http://www. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Kumar. Heinsohn.tools for accessible education. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.digicult.cs. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.l3s. H.andrew. and Loose. McHugh. and Rusbridge. and Wagner. J.uml. Ferrari. D.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.... S. http://dangermouse. November. Basic Books. I. and Yanco. (2005). New York. Yanco. A. Germany. R. (2004). H.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.amazon. June. Sept. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank. H. (2004). Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. and Hempel. 28-30.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics. D. D.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.amazon. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education.pdf Blank. http://www.pdf Boersch. B. (2001). K.pdf Papert.. Abbott. and Dautenhahn. Proceedings..fhbrandenburg. http://www. (2004). and Mataric. R. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. G.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. S. I.. M. P. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Harwin. Mindstorms: Children. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. (1999). (2004). M. Ontario.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. (1980). (2005). T. D. Düsseldorf. New York: Syngress Publishing. Donnelly. and Powerful Ideas. Paper at the American Assoc. AAATE Conference 1999. http://rob.ccmlab.brynmawr..pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 .. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. D. Computers. M.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Robots in the classroom .pdf Ferrari. Kumar. http://zeus..l3s. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. http://www. M. L.. C. Germany. D. Keating.pdf Cooper. Meeden.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er.wtec. L.cmu.. M..pdf Nourbakhsh. http://www. Dobreva. Miller. and West.. http://www. A.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.. Hohmann.pdf http://www. Lathan. W. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.

collective intelligence.” The first type searches the Web as it exists.examples are early yahoo. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. as this section of the report shows. dependable information. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. such as Google and Altavista. Meta–search engines. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. data mining. They bring into the equation user preferences. federated search. information retrieval.com and Alta Vista.so they take the structure of the Web into account. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. collaboration. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Search is probably the most used elearning application. search engine optimization. a rich user experience. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Examples are Google and Overture. each with their own defining feature sets. such as Yahoo. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. resource discovery. But. One is the problem of finding relevant. meta-search engines. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. Ezzy (2006a. in parallel. Web directories. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. Do Not Reproduce 199 . which submit queries.

and text.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://search. http://www. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.gada. http://www.com About.alexa. for a variety of reasons. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics.ask. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.alltheweb.com/ Answers.aeiwi.aol.com’s search service http://a9.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. http://www. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.answers.faganfinder.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.convera.gigablast. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. http://www.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.about. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. Brandon Hall Research . Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. video. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. http://www.com/ 200 © 2006. get answers http://www.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www.com Gada. 2004).altavista. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. then fill in the search box.

http://www. http://www. http://search.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. blogs.netscape.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.looksmart. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.icerocket.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://rollyo.com/ 201 © 2006. http://www.otavo. http://www.gnod. http://qube.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.mooter.lexxe.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://dmoz.jookster.hotbot. rather than just returning Web pages.squidoo. and the Web.grokker.gravee.com/search/def ault. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://getoutfoxed.umich. http://channels.msn.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.pubsub.com/v2/index.com/ Gravee . http://search. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://oaister.google. http://www.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.umdl.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.qelix. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://www.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.

http://www.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://tagjag.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.stumbleupon.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. http://www. http://firstgov.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.ujiko.google.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www. books.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://vivisimo.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://swicki.healthfinder.Clusters results.com/v2a/flash.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.gpoaccess. http://books. http://infomine.com/ 202 © 2006. reviews. users tag their favorite results and block spam.eurekster. http://www. http://www. and movies.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://www.wink.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.google.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://www.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.gov/ http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .com/ Wink – Using social networking.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.gnoosic. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.ai.google.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. Brandon Hall Research . http://icerocket. http://citeseer.ucr.sri.psu. http://froogle.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.ist.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://scholar. Wink then diplays the results.imdb.acronymfinder. Much of this information is hidden from view.yahoo. http://www.govmine. http://www.blinkx.

ArtKIDSRule. http://www.org/citation. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.findlaw.fm/ LawCrawler .com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.ibm.merl.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.koders.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. Yahooligans.imdb.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www. http://www.omgili.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. AolKIDS.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.rrzn.com/ LitLinker . http://www.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. http://www.f cgi QBIC .convera. http://www. http://www.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.com/ MediaFinder .nih. reviews.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. Brandon Hall Research .1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.scirus.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.krugle. FactMonster. http://wwwqbic. http://lawcrawler.A legal search engine. http://kids. AwesomeLibrary.gov/entrez/query.acm.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.uni-hannover. cast lists and theatre schedules.rawsugar. & KidsClick!.pandora.org/ Omgili . http://portal. http://www.com/ Last. http://www.ithaki.ncbi.liveplasma.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006.cfm?doid=105 6808.almaden.nlm. http://www. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.last.

nyu.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://smealsearch1.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.psu. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.seekport. http://www.columbia.com 204 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www.searchedu.searchking.cs.psu.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. bookmarks. http://www.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.technorati.xcavator. http://a9.columbia.soundspotter.ist. or federated searching. companies.zoominfo.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.cmp. Known as “meta-search” engines.ee.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://www. http://www.columbia.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. as of this writing. http://wang16. and notes.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.truveo.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.” Content-based search engines for pictures.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://www. http://techsearch. http://www.4 billion links.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://nlp. http://www. http://www.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. and their relationships. http://www. and tracks a user's search history.ee.ee.

http://www. therefore. pictures. and links the clusters. and Web mail for the topic entered.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. shopping sites.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. video. lottery results.zapmeta. white pages.trovando.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. http://vivisimo. maps/directions. http://www-rocq. http://www.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.net/indexu.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. tickets.com/ 205 © 2006. http://www. http://www. classifieds. http://www. http://www. http://www. eBay.search. games.ixquick. http://www. http://clusty. including a set of international telephone directories.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.dogpile.copernic. http://www. dating and personals. produces a visual display of the clusters. http://www. weather.uk/ SearchTools. http://www. health information sources. news sources.intute.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. is a valuable resource for researchers. hotels. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. yellow pages.info.ac. audio. jobs. flights.researchbuzz.kartoo.ithaki.com/ Info – Searches reference works. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. city guides.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages. http://www. apartment rentals.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. Brandon Hall Research . with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. greeting cards. movies.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.inria.searchtools.

Find out why in this presentation: http://www. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. and Shoham. December. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. S. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. http://infomine. focused searches on topics they care about.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://www.ucr. 10(12).org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. http://swicki.firstmonday.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. (2005). First Monday. http://firstgov. Y.netmasters. http://www. http://www.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. http://www. For example.ac. Brandon Hall Research . Frank.searchenginecolossus.gpoaccess. or swicki. or topic .com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. http://searchenginewatch..uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.com/ Stephen Downes.eurekster. http://www. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.co. This search engine.bolton.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.downes.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. is against the idea of federated searches.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://www.elearning.tveyes.html 206 © 2006.citysearch.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. Users can also browse by subject category. Unlike other search engines.gov/ http://www. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. A. can be published on the user's site.ac.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.just as a search engine is used for text. phrase. the user's community has total control over the results.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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Marketing Profs. 2003. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.pdf Shirky.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.asp Udell. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.bbk. Wagner.inria.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. InfoWorld.pdf Tao. Lytras. http://ewic. Thomas (2004). Greenwich. Woukeu. (2005). John (2004). 2004. F. S. and Diaz. A. CT: Manning. Davis. New York. and Woukeu. Economics and Culture.html Stojanovic. Andy (2005).com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. H.aifb.pdf Sampson. J. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. (2001). G. Millard. G. Paper presented at the GLS conference. Nov. (2003).marketingprofs.. Networks. Clay (2003). http://www. August 2.shirky.pdf Samaras. and Studer. K. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle.info/journals/7_4/5. December 3. http://wwwsop. 7. P. New York.ecs. L. M. (2004)..de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. 7 (4). (2004).fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web..pdf Tao.infoworld. D.ac. http://www. D.dcs.ac. Staab. http://www2004. E. http://www. F. G. May 17–22. 2005. http://www.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. D. A. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.. 2004. H. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.. Schmitz.ifets.com/login/sign up. C.unikarlsruhe. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.pdf Updegrove. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. and Davis.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.. (2005). Karenos. G.. 26-28.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.soton.pdf Tane. and Worldview. (2004). and Stumme. http://www. http://eprints.uk/selene/reports/D el3. R. USA. Millard. and Christodoulou. Syllogism.html Do Not Reproduce 213 . L.amazon.. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. http://www. and Gouarderes. http://www.bcs. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin.

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calt.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.calt. http://www. According to High (2004). but information about it remains on the Web.” My first report in this series. games.ncsa.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. learn.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. Do Not Reproduce 215 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. 2005). i.gov/ Winters et al.noaa. role-playing. participants will be motivated to evaluate. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market.uiuc. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. http://sos. reviewed simulations as an online content format. especially ones set by themselves. http://www. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.insead. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.icherubini. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. It was decommissioned in 2005. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.insead. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.e. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. http://cave. microworlds.

http://www.soe. breathing.umich.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.net/celestia/index.edcenter.insead.edu/ http://um3d. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. http://thinkertools. and Mac OS X.lsa.calt. they are only available for Macintosh computers.insead.calt. http://www.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.miami. and murmurs. It runs on Windows.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.calt. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. http://geowall.insead. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.making-history.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning. Do Not Reproduce 216 .shatters. http://www.berkeley.sdsu.fsl. heart sounds.edu/geowall/ind ex. http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting. http://www.sdsu. However.med.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. Linux.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.noaa.insead.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. with many examples to try. http://www.umich.geo.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://crme." http://www.edu/harvey_about. pulse rate. http://www.dc.calt.edcenter. Mass." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.. http://www.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.

http://www.biographix. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.com/ Knowledge Planet . http://www. go to: http://www.net/ Biographix . http://www. http://www.knowledgequest.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. For example.com/ Kookaburra Studios . http://www. http://www.forio.com/ MaxIT .experiencebuilders.ht m Intermezzon .knowledgepresenter.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. without programming knowledge.com/product s/firefly.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.maxit.assima.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. http://www. http://www. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.adobe. http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. http://www.virtualfishtank.knowledgeplanet.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www.maxit.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. http://www.intermezzon.ISLE . create courses specifically on using computer software.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .knowledge-director.com/ Forio .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.com/broadcastoverview.asp Knowledge Quest .atghome. to play in a virtual fishtank.com/ MaxIT .DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser. Integrates with many media types.adobe.stt-global. http://www.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.

com/product_r pe. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .elearningcentre.sdsu. http://www. http://www.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/ Reusable Objects .com/3dTraining.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. which can then be used to build simulations.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.icherubini. http://www.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .com/portal/index.co.xstreamsoftware. http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.qarbon. http://www. including simulations. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.teds.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.reusableobjects.stagecast.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. http://www.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie. http://www. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://coe.outstart.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.stottlerhenke.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.” http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.com/products/sim.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.percepsys.nexlearn.learning2005.virtualcontrolroom.

nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. June.. and Wilensky.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook. P.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. Shannon (2004).htm Aldrich. http://www.. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science.PDF Blikstein. Holland. Rasmussen. The promise of online simulations.pdf DeVries.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. (2004). H. and McCloughlin. Mazloumian. http://www. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www.blikstein. 12.pdf Cherubini.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. International Workshop. (2005).org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. http://www. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.eschoolnews. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). Learning Circuits. October 2004. Financial Times. http://www.. Learning Circuits. F. Chief Learning Officer.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. Utrecht.science.medialabeurope.amazon.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training. B. eSchool News. Making the most of software simulations..ac. Simjour. J. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.learningcircuits. 8. http://www. computer games. Kamau (2004).. p.ft. Bjorn (2004). T. A. http://www. M. http://www. http://www. (2002). U.htm High. 2004.bbk. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. How playing power drives lessons home. http://www.clomedia.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. Clark (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.com/news/showS tory. A.uva.bc.uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Learning Circuits.jibc. Sept. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.html Do Not Reproduce 219 . http://www. Feb.learningcircuits. Jennifer (2004). http://www. In Interaction Design and Children.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Aug.learningcircuits. 2004.htm eSchool News (2004). html Bibliography Aldrich. Paper presented at Robocup conference. Six criteria of an educational simulation. and Bostan. Taghiyareh.com/content/template s/clo_feature. 2004. 2002. 4. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Clark (2005).com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Gash. September. A.

org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. http://www. and Sund Martin. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. (2001).net/papers/ELearning. & de Jong.projects. Laser. L. http://www.pdf Turkle.protonmedia.. A. and Strohecker. http://www. A.uc.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. J. AACE conference. Department of Computer Science. and Ip.html Linser. Simulation levels in software training. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. and Hou. October.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. 284-294. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.prospect.html Sobeih.ht m Sloman. R. 17. 1997. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . July.for Philosophers and Engineers. USA. Sherry (1997).bham. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Florida. 8(31). (2004). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. Cherubini. http://www. Mar.pdf Tjaden. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. T. (2003).case studies.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.ac. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Viswanathan. (2002).icherubini. Implementation and Evaluation. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. April. Gary (2003). In Association for Computing Machinery. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. The American Prospect.simplay. Computer simulations in distance education. M...Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer.ncassr. A. Online paper at: http://lsm.-Apr.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper. October 15-19. Learning Circuits.cs.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. N. Aaron (2005). http://www. J.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. A. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. Les (2004).learningcircuits. September. M.. Fort Lauderdale.html Winters. Montréal. http://itdl.html Lunce. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 .pdf Swaak. Online report. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.. 1(10).. (2001). C.dei. http://www. http://www.

