Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Do Not Reproduce 1 . Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. with rows. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. or “reader. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. the raising of hands. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. fire for warmth and cooking.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. the classroom became industrialized. and language for communication. Technologies are any technique. and recess. Learning became standardized and linear. With these reforms.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. “things that make us smart. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. detentions. or device that extends human abilities. still used in many institutions of higher education. The modern classroom. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. as books were scarce. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology.” Starting in the first century AD. We tend to forget. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. that lecturing. is a 2000 year old “technology. to quote Donald Norman (1993). They are. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. for example. class periods. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Medieval universities followed the same practice. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. material.

the main telegraph company in the world at the time.just the ability to follow an example. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. For example. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. in fact. Brandon Hall Research . Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication.” Similarly. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. When a new technology first comes into use. chairman of IBM. many different ways to learn. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Schools were started to teach accounting. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. linear teaching techniques online. changing the practice of teaching. memorizing. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Students in these schools learned by reading. 2 © 2006. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. When a new technology is introduced. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Eventually.” In 1970. even if the originator of the words is not present. A third way to learn is by seeing. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. moving pictures (films). Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. At the same time. Thomas Watson. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. and reciting. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. Like all new technologies. Sadly. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). There are.

allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . 2006). mashups can only be done using computer technology.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Rather than pages. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. frameworks. and standards. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. However. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. as this is a non-technical guide. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. Rather than pages. it needs to adhere to architectures. sometimes referred to as a mashup. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. To realize these advantages. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. Do Not Reproduce 3 . 2006).

Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.fr/publicatio n.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. January. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. 4 © 2006. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable.free. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. Number 3. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid.grid. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.php). with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. 2005. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. Brandon Hall Research .

org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. and education administration. http://ltsc. http://imsproject.oclc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example.accessgrid. and makes extensive use of XML. http://www.org). relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.aicc. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification.adlnet. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. In particular. research. enabling the search for content. Major specifications for e-learning. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). At the same time.org) has a number of published documents that.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.imsglobal.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. http://sourceforge.elframework. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). interactive learning components. taken together. http://purl. presentation and interactive environments. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. In Europe. Do Not Reproduce 5 . http://www. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. At the same time.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System.ieee.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.

The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. 6 © 2006. Instead. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. For example. “[a] pull economy .” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. They noted that “…in education. Instead. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. reinforces this theme.” In late 2005. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. Moreover. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. Instead of just providing courses. This is especially true for adult education. 2004).is based on open. As Anderson (2004.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. Rather. While packaged courses still have a place. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. In business.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. 2006) has argued. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. Brandon Hall Research . John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. Bollier says.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.

idi. Reggiani. Bertolazzi. In the last chapter.. Five years ago. M. March/April 2006. Bryan (2006). Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. ambient networks. and Conte.. The Long Tail. and wearable computers. June 2005. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. online resources. Z. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. and a bibliography. those learners are now keeping their own records.pdf Anderson. Bibliography Abbas. 41(2). Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. the reader can approach any topic in any order. McClatchey.org/abs/cs. Umer.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. (2005). F.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. 12(10). Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Odeh. Do Not Reproduce 7 . Wired Magazine. M. M. Chris (2006). Chris (2004).. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Cardiff. http://arxiv. http://www. User-created content.ntnu... All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies.. Thus. mobile devices. Ahmad. Wales.html Anderson. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Zanichelli. I hope you will find it useful. F. 2005).educause. http://www.DC/0502051 Alexander.. R. Italy. R.amazon.wired. From this. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. G. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. M. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. New York: Hyperion. http://www.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Ali.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. October.. Milan.com/wired/archive/12. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. is becoming commonplace. along with selected examples. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. http://www. 10/tail. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. A. UK. Web 2.

htm l 8 © 2006. http://www.pdf Cerri. 14-16. USA. V. S. David (2005). Giotopoulos. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. International E-Learning Specifications. 6-8.aspeninstitute. (2002). 16.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. March 2002. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. http://ru6. T. http://www. Switzerland. Nov. Web Services . Oct. 4-36. and Votis.cscsi.ca/protocols_en. Montreal. 13. http://www. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. of Distance Education 10. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.. M. Weiss. Jagadish (2004). Tsiatsos. Aug.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. T. (1996).cti. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.ICALT 2001. Online. R.devshed. G. 13-16. American Jrnl.pdf Friesen. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.virtual.. K.athabascau.a sp Chatarji. 2001. (2001). Upper Saddle River. Hornig. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. and McGreal....gmu.htm Bollier. 2.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. http://www.org/celda2005/index. http://ewic. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. 2002. Sept. C.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.cancore. M.. Centre for Distance Ed. http://cde. K. N. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.iadis. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. 19. and McGinnis (2004). Thomas (2004). Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). N. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Stefano (2005). Lausanne..ca/softeval/report s/R110203. http://www. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .amazon.. Brandon Hall Research . Triantafillou. 2004. http://www.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23.pdf Erl. Portugal. Madison. C. Dec.Dev Shed.edu/pdf/ajde.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. 2004. WI. Athabasca University. Chrysostalis.pdf Bogonikolos. Porto. (2002). Likothanassis.. http://www.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.bcs. Norm (2006).

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There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. and a bibliography for each section. Do Not Reproduce 11 . a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. online resources to learn more about each technology. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. selected elearning related examples. Included are related terms.

too. Brandon Hall Research . computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. confused.sricbi. 2005). or sad. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state.” (Anolli. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. et al. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. understand. emotional design. 2005). For example. posture.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. privacy. facial recognition. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning..” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.. in Italy.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Without the ability to understand emotions. and to respond to them effectively. and react to human emotions. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. keystroke patterns. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. gestures. In online therapy. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. and react to human emotions.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. security. 12 © 2006. understand. SRI Consulting (http://www. emotions. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.

that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www. UK.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. listing many links to interesting resources.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states.bartneck.convo. with many resources.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. and legality. including studies of emotions in computers.co. UK.media. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.html In Germany. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.mit. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. 2005. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research. Check it out at: http://www. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.bham. See: http://www.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. See the links at: http://emotion. Hatfield.myself-proj. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic. Do Not Reproduce 13 .unige. 2005. University of Hertfordshire.unitrier. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.arizona.edu/emotion. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.cs.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.de/link/affective_p ortal. accuracy. bibliographies. Affective Computing.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. Dr.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. Access it from: http://www. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. are available online: http://www.aisb.informatik. October 22-24. April 12-15.ac. China.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.org.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.nsma. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal.

CHI 2005 conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. http://www. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.. Stock. Graziola.pdf Goren-Bar. K.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli.it/~lhci/009.. CHI 2005 conference. Brandon Hall Research . A. B. Realdon. Issue 11/12. CHI 2005 conference. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. I Like It . Brassac. A.. Oregon. N. December. Nass.. O. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. David (2003). April 2-7. Y. Portland..edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. Wired Magazine.uniroma1.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye. April 2-7. and Waterworth. and Laaksolahti. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics.1 2/love. Zurloni. J. Rocchi. Joseph (2005). 2005. and Zouinar. Portland.. Oregon...wired..sics. V. Isbister. P.doc Chateau. April 2-7. L.. April 2-7.pdf Maldonado.sics. http://www.dis....doc Hook. NJ. Vermersch. M. H. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour.. (2005).pdf Cahour. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Agliati. (2005).com/wired/archive/11.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. Nakajima. J. Nortillaro. R. 2005. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. (2005). CHI 2005. (2005). Oregon. L. and Merisol.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. April 2-7. http://www.stanford. Erlbaum. September 13.sics. Pachoud... Portland. April 2-7. Portland. M. CHI 2005 conference. 2005 http://www. C. F.. (2005).pdf 14 © 2006. Yamada... Pianesi.pdf Kaye. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Confalonieri (2005). P. Z.. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. B.. Portland. http://www.sics. Oregon. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. CHI 2005. (2005). K. Mantovani. H. The Love Machine: building computers that care. K. Iwamura.html Fallman.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. I. M. O. J. and Morishima. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. M. http://www. Balestra. Lee. http://www. Vescovo... C.pdf Diamond. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. C. Bouraoui. D. http://www. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005. Brave. S. Oregon. F. Salembier. J..sics. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. and Zancanaro. D.

pdf Mentis.elearningreviews. October 22-24. R. Portland. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. May 26.de/emeocom p/content.sics. (2005).amazon.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. Rosalind (1997). CHI 2005 conference. (2005).pdf Norman. 22. April 2-7. http://www. CHI 2005. China.utokyo. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. and Ishizuka. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. E-book http://www. M. (2005). S.iste.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.com/gp/product/3 http://www. Paper for WEBIST 2005. http://www. 35(2). New York: Basic. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. 2005.ruebenstrunk. J.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.ac. Dec. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. http://www. T. Computing. (2002). http://www. Gerd (1998).amazon. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. S. http://www..pdf Masum.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. R. Portland. Beijing.miv. J. and Daily. ACII 2005.t. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. 2002. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Berlin: Picard. CHI 2005.htm Tao. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Steele. Oregon.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. 2005. April 2-7. 2005. Donald A.sics. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. MA: MIT. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. M. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Cambridge.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Affective Springer.sics. and Picard. Regan (2005). OR. Tan. http://www. (2004). Miami.HTM Steele. Helena (2005). Oregon. Portland.

Brandon Hall Research . April 2-7. Ian (1997). 2005. CHI 2005 conference.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg. Affective Computing vs. Oregon.bham.doc Wright.cs. University of Birmingham. Emotional Agents. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www.Affective Computing Wiberg. Portland. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. Charlotte (2005).thesis.pdf 16 © 2006.ac. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.

1999). has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Dick Stenmark. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Second.gu. learning/adaptation. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. 1999).. see the paper by Far et al. 2004). An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. and both may be found in the same program (for example. For example. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass.informatik. and many of them can actually learn.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. veracity. First. In this context. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Do Not Reproduce 17 . animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Third. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. rationality. and. autonomous agents. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. benevolence. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Fourth. proactive (goal directed).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. avatars. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions.

They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. useful in educational simulations. therefore. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. 2005.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. Massaro et al. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Even though each agent acts independently. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. However. Katzlberger. 2005). 2000). A second agent in the simulation. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. She made mistakes. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. not only about environments. (1998) developed a conversational agent. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. 2004) and are. In such situations. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. and the students had to continue to teach her. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Mentor. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. but also about other agents. Therefore. et al. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. acting against other teams of agents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. Brandon Hall Research . Viswanath. Agents have beliefs. 18 © 2006. Baldi.

edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.uka. Hypermedia.editlib.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.netobjectdays. See a demo at: http://www. See the article by Williams et al.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs.codebaby.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.extempo.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623. not only about environments. expert role-players.ac. Therefore.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. A.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Go to: http://www.liv. S. For details see: www.fsu.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. go to: http://ritl.org/index. and Telecommunications 2003. & Ebbers. See: http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. go to: http://ldt.old. (2004): http://www.csc. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.com/ CodeBaby Corp. Do Not Reproduce 19 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.ira. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. They are available as adaptive coaches.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 459462. (2003). See: http://www. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. but also about other agents.stanford. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. For details of this research: http://www. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent.org/index. http://www.de/bibliography/Ai /agents..isi. and expert guides.editlib. See: http://liinwww.redwoodelearning.

L. Brandon Hall Research . Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. & El-Khouly. Jrnl.org/index. Educause Quarterly. B. http://www. 267-286 http://www. 75-80. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. (2005). Erfurt. (2002). A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.editlib. Johnson.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.Agents Baylor.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235.pdf Guessoum. Proceedings. 1353-1356. & Kim.org/index. (2002).org/index. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. L. Y. 1503-1506. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Germany. Hypermedia... & Johnson. & Lin. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. Educause Quarterly.netobjectdays.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://www. J.educause.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. W. 5(7). http://www. http://www. 11(3).ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. A. S. Ali (2002). Z..editlib. Norfolk. (2005). Ng. 306-311). http://csdl. S. G. VA: AACE.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. J.org/newdl/index. http://www. G.old. 275-285. and Tsang. and Shaw.org/index. Sun.pdf Clarebout. Paper presented. M. http://www. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Koono. C. In Proceedings.org/index. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. 2005.pdf Jafari...editlib. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. (Ed. W. 28(2). and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. S.. and Palopoli. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). G.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.. (2002).editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. 3. (1999). G.). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro.. http://www..editlib. 10 (3). No. ELearning 2003.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. Zahia (2004). Elan. In Richards. & Bengu.computer. G.educause. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. (2000). Clarebout. E. A..aace. Y.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. e-Learning 2005. (2003). July. Inter-active Learning Res..org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. Large Complex Systems. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA.pdf Kao.cfm?fusea ction=Reader.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao.

cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.K. (2006).com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. L. P. C. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.editlib. O. Krittaya (2005). 4(1). (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Doctoral dissertation. IFIP WG12. http://www. 17(2). http://dl. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. V. Toulouse.. 16591666.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.indiana. Vanderbilt University. E-Learning 2003.informatics. M. 1999.de/BIK/vpa/109. Learning by Teaching Agents.. In Proceedings. and Cole. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. and Winikoff. V. J. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.. In Proceedings..amazon.pdf Menczer. and Stucky.org/index. http://www. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. http://www.aace.cse. Fuhua Oscar (2005). ED-MEDIA.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.teachableagents.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Thomas (2005). Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.pdf Luengo. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.. S. Beskow. International Journal on E-Learning. U. (2003). http://www. 1632. Doctoral Dissertation. E. D. Tennessee.edu/fil/ Padgham.pdf Kim. and Ho.pdf Lin. Daniel. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. 21-38. www.unikarlsruhe. http://www.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 .cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. France. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.teachableagents. Sandel. and Ferneley. Y. (2005). www. M. (1999). August.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro. (2004).aifb. W. Cohen. Vanderbilt University. Nashville.amazon.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Hershey.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).ogi. TN.org/16948 Leelawong. New York: John Wiley & Sons. R. http://cslu. http://www. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. A..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. 143-162. www. Doctoral Dissertation.5 . of California.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. Nashville.org/index. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.org/index.

and Núñeza.org/index. & Lim. M. Russia. http://www. S. Ferat (2000).pdf Williams.. Petersburg. Government.org/papers/ 158bis. (2005). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno.. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.. K. & Booth. and Solomon. http://www. 194-201. B.editlib. ED-MEDIA 2004. Biswas. Atreya. (1999). 10 (3).cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.aace. (2005).psu. & Madsen. 3169-3176. K.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. & Leelawong. D. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS).org/index. In Richards.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. R. http://www. H.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno. and Higher Education 2004. (2004). Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Adebiyi. 30003002.edu/565321. 1999. EDMedia 2005. M. 321-333. 14151420.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. ED-MEDIA 2005. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Peter (1998).ist. Doctoral Dissertation. Pittsburgh. PA.aace. L. June 1-4. Proceedings. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. G. Gilbert. St.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. http://www. M.vt.editlib.). http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2004). http://dl.lib. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). (1999).org/index. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. J. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.editlib.org/newdl/index. (2005). Kommers & G.. In P. (Ed. L. Richards (Eds.. G. G. S. 61-65. Proceedings. R. Carnegie Mellon University.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov.teachableagents. Finland.org/16968 Sahin.). Wesley.editlib.. 14(1).utexas. In Proceedings. N. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning.cs. J. (2004). Doctoral Dissertation.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.. http://citeseer.Agents Perez. 47-59. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath.html Shim. Healthcare. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.. http://scholar.

upc. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2004.ac. Paper at CLAG2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. (2004). Chun. http://ca.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X.html Yan. April 18-21. Michael (2002).ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 . Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. http://research. Chicago.wiley.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce


Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce


(2003). they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. While many systems purport to be personalized. Do Not Reproduce 30 . objects. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. gestures. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. rather than using a single type of knowledge. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. 2002). Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs.e.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. Talking Head Tutor vs. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. etc) and how they are interrelated. concepts. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.

edu/papers/daveDiss ertation. ecommerce. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.iit.uregina.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. see: http://lsa.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. (2005a. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.cs. http://lsa.. including student monitoring.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.cs.cs.unito.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.uic. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.di.” http://www.colorado.” http://www.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. http://www.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.colorado.. Do Not Reproduce 31 .pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. and multiagents.

pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .enel.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.com/index. http://ariic. 32 © 2006.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.uc3m. http://bach.ucalgary.infrature.edu.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. question answering (QA) techniques.library. Brandon Hall Research .Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.cs.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. http://www.pact. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.leaonline.it.pdf Oguejiofor et al. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.edu. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.unsw.” http://ctat. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.com/doi/pdf/10.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. http://www. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.ht ml To achieve their goals.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.cmu. As a result.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.” http://www. http://quantumsimulations.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. Infrature.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.kicinger.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging. and INFOMAP. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. http://www. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.gast. http://www. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.sinica.iis.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.virtuelage.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . and engaging. Find out more at: http://ctat. http://www.pact. The reality is that. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.usyd. see: http://www. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. an adaptive testing algorithm.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. intelligent conflict resolution.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.cs.” http://www.ke-corp. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. Do Not Reproduce 33 .com/s10. http://pact. preferred cadence. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Aurora .edu. Stottler Henke Associates. Inc. and an interactive intelligent tutor.cmu.gemini. so that these systems become more realistic. without programming. Task Tutor Toolkit . challenging.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.it.cmu. skill gaps.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. http://www.cs. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. and learning style.stottlerhenke. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic .

with the next one in 2007.org/AITopics/html/tutor.” Learn more at: http://www. 34 © 2006. http://www.ac.teluq.inf.inf. http://aied. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.masternewmedia.licef. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. China.ed.org/cfp.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.ucalgary. Taiwan.aaai.enel. Read it at: http://www. http://www.cs. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. Brandon Hall Research .org/2000/fe b2000/ong.wpi. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.autotutor.ed. See: http://www.com/printer _friendly_article.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).technologyreview.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.uquebec.htm Marvin Minsky.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. Find it at: http://www.ac.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.ca/eng/in dex.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. go to: http://aied.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. For more info: http://www2. The AIED conferences are held every two years.learningcircuits. For more information. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.its2006.uk/aiedsoc.

Lester. Brazil. http://nth. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. Chicago. Hermann (2002). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.pdf Alkhalifa. Vicari.. ITS 2004.iit. (2002). and Patti.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04. http://www.. Hershey.ac. http://www. In Proceedings.doi. B. Baroglio. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. In J.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Eshaa (Ed. Kort... Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.pdf Aleven.amazon. PA: Idea. M. and Penstein Rosé..di. B.wpi.unito. R. R. (2004). McLaren. V. (2005). & F. (2004). J. http://www. G. C. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.82 Bhatt.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . http://www. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.pitt. M.eurodl. C. Mostow. M. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.. C. 6(1). Roll. 22: 3–39. and Read. Paraguaçu (Eds. K. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. (2004). E. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. T.pdf Barcena.pdf Baldoni.edu/pubs/pub_4073. and Koedinger.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. and Douglas.. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.) (2006). 482-487.).cmu. (2004). http://www.ht ml Aleven. V. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. http://www. (2004). S. V. and Evens.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read.. S.html Barker. Maceió. Argamon. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.2005.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. R. http://lingcog. K. and Picard. http://dx.sbg.1109/ITCC.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit.ri. P. Artificial Intelligence Review. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. Reilly.org/10.Volume I. I.

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for example. rubrics. and psychomotor. More sophisticated forms of automated. or performance samples. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. computer mediated assessment (CMA). once only done by a human assessor. making it hard to escape assess-ment. Do Not Reproduce 45 . When combined into a “360° evaluation. in the near future. aptitudes. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. eassessment. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA).” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. We can expect that. quizzes. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. quizzes. 1956). Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. Assessment software can generate templates. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. the automated scoring of essays. For example. are already available. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. In a business situation. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). and output. or performance samples. samples. computer based assessment (CBA). online assessment. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. and documents for assessors to use. affective. computer-based assessment tools. self-evaluation. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. evaluation. quizzes. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests.

These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.com/evaluator Testcraft. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. 46 © 2006. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. Try it at: http://nt. a completely customizable report engine.brainbench. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .0. Find them at: http://www. See the site at: http://www. from Resources Management Services in the U.learningandteaching.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment. and adaptive question branching. However. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. and past work behaviors.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. Review it at: http://www.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.redinq. See: http://www.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. abilities.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. has recently won awards for its performance. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. see: http://www. personality. skills.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.xstreamsoftware.info/lear ning/solo. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. a customizable look and feel.testcraft.com/redinq/html/inde x.rmsuk.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. preview pages for all question types.com The Evaluator. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.horizonwimba.questionmark. Diploma. For details. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. and (4) computer marking. multilingual support. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.K.

See more at: http://www. http://www. http://www.” See their offerings at: http://www.org/ ETS. reporting. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). check out the Dialang web site. once only done by a human assessor. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 . an assessment management system with extensive authoring.dialang.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.fasfind.com/wwwtools/magazin es.operitel.epistema.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. and self-study. http://www. Try it at: http://www.ets. and adminis-tration features.uc. and services useful for outcomes assessment.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.pedagogue.respondus. learning tools. http://www. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.colorado. See: http://www.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. see: http://lsa.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.org/english/index.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.flaguide. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. For information on latent semantic analysis.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.vantagelearning. surveys. institutional evaluation.” organized by academic discipline.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. on its Web site. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.

uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. http://www.com/029.economicsnetwork.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. with over 1.ulster.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.unimelb.ac.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.nestafuturelab. http://www.uka. Obtain a copy at: http://www.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too. http://www. Explore the links at: http://www.” http://www.rmcdenver.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.ira.learnflex.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.ac.scit. Brandon Hall Research .uk/home.au/assessi nglearning/03/online. http://cba.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.discovery.edu.health.org/research/ reviews/10_01.tasainstitute.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.com/tools/rubric s.com/useguide/as sessme/online. with a list of 34 strategies. http://www.umuc.uiuc.com/schrockguid e/assess.oir.thinkinggear. http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.000 different tests from its database.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. Check them out at: http://school.cshe.heacademy. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.200 references.wlv.htm 48 © 2006. is available from: http://liinwww.ac.ac. http://www. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.

ict4lt.htm#2. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www. B. Freire. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (2005).org/en/en_mod41.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. D. Gregory (1973). McNamara.html Bibliography Alfonseca. http://www. R. 8 (3). Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. T. M. (2001).com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein..com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. Louis.ifets.. Ortigosa. J.com/career_asse ssment..1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. G. (2004). Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. New York: McKay. M. http://www. Missouri.unt. http://www. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. http://www..tcet. and Hirschman. S.info/learn ing/solo. S.pdf Biggs. E. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. K.amazon. (2001). Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.iltaonline. and O'Hagan. Educational Technology & Society. and Davies. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.amazon. J. http://www. (1982).iltaonline.. A. A.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. New York: Academic Press.. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.quintcareers.learningandteaching. L. Online paper.. http://www. Pérez. Online paper. and Collis.3 Bateson.info/journals/8_3/6. London: Paladin.pdf Atherton. (1956). Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.amazon. James (2005).pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . Iwashita. 53-65. T.htm Atkinson. N. St. P. & Rodríguez. http://www. http://www. Carro. http://www.

C.assess. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Chodorow.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Chodorow. Jill C. Marcu. Rethink testing for future success. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. In the R.assess. (2003). Robert (2005).eschoolnews. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.ets.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. and Marcu. Daniel. J. Shermis and J. June 22. IL: Skylight. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Langu-age Learning and Technology. V.msu.. and Knight. B. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Mexico.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Burstein (Eds. 2005. & Olsen.com/Books/b39739. Hillsdale. New York: Oxford. Kevin (2003). Hillsdale. http://www.pdf.).com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke.org/intelligent/archives. http://www. www. Shermis and J. Harabagiu and F. Daniel. In S.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Burstein. eSchool News.amazon. How to Assess Authentic Learning. & Leacock. Inouye.. Burstein. Ciravegna (Eds.Assessment Tools Brown J. http://www. http://www. Jill. (1997). L. http://llt. Jill.. Jill. C. In M. Educational Measurement.htm 50 © 2006..com/Books/b39739. Arlington Heights. 3rd Edition. NY: Macmillan. In R.htm Burstein. August 2003. http://www. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein.amazon.ht m. http://www. Kaplan (Ed.computer. IEEE Intelligent Systems.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. M. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. 1. K. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. (2003). (2002). http://www. In M. (1989).amazon. New York. Burstein (Eds. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". D.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Kay (1999).com/news/sho wStoryts.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. (2003). Acapulco. Brandon Hall Research . J. Linn (Ed. Martin.

nap. Louis.ecs.utas. P. 5. P.hlc.Proceedings from a Workshop.edu. Chalhoub-Deville. Howard. London: Falmer. & Landauer.. www.. May. (1999). (2004). Writing assessment: a position statement. University of Tasmania. http://wwwpsych.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA.amazon. S. M.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. W.nmsu.unimelb. D.ncte.iltaonline.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Loughborough. and Grellett. O’Reilly. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference.html Davies. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. (1998). Online newsletter.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).edu. Board on Testing and Assessment. B. 2: 77-93.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. (2001).doc.html Do Not Reproduce 51 . Morgan.html Chalhoub-Deville. Y. (Ed.msu. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. http://www. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. http://llt. v. http://www.. K.au/worldcall/str5. http://llt. Foltz.soton. http://eprints. and Sclater. http://www. (2001). T. Micheline. National Research Council.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. Davis. March 9. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency... The Student Assessment Handbook. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (1999). Language Learning and Technology. (2005). H. M. In Proceedings.ac. 2. D. EdMedia '99..) (1999). Online newsletter. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.htm Cebrian. Millard. College Composition and Communication Online. (2004). E. C.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. L. N. n. C. W. Language testing and technology: past and future. http://www. Language Learning & Technology 2. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.msu. http://www. and Parry. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Micheline. Nathan.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. St.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult.pdf Dunkel P. Laham.

4. http://www. Howard (1993).msu. R (2002).softwaresecure. 5(2). The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. M.. No. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.amazon.colorado. S. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. http://mason.amazon. http://www.htm. (Eds. (1999).edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. Foltz.html. W. Discourse Processes. and Malabonga. Robert. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Fremer.LSAi ntro. Seven technologies for assessment. T.. May. and Howell.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. and Ward. Language Learning and Technology. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. N.pdf Hricko.edu/papers/dp1.gmu. J. W. 5. Potenza.html Khan. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. http://www. and Watt. v. Howell. (1998).medianet. (2002). Hillsdale. Y. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Patrick (2000).com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.pd f Kenyon. http://www. Hardas. http://llt.msu. 2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. Language Learning and Technology..com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones. Online paper. and Ma. J.. (2005).) (2002). Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.com/pdf/Pap erTests.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones. 25. http://www. H.. P. Lawrence. M. France. D. V. http://www. M.amazon.) (2005).pdf Landauer. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. & Laham. Gardner.. http://llt.amazon. New York: Basic Books. PA: Information Science. Weller. (2001). International Journal on E-Learning. May. http://www. (2001).edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. n.Hershey. Compiegne. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. D. 259284. & Mason. (Eds. http://lsa..pdf MacDonlad. C. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. M.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. J.kent.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. K.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.proexam.

Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. Problem Solving.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts.ed. NY: Guilford Press.amazon. McArthur. Operitel white paper. S. Burstein. http://eric.S. http://www. (2000). The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.edu/cgi/viewconten t. (2006). R. G. Handbook of writing research. National Center for Education Statistics.. http://www. M.amazon.) (2000). http://www.ed. DC: U. and Skinner.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. (2006). Howell. http://www.amazon. Washington. K. J. A.com Do Not Reproduce 53 .. In C.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. and Assessment. pp. pdf Weiner.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. D.. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. and Gifford. Self.bc.) (2005). (Ed. Reports from the Institute of Education. Mahwah. S. C.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. http://nces. & J. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Journal of Technol. (2005). Measurement and Evaluations. PA: Information Science.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. M. 403-416. Graham.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Learning. M. http://escholarship.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. New York. (1979). Online Assessment. Howard. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Information Science Publishing. University of Gothenburg.amazon. Fitzgerald. & Leacock. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.operitel. Government. Hershey. http://www. and Hricko. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. 4(6). D. (Eds. and Writing.. Tim (2006). B.

Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. (2005). Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). One audio application of interest to educators. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. or by “streaming. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. According to Crofts et al.e. the rest of the file has time to arrive. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. Brandon Hall Research . which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. while it is playing. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. compared with even a few years ago. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. (i.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. is podcasting.5 megabytes. podcasting. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences.. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. depending on the file size). For example. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. which is gaining in popularity.

http://www. You can’t add your own notes.rds. http://sourceforge.e. in part.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. Microsoft Windows.scientificcomputing. GNU/Linux.envision. Do Not Reproduce 55 . http://www. (i. It is available to download for Mac OS X.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. http://www.. Assists non-native speakers. open source software for recording and editing sounds.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.com/blogs/doug/index.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Provides feedback to learners. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files.apple. such as those for iPods. http://www.purdue. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. http://www. and other operating systems. Provides another channel for material review. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.thepodcastnetwork. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. to personalized media).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs.

71.audiotoolsdirect. is podcasting.masternewmedia. http://www. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://www. Audio and video software. freeware. 56 © 2006.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web. http://www.com/lipsync/in dex.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. DJ mixing. http://www. recording.ibritt.automaticsync.edupodder. go to: http://www.com/resources/dc_medi a. which is gaining in popularity.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.uk/podcasting/index. shareware.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. enhancing.htm RECAP Ltd.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. http://64.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. http://epnweb. playback.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. including podcasting.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. tools.avsmedia. Brandon Hall Research .php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.htm For a list of podcasting tools.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound. and utilities for conversion.co. including software to record and play podcasts.ltd. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. http://recap. sound editing.podcasting-tools. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. CD audio extraction.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. http://www. phrases.elearningcentre. or sentences from audio Web sites. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. http://www.com/AudioTools/in dex.48.com. http://www. and broadcasting are all found on this site.

