Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

Technologies are any technique. that lecturing. detentions. “things that make us smart. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. for example. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. and recess. with rows. still used in many institutions of higher education.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. fire for warmth and cooking. the classroom became industrialized. But learning technologies have a much longer history.” Starting in the first century AD. or “reader. and language for communication. Medieval universities followed the same practice. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. to quote Donald Norman (1993). the raising of hands. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. material. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. class periods. We tend to forget.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. Learning became standardized and linear. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. They are. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. is a 2000 year old “technology. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. The modern classroom. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. With these reforms. as books were scarce. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. or device that extends human abilities. Do Not Reproduce 1 .

E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. At the same time. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. For example. Sadly. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. chairman of IBM. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. 2 © 2006. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact.” Similarly. There are. Brandon Hall Research . there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. memorizing. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). many different ways to learn. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. Thomas Watson. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision.just the ability to follow an example. Eventually. and reciting.” In 1970. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. linear teaching techniques online. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Students in these schools learned by reading. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. changing the practice of teaching. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. When a new technology first comes into use. Schools were started to teach accounting. in 1876 someone at Western Union. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. Like all new technologies. When a new technology is introduced. moving pictures (films). even if the originator of the words is not present. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. A third way to learn is by seeing. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). in fact.

The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and standards. To realize these advantages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. frameworks. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. as this is a non-technical guide. sometimes referred to as a mashup. Rather than pages. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. mashups can only be done using computer technology.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. it needs to adhere to architectures. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. However. 2006). 2006). Do Not Reproduce 3 . we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Rather than pages.

4 © 2006. January. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence.free. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.fr/publicatio n. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid.php). a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Number 3. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. Brandon Hall Research . Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. 2005. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.

http://sourceforge. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. http://purl.elframework. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. interactive learning components. http://www. taken together. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.adlnet.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. In particular. http://www. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. http://imsproject. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. and makes extensive use of XML.oclc. enabling the search for content.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). At the same time. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. In Europe.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.imsglobal. Do Not Reproduce 5 .org).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. At the same time.accessgrid.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. http://ltsc. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays.aicc. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.org) has a number of published documents that. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.ieee. presentation and interactive environments. Major specifications for e-learning. research. and education administration.

” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content.is based on open. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. This is especially true for adult education. Rather.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Bollier says. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. “[a] pull economy . 2004). This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. For example. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. 6 © 2006.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). Brandon Hall Research . As Anderson (2004. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. 2006) has argued. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Instead. Instead. While packaged courses still have a place. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Instead of just providing courses.” In late 2005. Moreover. In business. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. They noted that “…in education. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. reinforces this theme.

idi. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more.html Anderson. June 2005. A. http://www. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. F. Milan. User-created content. http://arxiv. Bryan (2006). M. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. New York: Hyperion. Ali. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. along with selected examples. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. those learners are now keeping their own records. Odeh. http://www.. March/April 2006. I hope you will find it useful.. online resources. McClatchey. In the last chapter.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.amazon. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Bertolazzi. Chris (2006). is becoming commonplace. Bibliography Abbas. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. 2005). M. G. Italy.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. 12(10). Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented.wired. Wired Magazine. R. Reggiani. M. From this. 10/tail.. Wales. October. http://www. Web 2. ambient networks. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. Ahmad. and Conte. M. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. the reader can approach any topic in any order. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.DC/0502051 Alexander. mobile devices. Cardiff.pdf Anderson..com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. The Long Tail. http://www. Chris (2004).ntnu. and wearable computers. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF)..com/wired/archive/12.. R. Five years ago. Zanichelli.org/abs/cs. Thus. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. F. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.. (2005).. Do Not Reproduce 7 . (2005). Umer. Z. UK. 41(2).educause. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. and a bibliography.

Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. (2002). V. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. T. Portugal.... Stefano (2005). 14-16.bcs. Weiss.ca/protocols_en. of Distance Education 10. T.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Upper Saddle River. Sept. http://www. N. http://www. and Votis.. Web Services . http://cde. Jagadish (2004).athabascau.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. Nov. American Jrnl. WI. R.cti. Likothanassis. M. K. http://www. 16. Dec. Switzerland.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis.org/celda2005/index. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.cancore. (2001).pdf Friesen. Triantafillou.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.pdf Cerri. Thomas (2004).. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.ICALT 2001. M. http://ru6. Porto. Giotopoulos. Athabasca University. C.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti. (2002). Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Centre for Distance Ed. 2002. Hornig. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . 2001. C. Lausanne. N. G.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1.. (1996). International E-Learning Specifications.edu/pdf/ajde.. K. and McGreal. http://ewic. http://www. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.htm l 8 © 2006. Tsiatsos. 2004.gmu. Brandon Hall Research .amazon. David (2005).iadis. Montreal. Norm (2006). http://www. March 2002.cscsi. 19. 4-36. Madison.virtual. Aug. S. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).pdf Erl.htm Bollier. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. 2004.aspeninstitute. http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Chrysostalis. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform.devshed.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product... 2. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. USA.a sp Chatarji. 13-16.Dev Shed.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). http://www. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. and McGinnis (2004). Online. 13. 6-8.pdf Bogonikolos. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology.ca/softeval/report s/R110203. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Oct.