org/Template. For a full discussion of this issue. http://www. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. especially in museums and for outdoor education. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. easily changed..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. Do Not Reproduce 221 . some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. or water. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). therefore. optical tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. 2005). They are programmable and. RFID technology is developing rapidly. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. especially for tagging retail items in stores. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. infrared (IR) tags. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. grease. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. While controversial. which transmits over short distances.ala. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.

checkpointsystems. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. and Case.aace. in a 2005 online article. & Richards. http://www. (2004).aace.html (Online). http://www.cfm?fus http://www.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.edu/index. Infoworld. G. In Kommers.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.. Noda.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.msu. (2005). The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. S.” http://vis.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. 5.open.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02.com/monthly/articl e.. A.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x.iu..com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn. C.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly.ac.com/default . Oct.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. June 27. & Kondo.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://cnm.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. T. James (2006).toydirectory.. Tsukagoshi.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 . P. http://www. http://www.org/newdl/index. http://www.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. A.infoworld. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. K. Ando. 2005. Shibuya. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal.digicult. K. Noma.rfidnews.. 2004. Osawa. (Eds.).uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant.org/ Bibliography Borck. especially for tagging retail items in stores.iu. http://uitspress.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.. http://www.. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1..csmonitor.edu/102605_meal. symbology tags. April 13. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. http://www. N.

and Backhouse. van Kranenburg. Corey (2004). Andrew (2005). S.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc. 4(3). Masters Thesis. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.. January 1.pdf Salcedo.1109/WMTE.66 Ward.digicult. http://www. http://www.. Technology Watch Report 1. 261-263. M. Y. and Yano. M.. Donnelly. R.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. http://csdl2.jisc. RFID: frequency. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Proceedings.eschoolnews.ac. standards.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. and Dobreva.computer. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Ogata.toydirectory. M. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. (2003). RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. (2005). TD Monthly. eSchool News Online. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). http://www.. March.2005. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. H. (2006).msu.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal. http://www.xml&DOI=10. R.asp?id=1222 Ross. 2004. Aparna (2004). Michigan State University. G.org/news/showstor y.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 .pdf Robinton. http://www.com/monthly/article . adoption and innovation.

as each member can upload resources discovered.icio. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. metadata. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. printouts. tagging. and books. Third.us) post their favorite Web sites. while users of the del. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. and Web links.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. music. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. Fifth. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Students. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Do Not Reproduce 224 .” However. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. For instance. search. no matter their location or timing.icio. faculty. Second.us Web site (http://del. Flickr held over 100 million images. Fourth. or distributed in emails. in turn.First. researchers at all levels (students. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. ontologies. they act as an “outboard memory. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. The result is something called a tag cloud. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. For example. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. As of April 2006. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.

http://consumating. http://www. Also.com/ Furl . or check out what everyone wants to do.us/ Digg .Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. connect with others.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. With digg. http://www.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. the users decide.clipmarks. http://flickr.citeulike. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com/archives/beta_up date/index. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community.net/ CiteULike . and/or books and find them again. blogging. share their stories. search others’ references. and non-hierarchical editorial control. and search for a specific user's Blinks.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. They can save references. RSS. Do Not Reproduce 225 . users can see what others are Blinking. and organize the academic papers they are reading. store. describe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.eventful. http://www.icio.com/ Blinklist .com Clipmarks . Blink also provides tools to sort.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. http://www.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. share references with colleagues.icio. http://ask.com/ Del. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. music.43things.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. http://www. but.furl.com/ Flickr – Store.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. users submit stories for review.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. http://blogmarks.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.blinklist. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. Also retrieve it easily. http://blog.connotea. http://www. http://www.org/ Consumating . http://www.us . and share photos with others.metafilter.digg. sort. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink.feedmarker.A free service to help academics share. search.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. and to share them. get inspired. http://del.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .com/ Project Pad .jookster.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . http://myweb2.edu/ppad2 /index.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. http://www.html Linkroll .com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. http://www. and discover relevant links.kaboodle.netscape.netvouz.com/ Simpy – Search tags.memeorandum. http://www. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://jots.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. http://www. http://www.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs. http://www.pageflakes. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.shadows.yahoo. or enter new items and tag them.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.org/news. http://ma. based on what is happening in the news media.A free. http://www. updated in near real time.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.eu/products/networ k_menus.spurl.com/ Jots .networkltd.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.northwestern.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www. share.smugmug.linkroll.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.com/ Kaboodle .gnolia. http://www. http://projectpad.com/ Magnolia .simpy. http://www.rojo. http://www.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://www. similar to Digg.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.search.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu .us.peterme.quickonlinetips.com/writings/ontology_overra ted. tags.html http://www.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.com/archives/00055 8. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. http://www.com/index. http://www.quickonlinetips. http://unalog.S.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. http://www.suprglu.A.com/ SWiK . http://tabblo.icio.us.html http://tagsonomy.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.icio.com/udell/gems/d elicious.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.com Wists – A social shopping site. http://www.” http://www.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www. http://www.wists.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.quickonlinetips. http://swik. http://www.tagzania. and share it with others. and Digg. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.zvents.infoworld.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. http://weblog.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.yelp. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. and social bookmarking. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.educause.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://upcoming.veotag. with contributions from users.wink. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del. Flickr.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky. If a city is not there.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. http://www.html http://atomiq. http://www.

J. June 21. SearchCIO.” http://magazines. Brandon Hall Research . April 2005.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. (2005). Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.ht ml Mejias. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. HP Labs Report.shtml Golder. Adam (2004). Many2Many.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd... First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). D-Lib Magazine.html McGillicuddy.plasticbag. Bryan (2006)..net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.com.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. http://tomgruber.adammathes. B. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. B. D-Lib Magazine. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Liz (2005).289142.techtarget. 11(4). 20. 2.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Shamus (2006).corante. Hammond.ejournal.fasfind.pbs. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. and Scott. Andy (2006). T. (2005).com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. (2005).com/wwwtools/m /6350.html Lawley.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Lund.org/teachersource/learning . http://ideant.pdf 228 © 2006.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.hpl. Flack.hp.ascc.. 41(2). Plasticbag. Jan. Sept. 11(4). B.sid19_gci1195182. T. http://www. Ulises (2004). http://www.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Social consequences of social tagging.com/originalCo ntent/0.htm Hammond. Hannay.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.fasfind.typepad.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. and Huberman. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. T.educause.dlib. Tom.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. March/April 2006. Online paper. 2005.. 2006. http://www. M. April 2005.pdf Gurber. (2005). Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. T. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. 2005. Keynote address. http://dlib. and Hannay. Tom (2005).php Lund.html Mathes. Web 2. S. http://www. http://www.org. http://searchcio. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://many.html Coates.00.com/wwwtools/m /7172. 2006. http://www. May 5. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata..

Trusted Sources. Ideant. Nicholas (2004). Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.infoworld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. http://www.typepad. 2. Jon (2005). July 20. The New School of Ontologies. 2005.infoworld.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Webblogg-ed. Will (2005). http://www. InfoWorld. August 20.pdf Richardson.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. InfoWorld. Ulises (2005). Online Paper. 2005. http://www. Aug.html Mote. Jon (2004).html Udell. 2004.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . Tags vs. http://ideant.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Tag mania sweeps the Web.weblogged. Collaborative knowledge gardening. May 20. 2005. http://www.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1.isi.

tagging. reviewed social networking as an online content format. dating sites.) Relationship Management (Orkut. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers.us. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. 2005). Friendster. My first report in this series. shared link libraries such as del. SMS.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. communities of practice. Do Not Reproduce 230 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. social software. e-mail. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging.icio. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. etc. e-mail. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.al. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et. etc. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.com. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.) Experience Sharing (blogs. etc. etc. shared links. social networking sites such as Friendster. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. online personals such as Match. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. photo albums.” that is.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. family. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends.com. photo sharing sites.

com/ Live Journal . Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. https://www. work. Share it with others if desired. http://www. http://www.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. http://www.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. http://www. http://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.freeopendiary. video. and geographic regions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. or as a social network. as a blog.livejournal.com/introNetwor ks.faceparty. audio. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.linkedin. documents. workplaces.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.facebook.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.html Last. http://www. in associations.codeville. and within “communities of interest. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. and files and then make them available to others.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.com/signin/index.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.intronetworks. http://www.last. and the military.esnips.” http://www. https://www. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.classmates.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. Do Not Reproduce 231 .myspace. http://www.friendster. http://www.diaryland.com/ Orkut . Facebook has networks for colleges.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.my-diary. photos. high schools.orkut. http://www. http://www. http://www. which is then open to other readers.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.

com/index. http://www. http://jnthweb.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.spartasocialnetworks. http://platial. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect. http://360. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.orgnet.typepad. Brandon Hall Research . see the JNthWeb Wiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College.com/inflow3.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. http://www.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. http://www.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis.stumbleupon.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11. http://www.orgnet. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software.S.pbs. This software produces great graphs of social networks. Users share their writings and meet each other.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://www.xanga. It costs several thousand dollars. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.html 232 © 2006.analytictech. http://www.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. http://www. intelligence (1993-2001). check out the map at org.com/index.html Org.” http://www. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.com/ucinet.com/reg/sample. Columbia University.analytictech.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.orgnet. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.netminer. http://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.yahoo. upload photos.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.com/hijackers. http://ideant.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.pbwiki. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. coupled with NetDraw.

http://www.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle.jsp SocioSite: Networks.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.usemod.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.net/ssa/index.org. Oct. 2005.elsevier. Educational Social Overlay Networks.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu.edublogs. Verna (2004).. http://www.html Anderson.wikipedia. Nov. Virtual Canuck.co. 28.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.uva.elearningcentre.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites.futurelab. but. Life with Alacrity. 32(4).uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al.analytictech.com/xq/asp/sid. Christopher (2004). http://www.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.ucr.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www. Groups. http://www.socialtext. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.insna. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. 13.html Allen. OD Practitioner.com/cgibin/mb. http://www1. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo. Terry (2005).htm Do Not Reproduce 233 . http://www2.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking.odnetwork. http://www. Knowledge Management Magazine. http://www.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. http://en.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. KM and the Social Network. http://terrya. http://www. 2004. May 2003.fmg.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display. http://faculty.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking.pdf Bibliography Allee. http://www.theworkfoundation. Patti (2003).kmmagazine.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites. see the list in Wikipedia.lifewithalacrity.

Darwin. A. Liedtka.. http://www. Perseus Publishing. John (2004). 2004 http://www. (2005).html Cross. Christian (2006). William (2003).pdf Cross.downes. Stephen (2005). January 2004.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.ca/files/osn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási.com/read/090103/ social. May 2003. Stephen’s Web. but. R. and Prusak.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. Stowe (2003a). Distance and E-Learning. California Management Review.jsp Downes.harvard . Business Networking Systems. http://www.darwinmag.amazon. 2005.. Stephen (2004). L. September 2003. July 12.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. and Weiss. The Hidden Power of Social Networks.html Boyd. 11. June 2002. European Journal of Open. and Parker. Borgatti. The Work Foundation.hbsp.eurodl.1 648185.. Are you ready for social software? Darwin.darwinmag. 44. Feb. Stowe (2004). Stowe (2003b). L. R. The Semantic Social Network.hbsp. September 20.com/article2/0.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard..com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd. Vol.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes. R. A. http://harvardbusinessonline. http://www. http://www. and Parker.00. http://www. March 2005. A. (2002).downes.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main. OLDaily. Feb. S. L. (2002).harvard . R. Cracking the social code. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. 2. http://www. You Don't Know Me.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 .htm Davies. http://www.contentdirections.pcmag. The Barriers of Content and Context.html Boyd. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Harvard Business Review.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. http://www.com/read/010104/ context. Winter 2002.ca/cgibin/page.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. 14. Cambridge. http://doi. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.theworkfoundation. A Practical Guide to Social Networks.darwinmag. Social Capital & Social Software.j sp?doi=10. No. Darwin.1225/R0503H Cross. J. Research Report.com/mr/hbsp. http://www.com/read/050103/ social..html Dvorak. Cambridge. Harvard Business Review. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. (2004). http://harvardbusinessonline. MA. Dead Already? PC World.analytictech.1759. Linked: The New Science of Networks.

http://www.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. Research Report.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel.wun. 2006. Research Report.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. (Online book).. http://faculty. J. Seven Principles of Social Networking.cdlib.. M. Art (2003). Social software in action (No real software required). R.amazon.. CA: University of California. Introduction to Social Network Methods. M.salon.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. Sayers. CogDogBlog.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. Oliver. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. J. K.net/ir/reviews/revs163. & Barney. Bristol. (Eds.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. and Foster. and Facer. First Monday.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. http://cogdogblog. 2005. and Brewer (1994). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. http://asn.planetwork. 21.htm Kleiner. 29. 8(8). http://www. D.learningcircuits. Zucker.. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. 15.. David (2005a). Feb. Brown.org/cgi/viewconte nt.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Hauser. Allan (2006).ac. Grant.pdf Levine. Institute for Social Science Research. Malcolm. How to Save the World Blog. S. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. http://blogs. July 14.htm http://www.ucr. Learning Circuits. Caroline (2005).uiuc. No. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. Dec.). WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. http://repositories. A.learningcircuits. http://www.netform. http://lrs. (2001).org. April 15. L. (2004). Lanham. S. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning.ed. August. 2005.futurelab. (in 2 parts) http://www. Riverside.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. A. (2000).net/AugmentedSocial Network.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. New York: Little. (2005). Social Software and Learning. and Riddle. Southhampton. http://www.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. UK: Futurelab. Ulrike.pdf Jordan.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. Eva (2003). (2003). L. Social Networks. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference.h tml (Review) Gladwell. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. (2006). K. Online paper..pdf Pollard.