J. Fox. (2003).aace. September. http://www. 10(9). Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Dave (2005).html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. Scientific Computing World.masternewmedia.org/3455 Girvan.html Canali De Rossi.scientificcomputing. L.adobe. Chesapeake.org/index.html Curtis. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). P. M. Ray (2005). Retsema.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.cakewalk.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index. Government.unl.. Sound Sense. Robin Good’s Blog. http://www. S. http://www.multitrackstudio. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. (2005). Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.. In G.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://dl. 45-50.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.ltd.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. Richards (Ed. http://digitalcommons. 2005. and Swenson.com/home. April 2005.. http://recap. 417-419). http://firstmonday. University of Nebraska.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth. http://www. July 2005.com/products/audition/ main. Healthcare.htm Jobbings. Dilley.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. First Monday.audiolink.sonicfoundry.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 . RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). B. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.uk/articles/podguide.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. May 20.bias-inc. Luigi (2005). and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Dion Cory (1999). Doctoral Dissertation. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. VA: AACE.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. A. Brenda (2001). and Williams.html Bibliography Buhman.

org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. Podcasts. http://www. Podcasting and Vodcasting. N. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Brandon Hall Research . White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.educause. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits.pdf Noakes. Eva (2005). Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). and Videoblogs in Higher Education. June 2005. Peter (2005). and Lomas.apple. http://www.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. C. http://edmarketing. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.

There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. and. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. Do Not Reproduce 59 . many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. As well. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. In this vein. either directly or with third party tools. shtml). and Evaluation) processes. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman.microsoft. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.brandonhall. rapid e-learning.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Development. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. either directly or with third party tools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Further. Further. 2005). Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. No authoring tool does everything. simulations. content development. please see http://www. see: http://www. (For details. in the end. Implementation.com/publications/emerging/emerging. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Design.

www.Capture Station 2. http://www. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 60 .com/products/ Articulate . visualization.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com Anark .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. http://www. and marketing applications.com Agile .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia.com/presenter. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .activeslide.Thinkcap Studio .Media – Import 3-D Models. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.allencomm. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. and images and turn them into 3-D training.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. http://www.accordent. music.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.htm ActiveSlide.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.articulateglobal.Designer’s Edge. http://www.adobe.acroservices.info/ Allen Communications . go to: http://www. XML.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain. video. video.thinkingcap.com/ Acroservices .com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. http://www.anark.

de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop .ilessons.Composica Enterprise . Flash.dynamicpowertrainer.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. video.exe files.com/ Counterpoint .Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.com/in dex_eng.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.copycatsoftware. Builds quizzes. Integrates various media.com/eng/index.brainshark.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.com/product s/Pro.Content Point .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. such as the following: Web.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. or Macromedia Flash media presentations. video. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.elearningpowertools. http://www. http://www.co. stand alone . and PowerPoint slides.bridge-pt. DVD-video.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming.php e2train .lersus.digitalworkshop.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. http://www.htm Composica . http://www.co.e2train. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.shtml Dynamic Media . http://presentation. hotspots. pointers.com/power point-presentations-index. buttons. http://www. audio. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 61 . CD Rom.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www.htm Bernard D&G . and animation.turbodemo. http://www.uk/contentpoint. .com/ Business Performance Technology .ht m Brainshark Inc. http://www. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. pop-up messages.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .com/inde x.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.composica.atlanticlink. rich text.

com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.elementk. html E-Learning Consulting . and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www.hunterstone.epistema.horizonwimba. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.com Imaira Digital Media .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. http://www.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .e-learningconsulting.com/products/forceten. http://www. http://www.com/ka. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. http://www. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.eedo.sculptoris. graphics. and installation files.com No authoring tool does everything.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. Import rich media and customize graphics.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. http://www.com/index. Brandon Hall Research .asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema . in the end.gen21.com/ Hunter Stone .Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. http://www. without programming knowledge.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.elicitus.eclipsys. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. http://www.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation . HTML courses.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/Solutions/Elear ning. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. Post the characters on any Web site.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . and.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. http://www. 62 © 2006.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.com Element K .experiencebuilders. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG . create courses specifically on how to use computer software.impatica.com/ Information Transfer . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. and animations with tests and interactivity.WTDS-Web Training Development System . from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.com/flashh ome.uk/ INTEC .EasyProf . centralized knowledge base.com/ KnowledgeXtensions . Has its own built-in learning management system.asp Knowledge Quest .easyprof. combining multimedia content like video.co.knowledgepresenter.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media.knowledgeplanet. http://www.lecturnity. http://www.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. Do Not Reproduce 63 . http://www.seminar.com/pro dserv. http://www.knowledgextensions.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.Used to create presentations without programming skills.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.elearninginabox. Built-in testing engine.pdf Intuition .js p Knowledge Planet .com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. http://www. shtml Itaca .knowledgequest.com/home/home.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. http://www.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.intuition. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems . audio.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.ie/software/publisher.intecllc.de/ Impatica . with no programming and no plugins.ipsinc. Word.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.

PowerPoint slides.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.uk/ MindIQ . http://www. course publisher. http://www. 64 © 2006.com/index.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. Works with SAP Learning Solution.maxit.learnerland.htm MediaMaker . http://www.ph p MindOnSite .customcourse.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. and other online presentations for play back to students. http://www.com . with a built-in learning management system.ch/eLearning/EN /index.com/ NetPlay Software .html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.com/ OPTX International .learn.mckinnonmulherin.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.percepsys. .DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.maxit. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www.com/ Percepsys .Authoring Tools Learn.mindiq.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. graphics.screenwatch.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. http://www.LEARNERLand – Text. http://www. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.mindonsite.com/coursegen.com/learncenter. http://www.instant-demo. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. and course player all in one software package.mohive.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www.co.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www. Ready-made button and navigation aids.

JPEGs. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 65 .reusableobjects. and assessments.com/common/a ffiliateRefer. popups. When content is developed.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.E-Learning Objects .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. image labeling. Audio. http://www.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.com/sensasol ution.net/ PointeCast . http://www.com Respondus . http://www.scribestudio.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.com/ Qarbon . http://www.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.or SCORMcompliant.cfm Serco (technical) .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.shtml Reusable Objects . GIFs.readygo.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.Nuvvo .CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. http://www. http://www.net ReadyGo . Microsoft PowerPoint. matching games.podiaOnDemand .com/ Scribe Studio .teknical. customizable flashcards. http://www. http://www. http://www.pointecast.com/products/stud ymate.com/Products/elear ning_objects. a customizable. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.sensalearning. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. http://nuvvo.qarbon.respondus.suddenlysmart. Courses can be posted.In minutes. http://www.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. crosswords. http://www.rapidintake. image hotspot activities. and Flash. interactive Flash presentations and online training. without knowing code.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems.podia.Publisher Professional .softchalk.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.com Rapid Intake .htm Suddenly Smart .com/ Savvica . either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.

htm time4you GmbH .Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. templates.com/services/webpresentation-svc.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.com/Technology. and highly interactive e-learning content. CD.php?from=menu SyberWorks .dol.asp TrainVision .Presentation Studio .AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. http://www. and wizards.Authoring Tools SumTotal . and text. French. http://www. or Spanish.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.com/camtasia. http://www. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.trainvision.com/products/lc.com/product_sa.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.lectora.webex.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.time4you.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.gov/ Webex .IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. audio.westcliffdata.com/learn_assistant .php?from=menu SumTotal .teds. http://www. 66 © 2006.syberworks. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ US Government .com/learn_assistant .php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. http://www.funeducation. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author . htm Techsmith .techsmith. and rapid simulation. http://www.uk/index.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. content conversion.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. or Network. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. images.toolbook.toolbook.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start. video. http://www. http://www. http://www.asp TEDS . http://workforceconnections.co. kiosks.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.2conformant objects and assessments.

http://www. Berlin: Springer. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA). (2003). M. Melia. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. AACE.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. and host online discussions. BC. Evanston.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. D. C. and Riesbeck.. and Pahl. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. www. C. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia..oswego. Canada.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.xstreamsoftware..oswego. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. interactive and intelligent educational software. June 2005. L.org/index. right in their browser with no additional software required. P.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana . http://www.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull.amazon.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. www. Northwestern University. publish blogs. E. P. Healthcare..com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. Blessing. Illinois. http://www.com/products/products _xwb. and Brusilovsky.brandonhall. http://www. McMullen. Vancouver. Montreal.htm Zapatec .php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. Doctoral Dissertation.com/downloa d_rb40eval.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. Lin (2005).cs.pdf Ramp. http://www. S. S.win. Government. See: http://www. Do Not Reproduce 67 . and Ainsworth. E. T.tue. De Bra. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. 2005. (2005). October 24-28.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. (2005). A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. http://www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.cs.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.bloki.pdf Murray. (2005).xplana.

A. http://www2.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Another new paradigm for instructional design.sis.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Technical Univ. http://www.htm Tozman. Reuben (2005). (2005).edu/~paws/publicatio ns. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. shtml 68 © 2006. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Reuben (2004). Eindhoven. The myth about tools. NL. Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits. June 2005.Authoring Tools Ramp. http://www.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.. 2004. Nov.brandonhall.htm Tozman.learningcircuits. E. Masters Thesis.pitt. Gary (2005).learningcircuits. Sunnyvale. Brandon Hall Research . W. http://www.htm Woodill.

” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. games. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.” Maldonado et al. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. In some situations. in the broadest sense. Do Not Reproduce 69 . the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. for example.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. especially in gamebased learning activities. and generally simulates human activity. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. Similarly. the avatar may represent an actual human being. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. In the context of elearning. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. but in e-learning.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. In the area of psychotherapy.

In the toolkit.knowledgeenvironments. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. modular application. http://www. See: http://www. http://www.telsim. Brandon Hall Research . users are represent-ed as avatars. http://www.typepad. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.oddcast. offering a large number of supportive functions.tmmy.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.codebaby.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. http://blogoehlert. http://www. Try them at: http://www.” which are avatars that teach.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.redwoodelearning.vcom3d.sculptoris.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www.co.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. in cooperation with a number of groups.exodus. See them in action at: http://www. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. http://www.co. 70 © 2006.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. Inc. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.daden.html Online Resources In Europe.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.

S. Nexus Media.pdf Seth..stanford. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Koschmann. Iwamura. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . 25. Raj (2003).. Lee.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 .naccq.. eLearning Developers’ Journal. and T. Chan (Eds. K. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Nakajima. R. (2004). and Weber. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. www. and Morishima. D. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.. www.pdf Jung. Y.Training Education & Education International Conference.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI. B.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. and Nodder. In T. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. C. H.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. C.. New Zealand. (2005). 2003. http://www. http://isnm. A. H. Yamada. M..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar.W.ac. S. Aug. 2005. Suthers. Ahad.pdf Maldonado. Brave.. Nass.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado. J...elearningguild. (2005).

blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. or they can be open to the general public. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Brandon Hall Research . thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are used for marketing. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. Nevertheless. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. video blogging. Similarly. A form of online publishing. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. screencasting. the use of blogs in education is here to stay.” As well. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. if any. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool.” The Catalyst Group. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. as the following examples show. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. Clyde adds. who wrote. For teachers. 72 © 2006. However. education. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. Few. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. Blogs are used for communication. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. in a note of caution. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored.

with a wide range of writing styles. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.cramersweeney. is a great resource. elearnspace. Canada. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g. an applications company.internettime. When someone the user knows arrives. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging.com/spg. Find it at: http://www. For more information.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.blogburst.weblogs.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network.weblogs. http://www. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. http://www. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. http://www. President of an instructional design firm.com/ Jenna Sweeny.edtechpost. if they have subscribed to the blog.sonyericsson. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). In this approach. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg. It’s found at: http://www. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.g.ca/gems/matrix2 .2megapixel blogging phone.org/ http://carapace.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals.wavemarket. http://www. see: http://structuredblogging. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.html http://radio. Do Not Reproduce 73 .us/archives/026 753. other than simple word searching.com/wordpress/ http://informl. Most blog writing is unstructured. His blog.elearnspace. http://www. movie reviews look different than recipes.

71.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.org/socialstudies/ blogs.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.com/index. Get the guide at: http://www.48.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. http://www.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent. including educational blogging. a librarian. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.elearningcentre.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.metaxucafe. View them at: http://video. check out this site: http://www3.mkbergman.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies. http://blogpulse.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.blogcatalog.anecdote. In March 2006.essdack.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.google. Teresa A.pewinternet. there were 891 educational blogs listed.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.pdf 74 © 2006.com.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. http://www. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse.co. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot. “blogs are cool. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog.postgenomic. Find her work at: http://64. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.

39(5). Oct. eSchool News Online.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.masternewmedia.com/article2/0.pdf Pierce. September 2005. March 24. www.teachesme. Master’s Thesis. July 19.htm Catalyst Group (2005). http://anne2. Michael (2005). http://www.htm#feature Coursey.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.com/wwwtools/m/10171. July 14. http://www.educause.htm Canali De Rossi. A.com/work/theses8.waypath. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.com/news/sho wStoryts.asp Davis. FreePint Newsletter.12.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. Enterprise blogging. Sept.fasfind.pewinternet. Laurel (2005).asp Lenhart.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms. Syracuse University.174. Dennis (2006).1895. 5. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.mkbergman. January 13. 29. http://www.pdf Canali De Rossi.downes.everyhuman. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging.com. Panelists: blogs are changing education. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. Blogs: a global conversation. July 11.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. Syracuse. (2006). http://www. 2005. Pew Internet and American Life Project.pdf Clyde.lo w. S. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. http://www. EduBlog Insights. or they can be open to the general public. http://www. http://www.pdf A form of online publishing. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio.eschoolnews. Luigi (2005). go to: http://m. Do Not Reproduce 75 . AI3 White Paper. Anne (2004).com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes. 1837604. Educational Blogging. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.00. New York. No. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. 14-26. Robin Good Blog.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006. Stephen (2004). http://www. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. Robin Good Blog. eWeek. Ways to use Weblogs in education. May 16. EDUCAUSE Review.com Bibliography Bergman.catalystgroupdesign. David (2005). 2006.com/issues/130105 . September/October. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes.freepint.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.ca/cgibin/page. James (2005).eweek. http://www. and Fox. Luigi (2004). 2006.

For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. bookmarking.com/firefox/).org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. or at least their influence is decreasing. the defeat of the Netscape browser.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. Webtops Description For many. and “themes. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools.mozilla. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. Flock was launched in October 2005. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. Brandon Hall Research . This is especially true for business-to-business commerce. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. and photo sharing. while Opera. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. http://www. thin clients. Like all technology innovation curves. http://www. Netscape.mozilla.mozilla.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox).com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. (http://www.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. which owned the rights to Netscape. blogs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. America Online.opera. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. has a small following. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. search engines. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. a browser that has been around for a long time.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. Internet Explorer. http://www. 2001).flock.activeworlds. (http://www. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. http://www. 76 © 2006.omnigroup. For example. where many applications interact with each other automatically. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser.

com/news/2001 /0129browserless. 2001.evolt.zdnet. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. http://money. Adam (2004).org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. O. CO. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers. E.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. OmniWeb 5.webdevelopersnotes.39218173. 2006. across several articles. called “Webtops. 742.typepad. Malik. Jan.networkworld. or at least their influence is Schonfeld.com. and Horton.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en. Opera Browser. Still Perfecting its Pitch. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2. http://www.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0.typepad. 2002.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. Aug. Brandon Hall Research . TidBits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers. William Horton Consulting. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en. Network World.com/desi gn/browsers_list. Renai (2005). Michael (2006).com.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers.com.00.tidbits. M.2000061733. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop. July 30. http://www.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006. and Copeland.0: The Powerful Web Browser. http://www.html http://blogoehlert.wikipedia.cnn. May 16. 21. Boulder.0.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert. WashingtonPost..html Engst. ZDNet Australia. 16. 2004.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. 2005.com/getbits. http://www. K. W.wikipedia.php3 Bibliography Cox. CNN Money. John (2001).com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038. http://db. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. (2002).wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.washingtonpost.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.bestdegree.pdf LeMay. 29. Oct. http://www.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser. No.

as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. classroom communication systems. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. increasing their motivation to learn.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. However. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. integrated with other types of learning technologies. 78 © 2006. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. The use of clickers has several advantages. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. Brandon Hall Research . This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. 2006. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. clickers. costs can be an issue. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. management. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. giving almost instant feedback. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. The devices keep students alert and involved. display. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. or clickers. Beatty. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems.

htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.com/Default.h-itt. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. http://www. and military settings.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. the costs and headaches multiply. corporate.gtcocalcomp. http://www. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.pearsoned.” http://www.com/products_int erwrite. training the faculty member to use the software. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.umass. http://www.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.physics. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home.com.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.pearsonncs. Do Not Reproduce 79 . suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.smartroom. http://www.optiontechnologies.qwizdom.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus.com/index.com/cps/index. http://www.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. higher education. http://www.com/index. http://www. http://umperg.einstruction.” In spite of the costs.learnstar.

http://www. http://www.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.pdf Burnstein. Inside CUA. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. 80 © 2006. Australia. Brandon Hall Research . Q.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. http://inside.utexas.pdf Cassidy.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty.itee. http://www. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. No.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. Tom (2004). This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Upper Saddle River. July 7. including material on the use of classroom response systems.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.pdf Mazur.edu/articleprinter1.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. Volume 2004. Anne (2006).edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. Eric (1997). Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. http://www. 272-275.campustechnology. https://sharepoint. R. The Physics Teacher. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. ELearning Dialogue.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.cisat.active-learning-site.net/display. Feb.aclearn. integrated with other types of learning technologies.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. 41(5). Research Bulletin. 2004.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.amazon. NJ: Prentice Hall. March 3.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Melbourne. http://www. 2006.ubc.edu. http://www.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. http://www. Educause Learning Initiative.utexas. and Lederman.educause.cua. Ian (2004). 3. 3. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.jmu. http://www. (2003).com/news_issue.elearning.uq.

it requires skill and experience. evaluation. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. social bookmarking. through brainstorming). many respond. reduction. and consensus building. The Institute for the Future.. doing.. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.g. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. e. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. and collaborating. Do Not Reproduce 81 . organization. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate.g. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. clarification.g. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.

Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). http://www. http://www.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.bluetie.com/virtualoffice/index.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .advancedreality.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. intellectual property management. and information technology adoption.bantu. voice and data collaboration.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. Presence (see who’s online). Brandon Hall Research . collaborative file management.com/services/faq_basi cs. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.com There are many different ways to collaborate.teamspace.html?ad-main Annotea . and communication.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.inteam. share files. http://www.w3. jot down notes. and upload photos.zoho. with templates and workflows for product development. http://www.brightidea.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. collaborate. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.com/ Blenks – In-team . http://www. http://www.backpackit. 82 © 2006.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. and bookmarks.com/product s/index.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. http://www. expert location. contacts.avecomm.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . http://www. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . organize. calendar. and instant messaging. http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Collaboration Tools

Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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Collaboration Tools

JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Collaboration Tools

Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. or use it to build a Web application. and share documents. http://www. http://www. project.writely. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www. and e-mails. expertise. calendars.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. Works with Microsoft Project.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.Instant setup. assign tasks. online management for projects of any size and scope. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. and more. Use it out of the box. http://www.25. set user permissions. interact.opmcreator. stimulates idea generation.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. http://www. scaleable.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.brevient.webcrossing.04.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 . chat server. and share. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.projectdox.com/project. http://www.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .Intuitive project management software for work teams. Share multiple projects with multiple users. feedback.webasyst. http://www.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . and other business communications.onproject.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . XML-RPC server.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. http://www.axista. http://www.nexprise. http://groups. simple. and business relationships.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . discussions. http://www.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.Processes email. newsgroup server. FTP server. e-mail server. and data into a single storage area. connects peers.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. documents.yahoo.tomoye. files.tacit.com/company/news/pres s/2005. affordable.com/ onProject – myonProject .

content. project tracking. http://www. http://www. form to submit questions. scheduling solutions.saba.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK .com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and collaboration to timesheet management. data. http://www. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. shared whiteboard and presentation. and text chat.HP Virtual Classroom . invoicing.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. visual.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting .aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .project-open. video. and Web pages. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. print icon. http://education. and save to disk icon. attendee list. and human performance management applications. whiteboard pages. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.peoplecube.nagarro.com Nagarro . and asynchronous group meetings http://care. and communicate with their project teams.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.Features include Hands up.com/index.caucus.Web event calendaring. integrated content management system. identify and resolve potential problems.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products. applaud and meter. http://www.hp. review button.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. URL sharing. navigation. Brandon Hall Research . breakout rooms.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. private/group chat. Access to the tool is also given to clients. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.elluminate. project planning.teamdynamix." virtual collaboration. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. exit and help. http://www.com/ HP . content button.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. and payments.0 . private whiteboards for each participant. annotation tools.photoninfotech. custom stamps.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. http://www. shared desktop.Projistics .com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.

synchronous online lectures. and meetings.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 . guest lectures. Web. and collaboration features.com/ Intralinks . http://www.glance. and more.genesys.convenos. http://www.batipi. online classes.net/site/getglance/ex amples. learning. http://www. Webcasts.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. Features include shared documents. http://www. video.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. how often. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. Allows holding live. and phone use.horizonwimba. http://www. video.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. http://www.com /internet_conferencing.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . virtual office hours.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.interwise. Record classes or Webcasts. application sharing. and collaborative content-building sessions. office hours.Synchronous Webconferencing software.communiqueconferencing. http://www. For example.adobe.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces .com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. sales presentations. http://www.Delivers unlimited voice. instant messaging. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. and by whom. http://www.A secure.0 . http://www.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio.intralinks. e-mail invites. http://www. and Web conferencing with WebEx. and videoconferencing. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. and content display.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. and Webconferencing specialists. session reports. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.mixmeeting. meeting management.elluminate.

and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. instant messaging. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . audio. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.netspoke.com/bridgepoint. pre-recorded broadcasts.asp Meeting One – Click&Share.To support large deployments.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.radvision. polling and quizzes. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. keyboard and voice chat.com/website2/even ts_imc. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. the Internet.liveoffice. and into the enterprise.Collaboration Tools iVocalize .Combining audio and Web conferencing components. any application. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. desktop sharing.LiveOffice provides Web-based.com/rndc/services /services. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. transparency tools. http://www.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .linktivity. and a change presenter ability. Brandon Hall Research . attendee lists. http://www. or an entire desktop.telnetz. live demos.meetingone. http://www. including Web conferencing. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/ Linktivity Division. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.ivocalize. broadcasts files.com/action. and desktop videoconferencing services.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .asp 92 © 2006. remote control. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. hand raising. e-learning classrooms.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . toll-free conference calling.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . Multilingual.Web and audio conferencing services.raindance. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. teleconferencing. http://www. online seminars. record and playback. http://www. annotations. http://www. notes.

share other applications. http://www.com/home/s_vmps.ctcevents. send text messages.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. and moderation of Webcasts. publishing.collabtech. or meeting. http://carbon.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. show rich multimedia content and documents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.webtrain. discussion forums. Web conferencing. course.wave3software. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. text messaging. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. and system management. The suite manages the creation.edufolio. http://www. tour Web sites.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .vodium. e-learning. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). teleconferencing. Webinars. conference calling. http://www. http://www. editing. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. 2006. Japan on July 13-14. http://www.webex.voxwire.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. http://www. remote support.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding.cudenver. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. Solutions include Web meetings. Requires only a browser and a phone. set up labs and conduct quizzes. and instant messaging capabilities. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. http://www. and document collaboration. http://www. present PowerPoint slideshows. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.Powers online meetings.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room .com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . surveys.

41(2).athabascau. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. http://collaboration.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. Brandon Hall Research .com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. http://www. Web 2. also has a great list of collaboration tools.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.com/View. Sign up for free at: http://www.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://www. also known as “groupware.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.writely.thinkofit.htm Mitre Corporation.” http://www.1:100250.educause.globalschoolnet.com/webconf/works paces.mitre.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. scientific.usabilityfirst.springerlink.1 Bibliography Alexander. Bryan (2006). communities.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006. http://www. http://cde.com/groupware/ index.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. http://www.org/collab/in dex.collaborationloop.criticalmethods.kolabora.org/tools.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. http://www. March/April 2006. http://www.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.org/index.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).

J..com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03.com/Feature/109 Elliot. Creating an eCommunity. Luigi (2004b).org/index... Robin Good Blog. S.soton. K.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. Dalton. Chief Learning Officer. Komzak. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.N. Sept. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. De Roure. D. Curtis (2002). June 30. J. (2004). Robin Good Blog.clomedia. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Proceedings. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Bill (2004). http://www.. Then Knowledge Management.ac. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. (2003).htm# Clapp. Brazil.. Luigi (2003b). (2004). Matthew (2004).org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration. Luigi (2004a). June 5. http://www..org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. June 22.htm Canali De Rossi.collaborate. Live ELearning. Shadbolt.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). Michaelides.com/writings. Luigi (2005)..masternewmedia.editlib. September. and Forster.cmswatch.masternewmedia. http://www. 2565-2569. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. 2004.masternewmedia. Collaborative Strategies. January 21. R. J.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. Robin Good Blog. and Tate.cfm/files/pa per_12386. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. 2003. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.diglib. Page. 3. ChenBurger.pdf Bonk.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. 2002. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Robin Good Blog. http://www. 2003.bruck. D.masternewmedia. May 2.htm Canali De Rossi. S. Buckingham Shum. http://www. A. http://www. Potter..htm Canali De Rossi. Maceió.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.masternewmedia.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . Eisenstadt. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.htm Butler. A. M. Fitzgerald. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. 4.. N. Luigi (2003a).org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.ecs.uk/12081/ Beshears. http://www. Nov. D..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. Robin Good Blog. Findlay. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. http://www. http://www. http://eprints.. Collaboration First.html Canali De Rossi. Q2Learning White Paper. T. http://www. Nov. Fred (2002).. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. M. CMS Watch. and Coleman. J. A. Models of collaboration. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. 2002.

html Kreijns. CA. McFerrin.zcu. Callan. 24. (2005). 827-829). The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.. Educational Technology & Society. J. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. A. and Thomas. Soren (2002). Technologies of Cooperation..amazon. August 2002. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. D.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.cqu. In Crawford..) (2003). J.pdf Strijbos. R. Price. A. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. 1(2). Institute for the Future White Paper. and Jochems. http://www. 5(1).Collaboration Tools Elliott. Aavani. University of Athabasca. http://wscg. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.org/index. http://www. Palo Alto. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Nov. D. & Purnell. Bjorn (Ed. 5(1). Innovation and Development. http://cde. (Eds.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. J. Educational Technology & Society. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. January 2005.ieee. J. London: Springer-Verlag. Gibson.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. I. http://www. and Miller. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. R. Carlsen. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Brandon Hall Research . Learning Circuits. (2002).. Kirschner.ca/online_book/c h8. P. Studies in Learning. (2004).) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. D. R. J.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation. K. and Sharifi. (Eds. G. http://www. http://sleid.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. Kirschner. Evaluation. C. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. http://ifets.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan..edu. (2002).pdf Kaplan. http://www. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.learningcircuits. W. M.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.. e-Book...editlib. http://ifets. K...html Institute for the Future (2005).amazon. J.au/include/getdoc. P. and Martens.athabascau.html Hurst..) (2004).). (2002).ieee. Chesapeake.html Munkvold. Willis. & Weber. VA: AACE.. Norwell.rheingold.. K.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. (2004).com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.

ac.janison.jisc.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. UK. a process referred to as “text mentoring. VoIP.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.com. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.” http://goldenswamp. discussion forums. discussion groups. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. Hegarty et al. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. and yet tailored and flexible. telephony. messaging. re-usable. html The Learning Place in Queensland. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. For example. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. For Laurillard.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. Do Not Reproduce 97 . blogs. http://www.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. whiteboards. telepresence. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. labs. chat. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve.au/eq/default. It is being developed into a transportable. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. instant messaging. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.uk/deletacademictalk.

71.elearningcentre.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.pdf Eleuterio.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. M. Brandon Hall Research . 13-20. including communications tools.conversate.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.editlib. M.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.ngfl. University of Warwick.com/wwwtools/m/2645. JulySept.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. and Bortolozzi. (2005). F. http://www.gov.48. CAP e-Guide. Find her work at: http://64.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m. Computer Mediated Communication.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.ac. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. chat.co. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www.fasfind.htm 98 © 2006. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. http://www. Mark (2004).org/index. http://www. and Cerri.org/ Online Resources Teresa A. http://safety. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.co.. Komzak.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.thinkofit. and telephony tools.uk/schools/docum ent.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. http://ewic. 2004. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.htm http://www.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.elearningcentre. http://m.com/webconf/hostsi tes. developed in Brazil.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at.elearningcentre. J. (2004). S. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.co.bcs.editlib.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. http://www2. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone.google.org/index.warwick. http://www.