and Zhang. E.ascilite.S. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Australia. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. http://www. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. http://csdl2.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies. Stephen (2004). Hao (2003). Education. MA: Perseus.au Limited. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. 2005. G. (2005). http://www. 2003. http://www.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1. (2004). http://www. Luo. J. 2002 http://ewic.com. R.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. Switzerland.det.bcs..com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.200 5. Stuttgart. (2005). http://ewic.computer. http://www. (2005).org.pdf Millea.html Hockemeyer. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc. A field guide to software as a service. C. (2005). W. F. Sept.pdf Knorr.johnhagel.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1. http://www. (2003).de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids.c om/docs/SOA_World. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. J. and Vossen. J. 30.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa.xml. J. of Education and Training. 27 .gov. for the Australian Dept. Germany. Perth.com/paper_pushpull . January 2005. I.amazon. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.bcs.infoworld.. G. V. and Borck. Proceedings.. and Geys.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall. Lausanne. Working paper. 1026-1032. (2002). Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. April 18.xml&DOI=10.xml. Sept.pdf Neumann.56 Marshall.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel. D. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.htm Hohpe. L. Cambridge. http://www.unikarlsruhe. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Infoworld. http://www. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . and Brown.aifb.html Kong.pdf Norman. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. ThoughtWorks White paper. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . Donald (1993). SCORM and the Learning Grid.28 April 2004.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2. and Putland. J.. Green.pdf He.act. T.1109/CIT. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Erlanger. Gregor (2005). and Albert.

com/gp/product/18 46283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications..ac. V. UK. May 15. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Zhou et al.acten. Samuel (2006). M. Research report. 2005. http://www-i5. 193– 205. M. (2006). Berlin: Springer. http://www.ac. (2003). pp. H.iis. ACTeN E-Content Report No. C. and Oliveira.pdf Roberts. http://www. and Weggen. Rhonda (2006). (2005). informal learning and ubiquitous computing. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture.. e-portfolios. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. Klamma. Feijen. Aalderink. Mashups.edu. S. future thinking: digital repositories. G. M.R.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. (2000).pdf Werkhoven. April 26-27. R.pdf Woodill.tw/JISE/2005/ 200509_06. Library+information Show. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. Trinity College.amazon.alt. http://www..E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Pierre. April 1. C. Birmingham.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publicati ons/ATLAS. and Jarke.. and Ho. Dublin.astd. and Wade.pdf Spaniol. In W. W. 21.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILT A_white_paper_2005. W. Lee. Brandon Hall Research .. ICWL 2003.operitel.aspx Yang. T. C. 9. Harvey. J. Hambrecht and Co. http://www.alt. G. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.net/uploads/images/4 31/experience_machines.pdf Urdan. 2006. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. Trends in elearning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. Reflective learning. Learning Solutions. (Eds. 911-928. 2006. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. J. http://www.pdf 10 © 2006. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Peter (2004).com/publications.rwthaachen. (2005). http://www. http://www. Cook.sinica.): Proceedings.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF 5659-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.informatik.

online resources to learn more about each technology. selected elearning related examples. Included are related terms. and a bibliography for each section.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. Do Not Reproduce 11 .

affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. gestures. For example. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. in Italy. facial recognition. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. privacy. security. Brandon Hall Research . understand. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. In online therapy. and react to human emotions. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. 2005).sricbi. 12 © 2006. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. SRI Consulting (http://www. or sad. too. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. and react to human emotions.. confused. and to respond to them effectively. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Without the ability to understand emotions.” (Anolli. emotions. keystroke patterns. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. 2005). understand.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.. posture. et al.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. emotional design.

aisb. October 22-24.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.de/link/affective_p ortal. 2005.media. UK. UK. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.myself-proj. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.arizona. bibliographies.cs. listing many links to interesting resources.co.html In Germany. with many resources. are available online: http://www.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. See: http://www.informatik.mit. See the links at: http://emotion. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.ac.nsma. Access it from: http://www. and legality.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic. Do Not Reproduce 13 .bartneck.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. 2005. Check it out at: http://www.bham. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.edu/emotion.convo. including studies of emotions in computers. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. China. Affective Computing.org.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. University of Hertfordshire. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. Dr.unige. Hatfield. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. April 12-15.” Meet Ditto at: http://www. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. accuracy.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.unitrier.

H. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. K. M. and Laaksolahti. P. I Like It . R. Brassac.sics. (2005).. and Merisol.. Pianesi. C. Oregon. Wired Magazine.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour.sics. http://www. December. April 2-7. M.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide.dis.. Nortillaro. M. and Zancanaro. M. L. and Confalonieri (2005). Oregon. CHI 2005.pdf Cahour. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Diamond. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. F. P. K.com/wired/archive/11. Realdon. and Zouinar.doc Hook. Oregon. Z.1 2/love. CHI 2005 conference. April 2-7.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado.html Fallman. Nass.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar.. Vescovo. J. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. and Morishima. S. Mantovani. Portland. B.pdf Maldonado. Yamada. (2005). April 2-7. (2005). http://www. Graziola.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye.pdf Goren-Bar.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. Salembier. Rocchi..sics... CHI 2005 conference.. J. (2005). CHI 2005 conference. A. CHI 2005. (2005). H. D. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah... O. Portland.. http://www. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences.. K.sics. V. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation..it/~lhci/009. Brandon Hall Research . Isbister.uniroma1.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. F. Joseph (2005).. Zurloni. Brave.. http://www. Vermersch. O. http://www. April 2-7. Oregon. Portland. April 2-7. Erlbaum. Balestra. Lee. L.. C.. Pachoud. and Waterworth.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. http://www. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. Portland. J. N. Agliati. C.sics. Issue 11/12.pdf Kaye. Y. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Portland...doc Chateau. Iwamura. Nakajima.wired.. The Love Machine: building computers that care. A. Bouraoui. Oregon. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005 http://www.stanford..se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. I. Portland. 2005. Oregon.. September 13. NJ. David (2003).sics.pdf 14 © 2006. Stock.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. D. B. J. (2005). April 2-7. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. http://www..

(2002). and Steele. S. MA: MIT. (2005). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. April 2-7. and Daily.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. New York: Basic.pdf Mentis. http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland.elearningreviews.t. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. Donald A. Tan. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. and Picard. CHI 2005 conference.amazon. M.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion. http://www. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. R. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. April 2-7. 2002. ACII 2005. (2005). 22.de/emeocom p/content.utokyo.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Oregon. J. 2005.miv.htm Tao.pdf Masum. Berlin: Picard.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 .HTM Steele. CHI 2005. http://www.sics. May 26. October 22-24. T. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. Portland. 2005. and Ishizuka. China. Oregon. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.amazon. Rosalind (1997). 2005. J. Helena (2005). Portland. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Cambridge.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. E-book http://www.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final.pdf Norman. OR. Gerd (1998). http://www. Beijing.ac. http://www. Miami.ruebenstrunk. http://www.sics. Dec. (2005). Computing. Affective Springer. CHI 2005. http://www. M. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.com/gp/product/3 http://www.iste. R. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Regan (2005). Paper for WEBIST 2005.. 35(2). Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. S. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.

sics. Oregon.Affective Computing Wiberg. CHI 2005 conference. http://www.thesis. Doctoral Dissertation. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland.ac.pdf 16 © 2006.doc Wright. Charlotte (2005). Affective Computing vs. Emotional Agents.cs.bham. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. University of Birmingham.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg. April 2-7. Ian (1997). Brandon Hall Research . http://www.

1999). Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. proactive (goal directed). flexible means reactive (responds to its environment).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. learning/adaptation. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Fourth. Third.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. rationality. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. see the paper by Far et al. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. benevolence.gu. Second. 2004). Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. autonomous agents. veracity. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. First. avatars. and many of them can actually learn. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Dick Stenmark. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. In this context. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3.informatik. and. For example. and both may be found in the same program (for example. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Do Not Reproduce 17 . 1999).se/~dixi/agent/cl ass.. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment.