firstmonday. Aug. Draft paper online.salon. Teaching.asp Wood. CNET. http://blogs. 9(9).com/0002007/2005/0 8/11.pdf Ulanoff. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. March 9. 2006. Connectivism: learning as network creation. 2.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe.1 842806. Christopher (2006a). How to Save the World Blog. First Monday. Clay (2003). David (2005d). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Aug.1895. and M.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. September.edu/rocha/ises. Salthe. Scott.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Social Network Analysis. 2005. The social networking landscape.cnet. (1998). and Raefali S.com/article2/0. John (2000). Delpos (eds. http://elgg. Social software and the politics of groups.shirky. How to Save the World Blog.ht ml Sessums. pp. Social network analysis: what to map. 341-358.learningcircuits.html Pollard. George (2005).00.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. Luis M.Organization.h tml.html Do Not Reproduce 236 . D. G. Van de Vijver. 8. http://www. June 2. B. Lance (2005). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web.htm Tosh. http://blogs.salon. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet.net/csessums/weblog/6238.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard.com/booksProdDesc. 2003. 2005. (2005). Jan. Learning and Computing. Nov. Social Software presentation. and Werdmuller. 2006. Thousand Oaks. (2004).pcmag. http://www. http://www.html Siemens.sagepub. http://www. June 16.h tml Shirky. CA: Sage Publications. Rescuing social networking. http://www.com/writings/group_poli tics. http://eradc. http://informatics.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.net/csessums/weblog/13748. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. David (2005c). In: S. How to Save the World Blog. http://elgg. Learning Circuits. 2005.salon. 2005. 11. David (2005b). 23. http://blogs.html Ravid. Nov. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. http://www. 2005.indiana. May 5.html Pollard.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums.). Elgg: Community Learning Space. Molly (2005).com/4520-6033_16240543-1. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). Christopher (2006b). G.

com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together.html http://www.hp. as if they were in the same room. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. 2001. cameras. When it is fully successful.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. presentation tools. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.” but other more elaborate technologies. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of.com/halo/index.hp. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. share files and documents. http://www. "online" or "offline") of other users. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. and shout over each other to try to be heard. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. just like during a real meeting. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. presence. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners.. Do Not Reproduce 237 . and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. and the sense of contact with. 2001). That is the theory behind telepresence applications. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. retrieving. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV).g.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. 11. another person while communicating via the Web. In 2000.

html Do Not Reproduce 238 . ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services." http://www.ac.aim. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. http://www.sourceforge.ht ml http://www. BSD.uk/ind ex.org/teleimmersion.advanced. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. http://www.ebuddy. http://www. a communication link between the home site and a remote site.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. the CAVE. http://messenger.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. http://telepresence.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.fakespace.ibm. http://gaim.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. secure.yahoo.ac.open.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.org/teleimmersion2.com/index.percro.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. http://get. http://www-142.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. MacOS X.strath.' http://cnm.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.jabber.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. at a physically remote real world site.advanced. The driver sits in a box. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://www. http://www. in every sense.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.live.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. http://laimuz.dmem. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.unizar. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. and Windows.net/ Jabber – An open.

DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Davide. F. MA: MIT Press. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Alberta. http://cid.65 064-0. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.amazon.digicult..amazon. A...nada. (2001).wired. January 2005. In Soldek. (2002). Regina (2004). Amsterdam: IOS Press.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. W. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. M.pdf Lynn.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. D. Ins and outs of teledildonics..com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund.virtual-presence.nada.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. September 24.) (2000). Abbott. Being There: Concepts. C. http://www.org/rfc/rfc2779. Network Working Group (2000).. L. Ken (Ed. Dobreva. 2004. (Eds. M. McHugh. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. http://www. http://www2.pdf Fontana. C. Online memo. Sept. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 239 . Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. Network World.kth. (Eds. 6.org Bibliography Dreyfus. Hubert (2001). and Rusbridge.hig. S. http://www. http://kmr. John (2004). J. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Naeve. (2005). Presence applications poised for takeoff. http://www. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Donnelly.kth. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. On the Internet.) (2003). The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Calgary.pdf Knudsen.txt Knudsen. June 1. http://www. Cambridge. G. http://www.html Riva.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence.com/news/culture/0.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. and IJsselsteijn.networkworld. Wired News. A. J. 44-49.pdf When it is fully successful. as well as news.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.no/at/nmm/enlund. Banff. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). Nils (2000).html Goldberg. A. London: Routledge. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. and Naeve.acs. and Handberg. 2002.ietf. history.ieor. A.se/pdf/CID-206.berkeley. and Pejas..

(2001). H. Germany: Hagen. et al. Jon (2005). 28.infoworld. C. InfoWorld. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.Learning. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. (Eds.swedishlearninglab.modes. Jan.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. L.pdf Udell. Knudsen. http://www. H.org/docum ents/Sponberg.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . http://www. and Handberg.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.. In Hoyer.

Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. tlearning. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. IPTV. 2002). Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. television. in all its formats. videocasting. A new version of television. amateur and professional video cameras. video blogging. the largest Internet telephone service. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. cell phones. telepresence. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). bandwidth becomes an issue. Video. Once video goes on the Internet. vlog Description Video. even a video plug-in for Skype. Video blogging has become common. streaming video. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Do Not Reproduce 241 . in all its formats. screencasting. reviewed video as an online content format. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. PDAs. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. My first report in this series. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. vodcasting. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. 2005). However.

As the following examples show.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. http://www. even a video plug-in for Skype.dfilm. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world.medialogic. http://www.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. improves the satisfaction of the client. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.dmeurope.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .com/index_about.brightcove. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. In spite of the limitations. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines.html Dialcom Networks. and maintains loyalty.apple.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www.ar/iptv_en. Britain's largest telecom firm.com For an example of a video blog. with IPTV. http://participatoryculture.rocketboom.rocketboom.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. the Internet telephone service.uk/index. video.org/ In 1999. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. http://video.axor. http://www.com. http://www. See samples at: http://www. cell phones. http://www. voice.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. BT.com/default. PDAs. the largest Internet telephone service. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. http://www.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. the “triple play” of video. or students through a high quality. a three-minute videoblog.on2. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.co. according to Foroohar (2006). and multimedia content to customers. low bandwidth video stream. amateur and professional video cameras. It is still going strong at: http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. see Rocketboom.google. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. employees.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. partners.

com Do Not Reproduce 243 .concord.youtube.addictingclips. http://www.com/pressreleas es.com/seeds/index.navy.spider. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.veotag. tag them.com/ BitTorrent. See the current selection at: http://video.” http://www.google.elearningcentre. http://www.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. read “Ten video sharing services compared.dvguru. http://www. http://www. and divide them into chapters or segments. http://www.mil/index.xstreamengine.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. whether dial-up.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.co. or set-top box.org/ At YouTube. desktop.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.bittorrent. http://www. PDA. http://eduscapes.” Users can upload video clips for free. http://www.hpc.bittorrent.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. video. and visual resources.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.veoh.com/nara.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. http://vpb. cellular.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.ourmedia. For example. See examples at: http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. https://www. http://www.

http://www.thinkofit.uk/files/pdf/1443.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.elearnspace. Peter (2003).org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.pdf Bardia. www. which users can submit. Pradeep (2004). Online article at: http://www.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.com/article.edu/articl e. D. t-learning Study .masternewmedia.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.” http://www. but business models are fuzzy. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. http://www. http://www.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 .org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. termed “mobile television. by alphabet.lsda. and by tags. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.iptv-industry.” http://knowledge.upenn.” http://www. http://www. The site already contains nearly 6. and Bates. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.masternewmedia.org.educause.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. (2003).com/webconf/video.pjb.co.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. http://www.streamingmedia.” http://www.masternewmedia.wharton.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.500 vlogs organized by popularity. P.mefeedia.uk/tlearning/contents.org/doing/media.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.

P.apple. Matthew (2005).htm IBM (2006). Mon. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. Newsweek (International Ed.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle. 2005..aace.networkingpipeline. Brian (2002). Peter (2005). Rana (2005). Online paper. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. 2005. and Young.pdf Klass.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. C. Luigi (2005a). June 6. (Eds.msn.msnbc. Asensio.usc. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.pdf ction=Reader. Durham. (Ed.ac. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Tom (2005). L. http://www.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. Dec.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. April 26. Robin Good Blog. Nov. In Richards. Changing Channels.pdf http://www. IBM Institute for Business Value study. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. University of Missouri. 1.asp?id=7769 Meng. (2003).pdf tough road deploying IPTV. Networking Pipeline. Campus Technology.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. http://www1.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.). Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.com/id/8018601/si 8. Friedman. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. 2.masternewmedia. Feb. 8-9. implications.com/showArt Thornhill.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.amazon. NC: Duke University.campustechnology. Brian (2005). http://www.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Goldfarb.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.ibm. http://edmarketing.). S. (2005).com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. Beyond Wireless Broadband. Telcos face http://www-rcf. Foroohar. Manchester. 2005. and Swenson.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.masternewmedia. Luigi (2005b).com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .com/article. G. Jonathan. http://www. http://www.umist. 2005. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Wi-Fi.cfm?fusea . Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance.org/newdl/index.bcr. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. The IPTV Revolution. Wi-Max. 2005. 2005. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. 417-419). discussions and Curtis. Robin Good Blog.) (2002). 7. M. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Dec.

http://ancient.org.columbia.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. Depending on the level of realism achieved. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. Do Not Reproduce 246 . inventors. and Religious Studies department. Near Eastern. and storytellers.netofpeers. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. augmented virtuality.cs. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. mixed reality. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. http://solipsis. exchange enabling. and the aim of the virtual experience. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.arts. distributed virtual environments.kahootz.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.futurelab. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. designers. http://www1. desktop virtual reality.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.ca/index. Creed.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc.ubc.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. simulation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. The space is persistent. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. http://www. Videoconferencing is not required. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Exploration and discovery are enabled. interaction. To do this. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. By using aspects of game play. skin color. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.net/wiki2/index. http://www.

http://www. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.spider. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.informationinplace. http://www.ahds.ac.activeworlds.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.secondlife. http://vads. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.ac. Do Not Reproduce 247 .navy. http://www.com http://www.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.ahds.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.mil/index. http://www. http://www.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time.equator.html http://vads. https://www.html The U.org/index.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). http://www. including education. For example. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.epfl. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).S.healthdatamanagement.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.ergonetz.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.opencroquet.shapedc.ac. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.ch/About/about_index.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.com/edu/index. http://vrlab.org/highlights/augur.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. and the aim of the virtual experience. http://www.hpc. Shape has developed the augurscope. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.

A.html Jones. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. and Tsiatsos.uk/elearning/ story/0. 175-199. (2004).com/article. Eva (2004).pdf Hoare.00. Research report. Sept. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. Michelle (2003).asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi..campustechnology. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. and Hicks.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4. Triantafillou.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. (2001).org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. (2006). C. http://ru6. T. Hornig. 2004. http://www.10577. 24.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . Philopoulos.edu/vrel.coe. 2004.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. C. Technology Area . http://ru6. G.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends.pdf Bouras. T. Dec. August 9.htm Bibliography Bouras.learningcircuits. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. Stephen (2004). http://www.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.pdf Bouras. V.ecu. Trend: augmented reality check. G. T.co. and Tsiatsos. http://www.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).1314022. J.oln. (2001). Campus Technology.intuition-eunetwork. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.masternewmedia. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. http://courseweb. Learning Circuits. http://ru6. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. http://vr.cti.guardian.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. 2004. Sept... Robin Good Blog. and Tsiatsos. C. http://www.cti.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3. Luigi (2004). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. Guardian Unlimited. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.unt. 27. http://www. 28. 2006. East Carolina University.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.cti. http://education.htm Dickey.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77.

(2005). G. 2004. http://www. Lister. International Archives of Photogrammetry.ikg. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. http://www. and White. & Sester.com/PaperInfo. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. M. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. and Rusbridge. http://www. Web Based Education 2005 conference.ie/Owen. D. S. (2004).actapress.. ISPRS.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen. O.. Vol. C. Conlan.monash.actapress.digicult. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. (2005). T..de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.pdf Katterfeld. E. 1(2). https://www.org/htmleng/english. http://www.actapress. P. and Sester. Petridis. M. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. M. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (Section on Virtual Reality).. Proceedings. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. (2002). http://www..pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 .edu. McHugh. Monahan. 1. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. A.unihannover.p df Prasolova-Førland.unibo. 35.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld.eng. M. La Coruna/Spain.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. No. July 9-16. Donnelly.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10. Ekaterina (2005). http://www.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. January 2005. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. F. M. M.. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). A.pdf Ross. Web-based Education 2005 conference. and Seyedarabi.icc2005.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen.com/Reference. F..elearning.tcd. (2005). C. 2005. Gerard (2002). Bertolotto. Dobreva.html Liarokapis. R. (2005).cs. Abbott.com/PaperInfo. Proceedings.pdf McArdle.. and Mangina. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. Istanbul. P.