Hegarty.” Do Not Reproduce 99 . VoIP.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool. 31. and Elliott.athabascau.html Laurillard. 2002. and Wales. distance-learning course at Keele University. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. and Briggs.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.html Morgan.hbs. Working Knowledge Newsletter.edu/item. University of Birmingham.com Library. (2004). An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.king. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. CharityVillage. UK. (2002). 19. http://cde. Francis. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. 31 (3). (2002). chat. James (2005). Pattie (2005). J.. London: Routledge.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. June. Aug. 2002. E-Learning 1. 20-21. J. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. I. 20-21.com/cv/research /rmed35.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. http://hbswk.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. whiteboards.learningcircuits. University of Athabasca. D. http://www.jisc. e-Book. R. Nick (2002). (2000). The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. and Collins.ac. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. S.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. A. http://www. September 23. Bostock. British Journal of Educational Technology.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.html Laurik. http://dircweb.formatex.. J.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 2002. 199-212.charityvillage. J. (Mlearn 2002). Technologies of Online Learning.pdf Kadirire. 2005 http://www. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.ca/online_book/c h5.uk/papers/Stone_ A.ac. Learning Circuits. Sven (2002).pdf LaCroix. http://www.org/micte2005/4.amazon. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. June. Jan. discussion forums. Diana (1993). M.

a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. W. entering defined competencies into a matrix. skills inventory.imsproject. 2000). who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries.” it started in 1950 with Dr. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). 2005). skills. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Brandon Hall Research . Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. David McClelland.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Edwards Deming. see below) and performance or talent management systems.org/competencies /index. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. 100 © 2006. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. competency-based training. skills verification. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. organizational and personal goals are tied together. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001).html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. In 1973. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. a Harvard psychologist. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. performance appraisal.

http://www. diagnose symptoms.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.edu/paprog/clin_events .itsc. and carry out proper procedures.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. See the list of competencies at: http://www.desire2learn.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. For a large list of competencies for physicians. Read their white paper at: http://www.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.ibm. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. objectives.learningcircuits.learnflex. and development interventions.. http://www.com/article16. activities.ncrel. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.org. For example.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.html The U.cpgvision. measurement.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Do Not Reproduce 101 . go to: www. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.htm Many companies have their own competency models.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. https://launchpad. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.wmich. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.S.

http://www. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. London: Wiley. http://www. April. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.co. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.cipd. http://www. Competency and competency frameworks. v. L. Josh (2006). has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. R. Rankin.clomedia. (2001). Miller. http://www. and Neathy. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.cipd. pp.syberworks.oracle. New York: David McKay. F.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. Ken (2000). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. http://www. Express Computer. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. regardless of industry or sector.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. N.amazon.hrsg. David.E. London: IDS. American Psychologist.com/ 20050425/technologylife01..com/applications/hum an_resources/learning. April 25. http://www.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. Brandon Hall Research . 1-14.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. Benjamin (1956).co.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. (1973).amazon. 102 © 2006.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Competency Frameworks. 2005. (1982). http://www. (2001).com/content/templ ates/clo_article.28.ca/index.ht m Online Resources HRSG. http://www. Sudipta (2005).com/skillsman.amazon.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. a Canadian company. Building a skills inventory.” http://www.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. New York: AMACOM.shtml Hogg. Clare (2005). Chief Learning Officer.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.amazon.expresscomputeronline. Study 706.

and Hollyforde. http://www.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. (Eds. R. http://www. Learning Circuits. Operitel Corporation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. http://www. Fall 2000. http://www.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. and Grigorenko. Gary (2004). S. April 30. March 2001. (2001). Godfrey (2005). UK: Cambridge University Press.amazon. http://www. University of Toronto. (2004). Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. P.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. G. and Cahorn. (2003). (2005).operitel.htm Whiddett. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. N.html Radsma. Sanders. Creating a Culture of Competence. E.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . http://parkinslot. New York: John Wiley. Cambridge. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.operitel. White paper from Operitel Corporation.html Sternberg. London: IRS. http://www. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. The Psychology of Abilities.com Woodill. N. http://www.1/features/e wette. Ethan (2001). White paper. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.amazon.blogspot. Competency based learning management. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. P.learningcircuits. http://www. and Epstein.p df Rankin. 2005.) (2003). S. Ellen (2000).com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm. (1999).amazon. Michael. (2000). Parkin’s Lot.collectionscanada. Master's thesis. Competencies. London: IRS.linezine. and Expertise. E-Learning Competencies. 2nd ed.com/2. Johanna. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. Rankin.

the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. the standardized railway system still works while private. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Repositories.” As well. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. in fact. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. such as registering users. I feel that closed. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. and reporting. 2006). This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). you could hire a company to build a private. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. First. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. Learning objects. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Today. and “topic maps. If you could afford it. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. With the advent of learning objects. LCMS. launching courses. displaying a course catalogue. manage. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Do Not Reproduce 104 . These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. manage.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.

San Jose.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.” http://drupal. http://www.com http://www. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. http://www. According to its official Web site.blogspot. Strategies for managing scalable content.” Web services and “topic maps.cmsmatrix.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. http://plone.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . rather than complementary. http://www. 18.html Cisco Corp. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks.pdf Cohen.topicmaps. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. March 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately. and publish to multiple outputs.author-it.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. Dec.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.atutor. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. (2005). functionality to an ECM. They have designed competitive. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.uk Bibliography Bonk. http://sakaiproject. http://www.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. Curtis (2005).org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Cisco Corporation White Paper.e-learningcentre.topicmap.co.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. http://www. Ed. 2005. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. to date. (2004). “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.clomedia. TravelinEdMan blog. http://www.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper.cisco. http://travelinedman. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. reuse in many places.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. http://www.

and Oliveira. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. June 9.htm Siemens.com/publications. Hershey. March 3. B. http://www. January 23. S. May/June.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. P. Retalis.) (2005). New Thinking Blog. G. EdTechPost blog.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie.operitel.. http://www. (Eds.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster. C.ca/mt/archive/00 0689. 40(3). 2003.softlab. Jafari. Mashups.edtechpost. (2003). (2006).” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.pdf Weigel. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.html McGee. S. 2003.ntua. Educause Review. http://www. and Brantner. McGovern. elearnspace blog. George (2003).asp Woodill. http://www. 2003. Learning Solutions. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.elearnspace. Gerry (2003). Why content management software hasn’t worked.gerrymcgovern. 2005. Scott (2005). and Carmean. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. A. 2005.educause. Van (2005).htm Simon. http://www..com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms. May 15. “Monoliths. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. http://www. Budapest.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . 2006.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. Content Management: our organized future. C. PA: Idea Group.

Luan and Willett. Do Not Reproduce 107 . 2000. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. delivery models and infrastructure investment.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. knowledge discovery. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. 2001). This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future.

allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. http://www.icosystem.soul. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. http://www.com/index. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.wfu. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://pami. http://imej.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.uwaterloo. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Do Not Reproduce 108 .org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.hkuspace. by applying fuzzy logic. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).reeltwo. http://www. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.

1316.unikiel. Porto. 1996. California. (1996). G. B. B.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux. Samuel (Ed. http://www. and R.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. M Fayyad. Feb.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages. (2000).is. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. Data Mining: What’s New. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. knowledge discovery.pdf Freitas. 2001) http://www. P. and Smyth. Grigoriev. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. http://www.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. B. G.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.. Thalheim. Austria.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. K. G. (2006).convera.usyd.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.pdf Jantke. Robert (2002).. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. Long Beach.pdf Loo. 238-241.. Piatetsky-Shapiro.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . and Web mining. Data Mining in e-Learning.kent. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. http://www.html Hammouda.pdf Fayyad. (cited in Luan and Willett.2004. 2006.amstatonline. M. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Learning by doing and learning when doing .ac. edited U. http://www. P. New York: Springer.cs. 1--34.actapress. and Kamel.edu. K.informatik. P.. What’s Not. K.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.kdnuggets. 68(8). pp. Innsbruck. In Pierre. School Business Affairs.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. and Tschiedel. text mining. 13-16 http://asbointl. Australia. Smyth. Piatetsky.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. http://www.cs. and Cheung.uwaterloo. Grieser.com/PaperInfo. http://pami..kdnuggets. Alex (2002). Lange. http://www. Both products are from Convera.. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Uthurusamy. Portugal.pdf Iskander. New York: Springer. U. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). R. (2004).uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc. In Proceedings. Feb. (2006).html Bibliography De Veaux. S.

Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A.cnrs. analyze for more adaptive teaching. Gord (2004).compmech. Oliveira. NYC.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. K. Billerica. A. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. and Yacef. C. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. A. Yacef (2004). Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. E. Yacef (2005). The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. May 17-22. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 3(1).org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.aace. Oct. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. http://www.wfu. J. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. 2004 (7). Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. Maomi (2004). Brandon Hall Research . Advances in Management Information.ags. and Minguillon. RP Conference Presentation. 3(4).asp Merceron. (2006).computer.Data Mining Luan.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. store.ejel.cabrillo. C.com/acatalog/18 45641523. MA: WIT Press. Japan. Scholl.. http://www. M. and K.pdf Merceron. International Journal on E-Learning.open. and Willett. 52-59.org/16915 Romero. http://www.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. and K. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).pdf Merceron.pdf Pahl. Vol 4. Claus (2004). 47-55. and Ventura. http://archiveedutice. Hiroshima. http://www. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).ac.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. http://www. S. J.org/index. 319-346.pdf McCalla. 15(4).pdf Mor.pdf 110 © 2006. http://www2004.unisb.html Ueno.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. David (2005). T. (2004). Train. 39-40. (2004). 41-54. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Data Mining in e-Learning. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). 7(1). and Ullrich.editlib.-Dec.pdf Monk.. http://dl. http://imej. http://wwwjime. http://csdl2.ccsd. A. (2001).. (2004). Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. C. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.

http://www. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.bnhexpertsoft. http://www.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex.tkk. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). http://www. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time.une.decisionarium. 5) carry out a survey. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. For example. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www. 4) develop an action plan.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. 3) vote/prioritize.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time.facilitate. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. and 6) document results. 2) categorize.com/ Facilitate. in their case study of medical education.edu. Do Not Reproduce 111 .html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support.

uottawa. http://www.” http://dmoz. see: http://www.sal. White paper from BNH Expert Software.pdf Frize.p df Chakrabarty. August. http://www.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.site. M.uniserve.com/index.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. Hamalainen.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.pdf Ehtamo. Brandon Hall Research . books.meetingworks.html Hamalainen. V. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. http://www. and Koskinen. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. H.whichbook.edu.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.bnhexpertsoft.hut.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Kankana (2005).sal.sal. http://www.. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.hut.net/index. Raimo (2003). http://science. (2000).ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. http://www. Jay (2004).htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. and Frasson. 112 © 2006. R.dssresources.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Online manuscript. 23(4).Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index. 101-110. (2004).jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. 12(2-3). For newsletters.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.hut. http://www.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. C.utoronto. and information on this area. http://www.

(2004). http://www.pdf Ounapuu. SIGGRAPH publication.uniserve. S.2004. http://dssresources. B.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.hawaii. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Oct.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.hicss. August 16-18. 2005. Vol. Grigoriev. Gerhard (2003). B..au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. 6-9. PA: Idea Publishing.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.unikiel. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. Theresa (1998). http://www. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. 2004. Learning by doing and learning when doing . 9. Kauai. Enn (2004). Germany. http://www. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Thalheim. Memmel. CAL-laborate. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Portugal. 317-328. http://damit.. Lange. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. K. Hawaii. and Tschiedel. M.. Aachen.html Scott. http://www.mc. Jim (2002). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum.. 238-241.actapress. http://www. de Carvaho. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. F.ideagroup.manchester.is.com/history/dsshist ory.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT.dfki.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. USA.html Shimizu.. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.html Rhyne. G. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. B.ac. M. 2002.pdf Power. Dan (2003). (2006).edu. Manchester. O. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Hershey. P. Jan. June 20-24.pdf Jantke. K. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. and Tschiedel. http://www.pdf Knolmayer.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . http://science.. T. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Rostanin.com/PaperInfo. Grieser. Porto. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).informatik.. and Laurindo. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems..com/books/details.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.siggraph. Hawaii.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. In Proceedings. B. Enn (2005). Thalheim.

lighting up theater size screens.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. projectors.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual.theregister. In regards to digital paper. big enough to be projected on large walls. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. digital paper. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. By stacking a second projector. For air displays. electronic paper. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. Finally. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. monitors.co.theregister. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. in cooperation with Sony. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. In the near future. Electronic paper could change that some day. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. This can be a holographic image. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly.” Selected Examples Samsung. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. http://www.co. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. Do Not Reproduce 114 . head mounted displays.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.

Do Not Reproduce 115 .provisionentertainment. still/video camera.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.ices.cmu. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. http://www. see: http://ad. see: http://www.technorati. http://thejournal. To access the articles. http://www. http://www.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons.informatik.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. http://killer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. In 2005.fogscreen. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. For a list of his publications.ntera.siliconlight.E. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.html Promera is a hand-held computer. intelligent interfaces.firstmonday.edu/design/Camera.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.unifreiburg. See a demo at: http://www. Inc.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.H.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. Projector. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.com/technology /overview NTERA.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.com/about.io2technology.

Oct.uk/index. (2005). M. (1996). Hamburg. 3. Richards (Ed. K.com/timwang/index. Dec. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. Vancouver.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. Germany. http://ad. and Ottmann. London: Springer. 2005. and Pizer. G.ac. Canada..cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. http://www. 2005.loaz. Brandon Hall Research . Livingston. E. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005).jisc. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. http://portal. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. State.. H.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Whitton.pdf Wang.. Hirota. Garrett..Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.. pages 3053-3068. In G. S.org/citation.). Tim (2005). M. A. Pisano.. Largest LCD and video projection. Healthcare. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.unifreiburg. W. Government. http://blog.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006.acm. T.informatik. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.

co.chalkandwire.com/products/e portfolio/default. maximum flexibility.angellearning.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. open source electronic portfolio. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://www.ac.iwebfolio. http://www.livetext.osportfolio.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios. Do Not Reproduce 117 . has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios. http://www. http://www.pupilpages. http://www. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.foliotek. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. http://www.co.uk/default.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. and simple usability.educause. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.htm Educause. My first report in this series. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. 2005). http://isle.elearningcentre. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.pebblelearning. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. evaluation.com/eportfolio/i ndex.paisley.com/college/portfoli os.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.

the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.campustechnology. http://www. and Hibbitts. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.amazon. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. Educause Quarterly.thejournal. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou.educause.org/collab/v.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. helping to transform education and training. http://www. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. has a section on eportfolios.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.htm IMS. March. Vol 27 No 4. http://www. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download. College of Education http://www. THE Journal Online.org.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. J.pdf Batson.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. (2002). http://www. B.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. Online Paper. http://www.becta. http://elgg. an online resource on collaboration.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.ac. http://connect. Dec.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.educause. (2004). E.doc Banks. Graham (2005). Frederick (2005). Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0. FD Learning White Paper.. Trent (2002). Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.elearnspace.ch/dyn/9. University of Iowa. Brandon Hall Research .asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. http://www2.com/article.com/magazine/va ult/A5260.asp?id=6984 Cohn.nottingham.criticalmethods. thus.org/Articles/epor tfolios. 2004 http://www. with many links.educa. http://www. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine.cfm 118 © 2006.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. Bob (2004).pdf Conway.imsglobal. http://ferl.

edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. 28–37.. Cook. (Focus on Teaching). 2005. e-portfolios.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. ePortfolios. K. D. D. html Young. Business Communication Quarterly. http://www. Educause Review.educause. Dec.. Educause Quarterly.. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. Trinity College.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001.cjlt..A.ac. P. & Figgins. An Overview of e-Portfolios.3/tosh.elearnspace. Reflective learning. and Wade..cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 . (2005).pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. and Haywood.pdf Lorenzo. B. Fall.. G. http://www. April 1. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Online. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. M. Dublin. J. J.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. and Werdmuller. (2005). G. 16. 37(2). J. Love.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Online paper. M. (2002). http://www..htm Tosh. elearnspace. http://www..educause. S. research. 39. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. 144-169.A. 31(3). http://www.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.. http://www.amazon. Bryde. Aalderink.educause.ca/content/vol31. 4. (2002). Fleming. vol. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.org/papers/Learning_l andscape.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. http://www. Light. J. (2003). George (2004). 2(2). Harvey. J. T. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. future thinking: digital repositories. D.. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Lee. V. Feijen. W. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. B. no. C... The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.org/Articles/epo rtfolios.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.citejournal. Gary (2004). and portfolios. G.alt.pdf Greenberg.. (2004). and Ittelson. July/ August 2004. http://www. http://www. and McKean.eradc.

cyworld.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.hive7.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. Dr. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.com/ http://www. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. play. Facebook.myspace. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. simulations.com http://us. For a brief review of these tools. games. see: http://news. Try them out at: http://www. identity work.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. 2003). The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). Examples include Hive7. 120 © 2006. and Second Life. Constance Steinkuehler. Cyworld. writing about “first person shooter games. serious games.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.com. from the University of Wisconsin.facebook. Brandon Hall Research .com/ http://www. http://www. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. Marc Prensky (2003). has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.secondlife.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage.com/ http://www. 2005). MySpace. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.” says that “in the mod world. as such.freescale. and learning (Amory. complex problem solving.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.com/ In 2005. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.clickteam. Canada.muzzylane.nasaga. See the selection of games at: http://www. This game allows users to play. Started in North America. http://www.microsoft. http://www. implementation.com/news/548 http://www. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. helping speed up the game creation process. Many of their learning games resources are free. http://www.com/solutions/gam es/default. Inc. You can read about them at Pluginz. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. edit.magnetargames. The toolset.pluginz.org/?14@33. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 121 .” http://www.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.mpjgaB KQdAe. http://www. create. has game development tools for the Xbox. dubbed XNA Studio. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.com/xna/ Softimage. For example. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver. allows members of a game development team to work together.siggraph. Review them at: http://esub. There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www.thinkingworlds.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.com/ Thiagi.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. along with their Web sites.ucalgary. produces educational games for training. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.softimage.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.

ac.” Read her research at: http://website.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.seriousgames.dk/people/sen/public.ukzn. June 25-28. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference.htm Dr.pdf 122 © 2006.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.education.uga.futureplay.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.coe.org/index2.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. Brandon Hall Research .htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. Hawaii. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. http://www.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. http://www.gdconf.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.htm Dr.programmersheaven. http://www.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.wisc. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.itc.com/zo ne8/index. http://www.seriousgamessummit.digiplay. researchers.org. Sign up at: http://www.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. http://it. 2003. Honolulu.uk/index2. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. Alan (2003).

“Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. see: http://www. 19.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. http://www. Bob (2005). Clifton Park.uwf. Rob (2006b). 2003. June.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Technology Trends for the Year.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. Simon (2005). http://llt. Chapter 33. IT-University Copenhagen. 549-567.pdf Guetl. S..xplanazine. 2005.iicm.cambridge.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. Lloyd (2005). March 10. SRI-BI. Oct. 2005. Gamasutra. and Chen.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol.pdf Reynolds. Williams.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. H.pd f Prensky. Games and Education = Oil and Water. S.itc. Jan.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 . Marc (2003). and Inform. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.amazon.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.pdf Michael.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. 2006. http://www. (2005). Xplanazine.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.amazon. http://www. Train. 9(1). Learning on Demand Bulletin. Serious Games: Games That Educate.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. Xplanazine. 2006. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. simulations and microworlds.uwf. D.marcprensky. R. 17-22. January 2. Fourth Quarter. C.xplanazine. Language Learning and Technology.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Dreher. http://www. http://www. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www. D. Gaming. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. and Michael. (2005). In Richard E. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Developing Serious Games. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Bryan (2006). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://www. Rob (2006a). http://www. Multimedia learning in games.pdf Godwin-Jones. H.msu.php Reynolds.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Montreal. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. (2005). http://www. Mayer (Ed.. and Maurer.php Rieber.

N. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://woz. 2005. 2004.pdf Swamy. Brandon Hall Research . G. R. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. University of Wisconsin .msu.p df Tye. Doctoral dissertation. Masters Thesis. J.. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. http://www. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.. C. and Swamy.education.pdf 124 © 2006. (2006).com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler.Madison. and Biswas. Beers. http://website. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.wisc. Michigan State University. Clifton Park.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis.amazon.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. N. http://jason. (2005). Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. Constance (2005).teachableagents.commtechlab.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Gupta. Jason (2004).

FG2006.ac. including identifying commercial products. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. http://www. London. 2008. such as Markov models. FG2008. was held in Southampton.fg2008. artificial intelligence. and robotics in elearning. UK.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. looking for particular sequences.html Research by Dr. haptics. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.” http://mplab. For a list of papers: http://www.ucsd. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. April 10-12 2006.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. Do Not Reproduce 125 .com/~ccohen/gest ure. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.cybernet. Artificial intelligence techniques.soton.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.tudelft. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. http://www. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.ecs. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. affective computing. at the University of California. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research.fg2006.

In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).. F.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. W. Korea. Brandon Hall Research . In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman.actapress.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. (2000).stat. G. IEEE Transactions. July 1997. Report No. 2003. (2002). M.11 09/CMPSAC. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.. Porta.fsu.iscslp2006. (2004).. A. Nevada. and Poggio.884693 Chen. http://www. http://doi.ercim.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02. Nicole (2001). Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.html Chang. T. Aug. http://cbcl. Deller. October 14-16. http://www.pdf Ebert. Lombardi. Munich.. 675 676 http://lcv. Michael (2003). PA. 191-196.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.pdf Daugman.2000. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. March.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES.pdf 126 © 2006. Y. Face and gesture recognition: overview. 57-64.pdf Beringer.ogi.. July 2227. http://www. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Pittsburg. J. Visualization. http://www.mit. http://www. M. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. R.elearningguild. (2005). Wesson.. and Bender. Shi-Kuo (2000).cse. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. (2005). (1997).com/PaperInfo. Las Vegas. J. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. Gao. L. and Cohen.org/10. Geiger.smartkom..org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. T. 19(7).ieeecomputersociety. Ludwig-Maximilians University.pdf Borghi. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. 3. P.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. 18. 2000. http://www.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference.org/reports/Report -NR-03. In Proceedings. and Ma. A. M.pdf Corradini.

and Yang.1109/ICALT. Wong.. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. X. 1999.acm. Michael (2004). In Proceedings..cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. Robust face image matching under illumination variations.150 Nakanishi. A. C.. 242-245. (2003).computer. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.org/citation. Setlock. http://csdl2. (1997). Communications of the ACM..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc.pdf Wilson.com/PaperInfo.ucsb. Chen. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). C. 884 – 900. Canada http://cims.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 .research. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Y. Vancouver.pdf Loi. Lai.F (1999).xml&DOI=10.pdf Peixoto.edu/mas963/en hencedwall.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. September 2002. D. and Chang.recveb. http://interact. H.com/GetPDF. (2005). Lee. 2533–2543. Fussell. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. M.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. J. C. L. S. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).pdf Ou.mit. 27-30.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. Park. and Koike.20 05.D. J. 47(1). Sept. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.. http://www. and Wong.. January.media.clayton. and Bobick. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. and Carreira. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. http://www. http://www. 2004:16. and Kim. Y. (2004).actapress. P. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. British Columbia.. Sato. A. Computer vision in the interface. J.rutgers.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. J. Proceedings. 2004.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Y. 442-446.hindawi. 21(9). C. L. http://portal. (2005). Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. S. IEEE Transactions. http://www.. (2002).

the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . e-Learning By Design. In acquiring Macromedia.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design.avs. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.com/TechIllustrator.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp.autodesk. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. and in his recent 2006 book.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.techillustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. Designing WebBased Training.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.adobe.

org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.2.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.com/index. and playback.itedo. Nevertheless. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.corel. Do Not Reproduce 129 .elearningcentre.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. http://esub.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.co.acdamerica.google.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.com. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.0. http://www.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.ibm.org/cms/Home. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.uk/index.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.3dlinks.co.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. The most listings are for 3-D software. animation.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world. Download a copy: http://www.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.broderbund. post-production. http://www.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models.co.uk/index.smartdraw.com/E/1335.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. http://www.siggraph. rendering.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.com SmartDraw http://www. interactive creation.blender3d.microsoft. http://virtuality3d.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.xaraxtreme. In acquiring Macromedia.

ED-Media Conference. http://www. http://www. X. http://www. Cheshire. Cheshire. Kommers & G.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.pdf Tufte.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.amazon. http://www.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. A.org/index.indiana. William (2000).). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Brandon Hall Research .com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.amazon. New York: John Wiley. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Designing WebBased Training.editlib. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). STC.. CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. June 1-3.carto. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. Edward (1990). (2004). Tokyo. In P.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. http://www.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton. S. http://www.pdf Qiu.amazon.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Tools Usage Survey Results. William (1991).pdf McConnell. Pallickara. Cheshire. Edward (1997). Carolina Chapter. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. Japan · Sept 7-10. Edward (2001).amazon. Potsdam. CT: Graphics Press.amazon. Envisioning Information.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.stc. A. Germany. Frances (2004). Pheonix.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Proceedings.stcphoenix.ucs. Evidence and Narrative . CT: Graphics. William (2006).com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. Fu-Kwan (2004).com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. (2005). NY: John Wiley. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. http://www. Gloria (2004). Richards (Eds. and Uyar. http://www. http://www.amazon. e-Learning by Design. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). http://www. http://grids.

http://www.forcedimension.pureform. Read the press release at: http://www. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner. joysticks/ joypads. Finally. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.it/projects/pureform.handshakeinteractive.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .html http://www. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. including pens.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Haptic devices come in many forms. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. and force-feedback mice.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).miralab. When used appropriately. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.unige. Do Not Reproduce 131 .mpbtechnologies. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.” http://www. http://haptex. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.sssup. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. http://wwwpercro. gloves.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.

.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4. NJ: Prentice-Hall. M. suits.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. M. http://csdl2.computer. David (2003). (2002). Reality bytes.smh. McLaughlin.xml&DOI=10. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Iwane.com. M.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. Report delivered January 15.sensable. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).” http://www. professional.unige. M. Proceedings. 2005.1.isfh. and Ichitsubo. New York Times (Online). http://www.phptr.sensegraphics.haptics-e. Deliverable D4. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Matsubara. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).ccii. Upper Saddle River. N. 2003.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue. http://haptex.. G. J.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138.org/persagen/DLA bsToc.informatik.miralab.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. http://www.immersion. http://www.2005. 917-921..html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.se/index. Italy in March.pdf Hespanha.unitrier.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. Nakamura. (2005). 2005. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. http://www.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. July 31.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.1_release-public. http://www. http://www.piaggio.” http://www..asp Body-based devices include gloves. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. Y. 132 © 2006. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. http://www.306 Kushner. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.1109/ICAL T. Brandon Hall Research .unipi.roblesdelatorre. and Sukhatume.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc.

2004. Dobreva. M. http://www. Haptics Laboratory.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. and Jaskowiak. Prentice Hall online article. Laurie (2004). The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. http://www. A. Santa Clara. Daithí (2003).html Ross. Kaneko. Journal of Vision. (2000).pdf Ó hAnluain. D.S. (1997).org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 .. Sukhatme. (2004).pdf McLaughlin. Wired News.mcgill.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. Japan.computer.. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). (2005). Chapter on Haptics. Y. 22. C.S. Medioni. The Haptic Museum. Shahabi. http://www.informit. McGill University. April.com/articles/printerf riendly. H. Vincent (2005). Blindness.usc.asp?p=345621 Sakano. M. G... DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.html O’Malley.pdf O’Modhrain..ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239.digicult.ra.. July 3.B. & Uchikawa. and Gillespie.pd f O’Modhrain. Reaching through the net to touch. 250a. S. K. CA.pdf Rowell. M. (2001). The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.journalofvision. Technology and Haptics. and Hughes. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector...ethz. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.. M.net/article-7304.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. J. Proceedings. 2003. 1(3). and Essl. http://www. M. (2003). Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. http://web. and Rusbridge. http://www.matr. G. M. McHugh. A.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres. L. G. Donnelly. R.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. Research report..edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00.media. S. http://www. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. http://csdl.mit. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Oct. Abbott.cim. 3-5 June 2004. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.

although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). haptics. For humans to use a computer. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. Philips. human-computer interaction. like digital ink and paper. they must interact with it through an interface device. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.html For humans to use a computer. tangible computing. Called Librié. digital paper. gesture recognition. wearable computing. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. display technologies. monitors. Writing will require special digital pens. For a review.buffalo. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. handwriting recognition. electronic paper. see: http://www. input devices. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . http://www.html Sony. and some.com/b/archives/ 002571. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. However.dottocomu. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. projectors. whiteboards Description devices. Now in the research and development phase. they must interact with it through an interface device. experience computing. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. head mounted displays.

media.ices. it is constantly being improved and updated. http://www.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.” http://www.com/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. textures. http://www.ac.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. 4) bend. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. http://killer. 2) roll. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.cmu. Although this technology has been around for a few years. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.mit. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.edu/design/Foldable Display.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. http://www.wacom.cfm Now in the research and development phase.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.logitech.edfacilities.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. These methods are 1) touch.smarttech.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.eink.edu/design/Digitalin k.sony. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. consisting of a pen and a charger. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. http://www.html http://killer.channelnewsasia.fujitsu. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. and 5) build. 3) throw. http://www. http://www.lifehacker.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.ices. Writing will require special digital pens. http://www.html In 2005.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. see: http://www. http://www." http://web. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.com/technology/howitwor ks.cmu. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.swan. Do Not Reproduce 135 .cs.

Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.html http://www. Brandon Hall Research .thewirelessdirectory. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. Following are three such articles: http://www.0 8/epapers.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. human computer interaction.net/display. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. http://www. is described in a 2002 press release. http://www.org. http://www.microsoft.au/edna/page458 8. http://www.co. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.wired.usask.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.html http://www.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards.elearningcentre.anoto.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.edu.com/wired/archive/5. http://whiteboards.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.wired. http://www.edna.devx.becta.org.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. with its use of digital ink.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.wired. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.mspx 136 © 2006. http://www. http://www.com/wired/archive/9.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.com/wired/archive/8.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.cs.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. See their advice and resources at: http://www. and graphic.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.aclearn.0 4/anoto.thegrid.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Interface Devices

Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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Learning Management Systems

An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Learning Management Systems

Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Incorporated Subversion. Sam (2005). and Sharifi. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.edu. M. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .pdf Tsinakos. T. T.PDF Farmer.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. Virtual Learning Environments. UK.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Chief Learning Officer. http://www. University of Birmingham. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. WSCG Conference 2005. A.anadolu. (2002).. http://incsub. http://www.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. Plzen. 21. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.. Ronchetti. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). http://lttf. (2006). http://www. R. (2005). April.nxtbook.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). August. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. 2005. James (2005).mq.building new education strategies for schools. J.ac.pdf Cohen. Avgoustos (2004). Proceedings. Browne. C. Proceedings of ALT-C.eun.melcoe. Pierre (2000). November 2004. June 20-21. (Online edition). Learning Circuits. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.ucisa.htm Bouras. James (2003). Molinari.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. http://www. http://www. Workshop on virtual learning environments.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.science. M (2005). (2002). Derek (2004). 2005. Building educational virtual environments.ac. http://tojde.pdf Morrison.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. L.unitn. Exeter. Report published by UCISA.. Jan. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.org/eun.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins.pdf Sadeghi.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo.zcu. A. 2006. October. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . ICALT2002 Conference.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 .ieee.bath.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. Ed. 4. http://www. http://wscg. M. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut.pdf Dalziel. and Walker. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. Czech Republic.edu. A. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. http://www.pdf Dillenbourg. Proceedings. 31-Feb. and Trifonova. Aavani.. 5(2). Jan. and Tsiatsos.learningcircuits.A possible future for online learning.

Learning Management Systems Ueno. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Brandon Hall Research .unimelb.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport.educause. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.pdf 144 © 2006. and Quealy. 2005. LMS Governance Project Report.org/newdl/index.pdf Wise. October 2005. http://www. Maomi (2005). (2006). http://www.infodiv.aace. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel. Healthcare. Government. Educause Review. Van (2005). From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Vancouver.edu. and Higher Education 2005. J. Report for the Melbourne. May-June.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. May 2006 http://www. 40(3).

but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. Wiley. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. learning object model (LOM).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. At the simplest level. sharable content objects (SCOs). 2004. learning object repository (LOR). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Rather. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.” such as a graph. Do Not Reproduce 145 . Beyond that. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. intelligent tutoring. a well-known standard for learning objects. As online educational materials are produced.” This use has been more successful. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. The acronym SCORM.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. reusable learning objects (RLOs). Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. They are emulations of “software objects. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. 2006). SCORM. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). rapid learning. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. Learning objects have several uses. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. However.

ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. preserves. http://learnware. and distributes digital research material. http://www. curriculum.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. http://www. This idea is based on older.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. indexes.downes.educanext. stores.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.org/index. http://web. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. culture.sir.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.uwaterloo.arizona. http://dspace. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note.fedora.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. http://www. http://www. http://dlist.uvic. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.cdlib. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. Brandon Hall Research . isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. computer-use practices. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. and they can be general or subject specific.

profetic.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://www.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.unsw.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.rice.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12. http://www.koha.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. with a focus on information literacy.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.utoronto.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. http://www.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.org/Home. http://nsdl.wisconsin.net/project. http://lester.edu. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://www.mcli.goenc.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 . with almost 15. http://www. http://www.lolaexchange.org/ci/en/ev.000 items.dist.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).lrc3.maricopa.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.oise.cisco.edu/DesktopDefault.merlot.publiclibraryofscience.thegateway. http://mlor. http://portal.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://www.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201. http://ideas.llearn.unesco.

html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. authored by Rachel Smith. http://www.ca/mt/archive/000 681.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.. and Alderman.uwm.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. http://www. http://www. Celentano. M.doc Christiansen.dis. (2004). “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.org/guidelines/index.dicole. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www.org/blog/archives/ 002089. T.itdl.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt.uis. (2004).ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.elearnspace. is available at: http://www. http://www. 1(3). http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects. (2004).cancore.L.uwm.jcdl.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.ca/implementing_proje cts.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. March. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.amazon.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. M.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.uniroma1. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. J. A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. EdTechPost.lornet.edtechpost. http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. F. http://www. C.it/~lhci/002.org/eng/scientifiques.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . Online paper. CANCORE.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.nmc. And Longo.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www. and Anderson.

http://ideas. M. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. M. and Mohammed. Rachel (2006).pdf Krauss. Downes.doc Fiaidhi. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. International Journal on E-Learning.. Anderson. Online document.9%2015-11-03.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. http://www. T. 1(3)..ca/implementing_projec ts. Babin.org/index. Learning Circuits. Stephen. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. http://www. (2004).org. S.cancore. (2004). 1 (3).org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. D. 14. March.aace.org/mar2000/ primer.cfm/files/pap er_11841.itdl.1/downes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis..amazon. Roberts. (2004). and Schafer. Software Architecture Document. http://www. Version . Jan. Hatala. G. http://dl. 2(1). Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.eduserv.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.. and Morales. Richards. March. html Edusource (2003)..html McGreal.org/14190 Downes.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.html Friesen.cancore. Warren (2000). The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. http://www.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. Research Report. K. http://www. Friesen.edusource. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.. Online Education Using Learning Objects. Paquette. 5-16. T..org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. Harrigan. G.. Online. & Strijker. Norm (2005). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.ca/protocols_en. R. Fredinand (2004).irrodl.itdl.html Leeder. London: Falmer. S..org/content/v2. G. R. (2003). March.9. http://www. B. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.. 2004. A Primer on Learning Objects. MacLeod.. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. (2000). http://www.) (2004).blogs. http://www. S. http://www. J.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability. Online paper.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. 2(4).editlib. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Norm (2006). N. Mattson. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. http://www.html Heery.htm Friesen.. A. Rory (Ed..learningcircuits.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 . D.

org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. (2000).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. http://opencontent. R. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. July 14. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR)..uniroma1.htm Nejdl. 12.p df Wiley. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. InSITE conference. http://www. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. http://www. G. Brigham Young University. (2006). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.uniroma1. 9. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.Rafts or Battleships? ..kth.. (Ed. Online.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. McGreal.Rafts or Battleships? . http://www. (2000). RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. 2004. 2004. 1(7). (2004). and Pragnell.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. T. V.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.dis. March. (2002). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.dis. pdf Roselli.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. http://opencontent.it/~lhci/rossanopres. Clive. A.). Iterating Toward Openness. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.Part 2.fastrakconsulting.edu.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. http://www.htm Shepherd. Learning Circuits. Learning Material Repositories .pdf http://www. 7(1). David A.org/docs/dissertation. http://www. Final Project Report. Jan. M.bath.co.htm Wiley. and Freisen.html Murphy.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. Aug. M.Part 1. INTERACT 2005. Wolfgang (2004). Govinda.pdf Richards. Elizabeth (2004). (2002).php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.pdf Santally. Learning Material Repositories . N. http://www. David A.bath. April 2002.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Derek (2004a). June.informingscience. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.learninglab.learningcircuits. Objects of Interest. Paper presented. Lori (2002). : http://reusability.ac. http://proceedings. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Doctoral dissertation. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.itdl. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. David A. (2005). Rossano. and Senteni. Derek (2004b).usq.ac.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. http://www. M.. Brandon Hall Research .org/read/ Wiley. http://www.

and wearable computers. galleries. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. geocaching. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. galleries. gaming consoles. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. Do Not Reproduce 151 . The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. location-based systems are found in museums. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. and security issues. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. Department of Defense. However. findability. PDAs. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. personal media players. as with any new technology. laptops. users will be able to use a variety of devices. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. proximity tools. including privacy concerns. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. including cell phones. navigation. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content.S. more demands for a person’s attention. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information.

live.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work. http://earth.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices.com able to use a http://www.com/ Intergraph .us/research/G ESRI. earth.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .intergraph.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information.smm.biogeomancer. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.com/ Geographic Information System.cadcorp.http://www.greatestplaces. The map is wearable readable geographic locations.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. to what a GIS system uses.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40.museum. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery.com/ mapping service.http://www. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www. Clark Labs . gaming http://www. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp . http://local. information. and to learn about them using a phones. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www.http://www. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.mapinfo.state.berkeley. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.clarklabs.pangonetworks.org/ http://www.google. See how this direction.org/ consoles.esri. laptops. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.org/ educational of Mars.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006. to model the climate in any place in the world.google. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://www.http://www. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database. http://www.http://www. experiences that people. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. PDAs.000 archaeological sites in the state. it is a great tool for teaching science.frappr.google.edu/ the globe.google. Brandon Hall Research .il.

geog.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.edu/sco/gis/hi story.org/index.ordnancesurvey. http://www.wisc.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 .html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. http://portal. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. Earth.fi/english/page.opensourcegis.5372.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.chimer.geography.asp?path=5 00. as well as papers on trends in GIS.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.esri.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.ac.uk/oswebsi te/education/index. see: http://www.leeds.com/gis4mt/index.edu.bham.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.bc.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. http://www. http://www. http://pngis.co. http://www. create.ac. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.confluence.com/index. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.cetadl.gees. See their complete range of products. http://www.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05.eoscenter.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. http://platial.ac. at: http://www.” http://www.

ibm.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Abbott. 38(4). January.co. http://education. DigiCULT Newsletter...pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 .uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031.. Future LocationBased Experiences. Heather (2005). http://geotags. Learning Circuits. and Location-Based industry professionals. Issue 6. http://www.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.learningcircuits. IBM Systems Journal. J. G. M. http://www.info/index.. Dec. http://www. C. Eva (2004). and Borriello. J. http://elearningeuropa. A. F.ac. 2005. Fabrizio (2005). A.C. Arnaoutoglou. D. (2001).00.htm McLean.1642288.pdf Spohrer. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. Nov. Information in places.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.jisc.pdf Cardinali. Part II. and Rusbridge. and students. (1999). Online article. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. N.pdf Tsirliganis.. McHugh.. Mapping. IEEE Report. Pavlidis... http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Donnelly.digicult. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. http://www.intelresearch. 2005.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags. manipulate.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 2003. 1999. enthusiasts. Jan 2004. and visualize spatial information.com http://geotags. Steve (2005). Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. We learning: social software and e-learning.uk/elearning/ story/0. Dobreva. http://www. Koutsoudis. http://www.research. M. http://www. and Chamzas.com/ Bibliography Benford.intergraph. 15.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. A.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. CAD.geocomm. G. Chapter on Location Based Devices. (2003)..directionsmag.digicult.html Ross. S.guardian. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. (2005).

Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. integration. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. tag clouds. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. For example. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. Many of these objects are software programs. E-learning in the workplace and. to a lesser extent. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Similarly. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. provides access to the API of another Web site. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. in schools and universities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. to a lesser extent. all expressed in binary code. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).” instructors. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. Using SOAP. of how to communicate with each other. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules.” then. or through “Web services. or protocol. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. For two or more programs to talk to each other. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. composite applications. also called “object learners and interoperability. the rules for sending files across the Internet. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. hybrid applications. Programs can be “stand alone.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 .” that is.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. run all by themselves. in schools and universities. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. Mashups are constructed in several ways. A “mashup. personalized. API clouds.

mashupfeed.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.wikipedia. document management.emilychang.deitel. Many have educational value.programmableweb. http://www. 2004).us.” It has many examples of mashups.. providing an informal collaborative environment. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. http://blogs. As Warlick (2006) has noted. http://en. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. a writer for Business Week.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. at the same time.html Rob Hof. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.icio.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.Mashups.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter.com/ http://www. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.deitel. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. such as those for collaboration. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.htmlhttp://www.programmableweb.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. http://www. http://del. communications. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. Brandon Hall Research .0 APIs. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. etc. http://www.businessweek. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.icio.

6.html Woodill. David (2006). Web Services. Infoworld. J. July 25. Vol.pdf Stacey. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. SOAP. Galen (2006).ieee. Mix. http://www. George (undated). Enterprise mashups. 2006. Dodero.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. match.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.operitel. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.ieee. (2006).html Warlick.htm Siviter.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. January 2004 http://lttf. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. May 15. and Oliveira. Douglas (2004). March 6. C. Dec. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.businessweek. http://www. Business Week Online.html Hof.org/resources/webs ervices. http://www.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. C. 2002. Learning Technology newsletter. http://ww6. Issue 1. techLEARNING. 6. January 2004 http://lttf. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman. Mashups. 6. 2006. Issue 1.pdf Seimens.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. http://www.elearnspace. Learning Technology newsletter. Curriculum as Mashup. J.. http://www. July 28. G.htm Torres.com/products/print_fri endly.com/publications. and mutate. Robert (2005). Vol.bctechnology. Do Not Reproduce 157 . and Padron. Paul (2002). A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Learning Solutions.infoworld.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. Elearnspace.techlearning. 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. 2006. (2004).

edu/o4e/viewhome.wssu. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.mit.cancore. Do Not Reproduce 158 . http://www.edu/content.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects.mit. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. http://metadata.do?tm= O4E.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning.educause. community. http://iiscs. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. pervasive computing. An ontology.cetis. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. http://libraries. http://dublincore.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index. and services.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program.imsglobal. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. in the context of information technology. http://www. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. repositories. metadata. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. and artificial intelligence are being developed. search engines.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. http://www. http://simile. to develop metadata standards. Ohio.ac. and institutional stores.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.

Thomas (2005b). In Proceedings. (2002). April 18. P. http://tomgruber. Perich. F..pdf Friesen. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. International Journal on E-Learning. and Joshi. (2004).aace. M. Benayache.ifets. B. http://dl. sometimes A.cancore. Patrick (2006). B.html Gruber. http://www.edu/get/a/publication/ 105. D. TagOntology .info/issues. http://tomgruber. 82-97. W. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. October-December.php?id=25 Kroski. N.delphigroup. M. 2002. November.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider. http://www. A.. H. http://www.umbc.. http://infotangle.greenchameleon.. http://www. Pouloudi. June 2004. (2004).ifets. C. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. 2003.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. http://ebiquity. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. 7(4). Adam (2004). SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.com/view/buil database as they enter data.blogsome.org/10614 Mathes.info/issues.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Finin. C.php?id=25 Chen. 2005. tags into a BoxesAndArrows. Moulin. Presentation to Tag Camp. Dec. and Mosoiu. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. and Nejdl. 7. 7(4). MA. Defining “taxonomy”.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Poulymenakou.. and Chaput. Ellyssa (2005).htm Gruber. (2003). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.. 2006. http://www. Barry. http://www. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy.org/. Thomas (2005a). Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Infotangle. T.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. A.adammathes.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. April 21.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. http://www. Lenne. A.. Norm (2005). Delphi Group report. Dolog. A. Online article. 98-111.pdf Henze.pdf Delphi Group (2004).ca/editors. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. University of Illinois graduate paper. October 29. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras. Green Chameleon..boxesandarrows.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. Boston.. (2004).tagcamp. http://www..

26-28. and Shao. 70-81.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Understanding Metadata. 7(4). Norway.learningcircuits. http://www. D. P. Lytras. NISO Press. Learning Circuits. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).htm Weibel. Reuben (2004). BoxesAndArrows.. April 9.. M. D-Lib Magazine. Nov. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. and Diaz.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.ppt Ricci.boxesandarrows. J. J. Christina (2002). http://www. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. (2003). Brandon Hall Research .info/issues. G. and Godby.info/issues.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. Wagner. Trondheim. http://www. http://www. Another new paradigm for instructional design. (2004).. 7(4).boxesandarrows. http://www. Stuart (2005). PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). N.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Christian (2004).niso. 11(7/8).ifets. 2004.Metadata. July/August. I. May 22. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.ifets.html Wodtke. BoxesAndArrows.pdf Oin. http://www. (2004). http://www.dlib.ecdl2003. 2005.php?id=25 Tozman.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community.php?id=25 160 © 2006. 2002. 2004. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. S. Chen.

any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. conversational learning. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. Essentially. podcasting. rich players. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. you are. and building. multimedia. strong search capabilities. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. personalization. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).” Two years ago. mLearning. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). personal digital assistants (PDA). and wearable computers in teaching and learning. laptops. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. video) and distributed databases. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 .6 billion units in operation by that year. cellular telephones. using ambient intelligence.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.” The Mobilearn However. brokerage. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. learning architecture [that] will support creation. MP3 players. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. tablet PCs. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. powerful support for effective tablet PCs. location based technologies. 2003). location-dependence. wearable computing. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. communicative skills and community interaction. and mentoring. tablets. in mobile computing (McLean. instant messaging (text. pervasive computing. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. cell phones. times the number of personal computers (PCs). learning. there were estimated to be 1. personalization. such telephones. time and space. it is predicted that there will be 2. 2004). improved identity creation. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. laptops. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy.

pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. Brandon Hall Research .” http://www.cs.mobilearn.Mobile Devices Two years ago. http://www.pdf http://www. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.edu. pictures. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. http://www. http://gseacademic. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. US.ccu.ccu.se/projectd ata.” and a “bird watching learning system.” a “butterfly-watching learning system. http://urbantapestries. movies. there were estimated to be 1.harvard.cs.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final. Australia. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. audio.pdf http://www. 2004).cs.computer.edu.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. or a combination of media.ccu.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. in Japan. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. Users can access and create location-specific text. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). http://csdl2.net/ 162 © 2006.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.co. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. http://news.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. Israel. Cited in Prensky. and pre-service teachers.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.stockholmchallenge. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.bbc. (2004).tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.” They have a “firefly watching system.edu.

http://spotlight-mobile.com/wwwtools/m/2717.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.knowledgepulse. links. of the University of Oulu in Finland. including issues.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. and a glossary.co.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.eee.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning. http://urbantapestries.iadis. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Ireland.telus. applications.com/wwwtools/m/2737. http://www.fasfind.fasfind.” http://m. http://www. http://www.94.fasfind.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.elearningcentre.com/wwwtools/m/8907. Learn more at: http://www. http://www3.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.135/ipodined/news. technologies. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.bham.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. resources.mobilelearning.beta80group. Gaming. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.htm Jari Laru.msu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. http://213.ac. For example. http://www.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.com/home_en.uk/handler/publi cations.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 .232. activities.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index. http://llt. http://www. 2006 in Dublin.

Report.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. L.educause. Kao. S.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.itdl. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. B. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. (2002). R.. Bryan (2004). Vol. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.msu. (2005). 2(9).ntnu. http://www.html Bibliography Alexander. of Birmingham http://www. J. http://mobile. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.m-learning. EDUCAUSE Review.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. T. No. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. http://www. Gaming. (2003).flexiblelearning. 347-359.formatex.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.html Grew.jisc. http://knowledgetree. Jill (2005). and Trifonova. http://www. http://www. Bob (2005).pdf Jasola. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Emerging technologies: Messaging. A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Univ.uk/eli_practice.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). M.org/micte2005/4. January 2005.edu.pdf Chen.a u/edition06/download/geddes. A..ccu. Y. http://www. E. http://www. James (2005).ac.html Kadirire. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.net. 5. http://www.kaywa.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.unitn. September 2005.pdf Colazzo. 39.pdf Geddes. P.pdf Godwin-Jones.pdf Attewell. Learning and Skills Development Agency.J. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.cs. JISC Guide.ac.idi. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.. 19. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. No.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . 9(1). and Sheu. Ronchetti. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. (2004). Molinari.htm JISC (2005). (2005).science. Language Learning and Technology.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.jisc.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.pdf Anderson. Sept. and Pagani. 17-22 http://llt. and Sharma.6.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. http://www. Paul (2005).edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.

Romagnoli.com/news/article2 490... M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.. Proceedings. Peter (2005). Vecchietti. Brisbane..oucs. Malavasi.org/10.ascilite. MA: HRD Press.info/index.ieeecomputersociety. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. http://www. and Cultural Heritage. Greece. Roffia. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.pdf Mellow. M.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. (2004). http://www.. Neil (2003).cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. Marc (2004). What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. and Yang. and Nischelwitzer.innovateonline..ac. David (2006). The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. http://www. Ann (2005). S. H. E.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. T. M. 2002. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).amazon. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. http://www. J. D. Donnelly. Växjö. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.digicult. Växjö University. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Conference on Virtual reality.2002. http://www. Australia.ox.century. multimedia-based learning application..org/citation. http://doi. (2005).pdf Metcalf.. 1(5). Presented at WMTE 2002. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector... Wang. (2001).1109 /WMTE. J. http://portal. Sweden. and Dobreva.pdf Scagliarini. M. F. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. UsabilityNews.fhjoanneum. Galasso.usabilitynews. Glyfada.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.1039222 McLean. Proceedings. August 29-30. A. M. E. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Liang. T.doc Meisenberger.org. T. Teleborg Campus.phil-inst. Kristóf (2002).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light. Archeology.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. June/July 2005. Cinotti. June 27.. (2002). A. http://www. http://21st. Coralini. S. Amherst. Chan. http://drei.acm.2. computer-aided. L. 2005.htm#Implications Prensky..com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. and Sforza. Feb. 2004.asp Liu. M. Pigozzi.

May 23.open. Feb.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner.fil. Ellen (2005). Draft paper submitted for publication. M..html von Koschembahr. Chief Learning Officer.00. Christopher (2005).educause. http://www. http://kn. G. Learning in the Mobile Age. Mike (2005)..uk/public/getfile.uk/elearning/ comment/0.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . Guardian Unlimited.eee. http://education. (2005).ac. 2005. Understanding. Budapest. and Vavoula. J. http://www. E-Learning on the move. 40(3).bham.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.ac. May/June 2005.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. Enabling Mobile Learning.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. EDUCAUSE Review.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.pdf Thomas.clomedia. and. Hungary.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. 40-53. April 2005. http://www.1490476. 2005.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Taylor.guardian. Michael (2005).co.pdf Sharples. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. A theory of learning for the mobile age. http://www.

not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.e. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. speech synthesis. machine translation. http://tcc. Do Not Reproduce 167 . and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.it/index. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. Lee et al. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). speech recognition. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. i. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. http://wwwusers.lexxe. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.york. natural language generation. rather than just returning Web pages. natural language understanding. http://dmoz.” See also Jordan et al.ac. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. (2005a. (2004). Kim (2000). et al.. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://www. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001).com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. Di Eugenio.uk/~silvia/litReview.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning..cs.itc.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.translating one natural language into another.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . (2004).

http://www. 62-76. pdf Jacquemin.. and Glass.elsnet. http://www. Cambridge. P. http://www. (2004). Online. B.ed. November 2004 http://imm. Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Peter (2001). and standards. University of Edinburgh. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. D.amazon.cs. M. tools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. D. Fossati. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.cs.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . Paper presented at ACL2005. and VanLehn.. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.org/softwaremap/trove_list ..com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon.msu. and Vrettaros. Christian (2001).bham.. Volume 1. http://www.html Bibliography Bagshaw. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Issue 5. J. Language Learning and Technology. Fossati. B.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity.pdf Di Eugenio. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. http://eduforge. and Glass.pdf Eskenazi..uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. http://www.pdf Drigas. S.w3. http://www. http://llt. http://www. (2005a). Haller. http://www. D. Paul (1994). Makatchev.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. D. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. (2005b). WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. (2004).cstr. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. Doctoral Dissertation. Yu.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool..aaai. M.cs. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. research. January. A.pdf Coxhead.uic.ac. M. 2(2). and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.uic.ldc. Yu. Haller. S. http://www..uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP. MA: MIT Press.ac.upenn. K.html#fn1 Di Eugenio.org/Voice/Activity.org/aitopics/html/natlang.demokritos.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.

C. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Doctoral Dissertation. of Colorado.H. J.digicult. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. McHugh. http://www. http://www. K.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. http://www. D.pdf Yang.) (1999). computational linguistics and speech recognition. (2004). Univ. C. M. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Dobreva. Chicago. http://www. http://www.pdf Zhou.cs. MA: MIT Press.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. http://lsa. and Martin. Paraguaçu (Eds.colorado..cs. D.pdf Jurafsky.linckels. Lester.. M.) (1999). Vicari. http://www.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. M. A. Yujian (2000). August 31. Chicago.edu/papers/daveDisser tation.pdf Lee. Abbott.pdf Linckels. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue.iit. A. Evens. Brazil. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 . Jung Hee (2000). M. Cambridge.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://www.cs. Illinois Institute of Technology. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. and Moorman. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.pitt. C. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.iit. and Rusbridge. and Meinel.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. M. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. In J. and Moorman. http://www. http://www. R. Doctoral Dissertation.iit. S. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.pdf Steinhart. (2004). Feng-Jen (2001).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. NJ: Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. and F. 435-439. David (2001).pdf Ram. (2005). Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference.). (Eds. K. Illinois Institute of Technology. (2000). (Eds. A. Donnelly. http://www. and Glass.cs.amazon.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim..iit. Doctoral dissertation. S.. Doctoral Dissertation. Chicago.amazon..edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. A.amazon. Maceió. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.

thus bypassing a central server. thus bypassing a central server. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. and games. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. http://www.seti. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. whose research is based on activity theory. Jokela (2003). It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. Collaborative Peer Relationships . As personal computers become more powerful. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users.org/science/setiathome.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. movies. and storage. chat rooms. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. memory. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. instant messaging. Brandon Hall Research . or e-learning environments. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. In the future.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. 170 © 2006. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships .

contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. each with its own data schema. http://www.The eduCommons is an open system for creating.weblogger. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.pdos.stanford. http://publius. http://cosl. http://wwws. http://lockss.ucsb.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.usu. sharing. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity.washington.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. http://edutella.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival.lcs.campusmoviefest.md3.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers.jxta. where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://picto.edu/piazza. http://www. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary.groove.cs.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.cdt.sun.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple.edu/info/ove rview.cs. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. http://www.cs. http://p2p. http://www. http://oceanstore. encyclopedia. and translation servers throughout the Web.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.mit.com/ eduCommons . This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.berkeley. http://data.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost. Any computer can join the infrastructure. Do Not Reproduce 171 .

php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes. for a small fee.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .com/products/in dex.internet2.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities. musicians.limewire.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.movedigital.com/english/content/ho me.co. http://www.bdaweb. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.psu. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists. http://www.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.fastrakconsulting. http://www. http://www.net/index. http://www.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.” http://www. Mac.stockholmchallenge.bdaweb. data. cross platform application (Win.elearningcentre.com/ Overnet is an open source.” It also says that there is “no spyware. http://www.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques.llearn. http://lionshare. http://www.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.edu/apps_list.advancedreality. headquartered at Penn State University. http://www.overnet. http://www.co. http://p2p.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources.its.html MoveDigital. no adware.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop. allows anyone. and videomakers.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op.se/proje ctdata.

ca/Texte/ITS2004camera. Robin Good Blog. (2002). 2006. eLearning and future trends. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. D.com/article. N. http://voyager. 2005..masternewmedia. Amsterdam: IOS Press.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Cunningham. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview.). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. A. http://www. and Guergachi. Miriam (Eds.campustechnology.pdf Vassileva.htm Farago-Walker.unihannover. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Bokma.. Susan (2003). http://www. July 2001. Tektonidis. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues.learningcircuits.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. A.pdf Farges.pdf Ratti.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. significance and impact.utexas.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. Intranet Journal. http://julita. Online article. pp 1051-1058.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. http://www. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. January 17.sunderland. http://www.ac. June 1. University of Texas. Paivi (2003). Austin.intranetjournal.editlib.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Government.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Healthcare. Applications. Judith (2006). Jennifer (2002). http://www.editlib. http://www. K. January 2002.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. Luigi (2005)..uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. How P2P will change collaborative learning. Paul & Cunningham. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. Ginty. http://www. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. (2004). and Koumpis. http://www. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. AACE Journal 12(3). Jay (2001). http://www. 1624-1631. H.html Jokela.org/index.org/index. Campus Technology.htm Cross. Wolfgang (2002). Case Studies. and Higher Education 2003.usask. pp. 301-313. R. Martin (2004).html Fletcher. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.learningcircuits.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. Online paper. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. Learning Circuits.kbs. Julita (2004).edb.

Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. there can be no electronic interaction. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. This requires support over time. and. discussion forums. Brandon Hall Research . whiteboard).). Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. chat. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. etc. To practice real-world situations. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. Individualization in an LMS is weak. libraries. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. amongst institutions. e-portfolios. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. work places. for the learner. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. blogs. without an offline client to the LMS. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. wikis. and social bookmarking sites. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Technology needs to be situated. 174 © 2006. and through a variety of technologies. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. learners need to be in real-world situations. such as search engines. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. In many cases. often only for the purposes of the course. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A PLE is structured by the learner. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE must support lifelong learning. as learners move between institutions. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories..Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. learning management systems. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. Secondly. but these are only available to members of the course. social environments. (Cortlett et al.

http://incsub.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. 2006.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. and review his or her learning activity.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). Do Not Reproduce 175 . James (2006). M. Running on the learner's PC.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. 2006.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett. UK.elearning. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. (2005).cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog..ac. January 9.bham. 11. and Westmancott. Incorporated Subversion. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.ac.org.jisc. http://terrya.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. 22-27 July 2005.jisc.cetis. T. http://www. J.ac. PLE Reference Model.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. manage. Colin (2005). track.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.ac.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan. http://portal. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook.pdf Farmer.mlearn.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK..aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.ac.. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.cetis. Terry (2006). Jan. http://www. Edinburgh. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. http://www.uk/ilogbook/de fault. Ting.za/CD/papers/Corl ett. D. Sharples. O.cetadl.bath. it helps the user plan. http://elgg. http://www. http://www. Chan. Las Vegas.ac. Nevada.edublogs.uk/index. http://www. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.ac. Online case study paper.