Brandon Hall Research . She made mistakes. In such situations. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Even though each agent acts independently. therefore. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. and the students had to continue to teach her. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Mentor. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. 18 © 2006. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Agents have beliefs. Viswanath. A second agent in the simulation. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. 2004) and are. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Katzlberger. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. et al. Massaro et al. Baldi. Therefore. 2000). told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. However. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. useful in educational simulations. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. 2005). Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. not only about environments. (1998) developed a conversational agent. but also about other agents. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. 2005. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. acting against other teams of agents.

fsu. See: http://www. not only about environments. Go to: http://www. See: http://www. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent.org/index.liv. See a demo at: http://www. S. Hypermedia.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.stanford. (2004): http://www.editlib. & Ebbers.netobjectdays.extempo.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. expert role-players. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). go to: http://ritl.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs. For details see: www.ac.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623.isi.csc. go to: http://ldt. See the article by Williams et al. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.codebaby.. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.de/bibliography/Ai /agents.ira.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. (2003).pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.redwoodelearning.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. but also about other agents.old. and expert guides.com/ CodeBaby Corp.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. and Telecommunications 2003. http://www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. They are available as adaptive coaches. Do Not Reproduce 19 . Therefore. 459462.uka. See: http://liinwww. For details of this research: http://www. A.org/index.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.editlib.

..editlib.pdf Guessoum. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. Educause Quarterly. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.educause. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments.. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. Paper presented. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). http://www. (2000). and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. 10 (3). G. No. 75-80.old. 1353-1356. S. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.Agents Baylor. Koono. July. 3. In Proceedings. E. Educause Quarterly. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. B. Y. Norfolk.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. 1503-1506.pdf Kao. S.org/index. and Tsang. 275-285. http://www. (1999).org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. & Kim.. L.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. J. http://www.. (2003). M.editlib. http://www.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. W.editlib. A. Clarebout. and Palopoli. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro. VA: AACE. G. C. Germany.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao. Y. In Richards.. Erfurt.org/index. S. & El-Khouly.. & Johnson. 2005..educause. A.computer. (2002). http://www. (2005).org/index.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Elan.netobjectdays.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. Z. & Bengu. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Ali (2002).edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235.aace. 11(3).. 5(7). and Shaw.pdf Clarebout. http://www. 306-311).org/newdl/index. Large Complex Systems.cfm?fusea ction=Reader..pdf Jafari. Proceedings. Jrnl. ELearning 2003.org/index. http://www. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. Ng.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Inter-active Learning Res. (2005). http://csdl. (Ed. G. Johnson.. e-Learning 2005. 28(2). Brandon Hall Research . (2002). G. J. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.org/index.). G.. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. & Lin. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. Hypermedia. Zahia (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. Sun. (2002). W. 267-286 http://www.

Vanderbilt University. of California.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . D. Y.ogi. R.teachableagents. Daniel. U. and Winikoff.aace. A.pdf Kim. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay.informatics. O.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). and Ferneley.org/index. 17(2). Tennessee. Learning by Teaching Agents. In Proceedings.pdf Menczer..com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. TN.unikarlsruhe.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. (2004).amazon. J. E-Learning 2003. and Ho. (2005). http://dl. Cohen. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.edu/fil/ Padgham.. www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. August.pdf Luengo.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.amazon. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons. France. Hershey. C. http://www. M. Nashville. www. and Cole. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. http://www. Nashville. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.cse. 4(1). Sandel. M. 1632.aifb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. V. In Proceedings. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.indiana. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. W. IFIP WG12. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. Doctoral dissertation. Thomas (2005). Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. 143-162.K. (2003).org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.5 .cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (2006).org/16948 Leelawong.. E. Krittaya (2005).org/index. 21-38.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Fuhua Oscar (2005). www... L. Beskow. http://www. P. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Vanderbilt University. 16591666. http://cslu. Doctoral Dissertation. S. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. http://www. http://www. ED-MEDIA. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. and Stucky. International Journal on E-Learning. V. (1999)..editlib.pdf Lin.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro.de/BIK/vpa/109. 1999. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.org/index.teachableagents. Toulouse.

cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.. Healthcare.psu. K. http://scholar. http://www.editlib. http://www. and Núñeza.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. Adebiyi. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).. L. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Gilbert. 30003002. http://www. ED-MEDIA 2004.html Shim. 61-65.). Proceedings. & Booth.org/papers/ 158bis. http://www.editlib.edu/565321.. (2004). G. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.org/index. Doctoral Dissertation.. Ferat (2000). In Proceedings.. EDMedia 2005. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.org/16968 Sahin. http://citeseer. D.org/newdl/index. 1999. (2004). Russia.aace. H.). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. PA. (Ed. http://dl. G. http://www. 14151420. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. (1999).aace.editlib. (2005). and Solomon.org/index. and Higher Education 2004. 47-59.org/index. Peter (1998). Government. S. K. M. 321-333.. N.vt. Doctoral Dissertation.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung.Agents Perez. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. B. (2005).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. J.teachableagents. Atreya. June 1-4. 3169-3176. R. http://www. Pittsburgh. St.ist. M. Carnegie Mellon University. L.lib. ED-MEDIA 2005.utexas. S. http://www.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Proceedings. J. In Richards. (2004). G. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.cs. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. (1999). Wesley. & Lim. In P. Finland. Biswas.pdf Williams. Brandon Hall Research .. R.. (2005). Richards (Eds.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. & Leelawong.editlib. 194-201. Petersburg.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. 10 (3). 14(1). Virginia Poytechnic and State University.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. & Madsen. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Kommers & G. M.

http://ca.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.upc.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 .html Yan.wiley. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Chicago.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. April 18-21. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://research. 2004.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X. Michael (2002). Paper at CLAG2004. Chun. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. (2004).ac.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce

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” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. 2002). a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. Talking Head Tutor vs. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. objects. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. etc) and how they are interrelated. concepts. rather than using a single type of knowledge. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. gestures. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. Do Not Reproduce 30 . (2003).” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed.e. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. While many systems purport to be personalized. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time.

pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. Do Not Reproduce 31 .it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.cs. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system..di. see: http://lsa. including student monitoring. (2005a.colorado.” http://www.colorado. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.cs.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.” http://www.uic.uregina.” http://www.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. http://www.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation. and multiagents.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.unito. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. http://lsa. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.cs.iit..edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. ecommerce. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.

pact. http://www.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging. http://ariic. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.cmu. 32 © 2006.” http://www. http://bach. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. question answering (QA) techniques.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.kicinger.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. http://www. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. Infrature.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.infrature. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.com/index. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.” http://ctat.enel. As a result.uc3m.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.edu.unsw. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.leaonline. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. http://quantumsimulations.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. Brandon Hall Research . (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.sinica.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .pdf Oguejiofor et al. http://www.it. http://www.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.cs.ucalgary.iis. and INFOMAP.library.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.ht ml To achieve their goals.gast.edu.com/doi/pdf/10.

A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.it. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.cmu.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.com/s10.edu. skill gaps.stottlerhenke. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. preferred cadence.virtuelage. Task Tutor Toolkit .gemini. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://pact.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research.usyd.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.cs. Aurora . intelligent conflict resolution. and an interactive intelligent tutor. Do Not Reproduce 33 . Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic . challenging. Find out more at: http://ctat. Inc. http://www. see: http://www. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.cmu.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. so that these systems become more realistic.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.ke-corp. and learning style.” http://www. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Stottler Henke Associates.cs. and engaging. http://www.pact.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. The reality is that. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. without programming.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.

cs.ac.uquebec. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. go to: http://aied.ed. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.org/2000/fe b2000/ong. The AIED conferences are held every two years.aaai.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. See: http://www. Find it at: http://www.masternewmedia.teluq.org/AITopics/html/tutor.” Learn more at: http://www.ac. For more info: http://www2. with the next one in 2007.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. Read it at: http://www. China.ucalgary. http://www.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.licef. Brandon Hall Research . 34 © 2006.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.inf.org/cfp. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. For more information. http://www.learningcircuits.ed.technologyreview. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.wpi.com/printer _friendly_article.autotutor. Taiwan. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.ca/eng/in dex.uk/aiedsoc.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).its2006. http://aied.enel.inf. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.htm Marvin Minsky.

B. P.sbg. Chicago. 6(1). http://www. and Read.2005. http://lingcog. (2004). Brazil. http://www... T.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . B. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.pdf Aleven. and Koedinger. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. R.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. R. M. (2002).doi. http://www. Kort. (2004).at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.cmu.eurodl. and Penstein Rosé. and Picard.html Barker. Paraguaçu (Eds. Roll.ac. S.pitt. & F.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. C...org/10. Maceió.1109/ITCC. M. Vicari. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems.amazon.. I. Eshaa (Ed.Volume I. M.di. and Evens. C. PA: Idea. and Douglas. 22: 3–39. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. S. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. E. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . ITS 2004.. G.wpi. J. (2004).ri. Mostow.pdf Barcena. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. In J. V. Lester. Baroglio.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. V. K. Hershey. http://www.82 Bhatt. 482-487.ht ml Aleven.. (2004). and Patti. V. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.. Artificial Intelligence Review. C.edu/pubs/pub_4073. http://www.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner.pdf Alkhalifa.) (2006). R. Hermann (2002). Argamon.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).pdf Baldoni. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. http://www. http://dx.iit. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. http://nth. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. (2004). McLaren. In Proceedings. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Reilly. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.unito. K.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit.