The educational advantages of visualization are many. et al. images. cognitive collage. 2003).dpc. reviewed visualization as an online content format. My first report in this series. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. data mapping. Flash. visualization can represent alternative points of view.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. pattern recognition. graphics. mapping. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. geographical information systems. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. cybercartography. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. See some amazing demos at: http://www. GIS. allowing for innovation or new understandings. 2005). location based systems. and data rendering. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. Finally. dynamic displays.ucar.inxight. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Do Not Reproduce 250 . data filtering. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. On the other hand. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.

Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.ac. which showcases their potential. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. http://www.semagix.bham.ubc.esrin.” http://richie. http://www. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. see ZoomClouds.alice.cs.typorganism.idc.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. http://www.vrco.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography. http://www.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://www. http://www. delivery. For an example. http://www. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.pdf tracking. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.nlm.edu/index. such as a blog.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. and will require visualization applications.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. http://www. and display (without glasses!).com/solutions. Free demo at: ew_68.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch. http://www. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. whatsoever.unifiedfield. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.utexas.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. VR.vista.html http://www. http://www.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.zoomclouds.ontopia. See: to education.esa.0 as an approach authoring system. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.ddd.tmm.nih.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. Museum Edition. allowing 2-D image stitcher.ul.

Brandon Hall Research .feedtank.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.” http://www.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. It has images of space and the earth from space. http://www.edu/postcartoaag06. http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.ontopia. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. Be sure to explore the “zoo.gov/index.bbc.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .vrvis.mit.marumushi.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.at/home.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.”’ BBC News.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.owu.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. 2004.net/omnigator/models /index.medtropolis.semagix. http://www.com/VBody.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.gsfc. http://chatcircles.html 252 © 2006.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.in English or Spanish.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.org/timeformations/ intro.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.medibolt. http://www.html For a practical application of visualization.nasa. Sample the collection at: http://svs.com Web site in Tokyo.indiana. http://www.com/solutions. April 7th. http://www. a young graphic designer. http://news.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.skyscraper. http://makingmaps.lecielestbleu.edu/ Paul Nixon.co. http://www.com/index. http://www.media. Sample their efforts at: http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www.nixlog. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.cs. See their tool set and examples of their work.

com/omni.com/index.com/cat/dashb oard/index. and information presentation. for example. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.vicodi.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://www.html XCelsius .gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com CenterView .com/applicatio n. http://www. See this technology in action.http://www. at the University of Maryland. http://www.gfdl.org/about.xcelsius. http://research. http://www.http://www.unifiedfield.cs.html How do users visualize very large data sets. http://www.htm Using time as an added dimension. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.http://www. one million items.corda.noaa. in the U.com http://www.mccrackendesign.nlm.arcscience.spotfire. http://clustrmaps.ambientdevices.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.amnh. anatomically detailed.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.S. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.com WorkPlace .nih.html Top Tier http://www. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.idashboards. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. retrieval.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.ibm.microsoft.umd.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .

softill. for 2D and 3-D graphing. associations.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.golden. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.media. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. Didger.oziexplorer.esri. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.timemap. MapViewer.S. networks.mit. http://tangible. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping. http://www.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. including the following: Voxler. They have worked with the U.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.musanim. http://www.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .advizorsolutions.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://research.mapinfo. http://www. Grapher.microsoft.intergraph.visualanalytics. http://www.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. and. http://www.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. http://www.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. for 3-D data visualization. trends. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.topozone. Strater.com/mam/mam. and anomalies in data. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images.

pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.5-D modeling and rendering software. Clicking a related term extends the process. Try a demo at: http://www.edu/eet/ Ell. and rendering.com/vc/index.cs.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 .iu. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. http://www.okino.formz. for 3-D landscaping and animation.stanford.edu/index. and rendering software.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.ubc.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.liveplasma. many of which are unique. animation.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.visualthesaurus. http://www. http://www.daz3d. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. is available online. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. P.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.ac.sdsu. http://coe.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.” http://www. http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. http://www. for 3-D modeling.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. modeling. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.pixologic.com Pixologic is 2.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.topicmap. together with their estimated depth of influence.” http://vis.visualcomplexity. Following are two: http://graphics.agocg.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.masternewmedia. http://www. Carrara.accurender. including the following: Bryce. http://www.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.

J. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.amazon.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.) (1999). as part of his doctoral work at MIT. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language.com/ Bibliography Alpert. http://www.. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. 3149 http://www.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill. Paier.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.media.usilu.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. He finished his PhD.. http://www.gvu.edu/research/resea rch.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. http://www.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.editlib. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. and Woodill. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. and Shneiderman. EXYSTENCE network. Lugano.com/ http://www.fakespace. Paris: La Haye.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. M. Luca (2003). Unpublished doctoral dissertation.istituti.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. http://www. G.gatech.pdf Bertin.pdf Bergmann. http://www. Working Paper. Mackinlay.net/printRec. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.edwardtufte.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. 14(1). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.infovis. les réseaux. Jacques (1967). http://www. (Eds.gvu.media. J. J.org/index. http://acg.htm http://www. The Semiology of Graphics. http://acg.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. les cartes.vrco. Proceedings. K. Jacques (1983). Madison: University of Wisconsin. 1-34. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. and Resetarits.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.mit. Switzerland: University of Lugano. (2003).mit. Sherman (2003). http://www.complexityandeducation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.topicmaps.complexityscience.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . A.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.ualber ta. B. http://www. both visualization companies.gatech. pp.

(1998). NC: Duke University.org/dl/index.amazon. Theresa (1998). K.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. L. (2005).fr/CanJ/CanJ. August 11. http://www.pdf Goldfarb. Brian (2002). (2006).html Rhyne. K. 2005. June 1.elearningguild.agocg. 16(4). G.html Madhavan. Educational Media International. (2005). May/June.editlib. Brent (2006). 41(3). Journal of Interactive Learning Research.com/articles/abst racts/index. J.aace. S. 329-351. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. (Section on Visualization).html Ross. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.cfm/files/paper _5994. http://www.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.K. Vol.. 42.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. P.siggraph. and Bertoline. C. Arns.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2..psycho. 17-30. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. A. http://www.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.. available online at http://www. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Ruth (2003). M. Canadian Journal of Psychology.org/index. (2005). January 2005.. J. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. (1992). September. Siggraph.univparis5. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. G. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi.educause. and Pagalthivarthi. Luca (2005). S. Abbott..com/publications.. 3.com/article. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Dobreva.campustechnology. http://www.ac.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. McHugh. 46: 461-488. Durham.digicult. http://www. Morales. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. K. http://createdrealities. Donnelly. 4(1).asp?id=11222 Metros. http://itdl. A. http://www.ht m O'Regan. and Knezek. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. EDUCAUSE Review.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. Campus Technology.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. D.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.asp Mittal. and Woolsey. No. M. (2005). 3(1).pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. and Rusbridge. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 69-82. A.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. http://nivea.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley.slis. Reading.edwardtufte. M. 2. August. (2004).edwardtufte. http://www. Sharpe. pp. Matt (2002). Edward (1997). David (2002). CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. 45. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. Fall. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Computers.E. Harlow.pdf Shneiderman. http://www. 185–213 http://www. Threshold. Cheshire.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley.Visualization Technologies Scaife. (2004). Colin. Information Visualization: perception for design. Cheshire.amazon. From multimedia to multisensory education.ciconline.amazon.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006.com/tufte/index Ware. 2nd Ed.com/tufte/index Tufte. Yvonne (1996).com/tufte/index Tufte. Visualization. Digital Information Graphics. 2nd Edition. Information Visualization.amazon.org/threshold Tufte. (2001). B. http://www. Mike and Rogers. http://www. Vol. http://www. David (2005). External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 4th Edition. evidence and narrative. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman. England: AddisonWesley. http://www. Envisioning Information. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Robert. Brandon Hall Research . No. Amsterdam: Elsevier. http://www. Spence.amazon. Edward (1990). http://www. Edward (2001).indiana. CT: Graphics Press.

Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.infoworld. and a microphone.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. 1996). the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. headphones or speakers. in remote communities. Internet telephony. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. Internet telephony is relatively simple.skype. http://www. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. http://www. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. In the near future.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. http://www. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. http://www. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. Do Not Reproduce 259 .com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.jajah. communications tools. http://www. requiring an Internet hookup.avaya. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. but it is rapidly improving.co. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Using VoIP.elearningcentre.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service.envisioninc. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.

spectrum.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. http://www. http://www.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.ac.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.susx.msu.ieee. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.pdf Ganchev. March 2005.nald. Geraldine (2005). 260 © 2006. IEEE Spectrum Online. I. September.pdf Ottoson. Stojanov. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Meredith (1996). (2005). http://llt.. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. M.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Robert (2005).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .org Bibliography Cherry. but it is rapidly improving. Mobile distributed e-learning center. Language Learning and Technology.weblogsinc.voipreview. 9-12. http://www. and O’Droma. Steven (2005). The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. http://ieeexplore.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.cogs. Brandon Hall Research . Join the discussion at: http://voip.org/xpl/freeabs_all. http://www. S.ieee. 9(3).

BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.p df http://www.cs. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. like a wristband or jewelry. http://www.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.co. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. http://wearables. For example. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.hubuska. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor.ices.learnexact. Do Not Reproduce 261 . anytime. Selected Examples In Europe. http://news.cmu.edu/design/Ion. The entire system.bris.bbc.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. http://killer. weighs less than three pounds. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. http://www.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690. training to do their jobs. including batteries. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.checkpointelearning.ac. managing. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. including wearable computing.ppt In January 2006. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.

Dec.edu/ http://wearcam.html Garfinkel. Mmoma (2006). http://www.eee.cmu.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.uk/index. http://www.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. 1.wired.com/Home/Home. 2006. the automotive industry. See: http://genesis. http://www.edu/design/VuMan.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.704 81-0.org/index.wired.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.edu/research/wear ables/index. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. and other organizations involved in inspecting. http://about.70 481-0.jisc.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. and Levene. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.eecg. training.toronto. http://www.sportbrain. March 24. http://isd. or repairing complex machines. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.com/news/culture/0. Brandon Hall Research . http://killer.ac.uoregon. http://www. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.nasa. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.eecg.mit.html The design of “smart clothing.bham.com/read_art icle.wearable. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications. Simson (2004).Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.com/news/culture/0. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. http://www.ac. Wired News.cs. http://www.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. and Lupisella. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. 2004. S.eyetap.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.toronto.media.gsfc.ices. M.technologyreview. http://www. especially in the area of wearable cameras.ethz.org/index_graphical. (2004). especially for comercial airlines. Technology Review (Online). like a wristband or jewelry. What you’ll wear in 10 years.” including computers built into underwear. M.html http://www.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).org is a rich source of references. (2003). C. Wearable Computing for the Commons. http://www.

2005. http://www.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. (2002). and Niedzviecki. ICWC98. H. http://wearcam. Olga (2005). Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Fairfax. S. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. VA. Wearable computers that you can slip into.html Do Not Reproduce 263 . http://www.businessweek.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif.org/icwckeynote. May 12-13. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. Toronto: Anchor Books.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. March 8. htm Mann. Steve (1998). Business Week Online.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. When changes are made to a Web site. job searches. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. and Atom is the second. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.” as its content is changed by the author. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. photo collections. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. feeds. PDAs. blogs. podcasts. and electronics. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. social bookmarking. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). and course offerings. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Do Not Reproduce 264 . Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. TV guides. basic text format for quick review. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). and laptops. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. CDs. To read content from a Web feed.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. including cell phones. with all the potential for viruses and spam. listings of the latest books. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator.0 format). Instead of having items emailed to you. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.

org/ shtml .http://bitworking.U.videora.downes. SharpReader http://bytescout.http://www.http://www. Feedtier . RSS-to-Javascript .ca/edurss02.projectdu. Do Not Reproduce 265 . FeedForAll .com/today/ http://www.2 7. FeedPublish http://www.bloglet.attensa.mozilla.http://www. PubSub .fuzzyd.h http://www.brightcove. RSS Orbit .http://www.com directory.6.http://www.bytescout. Feedroll .com/ http://www. FeedReader 1.rssreader. FeedScout 4.html http://www.org/ .bloglines.htm http://www.com/ 3. NewsIsFree http://www.awasu.com/produ http://neosmart.com/productBlogExpress.newsgator.http://gregarius.hexamail.com tml 2.topix. Project D.http://www.com/thunderbird/ .com/ Attensa . Rojo .net/ http://www.http://www. StepNewz .php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .http://www. feedbeep .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .com/ http://www.http://sage.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss. Here is a list of 48: ml 7.pubsub. and Atom is the second.http://www.com/ 5.somee.http://www. Protopage Bloglet .com/feedscout.com 4. RSSCalendar . Thunderbird .feedjavascript.com/ . FeedBurner http://www.com/ Awasu .feedburner.com/ 3. LearningFeeds 8. Sage .disobey.net/dl.protopage.com/ Brightcove .newsisfree. Fuzzy Duck http://yole.com Amphetadesk 8. Feed-Directory . Edu_RSS 0.shtml .rojo.com/ 8.onfolio. Reader http://usablelabs.http://www.rss-to.com/ http://www.feedzilla.com 9.uk/rssreader/ 7. OnFolio .com 2.blogplanet.com/ 0.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.pluck.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.http://feedbeep.http://feedtier. Videora .com/ 6.com/ BlogExpress 1. RSS Software .rssreader.http://www. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).http://www.http://www.rsscalendar.http://www.feedpublish.com/ 9.com/ http://www.ht with its own features. RSSReader http://www.feedroll.net/ .co. 6.net/index. Feedster .http://www.learningfeeds. Syndirella .com/ 0.puremis.com/ .feedreader. each http://www.com/myrsstoolbar.com/ http://www. Newsgator Aggie .rssbandit.com/rss2exchange/ . Gregarius .org/Aggie.com/ Selected Examples 5.sharpreader.com/amphetadesk http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. RSS2Exchange http://www.html http://www. Pluck .feedforall.http://www.com/v2 BlogLines . EaZy RSS reader 5.com/rss/ http://www.mozdev.feedster.