Keenoy et al. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. Do Not Reproduce 176 .. Often. Furthermore. 2005). it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. through a questionnaire). learning environments. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. colour. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. (Filippini-Fantoni. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. However. collaborative filtering. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. rule-based filtering. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.). and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop.. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. These techniques include content-based filtering. artificial intelligence. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. picture. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. However. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. or it can be an implicit model. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). etc. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. etc. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.g.g.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.

objects leave “trails” .net/home. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. the personalization can be applied to content.time-ordered http://www. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.emarcon.beta80group.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.pdf kaleidoscope.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.org/en/index.virtualmuseum.noech. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. navigation. http://www.directa.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. wireless networks.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. Do Not Reproduce 177 . and/or presentation of materials.uk/ilex/final.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.org/default.hcrc. The trails can useomarmo. PDAs).html (handheld PCs. http://www.ed. http://www. http://www..nl/publications/papers/M traits. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.ecdc.ca/English/Per sonal/index. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. chc021 http://www. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.ac.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.elenaproject. A demo is available at: http://www.calimera.firstmonday. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user. dynamic user profiling techniques.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.g.

A.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04. 2004.. K. Brandon Hall Research .unimagdeburg. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. William Niu. Ler. B. http://arxiv. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. G.di. J. Gallipoli. Italy. and Kuflik...org. W..metmuseum.(2001). The Future of Access (or. http://www.unibo. (2004). and Verdaguer. Italy.arts.pdf Ceccaroni. HATII. A. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. A. Melbourne.uniba. A. (2005). Calimera Guidelines: personalization.org/mymetmuse um/index. (AVI 2004).. PowerPoint presentation.. S. X. http://www.pdf Callaway. and Cook J. Kay. C.hatii. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. 2004.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. De Carolis.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. University of Glasgow. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. T. interactive services in home automation. (2004).Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.gla. http://tmtfactory.pdf Calimera Project (2005). http://www.ascilite. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. D. http://smart. (2005).pd f Cavalluzzi. May 25.arces.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. http://www. S. A. Pizzutilo. http://www. May 25.pdf Beler. http://adiret.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture..org/ Bibliography Abbott. Cozzolongo. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.. Gallipoli. J.calimera.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406.org/pdf/cs. L.pdf 178 © 2006.ac. Ngo. with a particular focus on the museum sector. and FilippiniFantoni.cs. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. and Nuguid. (2004).CY/0409055 Boyle T. https://www. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. Bowen.pdf Bright. Daisy (2002).. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Online paper. Online paper. Borda. (AVI 2004).it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.umuai.

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and real-time training and documents in a supportive. learning management systems. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization .Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . and other roles outside an organization (Collins. Knowledge Management. collaborative environment. 2001). including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. which form a dynamic user profile. content management. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. In the business world. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. vendors. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. instructorled. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.Portals Related terms Collaboration. Brandon Hall Research . while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization.

All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://www. the portal offered information on more than 20.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo. calendars.www2. Do Not Reproduce 185 .300 online courses http://www.teach-nology. administrators. news and announce-ments.cyberu. collaborative environment.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. and universities.elementk.executrain. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. http://www. As of early 2006.fathom.000 lesson plans http://www. http://h20219.700 online courses http://www. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. audio and/or video. school administrators.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121. students.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.trainingregistry. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.proquest. e-mail distribution lists. interactive discussion groups.000 publishers worldwide http://www. instant messaging.000 online courses http://www. and shared lists for tasks.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. document management information.asp Element K – Access to over 2. instructors.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.microsoft. http://www.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.com/home.microsoft. and schedules. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.worldwidelearn. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.elearningeuropa.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. instructor-led.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students. museums. online meetings with text. go to: http://www.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.saba.hp.

Campus Technology Magazine. http://www. J. Ron (2004). (2003).campustechnology. A Portrait of Learning Portals. May 2000.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.asp Terra. A. http://www. Tom (2000). (Eds. http://www.learningcircuits. including educational uses. Learning Circuits. http://www.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. (Eds.. http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron.nl/mart/CategoryView.educause. Bray (2001). New York: AMACOM. Hershey. You’ve come a long way. http://knowledgemanagement. category. and Aucoin. and Sheehan. San Francisco: JosseyBass.) (2003).asp Katz. R. http://www. and Gordon.educause. Reviewed at: http://www.com/article. M. http://www. K. http://blogs. Heidi (2001). Campbell.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. Cornelia (2000).ittoolbox. September 2000. Heidi (2003). Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. and Sheehan.amazon. March 1. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. M.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.. PA: Information Science Publishing.amazon.Education. In Jafari.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. A. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. New York: AMACOM.learningcircuits. C.amazon. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. http://www. Hershey. PA: Information Science Publishing. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Richard & Associates (2002).tamtam.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. (2003). Enterprise Knowledge Portals. baby! E-learning portals.htm Brockbank.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 .com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. 2004.

Skypecasting.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. http://www. In fact. virtual classrooms.” In the Middle Ages. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. when experts are not readily available. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. In fact.lsc.replayhq. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.macromedia. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Consequently. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. webcasting. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Online presentations can be very boring. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Experience them at: http://www. http://www. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. However.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. web conferencing.” In the Middle Ages.com/site/index. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Do Not Reproduce 187 . the word “lecturing” means “to read.

com/cxoextra/0. groupware. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. and Web presentations. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”. http://icampus.adelaide.thinkofit.infoworld. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.athabascau. a columnist at InfoWorld.kolabora. http://www.ccimeet. instant messaging.elluminate. online communities.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://weblog. http://www. virtual teams. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. intranets.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. Webcasts. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. online meetings. http://www.htm http://www. http://www.edu/TEAL).com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.humanresourceWebinars.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.acue. http://www.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .com Hewlett-Packard. See the TEAL Project at MIT.infoworld.hp.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.380000 5416. videoconferencing.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. http://ajax.kolabora.39155030.mit. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. in partnership with Dreamworks. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.edu. http://www.00.com/publications/lel/lel. While it is expensive.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. social software for online collaboration.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.brandonhall. forums and message boards. although many are trying to change this practice. videoconferencing. http://www.silicon.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.htm http://www.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.masternewmedia. http://cde. and e-learning. http://www. independent listing of Webinars.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.com/webconf/index.html#a1185 http://weblog.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.

com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.presentations. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.co. Authorware.elearningcentre.co.co. brain. http://www.com/downloads/sea rch. http://www.co. http://www. http://www.html Using Apreso software. and whiteboarding. and Flash.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations. http://www.com/software/presen tation. presentation and streaming presentation tools. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.lsc. virtual classrooms. and kidneys.com/eweek/webc onferencing.elearningcentre. Captivate.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1.apreso.eweek. http://www. http://buyersguide.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.co. Web conferencing. htm http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . http://www. Web seminars.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.uk/eclipse/Resources/live. although it does not have to be. Dreamweaver.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.timelyweb.” http://www.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.e-learningcentre.elearningcentre.com/presentatio ns/index.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations. virtual meetings.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.programjunction. Coursebuilder.filesland.elearningcentre. Breeze.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. http://www.

com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. P. May 15.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth. http://www.fasfind.. Live and Online!: tips.learningcircuits. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal.com/wwwtools/m/21593. http://www.asp McNally. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).htm Hofman. July. 7(3). Live ELearning.com/product /software/795/index.aln. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. Learning Circuits. Sept. 2003.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. 2003.. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. (2002).org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Christine (2001). http://www.01.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Luigi (2003a).aace. July 8. http://m. 2003. K. (in two parts) http://www.htm Duckworth. Russ (2004). 3. 2005.html Canali De Rossi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Robin Good Blog.pdf McFerrin.blogspot.com/BreezePart 2. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International.russellmcnally.masterviews. http://www. Luigi (2003c).com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. and Furr. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.pdf http://www. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. http://www. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. July 26. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Armit (2005). 2004. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools.downloadjunction. Digital Inspiration. Jennifer (2004).russellmcnally.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003b). Belinda (2003). Sept.masternewmedia.amazon.masternewmedia. http://labnol. Robin Good Blog.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. http://www.com/BreezePart 1. April 30.

uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. (2004). and Quick. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. AMACOM. Start Saving Time and Money Today. Choices are great.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . Dave (2002).amazon. 11. but… Presentations Magazine.pdf Spielman. P.html Zielinski.infoworld. K.open.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Feb. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott.presentations. http://www. Dec.. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. Software.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. http://www. S. and Equipment.ac. and Winfield. Choose the Right Vendors. InfoWorld. L. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. http://kmi. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. (2003).com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1. 2005.

Navigation built in . It can refer to learning something quickly. Advanced features. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. and clip art is straight forward and supported . a vendor of rapid elearning tools. by necessity. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. In the first case. or HTML knowledge. or where the online information frequently changes.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. It is best suited to textbased materials. Deploys easily . but not always good for you. Instructional design built in. programming. including tools and templates. graphics. learning objects. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. glossary. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. extreme e-learning. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. tests. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Standardize approaches. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks.automatically assures that all navigation works. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. just-intime e-learning.does not require any plug-ins. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. For example. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Tools for rapid e-learning are. and drill down pages. easy to use. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. FAQ. According to Ready Go!. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. 2003). It can refer to learning something quickly. simple. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. Do Not Reproduce 192 . a demand to produce online content very quickly. In the second sense of the term. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. Does not require any advanced skills. are built in. such as creating links.

com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning..” Find out more: http://www. Reduce the number of development vendors. which contains information on resources. See a demo at: http://www. manage the content and the users. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources.raptivity.elearningguild. centrally located files.versus high-interaction). 2003). San Francisco: Pfieffer. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.readygo. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.masie.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. and communicate deliverable expectations.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.elearningcentre.co.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Assign SMEs who are committed. Edit. low. http://www.org Web site. computer games. Learning Solutions. See sample templates at: http://www. or where the online information frequently changes.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.com/studio.pdf Aldrich. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.amazon. and other good stuff. http://www.htm Bibliography Abell. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. Enhance. http://www. http://www.microlearning. http://www. January 23. schedule and due dates.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Future-Proofing. To be effective. Kendrick (2006). virtual classroom.scate. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Reusability.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. 2006. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. and Publish. Clark (2005). 2004). Do Not Reproduce 193 .articulate.e.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. conferences. http://www. Templates. version control protocols. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.

LTI Newsline. http://www. http://www. Vignettes for Training White Paper. http://www. Penny (2004).com/content/templat es/clo_article. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.com/showArticle.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.clomedia.com/articles/ab stracts/index. and Bersin.elearningmag.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning. 2004. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. http://vftraining. Chief Learning Officer. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. July 2. http://www.pdf Crosman. Brandon Hall Research .learningcircuits. Josh (2005).ltimagazine. Joe (2005).com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. e-Learning Crop Circles.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald. Ray (2005). July 2004. http://www.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. June 30. 2006. 10. Jennifer (2004). (2004).asp Bersin.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. August 2004. Garin (2004).com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. Ray (2006). Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Chief Learning Officer. Jan. June. Chief Learning Officer.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.pdf Jimenez. Tips and Techniques. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. 2006.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Larstan Business Reports.clomedia. Josh (2004). Rapid Intake White Paper. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.elearningguru.elearningguild. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. Mar. http://www. Kevin (2002). 9. Bill (2005). Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. http://www. LTI Newsline. Making rapid elearning work. Mark (2003). Dianne (2005).transformmag.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. 2002. Lane (2002).elearningguild. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Nov.adobe. J.clomedia. http://www.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. http://www. http://www.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. http://www. tools.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.pdf Brodsky. E-Learning for short attention spans. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Learning Solutions. http://www.jsp?id=150619 Hess. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks.pdf Jimenez. http://www. January.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. http://www. April.pdf Gustafson. Bersin and Associates White Paper. J.htm Bersin.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Jay (2005). Paper. LTI Newsline.bersin.meetingone. Transform Magazine.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006.ltimagazine. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Learning Circuits.

asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Simulation. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.macromedia. http://download. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 .com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. Nick (2005). http://www.learningcircuits. http://www. 2006. Chief Learning Officer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. http://download.com/news story. April 20. http://www. 2005. Eric (2003). What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Clive (2006). February 2005. Learning Solutions. Press release. Stephanie (2006). Learning Circuits. Macromedia White Paper.trainingpressreleases.htm Masie Center (2005).elearningguild. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.com/articles/ default. January 2003.trainingfoundation. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_article.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. January 16. (2004a).pdf Mayberry.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. http://www. Ed (2004).clomedia.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.clomedia.pdf Shepherd. June 2004.macromedia. (2004b). The Training Foundation online article.pdf Macromedia Inc. Macromedia White Paper.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.

Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. http://www.gov. and math. http://mindstorms. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.aad. http://robotics. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. engineering. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.botball. Do Not Reproduce 196 . Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.whmsi.com/ http://www. and mathematics. technology. engineering. Inc.org/aboutbotball/overview. http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. for underwater exploration.active-robots.ife.nasa.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.lego.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.

It features news.edu/~sklar/e r/edu. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.eng.nasa.atr.ac.com/r_home. http://robotics. Do Not Reproduce 197 .jp/ See also: http://www. engineering.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.ams. particularly robotics. and mathematics.sci. one child at a time. go to: http://www. Mr. and other information on robotics.edu/index.cmu. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.gov/rcc/index.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.ed.kipr. links.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. By donning motion sensors. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://www. technology.evolution. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. http://robothaven.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.microworlds.profetic.org/article.net/ Run by NASA. http://www. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.ri.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.irc.osaka-u. http://www.euron.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. http://www.cuny.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.edurobot.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.rec.brooklyn. and vocal tics. http://www. lip movements.

L. M. New York: Syngress Publishing. Ontario.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er. Hohmann.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.. R. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.uml.. Sept. Ottawa.pdf Papert. Yanco.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics. Dobreva.pdf Ferrari. (2004). Mindstorms: Children. B. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and West. June. W. A.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.digicult. Donnelly. Miller. Paper at the American Assoc. S. Robots in the classroom .pdf Stewart.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. and Rusbridge. J. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. (1999). AAATE Conference 1999.tools for accessible education. http://www. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. R. I. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. D. D.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. K. (2005).amazon.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. http://rob. and Loose. D. G. and Dautenhahn.cs. http://zeus. and Wagner.. D... I.. Keating.. M.pdf Nourbakhsh. S. C. M.andrew.l3s. 28-30. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.l3s. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.amazon. http://www.cmu.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. Basic Books. Kumar. Lathan. Ferrari.brynmawr. M. New York.. (2001).pdf Cooper.pdf Blank.. Kumar. Harwin. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. November. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Heinsohn.pdf Boersch.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . D. McHugh. and Yanco. and Mataric. (2004). Germany. D. D. and Meeden.wtec. Proceedings. (2004)..edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. http://www. http://www. and Powerful Ideas. Düsseldorf.ccmlab. U. L.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank. and Hempel. A. http://www. (2004). Abbott. http://www. Sept. H. Germany.. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. (2005). Meeden. H. P. H. Artificial Intelligence Conf.. T. (2001). Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.pdf http://www. http://dangermouse. (1980). Computers. M..fhbrandenburg. http://www.

meta-search engines. federated search. Ezzy (2006a. One is the problem of finding relevant. such as Google and Altavista. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.examples are early yahoo. While search engines have improved over the past several years. data mining. They bring into the equation user preferences. Do Not Reproduce 199 . which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. each with their own defining feature sets. Meta–search engines. a rich user experience. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. collaboration. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. resource discovery. search engine optimization. Web directories. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . Search is probably the most used elearning application.com and Alta Vista. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. information retrieval. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. Examples are Google and Overture. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. which submit queries. as this section of the report shows. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user.so they take the structure of the Web into account. such as Yahoo.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. dependable information. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. in parallel. But. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. collective intelligence. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines.

convera.about.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. Brandon Hall Research . Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.answers.alexa. http://www. http://www.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.altavista.gada. http://search.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. 2004). for a variety of reasons. video.com’s search service http://a9. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.aeiwi.alltheweb. http://www.com/ Answers.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.gigablast.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.com About. http://www.aol. and text. get answers http://www. http://www.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. http://www. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon. http://www.com/ 200 © 2006.faganfinder.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. then fill in the search box. http://www.com Gada. http://www. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.ask.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.

com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://www.com/ 201 © 2006.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.gnod.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.mooter.icerocket.qelix. http://www.lexxe. http://getoutfoxed.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://www. http://dmoz.gravee. http://www.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.pubsub. and the Web.hotbot. http://www. http://www. http://search. http://www. http://www.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. http://search.jookster. http://channels.google.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://www.umdl.msn. http://rollyo. rather than just returning Web pages.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://oaister.squidoo. blogs. http://www.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.netscape.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.com/v2/index.com/ Gravee . http://www.com/ IceRocket – Searches images. http://qube.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. Brandon Hall Research . Shares advertising revenues with content owners.grokker. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.looksmart.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.umich.com/search/def ault.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.otavo.

google.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://citeseer. http://icerocket. Wink then diplays the results.ist. http://scholar.healthfinder. http://www.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.yahoo.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.sri.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.ujiko.ai.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://swicki.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . http://www. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.com/ 202 © 2006.imdb. http://vivisimo.ucr.gov/ http://www. http://www.google. http://froogle. http://www. and movies.blinkx.Clusters results.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.acronymfinder.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.govmine. reviews. http://books.stumbleupon.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://infomine. http://www. http://tagjag.wink.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. books.gpoaccess.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://firstgov.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.com/v2a/flash.google. Much of this information is hidden from view.psu.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.eurekster.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.gnoosic.

fm/ LawCrawler .scirus.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.krugle.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.cfm?doid=105 6808. http://www. http://www.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. Brandon Hall Research .org/citation.nlm. http://www.merl.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. AwesomeLibrary.last.A legal search engine.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006.liveplasma.org/ Omgili . & KidsClick!.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.nih.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.com/ Last.almaden. AolKIDS.imdb. ArtKIDSRule. http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). reviews.koders. http://www. http://www.uni-hannover. http://wwwqbic. cast lists and theatre schedules.pandora.ithaki.omgili.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.ibm.rrzn. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.findlaw.gov/entrez/query.convera.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.ncbi.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www.acm. http://kids. Yahooligans. http://portal. FactMonster.com/ MediaFinder . Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.com/ LitLinker . http://lawcrawler.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.f cgi QBIC .rawsugar.

edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.seekport. http://www.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. companies.4 billion links.nyu.columbia.columbia.psu.searchking. or federated searching.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.searchedu.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web. http://www. Known as “meta-search” engines.cmp. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www.zoominfo. as of this writing. http://www.soundspotter. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. and their relationships. http://www. bookmarks.technorati.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.ee. http://www.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .ee. http://www.ee.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://nlp.cs.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.ist.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://www.psu.com 204 © 2006. http://techsearch. http://a9. Brandon Hall Research . http://wang16.truveo. and tracks a user's search history. and notes.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.columbia. http://smealsearch1.” Content-based search engines for pictures.xcavator. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.

and links the clusters. city guides. weather.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. classifieds. http://www. http://www-rocq.zapmeta. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. jobs. pictures. hotels.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. http://www.inria.uk/ SearchTools.intute. white pages. shopping sites.kartoo. http://www. http://www.info. is a valuable resource for researchers. yellow pages. dating and personals.researchbuzz. health information sources. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .net/indexu. including a set of international telephone directories. audio. http://www.ac. http://www. http://www.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www. video.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.copernic. maps/directions. eBay.trovando. lottery results.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.com/ Info – Searches reference works. http://www. therefore.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.ithaki.searchtools. produces a visual display of the clusters. flights. apartment rentals. movies. http://www.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. and Web mail for the topic entered.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. news sources.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.com/ 205 © 2006.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages. http://vivisimo.dogpile. tickets.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. greeting cards.ixquick.search. games. http://clusty. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://www.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.

com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. First Monday.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index.html 206 © 2006.elearning. http://www.. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. 10(12).netmasters.gov/ http://www.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.ucr. S. http://www.tveyes. http://www.citysearch. the user's community has total control over the results. can be published on the user's site. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. (2005). or swicki.searchenginecolossus.ac. http://swicki.ac.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. For example. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. and Shoham. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://firstgov. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. http://infomine. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. http://www. This search engine. Frank.firstmonday.com/ Stephen Downes. Users can also browse by subject category.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. or topic .html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. December.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. http://www. Unlike other search engines.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. is against the idea of federated searches.downes.co.bolton. Y.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. Brandon Hall Research . phrase.just as a search engine is used for text. http://searchenginewatch.eurekster. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. focused searches on topics they care about. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. A.gpoaccess.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2


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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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2004. (2003). http://www.amazon. The Semantic Web. Nov.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.com/login/sign up. D. Greenwich. (2004). Staab. (2004).. http://www. New York. Wagner. Paper presented at the GLS conference. H. http://www.pdf Tao.pdf Updegrove.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.bbk.marketingprofs. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.. Millard.dcs. A. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.pdf Tao. L. (2004). Davis.info/journals/7_4/5.html Stojanovic.soton. H. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.bcs. (2001). Journal of Educational Technology & Society. http://wwwsop. F. Schmitz. and Gouarderes. and Christodoulou. http://www. December 3.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.. Networks. USA. (2005). Economics and Culture. G. Marketing Profs. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.pdf Tane. John (2004). Karenos. Woukeu. D..shirky.. and Diaz.pdf Sampson. and Woukeu. K.ac. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. http://ewic. New York.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. May 17–22.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. G. R.ifets. A.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. http://www. G.uk/selene/reports/D el3.pdf Shirky. 7.pdf Samaras. CT: Manning.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. 2004.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. C. P.aifb.ecs. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project.ac. D. August 2.asp Udell. (2005). Millard. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. L.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. 2005. Clay (2003). Lytras. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. J. 26-28. G. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. and Stumme.. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. http://eprints. Syllogism. S. E. http://www2004. 2003.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Thomas (2004). and Davis. F.. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. and Worldview. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 213 . 7 (4). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. Andy (2005). and Studer. http://www..unikarlsruhe. M.infoworld.. InfoWorld.inria.

uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). http://www. http://poorbuthappy. January 17.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. 2003. June 21.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson.html Wilson. trust.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. (2003). Scott (2002). and the Semantic Web.ac. 2005. Scott (2005).org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . Darwin.darwinmag.cetis. Scott’s Workblog. Online article. 2002. CETIS Online article.981948.w3. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.guardian. Online article. June 14.00.cetis.10577. B. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. http://education.com/read/swiftkick /column. David (2002).html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.ac. Who said that? Metadata. Peter (2003).co. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. and Miller. L. Semantic Web. http://www. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. http://www.

See a variety of such projects at: http://www.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.” My first report in this series. learn. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.ncsa. role-playing. but information about it remains on the Web. http://www. http://www. reviewed simulations as an online content format. http://sos. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.calt. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). According to High (2004). 2005).icherubini. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. especially ones set by themselves.uiuc. participants will be motivated to evaluate. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.noaa. Do Not Reproduce 215 . This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.e. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. It was decommissioned in 2005.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.gov/ Winters et al. games. microworlds. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.insead. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. i. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. http://cave.calt.insead.

calt.noaa. http://geowall.umich.edu/ http://um3d. It runs on Windows. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.dc. http://www. heart sounds.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.fsl.edcenter. and Mac OS X.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. Do Not Reproduce 216 . However.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning. http://www.berkeley. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.edcenter. Linux.insead. and murmurs.calt.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.insead.shatters.calt.edu/harvey_about.sdsu.insead.lsa. http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator..html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.sdsu.miami.calt. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network." http://www.med. breathing. http://www. they are only available for Macintosh computers. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.edu/geowall/ind ex.net/celestia/index.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.soe.making-history.insead.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. http://www.umich. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. http://crme. pulse rate.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index. http://www. Mass.geo. with many examples to try. http://thinkertools.

KnowledgePresenter Simulator .virtualfishtank.assima. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Knowledge Planet .ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.asp Knowledge Quest . http://www.knowledgeplanet. http://www. http://www.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.experiencebuilders.intermezzon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. go to: http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.biographix.com/ MaxIT . For example.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/ MaxIT .com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .maxit.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .knowledgequest.adobe. http://www.knowledgepresenter.ht m Intermezzon .com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .com/ Forio . http://www.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. http://www.com/ Kookaburra Studios .com/broadcastoverview.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse. http://www.maxit.stt-global.adobe. http://www. to play in a virtual fishtank. http://www.forio. Integrates with many media types.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . without programming knowledge.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second.knowledge-director. create courses specifically on using computer software.atghome.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.ISLE .com/product s/firefly. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.net/ Biographix . http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.

nexlearn.qarbon.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.sdsu.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://coe.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www. http://www.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. http://www. http://www.” http://www.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.com/products/sim.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .co.com/portal/index.percepsys.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. http://www.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.virtualcontrolroom.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. http://www.learning2005.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology. http://www.stagecast. including simulations. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. which can then be used to build simulations.stottlerhenke.teds. http://www.com/3dTraining.com/product_r pe.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.outstart. http://www.reusableobjects.icherubini.elearningcentre. http://www.xstreamsoftware.

http://www.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. http://www.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. Learning Circuits. Sept. 2004. (2005). Learning Circuits. J. Jennifer (2004). A. Kamau (2004). Taghiyareh.. computer games. Clark (2004). A.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. and Wilensky.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. html Bibliography Aldrich. eSchool News. Mazloumian. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.. October 2004. http://www.com/news/showS tory. Six criteria of an educational simulation. F. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Simjour.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources..learningcircuits. T.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook. Shannon (2004).pdf DeVries. 2002.. and Bostan.bbk. Aug.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. San Francisco: Pfieffer.science. June.eschoolnews.PDF Blikstein. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www. Utrecht. A.uk/ccs/elearn/resources.learningcircuits.clomedia.pdf Cherubini. International Workshop. B. (2002). http://www. http://www. and McCloughlin. September. How playing power drives lessons home. http://www. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.learningcircuits. p. The promise of online simulations. Gash. Feb. (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 219 .com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. Learning Circuits. http://www. M. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.htm High. U. Chief Learning Officer. 2004.htm Aldrich. 2004. Financial Times.ft. Rasmussen.com/content/template s/clo_feature.blikstein. In Interaction Design and Children.jibc.uva.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002..htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.ac. 12.medialabeurope.htm eSchool News (2004). http://www.bc. http://www. http://www. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). 8. Making the most of software simulations. Paper presented at Robocup conference. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Clark (2005).com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. H. P.amazon. http://www. Holland. Bjorn (2004). 4.

Aaron (2005).html Sobeih.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. & de Jong.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Florida.html Winters.dei. 1(10). Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. September. Viswanathan.pdf Swaak. C. (2001).prospect. 1997. Montréal. Online paper at: http://lsm.ncassr. http://www. USA.case studies. http://www.pdf Tjaden.ht m Sloman.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. 17.icherubini.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.projects. http://www. Computer simulations in distance education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. A.. T. Laser. A. Department of Computer Science.bham. (2001). Simulation levels in software training. http://www. N... October.protonmedia.learningcircuits.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. L. and Strohecker. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. M. 8(31). Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. 284-294.-Apr.. and Hou..pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. A. R. April. (2003). Fort Lauderdale. (2004).ac. http://www. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. Cherubini. http://www.html Linser. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. M.uc. Sherry (1997). Les (2004).. July.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. and Ip. Learning Circuits. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. A. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.html Lunce.simplay. J. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. and Sund Martin. Online report. In Association for Computing Machinery.for Philosophers and Engineers. October 15-19. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . http://itdl.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. (2002). Mar. Implementation and Evaluation. J. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.pdf Turkle.cs. Gary (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer. http://www. The American Prospect. AACE conference.net/papers/ELearning.

ala. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. easily changed. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. They are programmable and. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. especially for tagging retail items in stores. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. 2005).. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. infrared (IR) tags. For a full discussion of this issue. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. therefore. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. or water. which transmits over short distances. optical tags. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Do Not Reproduce 221 . especially in museums and for outdoor education. http://www.org/Template.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. While controversial. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. RFID technology is developing rapidly. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. grease.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay.