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computer based assessment (CBA). Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. once only done by a human assessor. or performance samples. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. For example. and psychomotor. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). More sophisticated forms of automated. Do Not Reproduce 45 . Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. aptitudes. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. or performance samples. eassessment. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. in the near future. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. for example. In a business situation. and documents for assessors to use.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. evaluation. quizzes. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. are already available. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. When combined into a “360° evaluation. We can expect that. samples. rubrics. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. computer mediated assessment (CMA). While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. computer-based assessment tools. online assessment. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. quizzes. Assessment software can generate templates. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. and output. 1956). self-evaluation. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. the automated scoring of essays. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. making it hard to escape assess-ment. quizzes. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. affective.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA).

a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. has recently won awards for its performance. skills. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. see: http://www. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. from Resources Management Services in the U.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.info/lear ning/solo. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.redinq.com The Evaluator.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.horizonwimba. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. which is usually much more reliable than human marking.brainbench. Brandon Hall Research . 46 © 2006. Diploma.rmsuk. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. and (4) computer marking.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. See: http://www.questionmark.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Find them at: http://www. For details.learningandteaching. a completely customizable report engine. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools..com/redinq/html/inde x. preview pages for all question types. Review it at: http://www.testcraft.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment.xstreamsoftware. and adaptive question branching. See the site at: http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. abilities. However. a customizable look and feel. multilingual support. and past work behaviors. http://www.0.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. personality.K. Try it at: http://nt.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.

check out the Dialang web site.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.uc.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. surveys.” See their offerings at: http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. on its Web site. See: http://www. http://www. once only done by a human assessor.pedagogue. http://www. institutional evaluation. and self-study.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. See more at: http://www.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.respondus. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. http://www.dialang. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.flaguide. http://www. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. Try it at: http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. For information on latent semantic analysis.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.fasfind. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 .com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.ets. learning tools. and services useful for outcomes assessment.colorado.epistema. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.com/wwwtools/magazin es.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.vantagelearning.org/ ETS.operitel.org/english/index.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry. see: http://lsa.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. http://www. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. and adminis-tration features.” organized by academic discipline. reporting.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.

html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.ac.au/assessi nglearning/03/online. http://www. http://www.htm 48 © 2006. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.000 different tests from its database.ac.unimelb.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.scit.com/useguide/as sessme/online. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.ira. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.” http://www. http://www.rmcdenver.learnflex.heacademy. with a list of 34 strategies. http://www.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba.discovery.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.ac. Brandon Hall Research .Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.uka.thinkinggear.wlv.uk/home.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.ulster.edu.uk/cticomp/CAA.com/029. Obtain a copy at: http://www.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. is available from: http://liinwww.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. Explore the links at: http://www.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80. http://www.nestafuturelab. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.umuc.health.org/research/ reviews/10_01.cshe.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.ac.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.oir. with over 1.200 references. http://cba. Check them out at: http://school. http://www.com/tools/rubric s.tasainstitute. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.com/schrockguid e/assess.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.economicsnetwork.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.uiuc.

org/en/en_mod41. and O'Hagan. Louis. http://www.iltaonline. http://www. http://www.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. St. and Collis.amazon. & Rodríguez. R. McNamara. B.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. S. T. Educational Technology & Society. K. E.learningandteaching. http://www. Gregory (1973).pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. (2001). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Ortigosa.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein.. Iwashita. New York: McKay. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.quintcareers.tcet.iltaonline. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.amazon.com/career_asse ssment. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. D.info/journals/8_3/6. http://www.amazon. James (2005).unt. and Davies. Online paper. (2001). Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.html Bibliography Alfonseca.ict4lt. M.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. http://www. (1982).. and Hirschman. http://www. A. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. (2004). J. (1956). http://www.pdf Biggs. Freire..ifets. 53-65. Online paper.htm#2. A. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. London: Paladin... L.3 Bateson. P.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain..pdf Atherton. New York: Academic Press. J. Carro. G. (2005). T.info/learn ing/solo. http://www. S.. Missouri.htm Atkinson. M. http://www. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Pérez. 8 (3). N.