and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.php Online Resources Stephen Downes. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.masternewmedia.php.redjupiter. 2004.dist.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.contentious. maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://www. Aug. 3.com/news/showS tory.htm David.downes.lo.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. http://www.mcli. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. http://www.pdf Canali De Rossi.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators.eschoolnews. Dan (2004).Possible Future Evolution. and D’Arcy Norman. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. 2004. Robin Good Blog. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.ca/edu_rss.elearning.teachinghacks. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. http://www. Read his article written specifically for educators. 2003.downes. May 19.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. http://www. Brian Lamb. 31.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. Luigi (2004). see: http://www. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Brian Lamb. http://www. Bill (2003).hebig. eSchool News. http://www.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. Oct. eLearning Developers’ Journal.ca/cgibin/wiki.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 . The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .wcc.vccs.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://careo.com/wiki/doku. RSS could transform online communications. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://timyang. http://www.ca/files/RSS_Educ.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. a blog by Alan Levine.elearningguild.maricopa.ubc.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project. To have a blog aggregated.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111. including listings for various electronic devices.

teachinghacks..com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. 1. Vancouver. http://www. http://www.1. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. July/August 2003. 13. B. and Webb. 2005.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. http://www.xml. University of North Carolina. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). RSS: the next big thing online. Eva (2004). Mary (2003). Shelly (2005).learningcircuits.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. http://www.mcli.theshiftedlibrarian. June 18.htm Levine.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. MediaThink White Paper. http://www. http://www. http://www. Aug.org/2004/jun20 04/downes.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends.blogspot. BC. 2006. 3. RSS: a learning technology. D. June 2004.pdf Parparita.html?page=1 Udell. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. Online paper. 2005. Google Reader Blog.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. Learning Circuits.maricopa.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.ca/files/RSS_Educ.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Jon (2005). Otherwise Engaged. 2005. A. May 2004. (2003). Stephen (2002). Quentin (2006).Web Feeds Downes. http://www. RSS Ideas for Educators.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. March 23.html Do Not Reproduce 267 .htm Downes. Lamb. (2006).downes.oreillynet. O’Reilly Network.htm D’Sousa. 5-8.alexandrasamuel.oreilly.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x. Namespaced extensions in feeds. M.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big. The Shifted Librarian. Aug. Sept.htm Harrsch. USA Today (online). July 7. Anh (2005).pdf Gannett. Version 1.usatoday. The Technology Source Archives. InfoWorld. RSS: the next killer app for education. http://www. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. http://www.dist.html Samuel. http://www. Learning Circuits.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Alexandra (2005). RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.mediathink. Aug. http://googlereader.learningcircuits. 2005.html Powers. 2003.infoworld. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.html MediaThink (2004). Jenny (2005). Online paper. http://www. T. Mihai (2006). 2006. http://technologysource. Stephen (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine. Using RSS for data integration. and Norman.

http://www. an image gallery. With some basic instructions.org/index. is available for other applications. 2005).usemod. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. approaches. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. time-less.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.tikiwiki. See the progress at: http://edu.net/features. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.sourcewatch. features. Anyone can add to it.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. custom permissions. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. http://www. 4. and never finished. and projects. can be used by a team for joint writing.sourceforge. http://www. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.com/ For wikis to work.schtuff. the software used to run Wikipedia. Do Not Reproduce 268 . http://wikipedia. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. RSS. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. and email notification. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. There are now over 1. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. http://www.300.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. it is important to have several contributors. My first report in this series. Content is ego-less.org/tiki-index. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.com/cgibin/wiki.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. 2. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. 3.wikipedia.

His article. http://en.com/ Jon Udell. http://www.seedwiki.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. an archivist with the British systems.com/artpdf/GR12. http://careo. features. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.” is projects. http://radio.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. “Quickiwiki.learningwiki. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. http://www.wikibooks. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. http://www. http://www. See why it is different. Swiki.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.socialtext.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Twiki. http://www. Columbia Archives. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.jot.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. http://flosse.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. http://www.infotoday.dicole.Weblogs.html Do Not Reproduce 269 . See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.infoworld.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. http://kairosnews.gilbane. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.shtml Brian Lamb.elearning.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. A free trial is available.com/cgibin/mb. http://weblog. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. of the University of British Columbia.” Essentially. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work. http://www.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.ubc. a rich source of information on wikis.10.usemod. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.

8(12).48.html Ciffolilli. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).” http://tlc. July. Raitman.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. including a section on wiki tools.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. http://64. http://container. that she updates regularly. Perth. Operation of a Large Scale. http://aronsson. http://www. Online paper. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .zkm. Phantom authority. http://firstmonday. Wiki pedagogy.profetic. 5-8. Nov. http://www. (2004).educause. Australia.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. L. including wikis. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. International Journal of Information Ethics.html Augar.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. http://www.co. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.pdf Fountain. and Zhou. http://www. Renée (2005). Dec.71. Andrea (2003). self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia..nu’s first nine months in service. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson. http://m. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. N.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://www.elearningcentre.se/wikipaper.org. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.ascilite.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. (2002).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki. W.fasfind. Profetic: dossiers pratiques.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 .pbwiki.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments. http://whiplash.com/wwwtools/m/25242.ucalgary.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. Teaching and learning online with wikis. First Monday. Dec.org has lots of resources on wikis.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.” http://writingwiki. Anja (2004). 2. R.ikiw.

. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. Lauren (2005). Wiki Tools.html Wood. 2006. 2005. Brian (2004). InfoWorld. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). (2001). July 7. Neil (2003). Twiki.educause.html Stafford. Online article at PCMag. Clark. Online article.html Tomkin.shtml Rubenking. and Webb. Cossarin. Ariadne. L..edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. Jon (2004). M. and Rudolph. Issue 42. J. Educause Review.ac. http://Weblog.4149.pdf Leuf. 19. http://www. http://www.usemod. 36-48.infotoday. http://www.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://gilbane.com/article2/0. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. O’Reilly Network.asp Schmitt.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. (2006).uk/issue42/ Udell.amazon. M. S. David (2004).pcmag..00.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. 2004. http://www. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. UniversityWiki. Bo & Cunnin. Emma (2005). Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. http://www. (2004). Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Making the case for a wiki.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.com/cgibin/mb.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. January. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.com/artpdf/GR12.org/content/v5. April 2004..com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Swiki. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Quickiwiki. Why Wikis Work Not. April 2003. 12(10).oreillynet. The wiki way.Oct. Richard (2003).com.1/technote _xxvii.14 02872.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. Online article at: http://www. Searcher. Oct.ariadne.infoworld. Sept. http://www. Online article.com/udell/2004/ 10/19. http://c2.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 .irrodl. T. W.10. David (2003).

Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. However. Do Not Reproduce 272 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which. CD-ROMS. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. which can then lead to inventions. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. floppy disks. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. After a product has been successfully launched. in turn.

while others will last for decades. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. Further. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. some will never leave the development stage. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. This is due. Ontologies. change itself seems to be inevitable. mature. to the complex. peak. in part. In any field. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. ascend the curve. in both formal and informal settings. However. in part. or may never become commercially viable. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. both in classrooms and online. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. However. But not all technologies will travel this road. this approach is now rapidly changing. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. and decline. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. In any field. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. This is due. to the complex. Do Not Reproduce 273 . For a variety of reasons. Some will die quickly. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. change itself seems to be inevitable. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires.

because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. The children of the baby boomers. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. Their children. The technology of e-learning. Because of this. gaming consoles. In contrast. the civil rights movement. 1994). In North America. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. the baby boomers. the space race. Brandon Hall Research . is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. and personal digital assistants. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. ecological disasters. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. 2002.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. 2003). were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. electronic media tends to be on the surface. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. video games. video games. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. 274 © 2006. terrorism. libraries. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. For the older generation. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. movie theaters. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The experience of younger learners with television. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. and computers. television. p. born in the 1970s. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. mobile phones. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. mind-altering drugs.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. The speed of change increases with each passing year. Once we master the art of reading. means that they actually think differently. generally went to work earlier. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. global warming. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. 28).

whereby the action of one participant. Do Not Reproduce 275 . in a back-and-forth exchange. digitization of smell. Likewise. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. creative products. But they are usually disappointed. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. the learner. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. For example. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. or violence is needed to keep our attention. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. Within the next five years. Then even more movement. huge data wall displays. With feedback. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. In approaching electronic educational media. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. wearable computers.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. that is all about to change. Two hundred years ago. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas.are usually ing paths. designers of Sesame Street. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). However. shortly. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. touch and taste. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. portfolios. Guides are optional.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. It is already a place for massively multiple player games.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Generally. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. the computer. results in an action by the other participant. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. In approaching electronic educational media. and digital ink and electronic paper. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. and the mapping of everything. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. until we become habituated. sex. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. technologies. commercials. It works for a time. we will see the restructuring of education and training. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. surprise. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. In the next wave.

Texas. New York: McGraw-Hill.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon.amazon. http://www. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Douglas (2005).amazon.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky.com 276 © 2006. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.operitel. Digital Game-based Learning. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. (2001). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. Marc. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Gary (2006). technologies and services for the next 5 years. James (1994).amazon. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. Dallas. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Bob (2006). Clayton (1997). Brandon Hall Research . http://www. New York: Collins. May 2006.amazon. http://www.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. http://www.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. http://www.

edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.51. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. Box 513.bartneck.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.mit.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.ac. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. New York.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.cs. Marc Schröder.O. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.se/~muse/ho me.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.de/link/affective_portal .1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.media. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.myself-proj.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . 1515 Broadway.nngroup.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. Den Dolech 2 P.informatik. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. 17th Floor.unige.umu. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.bham.

informatics. O. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 1900 East Tenth St.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.auburn.extempo. P. Washington.rit. #1910.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. UK http://www. Manuel I. D. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Bloomington.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.ac. Box 2124 Menlo Park. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.Portugal Tel.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.indiana. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.codebaby. N.edu Extempo Systems. Building 5. L69 7ZF. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.W.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.isi.liv. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Suite 206 Boulder. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. L69 7ZF.webist.computer. 27A 2º esq.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.org/ AiLive Inc. 10004-104 Avenue.com Do Not Reproduce 278 .jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av.agentlink. Palo Alto.csc.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. CA 94304 USA http://www.ailive. 2910-595 Setúbal . Edmonton. 3400 Hillview Avenue.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Inc.educause.

SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Avid Technology Park. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.php/Main _Page Autodesk. W Toronto. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.apple. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.org. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. Box 527.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.autodesk. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.animats. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.O.catoolkit. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com Alchemy Mindworks P. Burlington. Box 5200.redwoodelearning. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. 110 Cuba Mall.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.org/ Apple Computer. One Park West Tewksbury. Secretariat. Inc.ascension-tech.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Wellington.O.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.avid.animationfactory. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.au/index. Inc. Huntsville.com/home.com/ Avid Technology.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . PO Box 24478. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.mindworkshop. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.ascilite.

Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. 190th Street.htm Macromedia. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.org/home.aaai.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.autotutor. Inc. Santa Barbara.html Ulead Systems 970 W.S. TN 38152 USA http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.eitechnologygroup.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. San Antonio.com/ NewTek. Inc.6450 http://www. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.com Pty Ltd The Basement.newtek. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.siggraph.org Do Not Reproduce 280 . TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.A. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com/index. Suite 100 Menlo Park.org/ SWiSHzone.ucsb.460.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.massivesoftware.818. Suite #480 Torrance. Tel: +1. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.viewpoint.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group.psych.aclweb. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.swishzone. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.com/pub/index.macromedia.

usyd. 1. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. West Montreal.ke-corp.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.cs. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.uquebec.edu Quantum Simulations.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.10th Street S. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . H-1111 Budapest. Calgary. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cmu. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.com Do Not Reproduce 281 . PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.edu.cognitivesciencesociety.org/eden.pact. Inc.W.licef.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.it. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.gemini.teluq. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.ca/eng/ind ex. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.cs. u. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.cmu.iit.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Egry J. 100 Sherbrooke St. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.cs.com/index.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.eden-online. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.

cis.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.ac.. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.wpi.uk/home. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. East Adelphi. CA . Newtownabbey. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.edu. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.ac.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.unisa.ucalgary.edu. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.ulster.wlv. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .cshe. Suite 1500 Montreal. Suite K. Antrim BT37 OQB N.enel.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.uk/cticomp/CAA.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.scit. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.cs.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.brainbench.stottlerhenke.W.virtuelage.unimelb.umuc. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Alberta. Suite 360 San Mateo. Chantilly.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. Calgary. Co.

com/redinq/html/index. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. Boulder. FL 32720 USA http://www.redinq.S. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.rmsuk. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U. Suite 105 Princeton. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .unt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Box 305280 Denton. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www. Suite 100.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street. Suite 753 Madison.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton. Johnson Street.pedagogue.colorado.com Quintessential Careers DeLand. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa. Suite 201 Peterborough.tcet. Norwalk.ingeniousgroup. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.O.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.ets.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. Suite 2300 New York.operitel. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle.O.flaguide.quintcareers. Box 317 New Hartford.horizonwimba.questionmark.

com/AudioTools/ind ex. 50 Hunt St.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.uiuc.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Inc.multitrackstudio.com/home.audiolink.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall.vantagelearning.cakewalk. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory. 2280 St. Laurent Blvd..html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.adobe.oir.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. Inc.com/lipsync/ind ex.xstreamsoftware.epnweb.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.bias-inc. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.automaticsync. Ontario. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www..edu/dme/exams/ITQ. Suite 100 Newtown.aspx BIAS. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .com XStream Software.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.com AudioLink. Watertown.avsmedia.