K. A.org/ Bibliography Borck. April 13. S. (Eds. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags.iu. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. A.aace. Oct. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. Noma.aace.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.infoworld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. 2005.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly. http://www. http://www. Noda.iu. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. Shibuya.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.checkpointsystems. http://www. http://uitspress. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. Osawa. N.digicult.edu/102605_meal. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton.cfm?fus http://www. T. G.csmonitor. http://www.toydirectory. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. James (2006).pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses...com/monthly/articl e.)..com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. (2004). (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites... K. Infoworld.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn. http://cnm.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. & Kondo. especially for tagging retail items in stores. C.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 .ac. (2005). 5. P. symbology tags.edu/index.. http://www. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal.rfidnews. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.. http://www. June 27.org/newdl/index. in a 2005 online article. http://www.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining. In Kommers. & Richards.com/default .open.” http://vis.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. Ando. and Case..html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. 2004.msu.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02.html (Online).asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Tsukagoshi.

org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. Masters Thesis. (2006). Donnelly. Corey (2004).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc. standards.toydirectory. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Proceedings. S. Ogata. H.eschoolnews. van Kranenburg. 2004. and Backhouse.pdf Robinton. (2003).org/news/showstor y.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. R. Technology Watch Report 1. (2005).asp?id=1222 Ross. M. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). M. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Y. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Andrew (2005).computer. eSchool News Online.. G. http://www. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. January 1..msu.jisc.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal. http://www. 261-263. March.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602.com/monthly/article .. and Dobreva. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. TD Monthly.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 . http://www. Aparna (2004).xml&DOI=10. http://csdl2. 4(3).2005. http://www. M.pdf Salcedo.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran..digicult. adoption and innovation. Michigan State University.ac. and Yano.1109/WMTE. R. http://www. RFID: frequency.66 Ward.

a visualization of what users as a group think is important. ontologies. they act as an “outboard memory. The result is something called a tag cloud. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. For instance. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.us) post their favorite Web sites. faculty. no matter their location or timing. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. music. as each member can upload resources discovered. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. researchers at all levels (students. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Flickr held over 100 million images. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. in turn. or distributed in emails. Students. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. tagging. search. Fourth. Fifth. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. while users of the del. Second. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. printouts.icio. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Third.” However.First. For example. metadata.icio. and Web links. As of April 2006. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. and books. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.us Web site (http://del. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. Do Not Reproduce 224 . Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. scattered across different browser bookmark settings.

org/ Consumating . They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. get inspired.A free service to help academics share. Blink also provides tools to sort. users submit stories for review.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. blogging. and to share them.com/archives/beta_up date/index.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. http://www. music.net/ CiteULike . http://www. http://ask. http://www. They can save references.clipmarks.feedmarker. http://www. search others’ references.icio. and non-hierarchical editorial control. Also. or check out what everyone wants to do.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.43things. and/or books and find them again. http://www.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. connect with others. store.citeulike.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. share references with colleagues. http://del. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. http://www.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. but. http://blog. http://blogmarks.connotea. search.us/ Digg . Also retrieve it easily. http://consumating. the users decide.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.furl.icio. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. Do Not Reproduce 225 . share their stories. With digg.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. http://www.com Clipmarks .A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.blinklist.com/ Flickr – Store. RSS. describe.eventful. http://flickr.us .net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.metafilter.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. sort. and share photos with others. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. and organize the academic papers they are reading.digg. and search for a specific user's Blinks.com/ Blinklist .com/ Furl . users can see what others are Blinking.com/ Del.

similar to Digg.org/news. Tags can be shared or kept private.linkroll. or enter new items and tag them.com/ Project Pad . open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. based on what is happening in the news media.com/ Jots .gnolia.search. http://www. http://www.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://ma.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .northwestern.netvouz.jookster.spurl.com/ Simpy – Search tags. http://www.yahoo.eu/products/networ k_menus.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.kaboodle. http://www. updated in near real time. http://www.pageflakes.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.html Linkroll .simpy.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. http://www. and discover relevant links.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. share. http://www.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com/ Kaboodle .com/ Magnolia .html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. http://jots.netscape.memeorandum.smugmug.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . http://myweb2.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.rojo. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. http://www. http://www.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://www. http://www.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.A free.edu/ppad2 /index.networkltd. http://www.shadows. http://www. http://projectpad.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.

http://www. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell. http://www.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.zvents.com/archives/00055 8. http://www.icio. http://www.com/ SWiK . Flickr. http://www.educause.veotag.peterme.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. If a city is not there.com/index. and social bookmarking.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.wink. http://upcoming.A.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.quickonlinetips.html http://tagsonomy.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://www. and share it with others.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www. tags.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www. http://weblog.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.” http://www. http://www.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . http://tabblo. and Digg. http://unalog.quickonlinetips.infoworld.quickonlinetips.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.yelp.S. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.us.us.icio.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.com Wists – A social shopping site.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. with contributions from users.suprglu.html http://www.com/udell/gems/d elicious.tagzania. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. http://swik.html http://atomiq. http://www.wists.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.

B.plasticbag... The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. http://dlib. Andy (2006).289142. 2005.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. 2005.ejournal. T. April 2005.org.html McGillicuddy. T. Flack. Lund. Shamus (2006). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. http://www. Liz (2005).html Coates. and Hannay. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing. April 2005. June 21. Tom (2005). D-Lib Magazine.ht ml Mejias. B. May 5.fasfind..typepad.. http://ideant. SearchCIO. 41(2).com/wwwtools/m /6350. Web 2.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. Adam (2004). 2006.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Tom.pbs.” http://magazines. http://www.html Lawley. (2005).net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. Hannay.fasfind. 11(4). Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.com/wwwtools/m /7172. 2. D-Lib Magazine.corante. 11(4). T. http://searchcio.html Mathes.dlib.pdf 228 © 2006. S. T.adammathes.sid19_gci1195182.hpl. Keynote address. March/April 2006.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://www.shtml Golder.ascc. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). (2005).org/teachersource/learning . Online paper. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. Bryan (2006). Many2Many. http://tomgruber. Sept..com/originalCo ntent/0.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. 2006.pdf Gurber. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .techtarget.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. Jan. HP Labs Report. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. http://many.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Ulises (2004). Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. http://www. 20.. B. J.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Huberman. Social consequences of social tagging. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.00.hp. (2005). http://www. Plasticbag. and Scott.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. M. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. (2005).com.htm Hammond.php Lund. Hammond.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.

August 20. Webblogg-ed.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . Trusted Sources.isi.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. 2.html Udell. Tags vs. Jon (2005). 2005.typepad.weblogged. http://www. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Will (2005).pdf Richardson. July 20. http://ideant. 2004.infoworld. Aug. Nicholas (2004). InfoWorld. Ulises (2005). 2005.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. InfoWorld. Online Paper. May 20. Ideant.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1.html Mote. Jon (2004). The New School of Ontologies.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. http://www.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. http://www. Tag mania sweeps the Web. 2005.infoworld. http://www.

etc. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. photo sharing sites. shared link libraries such as del. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. etc. My first report in this series. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs.com. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. social software. photo albums. family. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. communities of practice. shared links. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. Friendster.us. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. SMS. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. 2005). etc. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors.) Relationship Management (Orkut.al. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et.icio.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. dating sites. reviewed social networking as an online content format. online personals such as Match. tagging. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. social networking sites such as Friendster. Do Not Reproduce 230 . etc.com.” that is. e-mail.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.) Experience Sharing (blogs. e-mail.

orkut.linkedin.livejournal. or as a social network. http://www.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. http://www.faceparty.myspace. which is then open to other readers.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.friendster.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Do Not Reproduce 231 . and geographic regions. http://www. work.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software.diaryland.codeville.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. Share it with others if desired.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. http://www. and within “communities of interest. https://www.com/ Orkut . while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks.com/signin/index. http://www. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. List who a person knows and find out who others know.com/introNetwor ks. as a blog. video. audio.” http://www.my-diary. Facebook has networks for colleges.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.html Last.facebook. http://www.esnips.classmates. high schools. https://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. http://www.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.com/ Live Journal . and the military. http://www. workplaces.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. in associations.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. http://www.intronetworks.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. http://www. and files and then make them available to others. http://www.freeopendiary. documents.last. photos. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.

com/ucinet.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.orgnet. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. Brandon Hall Research .html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.xanga.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.yahoo.com/hijackers. http://www.pbwiki.analytictech.netminer. http://www.analytictech. http://www.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College. http://360. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.com/inflow3.stumbleupon. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/reg/sample. Users share their writings and meet each other.html Org.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.pbs. http://platial.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.” http://www.typepad. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. upload photos.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software. http://www. http://www.html 232 © 2006.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.orgnet.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.com/index.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. coupled with NetDraw. http://www. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U. http://ideant.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.orgnet. http://www. Columbia University.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.S. check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://jnthweb.com/index. This software produces great graphs of social networks. intelligence (1993-2001). see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://www. http://www. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.spartasocialnetworks. It costs several thousand dollars.

lifewithalacrity. Virtual Canuck. http://en.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://www. 28.futurelab. KM and the Social Network.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo. 13.com/xq/asp/sid. Oct.net/ssa/index.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.co. Nov.. Christopher (2004). Patti (2003). Knowledge Management Magazine. Groups.socialtext. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. http://www1. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 .usemod. http://www2.elsevier. Educational Social Overlay Networks. but. Verna (2004). 32(4).theworkfoundation. Life with Alacrity. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. http://www. http://www. 2005. http://www.wikipedia.odnetwork.org.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.edublogs. http://www. http://www.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software.html Allen.analytictech.ucr. http://faculty. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.html Anderson.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu. http://www. http://www. see the list in Wikipedia. Terry (2005).elearningcentre.com/cgibin/mb. http://www.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. http://terrya.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me..nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.insna. May 2003.pdf Bibliography Allee. OD Practitioner. 2004.kmmagazine. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web.jsp SocioSite: Networks.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites.fmg.uva.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking.

. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. Stowe (2003b). Vol.pdf Cross.. 44. March 2005. 2005. Stephen (2005). L. William (2003). (2002). January 2004. Social Capital & Social Software. The Barriers of Content and Context. Liedtka. The Hidden Power of Social Networks.com/read/050103/ social. http://www. S.com/read/090103/ social.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard. (2002). Distance and E-Learning. The Work Foundation. http://www. California Management Review. R... R. http://www. R. Dead Already? PC World. No.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. Linked: The New Science of Networks. May 2003.. Stephen (2004). http://www.contentdirections. Borgatti. Winter 2002. http://doi. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. Harvard Business Review. July 12. Feb.html Boyd. http://harvardbusinessonline. and Prusak. and Parker.00. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.1225/R0503H Cross.html Boyd.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. You Don't Know Me.downes. Darwin.eurodl.1 648185. http://www. http://harvardbusinessonline.com/read/010104/ context.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.theworkfoundation.htm Davies. but. Cracking the social code. http://www. (2002). R. http://www. 11.html Dvorak. http://www. Christian (2006). Cambridge.downes.analytictech.darwinmag. and Weiss. Stowe (2004). A. A. Feb. 2004 http://www.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 .1759. L.com/article2/0. Harvard Business Review.pcmag.harvard . A.harvard .darwinmag. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. MA.jsp Downes. http://www. John (2004). and Parker.amazon. September 2003.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. Stowe (2003a). European Journal of Open. OLDaily.ca/cgibin/page. 2. September 20. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. MA: Harvard Business School Press. June 2002.hbsp.ca/files/osn. Business Networking Systems. Stephen’s Web. 14. J. Cambridge.hbsp. (2005).darwinmag.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10. Perseus Publishing. The Semantic Social Network.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. (2004).com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. Darwin. Research Report. L. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.html Cross.

http://lrs. How to Save the World Blog. Seven Principles of Social Networking. Sayers. New York: Little.. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet..pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Research Report. 2006. Allan (2006). Hauser.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. Social Software and Learning.com/html/s+b%20arti cle.futurelab. Oliver.html Do Not Reproduce 235 .com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. http://repositories. and Foster. (Online book). Brown.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business.netform. 29. Introduction to Social Network Methods. J.ed. Zucker.wun..org.h tml (Review) Gladwell. A.cdlib. Dec. M. L. Social Networks. and Facer. Eva (2003). Malcolm. Ulrike.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite.pdf Levine.pdf Jordan. Lanham. K. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. http://www.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.net/ir/reviews/revs163. Research Report.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14.net/AugmentedSocial Network. First Monday.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel. (2001). Riverside. (2004). 21. S. M. 15. August. Southhampton. http://www. CA: University of California. Caroline (2005). Social software in action (No real software required).pdf Pollard. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. http://asn. and Brewer (1994).org/cgi/viewconte nt.salon. Online paper. CogDogBlog.. (2005). (2006). David (2005a). D. L.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. and Riddle. http://www. S. R. Art (2003). UK: Futurelab. July 14. April 15. http://faculty.. 2005.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. A. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning.htm http://www. No.learningcircuits. Feb. K. Grant. (2003). (Eds. 8(8). Institute for Social Science Research.amazon.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust.). (2000).planetwork. & Barney. Bristol.learningcircuits. http://www.ac. Learning Circuits. http://blogs. J.uiuc.. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. (in 2 parts) http://www.ucr.htm Kleiner. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. http://cogdogblog.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. 2005. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice.

http://informatics. Social Network Analysis. How to Save the World Blog. 2005. Social Software presentation. Learning Circuits. http://blogs.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. Scott. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). 2005. David (2005c). March 9.1 842806. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. Salthe. Rescuing social networking. Molly (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. How to Save the World Blog. 2. D. http://www.edu/rocha/ises. 2005.salon. Luis M. David (2005b).ht ml Sessums.htm Tosh.pcmag. Nov. CA: Sage Publications. Connectivism: learning as network creation. May 5. 11.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. June 2. How to Save the World Blog. Christopher (2006a). The social networking landscape. 2003. Lance (2005). Van de Vijver.learningcircuits. (1998).h tml Shirky.com/article2/0.Organization. 9(9).firstmonday. and Raefali S. http://elgg.html Pollard. http://blogs. 2005. (2004). http://www. Thousand Oaks. B.salon. http://www.). (2005). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. CNET. 8. Delpos (eds. 2006. Jan. George (2005).salon.sagepub. Clay (2003). Kluwer Academic Publishers. 23.asp Wood. Nov. http://www.net/csessums/weblog/6238. http://www. Draft paper online.html Ravid. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet. September. http://eradc. Elgg: Community Learning Space. G. John (2000).net/csessums/weblog/13748.html Do Not Reproduce 236 .shirky. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. David (2005d). Aug.com/4520-6033_16240543-1. In: S. and Werdmuller. June 16. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self.00. 2006.html Pollard.com/booksProdDesc. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. Social network analysis: what to map.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.h tml.cnet. http://elgg. G. and M.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens. Social software and the politics of groups. pp. Aug. Christopher (2006b).html Siemens. http://www. 341-358. 2005.pdf Ulanoff. First Monday.indiana. http://blogs. Learning and Computing.1895.com/writings/group_poli tics. Teaching.

are also available. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. When it is fully successful. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV).g. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. share files and documents. another person while communicating via the Web. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. 2001).com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. 2001.hp. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging.hp. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. In 2000. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.html http://www. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. and shout over each other to try to be heard. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. just like during a real meeting. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. cameras.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. 11. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions.com/halo/index. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. Do Not Reproduce 237 . retrieving. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. presentation tools. presence..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. as if they were in the same room. http://www. "online" or "offline") of other users. and the sense of contact with. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence.” but other more elaborate technologies.

with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. in every sense.ebuddy. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .unizar.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.org/teleimmersion2. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.jabber. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence.uk/ind ex. http://www.strath. BSD. secure.org/teleimmersion.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.net/ Jabber – An open. http://get.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.advanced. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. MacOS X.dmem. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.open. http://gaim. http://www.ac. http://www-142.' http://cnm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. http://messenger.advanced.yahoo. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. http://laimuz.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.sourceforge.com/index. http://telepresence. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.percro.ht ml http://www." http://www.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. the CAVE.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://www.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.aim.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.live.ibm.fakespace. and Windows. http://www. http://www. The driver sits in a box. at a physically remote real world site. This would enable the user to experience being fully present.

J. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://www.. and Naeve. A. W. (Eds.pdf Knudsen. http://www.org Bibliography Dreyfus. http://www. September 24.kth. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.ietf. Donnelly. 6. and Pejas. http://www.html Goldberg.. Presence applications poised for takeoff. On the Internet. London: Routledge. January 2005. http://www. and IJsselsteijn. http://www. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.kth. and Rusbridge. Online memo.acs. (Eds. (2005). Amsterdam: IOS Press. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Alberta.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.virtual-presence. Network World.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.com/news/culture/0.html Riva. Regina (2004). Ins and outs of teledildonics.amazon.. http://cid. Abbott.se/pdf/CID-206. C. J.pdf When it is fully successful. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. MA: MIT Press.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. Banff.nada.) (2003). Davide.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. 2002.amazon. June 1.pdf Lynn. McHugh.. S. as well as news.wired. Cambridge. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).digicult. Ken (Ed.65 064-0.org/rfc/rfc2779.berkeley. (2002). http://www. In Soldek.networkworld. M..no/at/nmm/enlund. 2004. Wired News.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. Being There: Concepts.txt Knudsen. http://www2. http://kmr. L. Do Not Reproduce 239 .nada. Dobreva. and Handberg.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. F. D. Hubert (2001). history. A. M. Naeve. Calgary. Nils (2000). Sept. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. (2001).) (2000). Network Working Group (2000).ieor. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. C.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. G.hig. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.pdf Fontana.. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. A. John (2004). A. 44-49.

Knudsen. Germany: Hagen. InfoWorld. (Eds. (2001).Learning.pdf Udell. and Handberg.org/docum ents/Sponberg. Jan. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. L..modes. H. In Hoyer. http://www. C. http://www.infoworld.swedishlearninglab.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . et al. 28.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. Jon (2005). H. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.

Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. PDAs. tlearning. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. My first report in this series. videocasting. the largest Internet telephone service. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. vlog Description Video. However. video blogging. streaming video. amateur and professional video cameras. cell phones. IPTV. A new version of television. reviewed video as an online content format. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. 2002). IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Video. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Do Not Reproduce 241 . vodcasting. Once video goes on the Internet. bandwidth becomes an issue. in all its formats. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. in all its formats. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. even a video plug-in for Skype. screencasting. Video blogging has become common. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 2005). telepresence. television. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). is an essential part of learning in today’s world.

http://www.dmeurope.rocketboom. and maintains loyalty. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. a three-minute videoblog. Britain's largest telecom firm.apple. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. See samples at: http://www.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. cell phones.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.google.com.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .ar/iptv_en. It is still going strong at: http://www.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.co.medialogic. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. PDAs.org/ In 1999. with IPTV.com/index_about. partners. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. http://video. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.axor. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. improves the satisfaction of the client. even a video plug-in for Skype. http://www. BT.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. voice.dfilm.uk/index.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. the Internet telephone service. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. http://participatoryculture. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.com/default. As the following examples show. the “triple play” of video. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. or students through a high quality.on2. http://www. amateur and professional video cameras. In spite of the limitations. see Rocketboom. http://www. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. employees.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. low bandwidth video stream. the largest Internet telephone service. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.rocketboom. http://www. and multimedia content to customers. video. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.html Dialcom Networks. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. http://www.brightcove.com For an example of a video blog. http://www. according to Foroohar (2006).

addictingclips. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning. http://www.dvguru.navy. and visual resources. http://www.co. PDA.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.spider.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.veoh.” Users can upload video clips for free.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.com/seeds/index. read “Ten video sharing services compared.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. https://www.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. cellular.com/pressreleas es.elearningcentre.concord.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.youtube.ourmedia.org/ At YouTube. http://vpb.com Do Not Reproduce 243 . and divide them into chapters or segments.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video. video.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. desktop. http://www.veotag.bittorrent. For example. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.google.com/nara.xstreamengine. http://www. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. or set-top box. See the current selection at: http://video. http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.bittorrent. http://www.mil/index. tag them.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. See examples at: http://www. http://eduscapes. whether dial-up.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.com/ BitTorrent.” http://www.hpc. http://www.

htm Do Not Reproduce 244 .htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.” http://www.wharton. http://www. P. by alphabet.com/webconf/video. Pradeep (2004). http://www. D.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media. www.mefeedia. which users can submit.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.educause. http://www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.lsda.masternewmedia.500 vlogs organized by popularity. http://www.elearnspace. http://www. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. (2003).org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.com/article.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.uk/tlearning/contents. The site already contains nearly 6.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. t-learning Study . Peter (2003).thinkofit.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.org. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere. Online article at: http://www.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.” http://knowledge.pdf Bardia.masternewmedia.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. and Bates.edu/articl e.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.masternewmedia. but business models are fuzzy.org/doing/media. http://www.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. termed “mobile television.pjb.co.upenn.streamingmedia.iptv-industry.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.” http://www.uk/files/pdf/1443. and by tags.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.” http://www.

apple. University of Missouri.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Networking Pipeline.com/showArt Thornhill. Online paper. The IPTV Revolution.). Brian (2002). NC: Duke University. 2005. Robin Good Blog. 2005. Feb.com/id/8018601/si 8. Newsweek (International Ed.amazon.cfm?fusea . http://www1.). Telcos face http://www-rcf.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi. 7.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.campustechnology.) (2002). Rana (2005). Robin Good Blog. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. and Young. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. P.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Wi-Max. http://www. Matthew (2005).umist. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. Changing Channels. Foroohar. Campus Technology.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. Mon.bcr.usc. http://www. http://www. April 26. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. Beyond Wireless Broadband. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. 417-419). and Swenson. discussions and Curtis. 2005. C. 2.networkingpipeline. Wi-Fi. Peter (2005). Manchester.htm Canali De Rossi. G.pdf tough road deploying IPTV.org/newdl/index.masternewmedia.com/article. Asensio. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2. 1. 8-9.htm IBM (2006). 2005.masternewmedia. M. Brian (2005). Luigi (2005b).ibm. http://www. (2005). 2005.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. Jonathan. IBM Institute for Business Value study. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. implications. http://edmarketing.aace. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. (Ed. L.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. June 6.. S. (Eds. Friedman. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.pdf ction=Reader.ac. Durham. Goldfarb. Dec.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .pdf http://www. (2003). Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.msnbc.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle. In Richards.msn. Dec. 2005. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. http://www.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Tom (2005). Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. Nov.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. Luigi (2005a).pdf Klass.asp?id=7769 Meng.

Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. http://solipsis.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. Depending on the level of realism achieved. distributed virtual environments. mixed reality. exchange enabling.kahootz. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. By using aspects of game play. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. Near Eastern. http://www. interaction. and the aim of the virtual experience. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.org. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Videoconferencing is not required. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world.futurelab. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. http://www. augmented virtuality. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.arts. simulation. and Religious Studies department. The space is persistent. Do Not Reproduce 246 .html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. inventors. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. http://www1.columbia.cs. skin color.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. designers. http://ancient. desktop virtual reality. Creed.ca/index.ubc.net/wiki2/index. To do this.netofpeers. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. and storytellers. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.

ac. and the aim of the virtual experience. For example.hpc.html The U. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).mil/index. including education.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.ahds. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. Shape has developed the augurscope.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). http://www.org/highlights/augur. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.com/edu/index.com http://www. https://www.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.activeworlds.html http://vads. http://vrlab. http://www. http://www. http://www.ac.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.ch/About/about_index. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.spider. http://www.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.healthdatamanagement.equator.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.opencroquet.epfl.ahds.navy. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.org/index.S.ac.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.secondlife.shapedc. Do Not Reproduce 247 . http://www. http://www.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.informationinplace.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.ergonetz. http://vads.

Campus Technology.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3. (2001). T.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. and Tsiatsos.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. (2006). 175-199. T. A.. 28. 24.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.learningcircuits. Technology Area .coe. http://ru6.edu/vrel. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Trend: augmented reality check. 27. http://ru6. August 9. 2004.00.1314022. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. http://ru6. Eva (2004). C. G. and Tsiatsos. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Dec. Learning Circuits. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. and Tsiatsos. Virtual teaching aids become a reality.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4.campustechnology. http://courseweb. Sept.intuition-eunetwork.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). 2006. Robin Good Blog. http://www.. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . J.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. Research report.htm Dickey. Guardian Unlimited. http://www. http://www. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.uk/elearning/ story/0. (2001). http://education.pdf Bouras. Philopoulos. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. 2004.pdf Bouras.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. East Carolina University.oln.unt.htm Bibliography Bouras. Stephen (2004). http://vr. and Hicks. Hornig. Luigi (2004).pdf Hoare.10577.co. T.guardian.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77.ecu.cti. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. Triantafillou.html Jones. C.masternewmedia. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Michelle (2003)..pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. http://www. G. Sept.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.com/article.cti.cti. (2004). http://www. 2004. C. V.

C. M. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. (2005). Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Istanbul.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen.unihannover.actapress. Proceedings.. R. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. Gerard (2002). D.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . Proceedings.pdf Katterfeld. Bertolotto. https://www. Web-based Education 2005 conference. T.com/Reference.com/PaperInfo. http://www. (2004). (2005).pdf McArdle. A. Dobreva.. January 2005. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.edu.com/PaperInfo.cs. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. (2005). and Rusbridge. 2004.tcd. Conlan. Web Based Education 2005 conference. M. Lister. Donnelly. M. G.. O. M.icc2005.digicult. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. (Section on Virtual Reality). (2002).. S. Ekaterina (2005).ikg.eng. & Sester. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. http://www. A. and Sester.ie/Owen. 1. and Mangina. P. and Seyedarabi. Abbott. C.monash.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. F. La Coruna/Spain. 2005.actapress.elearning. http://www. No. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Vol. http://www.org/htmleng/english. M. M. F.p df Prasolova-Førland. P. 1(2). (2005). July 9-16. and White.actapress. http://www.unibo.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. McHugh.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. 35..pdf Ross. Petridis.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.. E. http://www. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences..html Liarokapis.. http://www.. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. ISPRS. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Monahan.

Humans analyze visual information better than written text. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. The educational advantages of visualization are many. Flash. Finally. My first report in this series. images. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money.ucar. dynamic displays. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. geographical information systems. et al. Do Not Reproduce 250 . pattern recognition. See some amazing demos at: http://www. 2005). visualization can represent alternative points of view. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. mapping. data filtering. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. On the other hand. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. and data rendering. location based systems. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators.inxight. cognitive collage. reviewed visualization as an online content format. data mapping. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. cybercartography.dpc. 2003). learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. graphics. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. GIS. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. allowing for innovation or new understandings.

see ZoomClouds.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human. delivery.com/solutions. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.semagix. http://www.html http://www.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. such as a blog.” http://richie. VR.bham. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.edu/index.ubc. which showcases their potential. Museum Edition.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.esa.0 as an approach authoring system.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.vrco.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography. http://www.tmm.ddd. http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. http://www.nlm. For an example.pdf tracking.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. http://www. and will require visualization applications.alice.zoomclouds.cs. http://www. and display (without glasses!).ontopia. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode. allowing 2-D image stitcher.ul.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. whatsoever.idc. See: to education. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. http://www.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.unifiedfield. http://www.nih. http://www. Free demo at: ew_68. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.typorganism. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.esrin.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .net/omnigator/models/i ndex.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.vista.ac. http://www.utexas.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.

com Web site in Tokyo.medibolt. http://makingmaps.lecielestbleu.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. April 7th.net/omnigator/models /index.medtropolis.com/index.com/VBody.”’ BBC News. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.mit.bbc. a young graphic designer.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. http://chatcircles. http://www.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. It has images of space and the earth from space.cs. http://www.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .html For a practical application of visualization.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. Sample the collection at: http://svs.gsfc.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality. 2004.gov/index.in English or Spanish.at/home. http://www. http://www.” http://www. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. http://www. Sample their efforts at: http://www.com/solutions. See his list of resources at: http://www.html 252 © 2006.edu/postcartoaag06.semagix.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.indiana. http://www.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.nasa. See their tool set and examples of their work.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .marumushi.skyscraper.feedtank.nixlog.org/timeformations/ intro. http://news.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.media.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.ontopia. http://www.owu.vrvis.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. Be sure to explore the “zoo.co.edu/ Paul Nixon.

ibm.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.corda.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. at the University of Maryland. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.umd.unifiedfield.com WorkPlace .arcscience.html Top Tier http://www.ambientdevices. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. http://www. in the U.xcelsius.htm Using time as an added dimension.http://www.org/about.com/omni. and information presentation. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.cs. for example.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .nlm.mccrackendesign.html XCelsius .http://www.com/index.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.amnh. http://www.microsoft. http://www.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com http://www. anatomically detailed. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.idashboards. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.nih.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://research. http://www.com/applicatio n. http://www.com CenterView .com/cat/dashb oard/index.spotfire. http://clustrmaps.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.html How do users visualize very large data sets. retrieval.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.noaa. See this technology in action.http://www. one million items.gfdl.vicodi. http://www.S.

com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. Didger.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. and.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. http://www. http://www. They have worked with the U.microsoft.timemap.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.golden.esri.media. and anomalies in data.mapinfo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.advizorsolutions. http://www. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. Grapher. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. MapViewer. associations. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.S. Strater. for 3-D data visualization. http://tangible. trends. http://www.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.mit.oziexplorer. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.softill.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. http://www. http://www. http://www. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://www. http://www.musanim.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. including the following: Voxler.visualanalytics. for 2D and 3-D graphing. networks.com/mam/mam.intergraph. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://research.topozone.

shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. http://www.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. Carrara.accurender.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://www. P.iu.formz. for 3-D modeling. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.agocg.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.pixologic.. http://www. and rendering. Following are two: http://graphics.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www. http://www. http://www. modeling. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.” http://vis.edu/index. http://www. is available online. animation.visualthesaurus. together with their estimated depth of influence.okino. http://coe.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.” http://www.edu/eet/ Ell.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 .cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.stanford.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.ubc. and rendering software.masternewmedia. Try a demo at: http://www. http://www. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. including the following: Bryce. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.sdsu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.ac.topicmap. Clicking a related term extends the process.cs.daz3d. http://www.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.com/vc/index.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.com Pixologic is 2.visualcomplexity.liveplasma. for 3-D landscaping and animation. many of which are unique.

com/ Bibliography Alpert. J. He finished his PhD. Lugano..editlib.htm http://www.edu/research/resea rch.complexityscience. les réseaux. both visualization companies. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language.complexityandeducation. http://www.mit.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . J. Working Paper. 14(1).fakespace. Madison: University of Wisconsin. B.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. 3149 http://www. EXYSTENCE network. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. http://www. and Resetarits. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. Paier.amazon.. (Eds. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.org/index. http://www.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Sherman (2003).) (1999).vrco. (2003). http://www.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.gatech. G.com/ http://www. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.net/printRec. pp.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.edwardtufte.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. Mackinlay.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. and Shneiderman. Proceedings.infovis.mit. les cartes. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. http://acg. http://www. http://www. J.usilu. A.pdf Bergmann. 1-34. http://www. Paris: La Haye. and Woodill.gatech.gvu. Switzerland: University of Lugano.istituti. http://acg.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.topicmaps. http://www.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.media. Jacques (1983). (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.media.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.gvu. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. Luca (2003). K. The Semiology of Graphics. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. M.pdf Bertin.ualber ta. Jacques (1967).