In R. Arlington Heights. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke.).assess. Burstein.computer. (1997).) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. D. and Marcu.amazon. Rethink testing for future success. http://llt. & Leacock.ets. Hillsdale. http://www. Harabagiu and F. Jill C. How to Assess Authentic Learning. eSchool News. Daniel. http://www. In M.. J. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. IL: Skylight. http://www. Kay (1999). August 2003. In M. http://www. (1989). Mexico. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. (2002)..Assessment Tools Brown J. http://www. and Knight. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Hillsdale. 3rd Edition. Jill. B.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. IEEE Intelligent Systems.msu.com/news/sho wStoryts. L.pdf. Linn (Ed.htm 50 © 2006. In the R. (2003). Martin.amazon.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. C. 1. Acapulco. Robert (2005). Jill. J. http://www. Inouye. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence.org/intelligent/archives. New York. 2005.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. Shermis and J. New York: Oxford. Shermis and J. Kaplan (Ed. NY: Macmillan.htm Burstein. Educational Measurement.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. (2003).com/Books/b39739. Brandon Hall Research . In S. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Jill. C..ht m. Burstein (Eds. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Daniel. www. Kevin (2003). http://www. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. K. Burstein (Eds.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Burstein. & Olsen.com/Books/b39739.amazon.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. June 22. V. Marcu. and Chodorow. Ciravegna (Eds. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive.. Chodorow. (2003).eschoolnews.assess.

Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. M.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn.Proceedings from a Workshop. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.iltaonline.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Online newsletter. (1998). Morgan.ncte. (2004). L. St. http://www. C.nap. T. and Parry.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. B. K. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.doc. 5. www. Millard.htm Cebrian.au/worldcall/str5. Online newsletter.) (1999). & Landauer. (2005).au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. P. S. N. n..msu.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). (1999). "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".pdf Dunkel P. Nathan.hlc. C.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. Y. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. http://llt.soton. (2001).. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. Micheline. 2. W. http://www. Micheline.html Chalhoub-Deville. http://eprints. The Student Assessment Handbook. v.unimelb.html Davies. (2001).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Louis. E. College Composition and Communication Online. Davis. Language testing and technology: past and future. Language Learning & Technology 2. http://www. (Ed. March 9.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. EdMedia '99.ac.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. O’Reilly. Writing assessment: a position statement.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. http://www. H. M.amazon.nmsu. Laham. and Sclater. Board on Testing and Assessment... Cambridge: University of Cambridge. http://llt. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. http://wwwpsych.msu. Foltz.ecs. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. and Grellett.. Chalhoub-Deville. P. London: Falmer. National Research Council. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.edu. (1999). University of Tasmania. D. 2: 77-93.utas. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. May. Howard. In Proceedings. Language Learning and Technology.edu. D.html Do Not Reproduce 51 . W. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Loughborough. http://www..

http://www. J.) (2002). and Ward. (1998).pdf Landauer.. Seven technologies for assessment.html Khan.edu/papers/dp1.colorado. http://llt. May. H.medianet.htm. J. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. S. Y.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. Language Learning and Technology. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.msu. http://www.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. (1999). and Howell. Compiegne. http://mason. & Mason.amazon. K.kent. New York: Basic Books.. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.softwaresecure. V.amazon. W. Language Learning and Technology. France. D.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 .com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey.msu. M. (2005).Hershey. http://www. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Potenza. Fremer. http://llt. Robert.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones.html. http://lsa. PA: Information Science. http://www. Patrick (2000). Foltz. 25. P.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.. May. International Journal on E-Learning. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.pdf MacDonlad. http://www. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. 2. No.. (2001). 259284.proexam.com/pdf/Pap erTests. Online paper.) (2005).. 4.pdf Hricko. R (2002). (Eds. Gardner. Lawrence.pd f Kenyon. and Watt. Discourse Processes. W. Howard (1993). Howell. & Laham.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. http://www.gmu. M. and Ma. n.. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. v. M. Hardas. Hillsdale.LSAi ntro. 5. 5(2). M.amazon. (2001). Weller. T. and Malabonga. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. http://www. D.. (2002). C.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones.amazon. N. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (Eds.