Continental Blvd. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. Grime and Associates. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.adobe.accordent.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. Inc. Suite 200 Boulder.com Brainshark.trainvision. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. 136 South Main Street. S1 2NS UK http://www..A.e-learningcentre.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Inc. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.mckinnonmulherin. Waltham.com/index.envision.anark.acroservices.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. San Jose.apple.brainshark.com/power point-presentations-index.edu iTunes Apple Computer. Suite 200 El Segundo.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.sonicfoundry. Sheffield.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .co.. Cooper Buildings. 860 Sandalwood Road. Arundel Street. Suite A300 Salt Lake City. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall.O. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Sheffield Technology Parks.com AcroServices c/o L. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.purdue.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. West Perrysburg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.bloki.

com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.co.uk/contentpoint. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Inc. Ste.maxit.lifeboatdistribution.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index.com.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.ciscolearning. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www.atlanticlink. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www. 200 South.horizonwimba. NG8 6PE.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.learn. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. UK Tel.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Nottingham.dynamicpowertrainer.customcourse.com 286 © 2006.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.copycatsoftware.allencomm.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall. Suite 2300 New York. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. Italy http://www. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.bridge-pt.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com/Index. Brandon Hall Research . 20100 Milan. Austria http://www.

eedo.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.68 http://www. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona. Inc.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. O. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.experiencebuilders.64. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Suite 29A Nashua. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.easyprof. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.elicitus. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.O. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.64. Suite B Lehi.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.e-learningconsulting.com Do Not Reproduce 287 . New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.10 Fax: +34 93 490.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.eclipsys.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. P.elearninginabox.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd . LLC 501 West Franklin Street. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.mohive.com ExpertAuthor. 441 W Main St.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.knowledgeplanet. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.rapidintake. Box 2827 Redmond.com/products/forceten..edufolio.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar. 38-40. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www.knowledgequest.

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qelix. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Mazgaon. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www. Mary Apts. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. Suite 900 Austin. 6th Flr.O.opera.gtcocalcomp.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.cramersweeney. Suite 209 Moorestown. Inc. P.blogburst. INDIA. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Nesbit Rd. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.com Do Not Reproduce 293 .com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Inc.com/v2/index. Inc.. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.com WaveMarket. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.flock.active-learning-site.O.omnigroup.com OmniWeb Omni Development.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.com GTCO CalComp. Mumbai 10.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.wavemarket.mozilla.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. USA http://www. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville..

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.optiontechnologies.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Do Not Reproduce 294 . NJ .avecomm.bantu.com.umass. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.com BlueTie.batipi.physics. Inc. Suite 101E Falls Church.backpackit.944. Orlando. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.pearsoned.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.qwizdom. SW.com Batipi 11 St. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Suite# 401. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. Pittsford. Puyallup.adobe.smartroom.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Somerset. Inc. Ontario. 12617 Meridian E. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Inc. Amherst. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.brevient. Inc.aspx Qwizdom.inteam.bluetie. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Jospeh Street. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.0162 http://www.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. Pleasant St.

caucus.com Cisco Systems. Draper.html Citrix Systems. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Brightidea.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.convenos.saba. 6th Floor San Francisco. Inc.telnetz.comotivsystems.communiqueconferencing. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.com 404 Fifth Avenue. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. 795 Folsom Street.collaborationloop.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. 170 West Tasman Dr. 100 North Lake Avenue. Suite 950 Portland.communityzero. #205 Pasadena. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. 232 http://www.centraldesktop. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.cisco.com Centra c/o Saba.brightidea.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.citrix. 6th Floor New York. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. San Jose. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 295 .com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Suite 630 McLean. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. Suite 522. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. Suite 600 Ottawa.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor.courseforum. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Inc. 1192 East Draper Parkway.

Sanibel FL. 82 Pioneer Way. Inc. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 57th Street Gainesville.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.facilitate.com Digité.ezmeeting. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Inc.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.emc. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.epam-pmc.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. Ontario.same-page. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. 1034 N.edufolio.exactamerica. Lauderdale.digi-net. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.com Engineering.engineering.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.W. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.com 296 © 2006. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.elluminate.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies.digite..com LLP PO Box 325.flypaper. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.forumone. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. Brandon Hall Research . Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.

groove. Clevedon. Inc. Suite 2300 New York.net Groove Networks.com c/o Citrix Systems.com Do Not Reproduce 297 . Inc. Suite 500 Markham. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. ON. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.hotcomm.gordano. Ste. El Camino Real.gotomeeting.com Groupwise c/o Novell.4517 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.grapevinesoftware.genesys.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. 395 Encinitas.horizonwimba. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.novell.com Glance Networks. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. Inc. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.globalschoolnet.V.glance. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.com GoToMeeting.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.hp. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.net GroupSupport.net Global School Net 132 N.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.groupsupport.com B.

AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.ivocalize. Suite 100 Tucson. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03.hyperoffice.ilinc.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.jdhtech. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.ibm.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.interwoven.linktivity. 11th floor New York. #115 Rockville.interwise.com Interwise.iceweb.intralinks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. Inc. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Suite 412 Cambridge. 25 First Street.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 . VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Phoenix. 44th St.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Suite #150 Herndon.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.inquesttechnologies.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Sunnyvale. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.microsoft.

h tml Parlano 10 S.opmcreator.org/tools.parlano. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.near-time. 3 Wing Drive. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. Riverside Plaza. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.opentext. Suite 1450 Chicago. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.netspoke. Inc.com Near-Time.com Do Not Reproduce 299 .com onProject. Inc. Fordham Blvd.onproject.mitre. Suite 1401 Denver. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. Suite 300 Torrance.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.oracle. Suite 6500 Woburn. Harbor. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com/collabsuite/index.liveoffice.meetingone.. 1289 N.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice.performancesolutionstech.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.peoplecube.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.mayeticvillage.

Suite 445 Scottsdale.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.nagarro.seldensystems. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. Inc. Suite 440 San Jose.microsoft.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. 17-17 State Highway 208.sharemethods. Box 3325 York.raindance. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 210 Maynard. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Cactus Rd. Inc. 35.photoninfotech.com RADVISION Inc. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.radvision.q2learning.project-open. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications. P. 1175 58th Avenue. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com/content/default. Ste 275 Mill Valley. 51. 3679 Concord Road.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 . CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.com Raindance Communications.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.com Selden Integrated Systems. New No.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.sitescape.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.O. Suite B. Inc.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.cyber-grad. Suite 200 Greeley.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.Adyar Chennai.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.stalker. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.projectdox.

teamware.teamdynamix.com/groupware/in dex.viack. Suite 810 Toronto.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Kierland Blvd. Suite 100 Scottsdale. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www..com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.tomoye.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.trichys.txl Viack 14811 N. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. Suite 100 Austin. Canada http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com Teamware P.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.vignette.webofficepoint.vodium. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Ontario M2N 6H8.tacit.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.usabilityfirst. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.wave3software. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. Suite 950 Washington. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.teamspace.sumtotalsystems.O.

CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing. 5200 Franklin Dr. 130 St. Inc. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www. Ontario. Suite 115 Pleasanton.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . Inc.webasyst.Box 2900 Alameda. Robarts Library.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.webex. Toronto.zoho.atutor. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www. First Floor University of Toronto.cpgvision. P.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www. Inc.backpackit.webcrossing.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www..com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.santacruznetworks. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.author-it.axista.qld.gov.O. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver. Inc.P. CA 94588.net WebEx Communications.webtrain. George St.

S1 2NS UK http://www. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 303 . Cooper Buildings. TX. Sheffield.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 201 Peterborough.hrsg. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www. Prof.convera. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www. Sheffield Technology Parks. Laurent.desire2learn.co. Arundel Street.. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.syberworks.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd. Suite C215 Houston. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www. 4000 Steinberg Street St.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.une.bnhexpertsoft.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.learnflex.e-learningcentre. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.edu.facilitate.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.oracle.kdnuggets.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. QC. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.

foliotek.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. Catherines. WA. West Conshohocken. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www. San Francisco. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth.fogscreen.meetingworks. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.pebblepad.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S.com Do Not Reproduce 304 .com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext. Telford. La Grange Road.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www. Inc.co.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park.siliconlight.provisionentertainment. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www..io2technology. Suite 100 Indianapolis.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting. Second Floor La Grange. Suite 606. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd.angellearning.chalkandwire. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.com/ LiveText 1 S.nuventive. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.

magnetargames.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave.clickteam..com Do Not Reproduce 305 .softimage.adobe. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B. One Park West Tewksbury.ucsd. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.com/solutions/game s/default. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning.C. SR6 0AN UK http://www. Puebla Lucia local 7.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. 0445 La Jolla.programmersheaven. Dept.microsoft.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.thinkingworlds. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.freescale. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab. Inc Avid Technology Park. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. NW Washington. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.avs.seriousgames. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.

CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.corel.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc.ibm. Suite 300 San Diego.autodesk. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk.miralab..mpb-technologies. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.smartdraw. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www. 100 Pine Street.com SmartDraw. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.tech-illustrator.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose. Inc.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.forcedimension. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.immersion. Suite 300 Burlingame.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. Suite 1900 San Francisco.microsoft.blender3d. Unit 9 Waterloo.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 . New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.itedo. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www. Inc.broderbund.

wacom.anotogroup. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku. 12th Floor Oakland.ccii.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www. 7677 Oakport Street. Suite 300 Calgary. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www. 2-56126 Pisa. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave.fujitsu.piaggio.eink.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.sensable.sensegraphics.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. Ste.allencomm. Inc. NW Suite 700.smarttech.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. 200 South. Washington.edfacilities. D.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.com Logitech Inc. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.se SensAble Technologies.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.C.logitech. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 307 . 15 Constitution Way Woburn.unipi.

IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www. Inc. Winter Park. Inc. Colfax Avenue Building 200.. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd.cornerstoneondemand. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai.redbooks.webraven. Suite 200 Cincinnati.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. Suite 301 West Des Moines. Quebec.com DOTS .html?Ope n InfoSource.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.elementk. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www. 111 Water St. Suite 225 Golden.intellinex.howtomaster. 4600 Westown Parkway. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.trivantis.com Do Not Reproduce 308 . NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Inc.geolearning. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. Suite 660 Longueuil.com/redbooks.ips-inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. Suite #620 Santa Monica.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.netdimensions. 6947 University Blvd. East Dundee.ibm.strategia.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland. Huntington Building.gen21. Inc.

meridianksi. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.mgen.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. Suite 201 Peterborough.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. Suite 260 Foxborough.learn. 1 West Front Street Red Bank.websoft. East .maxit. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.com Do Not Reproduce 309 .com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.knowledgeplanet. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis. Chantilly.learnsomething. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.intralearn.compendiumcorp.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Inc.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.learnflex.isnewmedia.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 550 Queen St. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. Inc. Inc. 100 Foxborough Blvd. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.wizdom.

CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.sselearn.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco. Suite 700 Arlington. St.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.technomedia.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Louis. Glebe Road. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.plateau.oracle.outstart.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal.com/products/saba/learn ing/index. Fifth Floor Montreal.syntrio.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.oracle. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.teds.com.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. Inc. Suite 2200 Chicago.ssaglobal.sumtotalsystems. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. West.saba. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.sap.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. 500 West Madison.teralearn.com TEDS Inc.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. LTD 671 N.com Do Not Reproduce 310 .

Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.ttg-inc. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. Inc. 122 West Way. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 4 Expressway Plaza.com Tracker. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.avilar.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.xstreamsoftware. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Victoria. NY. 240 Bay Street.wbtsystems. Box 9752 Boulder.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . Suite # 105 Columbia.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.trainingpartner.risc-inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Suite 101 Houston.info/index. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Inc.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .vbtrain. Ontario.gyrus. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.. Laurent Blvd. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Inc. Suite 200 Ottawa. Inc.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.fldata.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.O. 17041 El Camino Real.vuepoint. 2280 St.xtention.edutools.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.

netera. 4th Floor Oakland.arizona.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.goenc. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.uwm.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.sir. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.com Do Not Reproduce 312 . CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.ca ENC Learning Inc.cdlib.

AZ 85250 USA http://www.cadcorp.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. ETRAC. Box 1892.dist.lornet. CT 06459 USA http://www.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.plos. SG1 2JY. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.O.lrc3. P. Suite 3100 San Francisco.lolaexchange. Houston.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.merlot.thegateway.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.maricopa.4464 Markham Street Victoria.unsw.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. Box 3000 Boulder. Stevenage. Suite 1600 Tucson.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. Norton Road. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.edu/DesktopDefault. Fondren Library. Rice University.mcli. MS 44.edu. AZ.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.org/eng/scientifiques. Sterling Court.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. 5151 East Broadway.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.rice.O.clarklabs.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .llearn. Hertfordshire.