3(1). (2006). http://www. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. May/June.pdf Goldfarb.com/article. Abbott. http://www. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. Luca (2005).html Ross. A. M. Brian (2002).DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark. (1992). and Bertoline. http://createdrealities.educause. International Journal on E-Learning. Morales. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Brent (2006). (1998). K. http://www. A.ac. (2005).siggraph.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi.. (2005). 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. and Knezek. and Pagalthivarthi. S. J. K. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.. http://www. C.K.com/publications.org/index. A.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. http://nivea. S. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.agocg.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.. June 1. 3. 329-351. available online at http://www.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. K. 4(1). Theresa (1998). Durham.campustechnology. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Canadian Journal of Psychology.univparis5.. Educational Media International. Dobreva.html Madhavan. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. http://www. January 2005. 2005. 69-82.psycho. McHugh. and Rusbridge. D. J. G. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.fr/CanJ/CanJ. September. http://www. 17-30.digicult. EDUCAUSE Review.elearningguild. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. G. L.aace. M. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. (Section on Visualization). (2005). and Woolsey. (2005).com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.cfm/files/paper _5994. http://www.amazon. 16(4).asp Mittal. Ruth (2003).com/articles/abst racts/index.editlib. August 11. eLearning Developers’ Journal.asp?id=11222 Metros.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. 41(3). P. Arns.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . Siggraph. Vol.html Rhyne. 42. Campus Technology.org/dl/index..org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Donnelly. No. 46: 461-488. http://itdl.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. NC: Duke University.ht m O'Regan. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.

com/tufte/index Ware. Cheshire. http://www. M. Harlow. http://www. B. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Spence. http://www. (2001). Sharpe. http://www. Computers. Information Visualization. Matt (2002).E. Robert.amazon. Yvonne (1996). From multimedia to multisensory education. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www. 45.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman. http://www. Edward (1997). Reading.edwardtufte. http://www. Fall.org/threshold Tufte.indiana. Cheshire. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Colin. (2004). 185–213 http://www. 2.amazon. 2nd Edition. No. (2004).com/tufte/index Tufte.com/tufte/index Tufte. CT: Graphics Press. England: AddisonWesley. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Threshold. Vol.ciconline. August. Digital Information Graphics. Edward (2001). David (2002). CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. Visualization. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.slis.Visualization Technologies Scaife.edwardtufte.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley.amazon. Edward (1990). Information Visualization: perception for design. 4th Edition. http://www. Cheshire. pp.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. 2nd Ed. Mike and Rogers.amazon. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.pdf Shneiderman. Amsterdam: Elsevier. David (2005). evidence and narrative. Brandon Hall Research . Envisioning Information. CT: Graphics Press.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. and a microphone. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. Internet telephony is relatively simple.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. in remote communities. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. http://www. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. requiring an Internet hookup. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. but it is rapidly improving. http://www.envisioninc. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. Do Not Reproduce 259 . Internet telephony. http://www. headphones or speakers. 1996). Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.skype.elearningcentre.infoworld.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.jajah.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. http://www.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. Using VoIP. communications tools. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.co. http://www. http://www.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.avaya.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. In the near future. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.

spectrum. 260 © 2006.pdf Ganchev.ac. http://ieeexplore.pdf Ottoson.cogs.nald.voipreview.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . http://www. Robert (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. (2005). I.ieee. 9(3).susx..org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. March 2005. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. S. M.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. Brandon Hall Research .pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.msu. IEEE Spectrum Online. http://llt. Join the discussion at: http://voip. Stojanov. http://www. http://www.org/xpl/freeabs_all.weblogsinc. and O’Droma.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.ieee. Mobile distributed e-learning center.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. http://www. 9-12. Language Learning and Technology.org Bibliography Cherry. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. but it is rapidly improving. Meredith (1996). Steven (2005).uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Geraldine (2005). September.

1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment.ices. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. http://www. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. For example. The entire system.ppt In January 2006. http://wearables.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.learnexact. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.co.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. managing.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.cs. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. including batteries. including wearable computing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. http://killer. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. training to do their jobs.ac.bbc. http://www.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.checkpointelearning. http://news. weighs less than three pounds.p df http://www. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Do Not Reproduce 261 . Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.bris. anytime. Selected Examples In Europe.edu/design/Ion. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.hubuska.cmu.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. like a wristband or jewelry.

ethz. March 24. and Levene.70 481-0. Wearable Computing for the Commons.com/news/culture/0.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.ac.html The design of “smart clothing.com/news/culture/0.com/read_art icle.org/index_graphical.technologyreview.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006.cs.org is a rich source of references.eecg. http://www. http://www.edu/research/wear ables/index.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. http://www. 2004. http://www. especially in the area of wearable cameras.wired.bham. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. Brandon Hall Research .ac. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).ices. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. What you’ll wear in 10 years. http://www. C. http://www.wearable. 2006. S. and other organizations involved in inspecting.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.edu/ http://wearcam. http://www.toronto. http://killer. Wired News.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.html http://www.media. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.gsfc. http://www.uoregon.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. 1. and Lupisella.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. Technology Review (Online). Simson (2004).ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.eecg. http://about. like a wristband or jewelry. See: http://genesis. Mmoma (2006).pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications. M.” including computers built into underwear. the automotive industry.nasa.sportbrain.edu/design/VuMan. (2003).uk/index.jisc. especially for comercial airlines. or repairing complex machines.cmu. (2004). M.mit.eyetap.704 81-0.toronto.com/Home/Home.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.org/index.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://isd. Dec.wired.html Garfinkel. http://www.eee. training. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.

May 12-13.amazon. Steve (1998). 2005.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. http://www.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.businessweek. Wearable computers that you can slip into. VA. http://wearcam. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.html Do Not Reproduce 263 . H.org/icwckeynote.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. htm Mann. ICWC98. (2002). S. March 8. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. and Niedzviecki. Fairfax. Olga (2005). Business Week Online. Toronto: Anchor Books. http://www.

photo collections. When changes are made to a Web site. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator.” as its content is changed by the author. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Do Not Reproduce 264 . with all the potential for viruses and spam. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. CDs. with all the potential for viruses and spam. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed.0 format). a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Instead of having items emailed to you. PDAs. To read content from a Web feed. listings of the latest books. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. including cell phones. and course offerings. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. and electronics. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. and laptops. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. and Atom is the second. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. basic text format for quick review. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. blogs. podcasts. job searches. TV guides. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. feeds. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. social bookmarking.

mozdev.net/index.U.h http://www.sharpreader. OnFolio .disobey. LearningFeeds 8. Here is a list of 48: ml 7.com/ 0.com/feedscout.com/ http://www.http://www.com/ BlogExpress 1.com directory.com/ 9. Feedroll .6.http://www.com/ 3.somee.feedjavascript.com/ Selected Examples 5. RSS Bandit http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix . RSS2Exchange http://www.com/thunderbird/ .http://www.ht with its own features. Newsgator Aggie .http://feedbeep.protopage. 6.com tml 2.com/amphetadesk http://www. each http://www.rss-to. RSSCalendar .http://feedtier. RSS Software .com/ .shtml . Fuzzy Duck http://yole. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.http://www. Feedtier . Rojo . FeedPublish http://www.feedpublish.com 4.http://www. Protopage Bloglet .rssreader. FeedBurner http://www.bloglet.com/ http://www.net/ . RSSReader http://www.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ . RSS-to-Javascript .mozilla.html http://www.http://www. Pluck .org/Aggie.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.com/v2 BlogLines . Syndirella . Feedster . EaZy RSS reader 5.brightcove. Gregarius .com/produ http://neosmart.http://www. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).rssbandit.attensa.http://sage.org/ shtml .net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.bytescout.http://bitworking.feedforall.learningfeeds.newsgator.com/rss2exchange/ .net/dl.2 7. Project D. FeedScout 4.feedroll.com 9.com/ Awasu .uk/rssreader/ 7.hexamail.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.org/ . Videora .com/ 3. Sage . and Atom is the second.http://www.com Amphetadesk 8.com/ 5.pubsub.com/ .awasu.http://www.feedzilla. Reader http://usablelabs.com/ Brightcove .feedburner.http://www.puremis. NewsIsFree http://www.newsisfree.html http://www.http://www. feedbeep .blogplanet.feedster. Thunderbird . FeedReader 1.co. Do Not Reproduce 265 .com/ 8. SharpReader http://bytescout.com/myrsstoolbar.com/ http://www.projectdu.http://www.http://www.fuzzyd.http://www. PubSub .rojo.com 2.downes. Edu_RSS 0.rssreader.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.onfolio.com/ Attensa .ca/edurss02.feedreader.com/ 6.net/ http://www.http://www. FeedForAll . RSS Orbit . StepNewz .htm http://www.videora.com/ 0.com/today/ http://www.rsscalendar.http://www.http://gregarius.bloglines. Feed-Directory .http://www.pluck.com/productBlogExpress.com/rss/ http://www.topix.

has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. 2004. http://www.elearningguild.vccs. a blog by Alan Levine. http://www. Brian Lamb.masternewmedia. maintains a long list of RSS resources. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. To have a blog aggregated. http://timyang.teachinghacks.org/blogs/archives/main /000877. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. 2004.ubc. 3. Aug.php.ca/cgibin/wiki. Read his article written specifically for educators. Brian Lamb. http://www.dist. http://careo.wcc. see: http://www.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.ca/files/RSS_Educ. including listings for various electronic devices. RSS could transform online communications.com/wiki/doku. 31. http://www. eSchool News.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. Luigi (2004). 2003.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).downes.htm David. and D’Arcy Norman.php Online Resources Stephen Downes.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 . eLearning Developers’ Journal.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS.pdf Canali De Rossi. http://www. http://www.hebig. Bill (2003).downes.com/news/showS tory.Possible Future Evolution. May 19. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .redjupiter. http://www.mcli. Dan (2004).htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. Robin Good Blog.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.contentious.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. Oct. http://www.lo.elearning. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.eschoolnews.ca/edu_rss.maricopa.

teachinghacks. and Webb. Aug. http://www.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Stephen (2004). Online paper.mediathink.usatoday. 3. June 2004.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. University of North Carolina. 1. Vancouver. Version 1. Lamb.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Namespaced extensions in feeds.htm D’Sousa. June 18. 2005.htm Harrsch. and Norman.downes. http://www. RSS: the next big thing online.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. (2006). Jenny (2005). http://www. 2006.dist.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. T. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. RSS: the next killer app for education. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.theshiftedlibrarian. http://www. 2003. Shelly (2005). 13.pdf Parparita. 2005. Mihai (2006). InfoWorld. USA Today (online).html Powers.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Online paper. The Technology Source Archives. 2006. http://www. Eva (2004). RSS: a learning technology. D.html?page=1 Udell. July/August 2003.infoworld.ca/files/RSS_Educ.learningcircuits. http://www. Jon (2005)..maricopa.mcli.blogspot. Google Reader Blog. http://www.alexandrasamuel. http://technologysource. 2005. http://www.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends. Otherwise Engaged. http://www.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.xml. Stephen (2002).com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x.Web Feeds Downes.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.oreillynet. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. Aug. http://www.pdf Gannett.org/2004/jun20 04/downes.1. 5-8. O’Reilly Network. Learning Circuits.html MediaThink (2004). Anh (2005). http://www.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. March 23. Using RSS for data integration.learningcircuits. B. Aug. 2005.htm Downes. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. BC. Quentin (2006). The Shifted Librarian. http://googlereader. Mary (2003).html Do Not Reproduce 267 . http://www. M. July 7. MediaThink White Paper.html Samuel. Alexandra (2005). Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.htm Levine. May 2004. RSS Ideas for Educators. Learning Circuits. A. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.oreilly. Sept. (2003).

See the progress at: http://edu. the software used to run Wikipedia. Wikis are fully editable Web sites.300. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. approaches.sourceforge.org/index. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. it is important to have several contributors.wikipedia.org/tiki-index. With some basic instructions. 2. My first report in this series. 3. an image gallery.net/features. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. http://wikipedia. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.com/cgibin/wiki.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.tikiwiki. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. http://www.schtuff. can be used by a team for joint writing. Content is ego-less. and email notification.com/ For wikis to work. Anyone can add to it.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. http://www. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.usemod. 4. and projects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. http://www. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. RSS. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Do Not Reproduce 268 . time-less. and never finished.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. is available for other applications. 2005). custom permissions. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. http://www. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. There are now over 1.sourcewatch. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. features.

a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. http://radio. http://www. features. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.com/cgibin/mb. http://www. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. an archivist with the British systems.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. “Quickiwiki. http://careo.wikibooks.jot.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis.ubc. of the University of British Columbia.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.seedwiki.dicole.infoworld.shtml Brian Lamb. http://www.” is projects. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 269 . http://flosse.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.gilbane.usemod. http://www.10. http://www. http://www. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.elearning.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. A free trial is available.learningwiki. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison.Weblogs.socialtext. Columbia Archives.com/artpdf/GR12. http://weblog. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.com/ Jon Udell. See why it is different. http://kairosnews.” Essentially. a rich source of information on wikis. http://en.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.infotoday. Twiki. His article.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. Swiki.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.

(2002).ikiw. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Nov.html Augar.pbwiki. Renée (2005).71. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. R. http://aronsson.zkm.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.html Ciffolilli. First Monday.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 . http://firstmonday. http://www.org has lots of resources on wikis.pdf Fountain.” http://writingwiki. http://www. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Andrea (2003). including wikis. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson. N. Wiki pedagogy.” http://tlc.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.48. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki.org. 5-8.nu’s first nine months in service. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. Dec.ucalgary. 8(12). (2004). including a section on wiki tools.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).ascilite.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. http://m.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments. L.com/wwwtools/m/25242. http://www. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.elearningcentre.se/wikipaper. http://container.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. http://www. July. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. Raitman.educause. http://64. Perth. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. Online paper. http://whiplash.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. Teaching and learning online with wikis. Phantom authority. International Journal of Information Ethics. Dec. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.fasfind.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis . Australia. Anja (2004). http://www.profetic.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. and Zhou..edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. Operation of a Large Scale. that she updates regularly. W. 2.

Online article.ariadne. and Rudolph.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. M. http://Weblog. Wiki Tools. UniversityWiki. 2005. 36-48.1/technote _xxvii. July 7.uk/issue42/ Udell.amazon. Bo & Cunnin.Oct.com/artpdf/GR12. Twiki.com/udell/2004/ 10/19.com.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. April 2004. 19. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. http://gilbane. L. 2004. and Webb.com/cgibin/mb.educause. Online article at PCMag.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. W.infotoday.ac. (2001). Swiki.4149. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. http://www. Emma (2005). Online article.10. Richard (2003).com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. January. 2006. InfoWorld. Issue 42. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). O’Reilly Network. Searcher. Clark.com/article2/0. David (2004). Sept.oreillynet.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.asp Schmitt.. Why Wikis Work Not. Ariadne.pdf Leuf. Brian (2004).00. Jon (2004). http://c2. 12(10).html Tomkin. Oct. April 2003.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . http://www.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.pcmag.shtml Rubenking.html Stafford. M.html Wood. (2006)..usemod. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Quickiwiki. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. http://www. Online article at: http://www.org/content/v5.14 02872. David (2003).irrodl.infoworld. The wiki way. Educause Review. Making the case for a wiki. T.. (2004).com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. Cossarin. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. S. http://www. Neil (2003).pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. http://www. J. http://www. Lauren (2005)..

Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. After a product has been successfully launched. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. CD-ROMS. floppy disks. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. which. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. However. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. which can then lead to inventions. Do Not Reproduce 272 . with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. in turn.

in both formal and informal settings. or may never become commercially viable. both in classrooms and online. Further.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. But not all technologies will travel this road. However. Do Not Reproduce 273 . some will never leave the development stage. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. change itself seems to be inevitable. For a variety of reasons. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. This is due. in part. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. In any field. change itself seems to be inevitable. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. In any field. However. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. while others will last for decades. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. to the complex. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. Ontologies. in part. ascend the curve. peak. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. Some will die quickly. and decline. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. this approach is now rapidly changing. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. mature. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. This is due. to the complex.

Once we master the art of reading. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. video games. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. In North America. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. born in the 1970s. 28). The children of the baby boomers. 1994). with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. gaming consoles. For the older generation. In contrast.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. mind-altering drugs. The speed of change increases with each passing year. The experience of younger learners with television. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. 2002. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. the baby boomers. global warming. terrorism. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. video games. 2003). means that they actually think differently. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. Their children. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. television. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. and computers. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. movie theaters. libraries. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. ecological disasters.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. p. the space race. 274 © 2006. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. and personal digital assistants. generally went to work earlier. Because of this.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. electronic media tends to be on the surface. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. Brandon Hall Research . the civil rights movement. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. The technology of e-learning. mobile phones. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s.

you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. Guides are optional. But they are usually disappointed. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. In approaching electronic educational media.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. in a back-and-forth exchange. whereby the action of one participant. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.are usually ing paths. Generally. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. commercials. wearable computers. and the mapping of everything. It works for a time. However. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the learner. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. Likewise. Do Not Reproduce 275 . Two hundred years ago. results in an action by the other participant. In the next wave. we will see the restructuring of education and training. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. creative products. With feedback. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. shortly. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. or violence is needed to keep our attention. huge data wall displays. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. surprise. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. designers of Sesame Street. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. For example. Within the next five years. until we become habituated. sex. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. and digital ink and electronic paper.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. portfolios.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. In approaching electronic educational media. Then even more movement. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. that is all about to change. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. technologies. touch and taste. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. the computer. digitization of smell. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level.

http://www.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. Bob (2006). Marc.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. New York: McGraw-Hill.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Gary (2006). http://www. James (1994).com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.operitel.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. http://www.amazon. Brandon Hall Research . Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. May 2006. http://www. http://www.amazon. Digital Game-based Learning.amazon. Dallas. technologies and services for the next 5 years. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Douglas (2005). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.amazon. New York: Collins.com 276 © 2006. Clayton (1997). http://www.amazon. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Texas. (2001).com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. 1515 Broadway. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.umu. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.bham.de/link/affective_portal . Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. Marc Schröder.nngroup. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. 17th Floor.media. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. Den Dolech 2 P.myself-proj.51.unige.se/~muse/ho me.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.O.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.mit. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Box 513.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.informatik.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . New York.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.ac.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.cs.bartneck.

N.indiana.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av.W.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.rit. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. O. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. L69 7ZF.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. L69 7ZF. 1900 East Tenth St. Washington.ailive.org/ AiLive Inc.isi. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Box 2124 Menlo Park.computer.webist.com Do Not Reproduce 278 .informatics.edu Extempo Systems. Edmonton.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.codebaby.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.Portugal Tel. #1910.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . Suite 206 Boulder.auburn. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.csc. Palo Alto.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Inc.agentlink.ac.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. Bloomington.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. D. P. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. 27A 2º esq.net/ Auburn University Auburn.educause. CA 94304 USA http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Building 5. 3400 Hillview Avenue.liv. UK http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.extempo. Manuel I. 2910-595 Setúbal . CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.

Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.apple. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. PO Box 24478. Box 5200. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. Inc.animationfactory.au/index. 110 Cuba Mall. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.com/ Avid Technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.org. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.catoolkit. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Secretariat.mindworkshop. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury.animats.ascension-tech. Box 527. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Huntsville. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.org/ Apple Computer. Inc.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. Wellington.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.O.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.com Alchemy Mindworks P.avid.O. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. Avid Technology Park. W Toronto.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.redwoodelearning.adobe.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.ascilite. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.autodesk. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.com/home. Burlington.php/Main _Page Autodesk.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.

Tel: +1. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.com/ NewTek.460.newtek.ucsb.org Do Not Reproduce 280 .com Pty Ltd The Basement. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.siggraph.viewpoint. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. TN 38152 USA http://www.macromedia. Suite #480 Torrance.org/home. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.massivesoftware. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.com/index.eitechnologygroup.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. Suite 100 Menlo Park.swishzone. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group. San Antonio.6450 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.S.aaai. 190th Street.htm Macromedia. Inc.com/pub/index. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .aclweb.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.818.org/ SWiSHzone.html Ulead Systems 970 W.A. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. Santa Barbara.psych. Inc.autotutor.

edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.usyd.W.cs.teluq. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. Egry J.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.uquebec.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.cs. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. West Montreal.ca/eng/ind ex.eden-online. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.com/index. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. 1.10th Street S. Inc.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.pact.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.com Do Not Reproduce 281 . PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.ke-corp. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.gemini.org/eden. 100 Sherbrooke St. Calgary.cmu.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.cognitivesciencesociety.iit. H-1111 Budapest.cmu. u.licef.edu.it.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cs.edu Quantum Simulations. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.

Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.edu.enel. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .scit. Chantilly.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.ucalgary.cis. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. East Adelphi.edu.ac.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.uk/cticomp/CAA. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. Suite 1500 Montreal. Calgary.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Suite 360 San Mateo.umuc.wlv.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.cshe.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.virtuelage.W.wpi.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.ulster.stottlerhenke.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www. Antrim BT37 OQB N.brainbench. Alberta. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. Suite K.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.cs.. CA .unimelb.unisa. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street. Co. Newtownabbey.ac. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.uk/home.

quintcareers. Suite 105 Princeton.O. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.questionmark. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.com/redinq/html/index.ingeniousgroup.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.operitel.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www. FL 32720 USA http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.ets.flaguide.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.pedagogue. Suite 201 Peterborough. Norwalk. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.S. Box 317 New Hartford.horizonwimba.O.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .tcet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.rmsuk.colorado. Suite 100.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www. Johnson Street. Box 305280 Denton. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.unt. Suite 753 Madison. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. Boulder.redinq.

com AudioLink. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. Laurent Blvd.avsmedia. Inc.vantagelearning.xstreamsoftware.. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.epnweb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall..multitrackstudio. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.automaticsync.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. Ontario. 50 Hunt St.com/home. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.audiolink. 2280 St.cakewalk. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.oir. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory. Watertown.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. Suite 200 Ottawa.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www. Suite 100 Newtown.com/AudioTools/ind ex.uiuc.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.com/lipsync/ind ex.com XStream Software.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.adobe. Inc. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.bias-inc. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.aspx BIAS. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.

A.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P.anark. Cooper Buildings.brainshark.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.e-learningcentre. 860 Sandalwood Road.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.sonicfoundry.bloki.acroservices.mckinnonmulherin. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www.accordent.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Grime and Associates. Inc. Sheffield Technology Parks.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 . UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.com AcroServices c/o L. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www. Suite 200 El Segundo.O.apple. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Suite 200 Boulder.adobe.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.com/power point-presentations-index. Waltham. Continental Blvd. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.co. Suite A300 Salt Lake City. 136 South Main Street. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. West Perrysburg..edu iTunes Apple Computer.trainvision.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.com Brainshark..com/index. Sheffield. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.purdue.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. S1 2NS UK http://www. Arundel Street. Inc. San Jose.envision.

Inc.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.allencomm.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. Brandon Hall Research . +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www. NG8 6PE.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.atlanticlink.com/Index.lifeboatdistribution. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. Ste.copycatsoftware.dynamicpowertrainer.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www. 20100 Milan. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. 200 South.maxit. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Italy http://www.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.co. Suite 2300 New York. Austria http://www.customcourse. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. Nottingham.uk/contentpoint.com.com 286 © 2006. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.horizonwimba. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.ciscolearning.learn.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.bridge-pt. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www. UK Tel.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.

NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.knowledgequest. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www. Suite B Lehi.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.68 http://www.mohive.com Do Not Reproduce 287 .com ExpertAuthor. P.com/products/forceten.elearninginabox. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. 38-40. Suite 29A Nashua.e-learningconsulting. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. O. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www..com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.knowledgeplanet. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.eedo. Spain Tel: +34 93 490. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd .64.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil.edufolio.rapidintake.O.experiencebuilders. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.elicitus. Inc.10 Fax: +34 93 490.eclipsys.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.64.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road. Box 2827 Redmond. 441 W Main St.easyprof.

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opera. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. Mazgaon.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P..com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Inc.com/v2/index.com WaveMarket. USA http://www.blogburst.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Suite 900 Austin.mozilla. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Inc.active-learning-site. Nesbit Rd. Mumbai 10. P.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.qelix. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia.omnigroup. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.cramersweeney. INDIA. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. CA 94608 USA http://www.O.com Do Not Reproduce 293 . NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.wavemarket.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.O.com GTCO CalComp. Mary Apts.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Suite 209 Moorestown.flock.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Inc.gtcocalcomp. 6th Flr.

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org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. ON. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.com c/o Citrix Systems. Clevedon.groove. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.genesys.4517 http://www.gotomeeting. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.com GoToMeeting.net GroupSupport.hp. 395 Encinitas.hotcomm.com Do Not Reproduce 297 .globalschoolnet.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.gordano.com Groupwise c/o Novell.groupsupport.net Groove Networks. Ste.grapevinesoftware. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.glance.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. El Camino Real.V.com B. Inc. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.com Glance Networks.novell. Suite 2300 New York. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.horizonwimba. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.net Global School Net 132 N.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. Suite 500 Markham. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. Inc. Inc.

com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.interwoven. Phoenix.microsoft. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.ilinc. 11th floor New York.jdhtech.intralinks. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. Inc.inquesttechnologies.ibm. Suite #150 Herndon. Suite 412 Cambridge.iceweb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. #115 Rockville.com Interwise.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.hyperoffice. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.linktivity.interwise. 44th St.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 . MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.ivocalize. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. 25 First Street. Sunnyvale. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.

Suite 1401 Denver. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn.opmcreator.opentext.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. Suite 300 Torrance.com onProject.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.onproject. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Inc. Suite 1450 Chicago. Fordham Blvd.peoplecube.mitre. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.org/tools.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.parlano.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.performancesolutionstech. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Harbor.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.liveoffice.mayeticvillage..oracle.near-time.h tml Parlano 10 S. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. 3 Wing Drive. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice.netspoke.com Near-Time. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.meetingone. Riverside Plaza.com/collabsuite/index. 1289 N. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. Inc. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.

com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.q2learning.radvision.com SpiderWeb Communications.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .nagarro. 1175 58th Avenue. 3679 Concord Road. 51. Suite 440 San Jose.seldensystems. Box 3325 York. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.sharemethods. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.com RADVISION Inc. Inc.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. 17-17 State Highway 208. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Inc. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.sitescape. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.raindance.photoninfotech.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.project-open. New No. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.Adyar Chennai. Suite 445 Scottsdale. P.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Inc.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Suite B.O. Suite 210 Maynard. Suite 200 Greeley.com/content/default. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. Cactus Rd.com Selden Integrated Systems.cyber-grad.stalker. 35. Ste 275 Mill Valley. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com Raindance Communications.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.projectdox.

wave3software.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.tomoye. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.usabilityfirst. Kierland Blvd.vodium.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.trichys.com Teamware P.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com/groupware/in dex.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Suite 810 Toronto.teamspace.sumtotalsystems.txl Viack 14811 N.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Suite 950 Washington. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.webofficepoint. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.viack. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.vignette.teamware. Suite 100 Austin..com Do Not Reproduce 301 .tacit.O. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.teamdynamix. Canada http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale.

3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.axista. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.net WebEx Communications. Toronto. Inc. Robarts Library. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.webex. P.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. 130 St. CA 94588. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. Ontario.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.webtrain. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.santacruznetworks. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.Box 2900 Alameda.O.backpackit.gov. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.qld.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. George St. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.atutor.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . Inc.zoho. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.author-it.webcrossing. Suite 1050 Vancouver.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.cpgvision.webasyst. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Inc. Inc.P.. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education. Suite 115 Pleasanton. 5200 Franklin Dr. First Floor University of Toronto.

77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario.desire2learn.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.facilitate.edu.une. Sheffield.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough.convera.e-learningcentre. S1 2NS UK http://www. QC.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St.syberworks.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc.hrsg.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.au/dss/grassgro/inde x. Sheffield Technology Parks. 4000 Steinberg Street St. TX.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www. Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street.html Do Not Reproduce 303 .oracle.kdnuggets. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401. Suite C215 Houston.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.co.learnflex.bnhexpertsoft. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Prof.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.. Laurent. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.

Suite 100 Indianapolis. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.provisionentertainment. Telford.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd.nuventive.com/ LiveText 1 S. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.foliotek.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park..siliconlight. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www. Suite 606. Inc.co. La Grange Road.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc.fogscreen. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.pebblepad. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. Catherines.com Do Not Reproduce 304 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow. Second Floor La Grange. WA. West Conshohocken.meetingworks.chalkandwire.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road.ntera.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.angellearning. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.io2technology. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.

com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.. Puebla Lucia local 7. 0445 La Jolla. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com/solutions/game s/default.thinkingworlds. Dept. One Park West Tewksbury.freescale.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.adobe.C. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. Inc Avid Technology Park. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .microsoft. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. SR6 0AN UK http://www.ucsd. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.avs.clickteam.seriousgames.programmersheaven.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.magnetargames.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.softimage. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www. NW Washington.

com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.itedo.com SmartDraw.miralab.tech-illustrator. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. Suite 300 San Diego.smartdraw.forcedimension.mpb-technologies.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North. Suite 1900 San Francisco. Washington Street Denver.ch MPB Technologies Inc.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .broderbund. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose.unige. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.microsoft.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.corel. Inc..immersion. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.handshakeinteractive. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. Unit 9 Waterloo. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www. 100 Pine Street.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.blender3d. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www. Inc.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.ibm. Suite 300 Burlingame. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.

Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.ccii.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave.wacom. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.unipi. 7677 Oakport Street. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.C. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.sensegraphics.sensable. Inc. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.com Do Not Reproduce 307 .com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. NW Suite 700.eink. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. D.piaggio.fujitsu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.se SensAble Technologies.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. 2-56126 Pisa. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista.edfacilities. 12th Floor Oakland.anotogroup. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.allencomm. 200 South.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. 15 Constitution Way Woburn. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.com Logitech Inc.. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW.logitech. Washington.smarttech. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www. Ste. Suite 300 Calgary.

OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems. East Dundee.strategia. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. 4600 Westown Parkway. Suite #620 Santa Monica.com/redbooks.ips-inc.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. Inc..com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.ibm.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite 200 Cincinnati. Winter Park.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street. Inc.webraven. Colfax Avenue Building 200.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. Huntington Building.com Do Not Reproduce 308 . 111 Water St.trivantis. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.intellinex.geolearning. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai. Suite 660 Longueuil.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.html?Ope n InfoSource. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.gen21.cornerstoneondemand.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.netdimensions.redbooks.howtomaster. Quebec. Inc.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland. 6947 University Blvd. Suite 301 West Des Moines.com DOTS .ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. Inc. Suite 225 Golden.

learnflex.com Do Not Reproduce 309 .com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.learn. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.intralearn.wizdom. East .mgen. Inc. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.knowledgeplanet.meridianksi. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.compendiumcorp.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc.websoft. 550 Queen St. Inc.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.isnewmedia. Suite 260 Foxborough. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www. Chantilly. Suite 201 Peterborough.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.learnsomething. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 1 West Front Street Red Bank. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. Inc.maxit.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.Suite 350 Toronto.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.

html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Inc.sselearn. Fifth Floor Montreal. 500 West Madison. Suite 1280 San Francisco. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com.oracle. Suite 2200 Chicago. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.teds.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com TEDS Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.technomedia.outstart. LTD 671 N. St.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.saba.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.sumtotalsystems.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. West.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.syntrio. Louis.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.teralearn. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.oracle.ssaglobal. Glebe Road. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.plateau.sap. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal. Suite 700 Arlington.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 310 .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.

MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Box 9752 Boulder.xstreamsoftware. Suite 200 Ottawa.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.trainingpartner. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.risc-inc. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.wbtsystems.com Tracker. 240 Bay Street.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 2280 St. Inc.O. Victoria. 17041 El Camino Real.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. Inc.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. Suite # 105 Columbia. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Suite 101 Houston.vuepoint. Laurent Blvd.xtention. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .gyrus. 122 West Way. Ontario. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. NY.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.ttg-inc.. Inc.fldata.vbtrain.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.edutools.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Inc. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. 4 Expressway Plaza. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.avilar.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.info/index.

netera.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.cdlib.com Do Not Reproduce 312 . Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. 4th Floor Oakland. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.ca ENC Learning Inc.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.goenc. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.uwm.sir. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.arizona.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.

thegateway.unsw. Box 1892.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .org/eng/scientifiques.lornet. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Norton Road.dist. CT 06459 USA http://www.maricopa.merlot. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.plos. Fondren Library. Sterling Court.4464 Markham Street Victoria.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. AZ.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.edu/DesktopDefault. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.rice.O. MS 44. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. 5151 East Broadway. Rice University. Stevenage. Suite 1600 Tucson. Hertfordshire. ETRAC. Box 3000 Boulder.cadcorp.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .clarklabs.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. Houston. Suite 3100 San Francisco.lrc3.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.llearn.mcli. AZ 85250 USA http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. P.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.lolaexchange. SG1 2JY.edu.O.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.

AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.edu PanGo Networks.intergraph. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .eoscenter. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com/gis4mt/index.esri. P.O. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.ac.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.mapinfo.fi/english/page.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.smm. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. Dept.org Metadata. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. Box 240000 Huntsville.berkeley. of Geography.edu. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.5372.cetis. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.cancore. Suite 100 Framingham.asp?path= 500. Inc.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.pangonetworks.O. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. 959 Concord Street.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.geocomm.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.

html ELSNET Trans 10.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Suite 100 Menlo Park.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.elsnet. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.aaai.lexxe. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.knowledgepulse. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.ac.uk/handler/default .eee.mobilearn. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Italy http://tcc. PA.imsglobal.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. PMB #112 Lake Mary.upenn.org/ Spotlight Mobile.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.ldc.org/aitopics/html/natlang .itc. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Austria http://www. 19104-2653. Suite 501 Portland.bham. Inc.stockholmchallenge. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.advancedreality. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.

4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Oleg Liber University of Bolton.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. NY.sun.internet2. Inc.4464 Markham Street Victoria. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.seti.cetis.overnet.lockss.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.ac.llearn. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Inc. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.com MoveDigital.org/site/pp. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.stockholmchallenge.asianart.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.movedigital. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. 10010 USA http://www.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Brandon Hall Research . Inc. Whisman Road Mountain View.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.net internet2. Suite 300. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.groove. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.org 316 © 2006. Deane Rd. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.

WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. 1st Floor A . 15-4-A Gatineau.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.saba. New York 10973 USA http://www. Suite 225 Santa Monica. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com Teachnology. Inc. Box 172 1039 . Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.virtualmuseum.com Portals CyberU.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.teach-nology. Eisenhower Parkway P.17th Avenue SW Calgary.elena-project. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .com ProQuest 789 E.rmv. Suite 600 Alpharetta. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.worldwidelearn.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. Alberta.Project Coordinator CSI .executrain.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.cyberu.proquest.trainingregistry. 3333 http://www.O.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .elearningeuropa. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.microsoft.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.elementk. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.

mit..com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Suite B Orion.com Presentations.macromedia. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.apreso. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.6526 http://www.readygo.scate.raptivity. 3016 5th Ave.genesys. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. Box 2827.333. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.elluminate.com/presentatio ns/index. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Redmond. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com/halo/index. Alberta.com Do Not Reproduce 318 . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.lsc.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.com ReadyGo Inc. Minneapolis.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Raptivity P. O. Ninth St.presentations.hp.saba. CA 94040.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Inc.org Macromedia. NE Calgary.articulate. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.com 50 S. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. Michigan.

irc.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.ams. Union St. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. 130 W.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.whmsi. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.ife.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Inc.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.org Euron c/o Prof. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.ri. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. 100 Norman. Ste.botball. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. Radstock Somerset. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Pasadena. Lindsey Bldg.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.atr. SE-100 44 Stockholm.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.nasa.cmu. Centre for Autonmous Systems.euron.aad. Henrik I Christensen.ac.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.evolution. D.org Evolution Robotics. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 319 .ed.eng. Chilcompton.gov.osaka-u. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Inc. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.generalrobotics. SWEDEN.active-robots.rec.

com Google (including Froogle. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. Brandon Hall Research . Google.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.findlaw.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.excite.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.com Ask.com 229 West 43rd Street New York. Inc.gigablast. Suite 500 Oakland.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. 42nd Floor New York. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.copernic.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.convera. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Box 29141 San Francisco.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.alexa.com excite. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.google. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.about.gnod. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.net/ 320 © 2006. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.dogpile.com Gada.6100 http://www. Suite 60 Quebec.com Gnod.O. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.ask. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.

com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.lexxe. Box 1133 Washington.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.koders.intute.lalisio. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.1057022 LookSmart.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. DC 20013-1133 http://www.looksmart. Suite 1200 Bellevue. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.ac.acm. Chicago.icerocket.krugle. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 .kartoo.metacrawler. 625 Second Street San Francisco. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. 17th Floor New York.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.ixquick.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.info. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. Inc.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.mooter. Ltd.com Info.O.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.org/citation.cfm?doid=1 056808.healthfinder. 601 108th Avenue NE.net Koders Inc.msn.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.

VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. INDIA. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. 7th floor.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Seventh Floor New York. Inc.convera.netscape.pandora. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Inc.com/v2/index. 360 22nd Street.truveo.nyu. Suite 211 Palo Alto . Mary Apts. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . NY 10003.ibm. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.rawsugar. 6th Flr..com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.searchking.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Suite 207 San Francisco.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.columbia.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.edu/ PubSub Concepts. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. 2400 N.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. New York. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.cs. 64 Fulton Street.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC. Mumbai 10.ee. 23rd Floor San Francisco..technorati. Nesbit Rd.W.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 .qelix.W.seekport.biz Truveo. Inc.82152 Martinsried http://www. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.com SearchKing. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com Technorati 665 3rd Street.com Pandora Media.almaden. 23rd Oklahoma City. Inc.pubsub. Mazgaon.

com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .biographix.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.experiencebuilders.assima.macromedia.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.com Assima Ltd. Yahoo http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Inc.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .personal-reader.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 . 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 10 Old Bailey. Ontario. EC4M 7NG London. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. 1st Floor A . M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com Zoom Information Inc.seco.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.Project Coordinator CSI . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.macromedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.elena-project. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.alphaworks.yahoo.ibm.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.tkk. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Box 1558 New Canaan.atghome.com Flash c/o Macromedia.O. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.zoominfo. Inc.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.

com NexLearn.knowledgequest.bham..uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 2280 St. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.knowledgeplanet.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.stt-global. GreenPark Reading.ac. Suite 200 Ottawa. CA . Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Ontario.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Newburyport. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.intermezzon. England http://www.noaa.xstreamsoftware.fsl.knowledge-director. B15 2TT.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. LLC 100 South Main Street.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. Inc. Suite 300 Wichita.forio. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Laurent Blvd.muzzylane.learning2005.nexlearn..com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.cs. Suite 360 San Mateo. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.stottlerhenke.knowledgepresenter.com MASIE Center.

Inc..iu.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. Suite 240 Atlanta. Inc.com Softsim Outstart Studio.assima.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. Suite 125 San Diego.qarbon. Light & Acoustics. Suite 224 Bloomington. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.teds. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.virtualcontrolroom. Morton Street. Schaumburg.outstart.stagecast.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. CA 94089 USA http://del. Taschereau Ouest.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. 101 Wolf Drive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Thorofare. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. Suite A-207 Brossard.eduperformance. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.maxit. Suite 1550 San Jose. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. Suite 400.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Québec.icio.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 325 .org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.com/English/t6 essai.stt-global.icio.com Stagecast Software.us Eventful c/o EVDB.checkpointsystems. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. 1821 Walden Office Square. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. 55 South Market St.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.edu/index.

Box 920089 Needham.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Inc. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.analytictech.zvents. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.eu Rojo Networks. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www..rojo.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. Brandon Hall Research . Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.gnolia. 2001 Lind Ave.shadows.netscape. 625 Second Street San Francisco.O. Ltd.spurl. Suite 500 Renton.friendster.tagzania.com/ mag.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. 795 Folsom St. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. Inc.com Spurl ehf.networkltd. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.classmates. Inc.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.com Friendster. First Floor San Francisco.furl. CA. Inc.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Menlo Park.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.com Classmates Online. SW. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.com 326 © 2006. Suite 900 Austin.. 568 Howard Street San Francisco..com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. WA 98055 USA http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.com Jabber Software Foundation P.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.O. CA 90028 USA http://www.dfilm. 4th Floor Marshalltown. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 327 . Suite 900 San Francisco.hp.fakespace.com Jabber Software Foundation P.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. Church Street. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. Cupertino.net Sparta Social Networks. CA 94105 USA http://www.jabber.com/halo/index.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.socialtext.jabber. New York. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.sociosite. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.com Brightcove. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.org Fakespace 11 E. Inc.apple.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.O. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com iTunes Apple Computer.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto.percro.brightcove.bittorrent. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Box 1641 Denver.spartasocialnetworks.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. Box 1641 Denver. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.advanced.

htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.coe.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .intuition-eunetwork.hpc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. IC ISIM VRLAB. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. CA 92121 USA http://www.informationinplace.ergonetz.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. VA 23461-1924 https://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.veoh. Inc.spider.activeworlds.navy. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.ecu.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Suite 206 Bloomington.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.percro. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.futurelab.org Veoh Networks.org.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.com Intuition 9.xstreamengine.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego.epfl.edu/vrel. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. 7220 Trade Street.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.accurender.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.

OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. 350 South 400 West. Box 240000 Huntsville. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn. 1333 Butterfield Rd. Draper. Suite 280 Downers Grove.intergraph. Inc. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.feedtank.esri. Danvers. Williams Building College Park..uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.formz.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.com Golden Software.xcelsius.O.umd. Suite 110 Troy.vista. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Troy. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.daz3d.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com/ MapInfo One Global View. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 329 . NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.V. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. 809 14th Street.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.bham. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.com ESRI Suite 300.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.ac.advizorsolutions. Golden. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.idashboards. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Suite 100 Lindon. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Columbus.corda. Inc.ambientdevices.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.mapinfo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Inc. Suite 317 San Diego.cs.golden.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. Cambridge.

Inc.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94712 USA http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.visualthesaurus.softill.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.spotfire.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. U. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. RIDemo Brivibas 183.pixologic. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.S. 20010 Fisher Avenue. 212 Elm Street Somerville. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Suite 3A New York. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. Inc. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.nlm. 2nd Floor Poolesville.unifiedfield.com Spotfire.mccrackendesign.visualanalytics.okino. NY 10012 USA http://www.microsoft. 73 Princeton Street.ontopia.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.com Unified Field.net Pixologic. 9th floor New York. Inc. Unit # 1 Mississauga.O. 155 Spring Street.topozone. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.nih.musanim. Box 884. Ontario L4V 1T8. Riga. MA 01863 USA http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.vicodi. Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . 3 East 28th St. Tracy.

vrvis.com JAJAH Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. A-1220 Vienna. Tallinn. Hanover.inxight.skype. Estonia http://www. Donau-City-Strasse 1. Unit A2 Naples. Inc.attensa. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.bloglines.com Web Feeds Attensa. 2513 Charleston Road. Inc.jajah.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.wearable.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .ethz. FL 34108 USA http://www.sportbrain.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. 94043 USA http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.com Brightcove. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.feedforall. ETZ H Electronics Lab.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Suite 2260 Portland.feedreader.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Ltd.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. California.brightcove. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Valdeku 100. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. 869 97th Ave N. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.feedburner. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. Suite 100 Campbell.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. CA 95008 USA http://www. 11211. Suite 102 Mountain View. Inc.

microsoft.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. South #358 St. 64 Fulton Street.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Inc.mozilla.jot. Suite 381 Vancouver.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Inc. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.V. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. P. Suite 605 San Francisco. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.rssreader. Seventh Floor New York.com Feedster.com Rojo Networks. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Switzerland http://www. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Inc.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. Inc.com 332 © 2006.. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. Petersburg. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 116 New Montgomery Street.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 167 Hamilton Ave.org JotSpot. Building K Mountain View.com PubSub Concepts. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.rojo.715135858 http://www.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.1001 W. Broadway.. Nederland Tel: +31. San Francisco.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.feedster. First Floor. Pacific Business Centre #101 .feedzilla. Coldbrook Business Corp.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 200 2nd Ave. 795 Folsom St. Suite 900 Austin. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Brandon Hall Research .socialtext. 3rd Floor Cambridge. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.pubsub.pluck.onfolio. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout..

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

154. 60 Avatars. 47. 80 Cognition. 32. 82. 177. 59. 85. 34. 111. 13. 275 Collaboration. 156. 115. 224. 85. 17. 215. 226. 84. 51. 29. 28. 33. 91. 53. 253 Data mining. 236. 15. 270 Boolean searches. 110. 162. 91. 231. 117 Assessment. 142. 45. 22. 246. 246. 92. 143. 268 Communications Tools. 245 Browsers. 86. 156. 84. 95. 118. 155. 252. 94. 241. 173. 57. 81. 27. 258 cognitive collage. 168. 72. 96. 163. 184. 3. 93. 45. 28. 139. 97. 120. 17. 217. 28. 266 Augmented reality. 17. 120. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 89. 138. 101. 57. 161 Cooperation. 69. 148. 269. 149. 176 assessment. 218. 188. 218. 65. 275 Computer based assessment. 82. 54. 248. 67. 54. 242. 179. 77. 268 Broadband. 83. 162. 46. 110 Adobe. 125. 92. 63. 67. 268. 47. 268. 200. 26. 30. 250. 221. 202. 248 Authoring tools. 88. 250. 216. 31. 201. 19. 69. 96. 143. 246. 45 Content management. 75. 159. 148. 102. 47. 217. 21. 5. 156. 111 Blogs. 264 Classroom response systems. 269. 70. 68. 185. 250. 177. 43. 60. 67. 18. 190. 161. 157. 247. 122. 228. 184. 62. 106. 201. 32. 87. 118. 62. 56. 55. 111. educational. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 66. 250 Dashboards. 61. 3. 183. 217. 209. 230. 205. 19. 218. 129. 7. 123. 67. 94. 138. 73. 9. 28. 77. 93. 97. 22. 161. 59. 255 Architectures. 188. Brandon Hall Research . 74. 3. 88. 209 Air display. 257 Adaptive systems. 106. 26. 18. 24. 230. 80 Clickers. 184. 45. 78. 250. 48. 46. 67. 176. 79. 174. 78. 63. 266. 284. 3. 36. 60. 140. 118. 70 barcodes. 64. 250 collaboration. 37. 109. 87. 89.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 60. 131. 87. 98. 217. 160. 86. 97. 95. 33. 175. 199 334 © 2006. 69. 227. 116. 120. 64. 34. 25. 31. 161. 93. 225. 260. 285. 35. 226. 247. 105. 235. 61. 244. 108. 120. 164. 90. 161. 4. 230. 20. 259. 105. 28. 251. 26. 85. 105. 129. 76. 198. 25. 266. 14. 251. 111. 146. 4. 279. 51. 165. 117. 230 Competency Tracking. 264. 56. 64. 25. 151. 259. 255. 61. 250 cognitive maps. 209. 289 Authorware. 187. 31. 29. 21. 244. 114 cybercartography. 261 Animation. 232. 46. 91. 18. 108. 90. 235. 156. 46. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 202. 91. 184 Conversational learning. 101. 230. 275 Affective computing. 82. 86. 98. 55. 33. 29. 296. 100. 104. 61. 194. 35. 12. 259. 51. 113. 221. 247. 231. 125. 177. 87. 26. 251. 24. 64. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 104. 34. 274 Communities of practice. 40. 224 Cell phones. 25. 241. 243. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 142. 242. 29. 39. 150. 255. 33. 226. 44. 242. 244. 87. 225. 60. 76. 162. 161. 32. 209. 174. 89. 266. 174. 199. 185. 204. 96. 66. 241. 52. 76. 2. 61. 128. 246. 66 AJAX. 16. 186. 48. 277 Agents. 172. 37. 154. 138. 83. 201. 103 Complexity theory. 25. 65. 221 Bayesian probability. 97. 78. 83. 97. 49. 220 Audio. 155 Ambient computing. 88. 107. 121. 254.

117. 276 Instant messaging. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 254. 228. 35. 169. 206 Findability. 120. 323 Folksonomies. 96. 23. 250. 255. 170. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 37. 209 Handwriting recognition. 7. 251. 24. 167. 177. 305 Geocaching. 97. 275. 244. 215 Expert systems. 238. 39. 222 Innovation in e-Learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 86. 250. 138. 93. 15. 54. 159. 160. 258. 194. 10. 27. 31. 87. 126. 44. 121. 26. 262 Hybrid systems. 19. 211. 110. 28. 118. 114. 31 Emotional design. 248. 33. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 5. 106. 129. 192. 21. 56. 45. 62. 115. 222. 125. 200 Design. 72. 123. 114. 45. 159. 152. 43. 34. 273 Human-centered computing. 127. 260 Dreamweaver. 135. 28. 145. 114. 134 Head mounted displays. 60. 125. 275 Director. 6. 250 Graphics. 25. 170. 92. 136. 153. 62. 145. 120. 274. 176 Interface devices. 131. 4. 10. 224. 228. 70. 257 FrontPage. 90. 84. 151. 17. 152. 276 images. 186. 122. 153. 71. 268 Knowledge management. 256. 32. 24. 320 graphics. 220. 135. 243. 134. 167. 134. 114. 155. 128. 201. 243. 126 GIF graphic format. 109. 59. 62. 211 evaluation. 128. 5. 76. 48. 19. 9. 151. 230. 158. 156. 247. 60 dynamic displays. 224. 25. 114. 199 Informatics. 185. 70. 257. 254. 8. 196. 171. 204. 246. 132. 161. 245. 242. 64. 222. 18. 158. 128. 174. 239. 251. 83. 65 Google. 155. 208. 65. 119. 194. 28. 87. 267. 138. 78. 158 iPod. 139. 30. 28. 112. 111 Extreme learning. 31. 88. 205. 244 Games. 179. 134 Haptics. 98. 18. 227. 15. 132. 136. 82. 7. 104. 246. 193. 91. 247. 108. 26. 132. 65. 21. 139. 82. 250. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 189. 15. 246. 3. 148. 32. 273 Interoperability. 32. 203. 252. 18. 102. 61. 91. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 217. 43. 231. 184. 80. 5. 73. 287. 157 Hype in e-learning. 255. 31. 3. 30. 210. 154. 161. 72. 5. 122. 30. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 76. 128. 98. 115. 139. 129. 135. 254 Gesture recogntion. 115. 33. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 12. 92. 3. 250. 192. 39. 273 Informal learning. 99. 46. 54. 250 e-Commerce. 84. e-learning. 216. 113 Deep Web. 259. 233. 215. 24. 205 History. 10. 155. 278 Infrared tags. 12. 134. 120. 125. 119. 267 formative assessment. 241. 13. 30. 253. 202. 242. 29 e-Portfolios. 203. 92. 192. 241. 5. 170. 68. 92. 257 Grid computing. 207. 66. 45 Frameworks. 97. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 198. 306 Individualization. 1. 151. 76 Flash. 261. 219. 3. 40. 152. 33. 168. 252. 77. 218. 104. 9. 192. 215. 135. 251. 155. 275 Distributed systems. 215. 156. 55. 4. 174. 121. 113. 115. 134 Healthcare applications. 151 FireFox. 170. 205. 133. 78. 12. 29. 217. 111. 62. 12. 145. 34. 250 Immersive environments. 223. 63. 48. 111. 246. 83. 217 Federated searches. 237. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 61. 6. 104. 17. 199. 112. 199. 34. 250. 77. 191. 12. 188. 117 Experiential learning. 193 Facial recognition. 80. 86. 236 e-Science. 236. 134. 118. 94. 60 Displays. 104. 73. 2. 199. 273. 69. 171. 221.

270. 65. 172. 210. 119. 12. 90. 241. 24 Museums. 186. 115. 72. 6. 6. 197. 136. 6. 110. 159. 192. 206 Microformats. 217. 88. 82. 200. 259. 159. 145 learning object repository. 145. 309. 85. 4. 156. 93 Radio. 120. 170. 193. 89. 271. 57. 148. 273. 5. 129. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 47. 73. 274. 86. 332 Microworlds. 139. 31. 186. 144. 31. 144. 123. 187. 102. 312 learning object model. 78. 92. 255 Neural networks. 114. 45. 318. 234. 177. 179. 223. 250. 73. 318 Location based tools. 254. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 205. 189. 175. 162. 59. 191. 121. 151. 187. 91. 103. 163. 97. 109. 3. 72. 230. 32. 219. 47. 227. 151. 173. 7. 330. 3. 117. 184. 174. 241. 85. 244. 179. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 164. 86. 59. 64. 2. 145 Learning Objects. 260. 154. 181. 3. 193 Projectors. 159. 5. 172. 83. 164. 162. 198. 182. 18. 177. 142. 221 Project management.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 8. 280. 161. 192 Networks. 157 Medical applications. 64. 135. 221. 194. 135. 27. 59. 62. 300. 30. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 91. 152. 210 Pervasive computing. 139. 235. 79. 13. 158. 190. 193. 152. 143. 10. 203. 155. 274. 221. 161. 155. 28. 209. 179. 156. 22. 222. 101. 241. 36. 25. 38. 76. 52. 184. 138. 59 Presentation tools. 104. 243. 245. 185. 141. 195. 190. 33. 159. 164. 210 PowerPoint. 60. 104. 209. 197 Legacy materials. 43. 138. 222. 66. 227. 151. 294. 147. 254. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 209 pattern recognition. 5. 267. 128. 242. 230. 100. 171. 177. 111. 55. 84. 146. 250 Mashups. 247. 171. 306. 315 Motion Graphics. 211. 174. 45. 192 Lecturing. 246. 233. 298. 106. 186. 209. 228 Optical tags. 321. 101. 305. 151. 5. 54. 80. 145. 218 M-learning. 158. 196. 177. 104. 166. 189. 287. 112. 187. 63. 193 Microsoft. 64. 161. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 311 Learning Management Systems. 104. 165 Mobile computing. 151 Quizzes. 323 mapping. 65. 311. 284 Portals. 189. 54. 139. 161. 176. 234. 178. 95. 87. 56. 65. 6. 66. 145. 152. 65. 31. 32. 60. 174. 64. 131. 162. 17. 232. 54. 224. 47. 55. 118. 5. 230. 40. 250 Pedagogy. 55. 105. 115. 44. 201. 5. 158. 146. 224. 20. 63. 89. 262. 125 Ontologies. 61. 105. 84. 61. 32. 32. 100. 174. 183. 158. 82. 199. 175. 231. 7. 222. 187. 138. 148. 52. 154. 163. 290. 160. 260. 314 Meta-search engines. 158. 162. 105. 223 Rapid e-learning. 28. 177. 61. 273. 19. 192. 308. 24. 178. 184. 99. 273. 108. 163. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 78. 33. 201. 58. 188. 147. 166. 42. 317. 120. 221. 107. 188. 82. 20. 12. 161 Podcasting. 159. 171. 227. 27. 202. 176 Personalization. 140. 55. 111. 147. 185. 261 Macromedia. 318 Privacy. 192 Libraries. 62. 238. 209 Microlearning. 244. 190. 178. 62. 165. 204. 224. 146. 145. 59. 218 Metacognition. 177. 134 Proximity tools. 261. 3. 141. 142. 85. 171. 179. 268 latent semantic analysis. 83. 60. 237. 63. 183 Navigation. 66. 161. 171. 289. 151. 175. 79. 215. 221. 254. 189. 244. 151. 230. 182. 221. 45. 195. 170. 32 Metadata. 7. 17. 219. 90. 160.

158. 47. 147. 67. 251. 120. 226. 202. 221. 117 Reusability. 226. 12. 224. 262. 260 Telepresence. 152. 27. 244 summative assessment. 187. 45. 61. 187 Virtual classrooms. 255 Turing Test. 143. 97. 4. 159. 46. 158. 10. 187. 113. 221 Social bookmarking. 5. 33. 62. 197. 215. 236. 128. 134. 209. 180. 230. 252. 206. 232 Speech recognition. 88. 267. 97. 216. 62. 10. 138. 241. 159. 50. 2. 222. 3. 254. 76 T-Learning. 238. 134. 222 Tag clouds. 331 Web conferencing. 261 Usability. 225. 224 Team management. 46. 200. 215. 196. 224. 227. 226. 65. 190. 48. 244 Tangible computing. 253. 275 Vlogs. 122. 274 Tests. 139. 243. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 104. 171. 214 résumés. 241. 98. 45. 252. 47. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 160. 213. 158. 202. 240. 263. 187. 255 Single-user wiki. 221 self-evaluation. 230. 196. 187. 212 reusable learning objects. 169. 160. 60. 145 Robotics. 239. 123. 241 Television. 134. 273. 155. 222. 165. 210. 251 Serious games. 75. 5. 225. 231. 158. 167. 66. 226. 243. 5. 260. 195 Virtual learning environments. 332 Webcasting. 217. 66. 55. 194. 84 Telephony. 146. 18. 261 Shockwave. 143. 268 Tags. 125. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 51. 183. 51. 151. 156 sharable content objects. 52. 114. 261. 63. 119. 170. 247. 81. 72. 15. 216. 6. 24. 9. 241. 218. 167. 46. 214. 120. 281 SCORM. 264. 145 Repositories. 145. 209. 238. 33. 150. 174. 242. 216. 156. 19. 217. 193. 242 Security. 220. 12. 319 Role-playing. 158. 241 Search engines. 202. 171. 142. 204. 169 Streaming video. 73. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 259. 8. 155 Tagging. 62. 98. 121. 86. 241 virtual classroom. 219. 52. 60. 221. 187 Smart labels and tags. 201. 203. 119. 119. 227. 233. 205. 199. 231. 151. 148. 76. 159. 196. 57. 224. 45. 241. 250. 246. 266. 237. 59. 209. 152. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 63. 208. 228. 117. 76. 26. 259. 33. 254 Taxonomies. 97. 275. 85. 327 Videocasting. 31. 69. 211. 120. 226. 244 Tours (online). 154. 176. 145 Screencasting. 5. 60. 63. 6. 149. 199. 12. 7. 247 Video. 43. 224. 167. 192 Thin clients. 245. 228. 242. 62. 139. 155. 189. 100. 174 Virtual reality. 146. 147. 218 Science. 81. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 219. 268. 3. 227. 218 Scenarios. 69. 127. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 115. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 16. 215. 225. 45 Symbology tags. 45 Semantic Web. 2. 201.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 151. 9. 32. 223. 161. 265. 275 Translation. 256. 302. 241 Vodcasting. 45. 206. 232. 242. 38. 244. 5. 273. 76. 4. 331 Wearable computing. 112. 255. 174. 106. 109. 198. 65. 10. 137. 190. 145. 228. 221. 145. 268 Skypecasting. 138. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 188. 156. 244. 164. 201. 97. 226. 33. 246 Visualization. 212. 7. 157 Simulations. 148. 179. 264 Social networking. 203. 49.

256. 116. 90. 86. 87. 134. 233. 232. 276 Word. 97. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 270. 174. 271. 6. 332 Woodill. 77. 267. 157. 307 Wikipedia. 187 Whiteboards. 53. 80. 114. 233. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 3. 156. 1. 272. 104. 59. 270 Wikis. 269. 184. 135. 268. 268. Gary. 84. 103. 82. 68. 209. 136. 106. 10. 5. 137. 115. 168. 269. 266.