959 Concord Street. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.fi/english/page. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. Dept.edu PanGo Networks.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .cancore.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.berkeley.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. Inc. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.org Metadata.5372.com/gis4mt/index.edu.intergraph. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.org Do Not Reproduce 314 . P. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.geocomm. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. of Geography.eoscenter.smm.esri. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.O.O. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.asp?path= 500.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.ac.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.pangonetworks. Suite 100 Framingham.cetis. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.mapinfo. Box 240000 Huntsville.

asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Suite 501 Portland. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.elsnet. Italy http://tcc.itc.html ELSNET Trans 10. 19104-2653. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.ldc.org/ Spotlight Mobile. PA.eee. Suite 100 Menlo Park.aaai. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.upenn.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.knowledgepulse.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.org/aitopics/html/natlang .imsglobal.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Austria http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.ac.advancedreality. Electrical and Computer Engineering.mobilearn.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.bham.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .lexxe.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. PMB #112 Lake Mary. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. Inc.stockholmchallenge.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.uk/handler/default . 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.

CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Inc.sun.internet2.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .com MoveDigital.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. Brandon Hall Research .Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.ac.lockss. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.movedigital.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Inc.cetis.org 316 © 2006. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.llearn. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.groove. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.net internet2. 10010 USA http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Suite 300.stockholmchallenge. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.overnet. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.seti. Whisman Road Mountain View. Deane Rd.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.asianart. NY. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Inc.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.org/site/pp. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.

O. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. 3333 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . Box 1346 Ann Arbor.Project Coordinator CSI .com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Suite 600 Alpharetta.saba.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 1st Floor A .17th Avenue SW Calgary.com Do Not Reproduce 317 . Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. Eisenhower Parkway P.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.proquest.virtualmuseum. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.trainingregistry. 15-4-A Gatineau. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Suite 225 Santa Monica.elearningeuropa.elementk. 3º 08021 Barcelona.microsoft.elena-project. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.rmv. Box 172 1039 . WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com ProQuest 789 E.executrain. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.teach-nology.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Teachnology. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. Alberta. New York 10973 USA http://www.com Portals CyberU.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.cyberu.worldwidelearn.

hp.readygo. Redmond.org Macromedia.6526 http://www.genesys.com Raptivity P. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.apreso. O.com Presentations.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. Inc.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.raptivity.com/halo/index. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. Alberta. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Suite B Orion.com/presentatio ns/index. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.mit. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.elluminate. Box 2827.macromedia. Michigan. Ninth St. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Minneapolis.saba. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. NE Calgary.scate.com Do Not Reproduce 318 .com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.presentations.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.lsc..com ReadyGo Inc. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. 3016 5th Ave. CA 94040.333.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.com 50 S.articulate.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.

com Do Not Reproduce 319 .aad.rec. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Henrik I Christensen.org Euron c/o Prof. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.ams.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.botball. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.ri. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Inc.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.ife. Ste. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.gov.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Pasadena.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. SE-100 44 Stockholm. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. Union St. Inc.atr. SWEDEN. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Radstock Somerset. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.org Evolution Robotics.active-robots.whmsi.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.ed.osaka-u.eng. 130 W.euron.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.ac. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. D. Lindsey Bldg.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. 100 Norman.cmu.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Centre for Autonmous Systems.evolution. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.nasa.irc.generalrobotics. Chilcompton.

findlaw.com Gada.excite.com excite.gigablast.6100 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. Brandon Hall Research .copernic.com 229 West 43rd Street New York. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Gnod. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Suite 500 Oakland. Suite 60 Quebec. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.gnod.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.dogpile. Google. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag. Inc.alexa.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.com Ask.net/ 320 © 2006. 42nd Floor New York.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.convera.google.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.com Google (including Froogle. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.ask. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.about. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.O. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.

icerocket.com LitLinker c/o ACM.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. 17th Floor New York.metacrawler.com Info. Chicago.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.kartoo.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.1057022 LookSmart. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Box 1133 Washington. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Inc. Ltd.intute.healthfinder.looksmart. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco.msn.lalisio.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.O.mooter.koders. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.acm. 601 108th Avenue NE. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.ac.org/citation. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.lexxe.cfm?doid=1 056808.ixquick. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.krugle.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 .com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.net Koders Inc.info.

cs. Seventh Floor New York.W. 6th Flr.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 . VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .W. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. 2400 N. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway.qelix. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. Mumbai 10.ee.pubsub. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.82152 Martinsried http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Nesbit Rd.convera.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. New York. Mary Apts. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 64 Fulton Street. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www..truveo. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.com Pandora Media. NY 10003.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Suite 211 Palo Alto .edu/ PubSub Concepts.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Inc.technorati.com SearchKing. 360 22nd Street. Inc. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. INDIA.com/v2/index. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Mazgaon. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Suite 207 San Francisco. Inc.nyu. Inc.almaden..columbia. 23rd Oklahoma City.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC.rawsugar.pandora.searchking.ibm. 23rd Floor San Francisco.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.biz Truveo.seekport.netscape. 7th floor. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.

CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. Box 1558 New Canaan. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.assima.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.macromedia.com Flash c/o Macromedia.alphaworks. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. Ontario. 10 Old Bailey. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.macromedia.com Zoom Information Inc.biographix. Inc. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.elena-project.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.experiencebuilders.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.atghome. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.tkk.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 1st Floor A .de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.Project Coordinator CSI .1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com Assima Ltd.O. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.ibm. Yahoo http://www.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.zoominfo.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 . EC4M 7NG London. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.personal-reader.yahoo.seco.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.

noaa. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.com NexLearn.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.xstreamsoftware. Newburyport.stottlerhenke.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. Suite 360 San Mateo. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . GreenPark Reading. Suite 200 Ottawa. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.knowledge-director. Inc. B15 2TT. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. Suite 300 Wichita.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.com MASIE Center.knowledgeplanet.ac. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.knowledgequest.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent..com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.knowledgepresenter. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.intermezzon.bham.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Laurent Blvd. Inc.fsl.. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.cs. LLC 100 South Main Street.nexlearn. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Ontario.stt-global.muzzylane. England http://www.learning2005. CA .forio. 2280 St.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.

California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. 1821 Walden Office Square. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 55 South Market St. Suite 125 San Diego.stt-global. CA 94089 USA http://del. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.qarbon.us Eventful c/o EVDB.icio.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.teds. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com Stagecast Software.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Inc.checkpointsystems. Suite A-207 Brossard.icio. Suite 1550 San Jose.maxit.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.virtualcontrolroom. Suite 224 Bloomington. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. 101 Wolf Drive.assima.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Morton Street. Suite 400. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.outstart.eduperformance. Québec.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.edu/index. Inc. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.. Taschereau Ouest.com/English/t6 essai. Light & Acoustics.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.iu. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Schaumburg.com Softsim Outstart Studio. Thorofare.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. Suite 240 Atlanta.com Do Not Reproduce 325 .com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.stagecast.

netscape. Suite 900 Austin. CA 94105 USA http://www. Suite 500 Renton.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.gnolia.com 326 © 2006.O.com Spurl ehf. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. Inc.spurl.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. Brandon Hall Research .com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.furl.eu Rojo Networks. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. First Floor San Francisco. Inc. Box 920089 Needham.rojo. 795 Folsom St..networkltd.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.com Classmates Online. CA. SW. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.shadows.com/ mag. WA 98055 USA http://www. Inc. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.classmates. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.zvents.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco.friendster. 2001 Lind Ave. Inc..tagzania.. Ltd. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. Menlo Park.analytictech.com Friendster. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.

CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.com/halo/index. 4th Floor Marshalltown.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .jabber. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CA 94105 USA http://www.fakespace.O.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.brightcove.com Jabber Software Foundation P. Box 1641 Denver. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.O.jabber.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.dfilm. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.com Brightcove. Box 1641 Denver. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. CA 90028 USA http://www.socialtext.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.sociosite. New York.hp. Church Street. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.net Sparta Social Networks.apple.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.org Fakespace 11 E. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.advanced.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.html Do Not Reproduce 327 .spartasocialnetworks.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. Inc. Cupertino. 655 High Street Palo Alto.bittorrent.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.percro. Suite 900 San Francisco.com Jabber Software Foundation P. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.

veoh. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.ergonetz.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.coe.futurelab. 7220 Trade Street. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.percro.org Veoh Networks. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.xstreamengine.spider.navy.activeworlds.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. VA 23461-1924 https://www. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Suite 206 Bloomington. IC ISIM VRLAB. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. CA 92121 USA http://www.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.accurender.hpc.com Intuition 9. Inc.informationinplace.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Suite 115 San Diego.ecu. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.intuition-eunetwork. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.epfl.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.org.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.edu/vrel.

ambientdevices.idashboards. Cambridge. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.mapinfo.feedtank.ac.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Inc.vista. Danvers. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.com/ MapInfo One Global View.com Golden Software.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Inc. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. 809 14th Street.com ESRI Suite 300.xcelsius. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Troy.O. Suite 3 Brooklyn.golden. 1333 Butterfield Rd.esri. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.daz3d. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. Columbus.intergraph. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.advizorsolutions. 350 South 400 West.bham. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 329 .com FeedTank 590 Grand St.cs.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Suite 110 Troy. Inc.corda. Golden. Williams Building College Park.. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Draper.V. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.formz. Box 240000 Huntsville. Suite 100 Lindon.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street. Suite 317 San Diego.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.umd.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.

microsoft.S. 2nd Floor Poolesville. 3 East 28th St.unifiedfield.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. 212 Elm Street Somerville.org Visual Analytics Inc.softill.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. 73 Princeton Street.okino. U.com Spotfire.visualanalytics. Tracy.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. CA 94712 USA http://www. 155 Spring Street. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. 9th floor New York.vicodi. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.com Unified Field. Riga.mccrackendesign. Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Inc.net Pixologic. Suite 3A New York. MA 01863 USA http://www.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue.visualthesaurus.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.nih.topozone.O.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . Inc. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.musanim.spotfire.nlm. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.ontopia. Box 884. Unit # 1 Mississauga. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.pixologic. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Inc.

bloglines. 2513 Charleston Road.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. A-1220 Vienna.wearable. CA 95008 USA http://www.feedburner.ethz.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.skype.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. FL 34108 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. 94043 USA http://www. 869 97th Ave N. 11211. Suite 102 Mountain View. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. Unit A2 Naples. Suite 100 Campbell.attensa. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.feedforall. Valdeku 100.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Inc.jajah.com Brightcove. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Estonia http://www. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. Suite 2260 Portland.com Web Feeds Attensa.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .com FeedForAll PO Box 296. Donau-City-Strasse 1. Tallinn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Hanover.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.vrvis. Inc. Inc. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. California.inxight.brightcove. Ltd. ETZ H Electronics Lab. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.sportbrain.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.com JAJAH Inc.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.feedreader.

com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.microsoft. Petersburg.pubsub.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. Building K Mountain View.socialtext.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Coldbrook Business Corp. Inc. Suite 381 Vancouver.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Suite 605 San Francisco.org JotSpot.com Feedster.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. Broadway.com Rojo Networks. Pacific Business Centre #101 . CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.onfolio.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com 332 © 2006.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.jot. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. 795 Folsom St.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.com PubSub Concepts.feedzilla. Suite 900 Austin. 3rd Floor Cambridge. San Francisco. 200 2nd Ave. P.1001 W. Inc.feedster.rojo. 116 New Montgomery Street. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.rssreader. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. Inc. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Seventh Floor New York.mozilla. Brandon Hall Research . Switzerland http://www. Inc. 64 Fulton Street..pluck. First Floor. Nederland Tel: +31. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www..715135858 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. 167 Hamilton Ave. South #358 St.V. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

69. 118. 109. 96. 255 Architectures. 242. 174. 156. 255. 80 Cognition. 125. 264. 275 Collaboration. 217. 194. 226. 187. 51. 28. 55. 254. 15. 81. 61. 232. 269. 106. 174. 177. 90. 3. 85. 268. 55. 63. 118. 228. 121. 45. 247. 25. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 92. 108. 224 Cell phones. 274 Communities of practice. 143. 18. 76. 39. 46. 105. 61. 94. 106. 250 Dashboards. 21. 28. 204. 64. 246. 161. 268 Broadband. 101. 129. 97. 117 Assessment. 94. 246. 242. 54. 218. 104. 113. 129. 22. 14. 33. 285. 88. 4. 258 cognitive collage. 250. 184 Conversational learning. 3. 143. 30. 230 Competency Tracking. 66. 70. 199. 162. 5. 77. 67. 24. 111. 37. 104. 101. 215. 17. 185. 218. 26. 150. 163. 156. 142. 76. 7. 9. 51. 289 Authorware. 264 Classroom response systems. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 21. 31. 46. 241. 64. 260. 138. 76. 252. 87. 184. 116. 64. 226. 250. 26. 148. 230. 73. 176. 97. 47. 93. 91. 33. 48. 226. 26. 34. 32. 199 334 © 2006. 168. 201. 93. 188. 245 Browsers. 29. 100. 251. 266 Augmented reality. 186. 91. 284. 209. 25. 96.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 227. 184. 69. 68. 57. 33. Brandon Hall Research . 66 AJAX. 72. 149. 18. 52. 79. 98. 31. 110 Adobe. 154. 270 Boolean searches. 244. 24. 161. 118. 184. 48. 89. 120. 250 cognitive maps. 255. 115. 89. 97. 69. 67. 174. 87. 250 collaboration. 250. 107. 120. 224. 159. 253 Data mining. 296. 29. 40. 83. 162. 105. 60. 217. 85. 78. 209 Air display. 142. 29. 89. 84. 96. 62. 156. 56. 172. 138. 61. 221. 225. 65. 217. 275 Computer based assessment. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 266. 161. 65. 91. 82. 183. 85. 105. 185. 201. 25. 75. 13. 17. 4. 246. 108. 77. 110. 53. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 188. 120. 64. 157. 88. 146. 67. 221 Bayesian probability. 3. 231. 216. 70 barcodes. 162. 33. 91. 103 Complexity theory. 220 Audio. 138. 179. 84. 261 Animation. 175. 268. 247. 35. 217. 44. 87. 32. 131. 155. 61. 86. 88. 35. 209. 28. 31. 201. 161. 43. 95. 122. 164. 49. 45. 205. 241. 51. 111. 32. 63. 26. 78. 82. 67. 165. 218. 125. 221. 97. 37. 235. 17. 177. 268 Communications Tools. 230. 59. educational. 66. 80 Clickers. 45. 95. 87. 16. 83. 60. 235. 269. 86. 60. 225. 12. 266. 117. 231. 200. 22. 247. 241. 120. 45 Content management. 20. 92. 90. 25. 140. 244. 177. 161. 259. 18. 242. 34. 97. 111. 60 Avatars. 82. 54. 151. 60. 27. 74. 67. 28. 61. 244. 78. 257 Adaptive systems. 230. 3. 161 Cooperation. 83. 160. 259. 123. 250. 19. 230. 28. 248. 36. 87. 190. 236. 176 assessment. 86. 154. 46. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 98. 246. 266. 56. 248 Authoring tools. 156. 93. 128. 209. 279. 47. 19. 198. 202. 46. 2. 47. 202. 277 Agents. 25. 251. 148. 139. 259. 59. 34. 111 Blogs. 275 Affective computing. 114 cybercartography. 173. 102. 29. 155 Ambient computing. 62. 251. 243. 57.

243. 60 Displays. 5. 23. 139. 26. 108. 111 Extreme learning. 31. 73. 99. 192. 18. 62. 159. 136. 167. 238. 109. 145. 155. 267. 12. 21. 112. 193. 223. 168. 174. 148. 33. 230. 259. 66. 24. 210. 73. 129. 76 Flash. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 98. 138. 4. 306 Individualization. 122. 118. 220. 236. 273 Informal learning. 254. 112. 5. 28. 186. 323 Folksonomies. 8. 161. 200 Design. 241. 32. 18. 28. 61. 59. 128. 250. 237. 169. 170. 61. 48. 185. 192. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 65. 171. 278 Infrared tags. 45. 257 Grid computing. 211. 65. 198. 217 Federated searches. 29. 132. 117. 87. 159. 209 Handwriting recognition. 115. 3. 126. 12. 122. 128. 82. 70. 39. 88. 111. 62. 45 Frameworks. 17. 199. 86. 134 Head mounted displays. 250. 255. 72. 134 Healthcare applications. 96. 119. 170. 30. 87. 28. 115. 35. 134. 227. 196. 123. 242. 156. 118. 121. 3. 261. 76. 43. 248. 260 Dreamweaver. 114. 287. 128. 104. 250. 84. 215 Expert systems. 2. 247. 5. 250 Graphics. 3. 158. 251. 177. 176 Interface devices. 221. 114. 191. 257 FrontPage. 199 Informatics. 152. 194. 31. 134. 33. 160. 131. 158 iPod. 153. 21. 242.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 69. 97. 120. 34. 320 graphics. 135. 54. 217. 30. 32. 203. 199. 25. 7. 125. 241. 104. 3. 199. 276 Instant messaging. 125. 246. 30. 246. 54. 92. 55. 93. 17. 63. 207. 236 e-Science. 31. 72. 6. 231. 254. 215. 132. 62. 252. 161. 127. 5. 233. 244. 224. 82. 62. 174. 110. 250 e-Commerce. 134. 135. 211 evaluation. 145. 29 e-Portfolios. 134 Haptics. 216. 19. 114. 275 Director. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 65 Google. 121. 5. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 268 Knowledge management. 92. 171. 158. 192. 243. 114. 205. 10. 83. 273 Human-centered computing. 251. 244 Games. 194. 152. 10. 258. 78. 155. 134. 24. 132. 98. 120. 90. 25. 251. 126 GIF graphic format. 43. 206 Findability. 167. 151. 12. 33. e-learning. 91. 267 formative assessment. 31 Emotional design. 27. 262 Hybrid systems. 120. 77. 128. 9. 83. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 153. 12. 129. 80. 92. 222. 257. 34. 151. 40. 239. 34. 218. 113 Deep Web. 222. 250. 117 Experiential learning. 102. 170. 45. 217. 4. 46. 224. 39. 48. 156. 119. 219. 12. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 138. 1. 203. 32. 56. 179. 252. 97. 228. 135. 13. 115. 255. 201. 188. 139. 18. 104. 114. 76. 44. 157 Hype in e-learning. 15. 273 Interoperability. 104. 208. 94. 28. 70. 113. 202. 139. 133. 84. 254 Gesture recogntion. 136. 155. 276 images. 215. 91. 78. 274. 184. 245. 189. 215. 60. 305 Geocaching. 145. 19. 250 Immersive environments. 60 dynamic displays. 92. 253. 135. 192. 115. 228. 275. 205. 246. 111. 154. 15. 77. 250. 15. 9. 170. 152. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 273. 205 History. 64. 246. 71. 6. 7. 204. 26. 106. 80. 68. 24. 37. 155. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 30. 10. 256. 193 Facial recognition. 151 FireFox. 151. 125. 86. 247. 275 Distributed systems.

164. 5. 289. 118. 47. 228 Optical tags. 31. 308. 145. 202. 104. 144. 55. 59. 210 PowerPoint. 243. 222. 108. 64. 177. 103. 162. 174. 92. 25. 61. 192 Networks. 100. 55. 32. 162. 274. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 146. 184. 193 Projectors. 152. 300. 182. 159. 186. 181. 160. 166. 145 learning object repository. 104. 56. 60. 47. 260. 187. 87. 47. 290. 61. 171. 193 Microsoft. 141. 227. 115. 79. 43. 86. 219. 136. 8. 158. 52. 158. 201. 244. 152. 128. 227. 188. 59. 139. 151 Quizzes. 210. 230. 184. 82. 63. 62. 261 Macromedia. 210 Pervasive computing. 101. 114. 234. 145. 197. 159. 165. 224. 244. 172. 218 M-learning. 105. 105. 237. 5. 65. 178. 201. 147. 30. 245. 234. 45. 82. 195. 57. 189. 209. 138. 321. 111. 197 Legacy materials. 5. 138. 235. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 196. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 305. 89. 182. 63. 55. 4. 193.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 179. 262. 100. 259. 64. 185. 147. 284 Portals. 27. 145. 159. 161. 147. 222. 271. 170. 7. 218 Metacognition. 83. 64. 177. 151. 318. 230. 191. 145 Learning Objects. 148. 139. 91. 247. 246. 7. 86. 85. 221. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 63. 99. 254. 20. 174. 198. 217. 190. 3. 183 Navigation. 91. 3. 6. 66. 144. 204. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 189. 170. 254. 155. 102. 60. 190. 298. 175. 79. 158. 152. 104. 61. 192. 232. 161. 161. 163. 186. 173. 154. 140. 110. 274. 233. 250 Pedagogy. 156. 156. 250. 241. 175. 131. 179. 179. 52. 44. 6. 164. 151. 125 Ontologies. 151. 162. 45. 160. 260. 145. 162. 106. 33. 221 Project management. 261. 177. 123. 73. 221. 22. 163. 270. 17. 306. 155. 209. 311 Learning Management Systems. 32. 215. 72. 192. 3. 154. 205. 190. 55. 174. 101. 80. 184. 219. 178. 148. 84. 78. 224. 85. 59. 54. 159. 195. 90. 151. 115. 5. 88. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 104. 129. 318 Location based tools. 314 Meta-search engines. 151. 183. 54. 42. 280. 177. 244. 318 Privacy. 6. 177. 158. 31. 10. 176 Personalization. 7. 161. 24 Museums. 84. 117. 211. 178. 32 Metadata. 107. 65. 221. 58. 174. 294. 66. 3. 32. 187. 209. 65. 76. 192 Libraries. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 73. 199. 135. 317. 187. 255 Neural networks. 230. 175. 268 latent semantic analysis. 176. 28. 171. 224. 78. 221. 161. 200. 93 Radio. 82. 146. 186. 12. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 141. 5. 221. 230. 20. 83. 273. 189. 241. 171. 85. 209 pattern recognition. 242. 119. 206 Microformats. 192 Lecturing. 142. 62. 164. 72. 171. 179. 120. 36. 38. 165 Mobile computing. 161 Podcasting. 273. 139. 54. 287. 33. 120. 97. 90. 135. 187. 185. 6. 254. 231. 13. 17. 311. 223 Rapid e-learning. 323 mapping. 330. 112. 109. 309. 159. 105. 209 Microlearning. 250 Mashups. 59 Presentation tools. 172. 146. 31. 142. 64. 18. 166. 241. 111. 267. 143. 171. 62. 332 Microworlds. 19. 60. 45. 27. 273. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 24. 189. 32. 12. 59. 65. 138. 194. 5. 223. 40. 312 learning object model. 222. 89. 28. 134 Proximity tools. 66. 203. 193. 188. 157 Medical applications. 121. 158. 163. 238. 95. 177. 2. 227. 315 Motion Graphics. 151.

241. 204. 145. 63. 5. 76 T-Learning. 48. 187 Smart labels and tags. 51. 145. 220. 194. 224. 119. 238. 202. 170. 331 Web conferencing. 274 Tests. 171. 106. 51. 9. 148. 189. 268. 275 Translation. 187. 117. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 134. 190. 268 Tags. 227. 228. 45. 224 Team management. 187. 98. 196. 76. 7. 5. 251 Serious games. 45. 145 Repositories. 12. 226. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 211. 202. 242. 137. 158. 158. 47. 86. 259. 232 Speech recognition. 4. 275. 199. 109. 192 Thin clients. 224. 8. 81. 180. 241. 261 Shockwave. 66. 150. 265. 55. 75. 237. 227. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 231. 155 Tagging. 4. 250. 201. 154. 12. 259. 244. 120. 244 summative assessment. 216. 76. 65. 76. 115. 254 Taxonomies. 239. 215. 128. 156. 155. 216. 145 Screencasting. 226. 232. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 222. 62. 281 SCORM. 241. 97. 255 Single-user wiki. 81. 252. 228. 46. 246. 61. 88. 38. 16. 190. 161. 198. 152. 226. 193. 221 self-evaluation. 236. 151. 238. 120. 50. 319 Role-playing. 273. 158. 217. 149. 244 Tours (online). 97. 187. 244. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 225. 97. 72. 252. 62. 254. 212 reusable learning objects. 226. 218. 5. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 45. 241 Vodcasting. 230. 231. 49. 243. 275 Vlogs. 138. 174. 45 Semantic Web. 98. 228. 176. 2. 73. 57. 216. 224. 260. 69. 167. 214 résumés. 242 Security. 253. 43. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 332 Webcasting. 160. 9. 223. 156 sharable content objects. 117 Reusability. 19. 255. 179. 151. 219. 113. 302. 219. 33. 247 Video. 206. 169. 209. 202. 215. 197. 241 Search engines. 45 Symbology tags. 215. 210.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 33. 60. 206. 145 Robotics. 121. 255 Turing Test. 10. 158. 146. 85. 205. 158. 138. 47. 273. 212. 242. 119. 114. 222. 147. 209. 159. 156. 196. 2. 84 Telephony. 208. 45. 32. 145. 122. 60. 59. 174 Virtual reality. 157 Simulations. 112. 262. 10. 226. 67. 151. 97. 143. 65. 241 virtual classroom. 174. 31. 134. 327 Videocasting. 263. 221. 188. 203. 159. 268 Skypecasting. 264 Social networking. 120. 266. 160. 147. 164. 12. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 167. 201. 261 Usability. 169 Streaming video. 246 Visualization. 256. 159. 6. 5. 46. 225. 221. 152. 187. 46. 264. 227. 196. 66. 171. 247. 33. 26. 7. 244 Tangible computing. 200. 15. 245. 183. 6. 125. 5. 134. 243. 52. 331 Wearable computing. 63. 199. 143. 225. 127. 261. 3. 63. 213. 203. 104. 119. 217. 139. 242. 240. 221 Social bookmarking. 241 Television. 241. 260 Telepresence. 222 Tag clouds. 221. 33. 230. 146. 218 Science. 100. 27. 123. 226. 224. 201. 3. 62. 69. 251. 218 Scenarios. 195 Virtual learning environments. 18. 62. 214. 187 Virtual classrooms. 267. 148. 155. 233. 142. 10. 165. 139. 209. 167. 60. 52. 24.

80. 86. 77. 136. 115. 269. 332 Woodill. 116. 271. 104. 270. 103. 106. 268. 268. Gary. 168. 269. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 3. 59. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 276 Word.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 137. 184. 209. 157. 233. 232. 272. 270 Wikis. 135. 174. 134. 114. 10. 90. 68. 233. 5. 1. 6. 266. 97. 84. 82. 156. 53. 307 Wikipedia. 87. 187 Whiteboards. 256. 267.

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