M.amazon. http://www. Reports from the Institute of Education. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.. DC: U.bc. http://www.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. R. (Eds. Learning. and Skinner. pp. and Writing. and Gifford. D.) (2000). http://www. Journal of Technol. http://www. & J. S. K. Fitzgerald. Online Assessment.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. 403-416.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Government. National Center for Education Statistics. Information Science Publishing. (1979). (2000).edu/cgi/viewconten t.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. Burstein. In C. (Ed. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. New York. (2005).com Do Not Reproduce 53 .ed. http://nces. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. D. Howard. Tim (2006). Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.S.amazon. Mahwah. and Hricko. Hershey. Operitel white paper. & Leacock.. Self. http://eric. M.ed. Handbook of writing research. A. B. http://escholarship. PA: Information Science. pdf Weiner. J. Howell. G. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. (2006). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Problem Solving.. (2006).amazon. M. S.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. C.operitel. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. and Assessment. Measurement and Evaluations. Washington. NY: Guilford Press. University of Gothenburg. 4(6).. McArthur.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.amazon. Graham.) (2005). The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.

the rest of the file has time to arrive. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. The quality of online audio depends on many factors.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. while it is playing. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. One audio application of interest to educators. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. compared with even a few years ago. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. According to Crofts et al. podcasting. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . (i. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. For example. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet.e. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. which is gaining in popularity. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. depending on the file size)..” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. or by “streaming. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. (2005).5 megabytes. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. Brandon Hall Research . The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. is podcasting.

thepodcastnetwork.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files.rds. http://www. Assists non-native speakers.purdue. and other operating systems. GNU/Linux. http://www.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. (i. to personalized media).html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.scientificcomputing. You can’t add your own notes.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. It is available to download for Mac OS X. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners. in part. Microsoft Windows.com/blogs/doug/index. such as those for iPods. Provides feedback to learners. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. http://www. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.e.apple. Provides another channel for material review.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Do Not Reproduce 55 . http://www. http://www. open source software for recording and editing sounds.. http://sourceforge.envision. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.

http://www. including podcasting.com/lipsync/in dex. Audio and video software.audiotoolsdirect. recording.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web.48. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. sound editing.edupodder.uk/podcasting/index.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. DJ mixing. http://www.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.htm RECAP Ltd. http://www. phrases.avsmedia. and broadcasting are all found on this site.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. which is gaining in popularity.podcasting-tools.htm For a list of podcasting tools. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. is podcasting. tools. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://64. shareware.ltd.automaticsync. http://epnweb.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. including software to record and play podcasts. http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. and utilities for conversion.ibritt.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. http://www.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.com/AudioTools/in dex. http://recap.masternewmedia. or sentences from audio Web sites.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. http://www. go to: http://www.co. CD audio extraction.com. enhancing.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. 56 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/resources/dc_medi a.elearningcentre.71. playback. freeware.

com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.com/products/audition/ main.html Bibliography Buhman. http://www. and Williams. July 2005.editlib.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. (2005).unl. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. (2003).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.. September.org/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. Dilley. Dion Cory (1999). http://dl.masternewmedia. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://digitalcommons.. Brenda (2001). http://www. 417-419). Richards (Ed.com/home.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. Sound Sense. Dave (2005). 10(9).html Curtis.. http://www.aace.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index.multitrackstudio.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Robin Good’s Blog. M.audiolink. May 20. A.uk/articles/podguide.htm Jobbings. 2005. Government. Healthcare.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. April 2005. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Chesapeake. http://firstmonday. Scientific Computing World.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.scientificcomputing. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Retsema. VA: AACE.cakewalk. Ray (2005).html Canali De Rossi. J.adobe.sonicfoundry. B.org/3455 Girvan. Luigi (2005). University of Nebraska.ltd. S. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. and Swenson.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Fox. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. First Monday.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). In G. 45-50. http://recap. L.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 .bias-inc. P.

learningcircuits. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Podcasting and Vodcasting. http://www. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. N.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. Eva (2005). http://www.educause. Learning Circuits. Podcasts.apple. C.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. http://edmarketing. June 2005.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson.pdf Noakes. Peter (2005).com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. Brandon Hall Research . and Lomas.

Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). and. either directly or with third party tools. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. (For details. simulations. shtml). Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. content development. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman.brandonhall. No authoring tool does everything.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. either directly or with third party tools. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. see: http://www. rapid e-learning. and Evaluation) processes. in the end.microsoft.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. Do Not Reproduce 59 . Design. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Development. In this vein. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Further. please see http://www. Further. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. As well. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content.com/publications/emerging/emerging. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. Implementation. 2005).

Capture Station 2.articulateglobal. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.allencomm.com/products/ Articulate .acroservices.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.thinkingcap.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. http://www. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. music. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. http://www. go to: http://www. and marketing applications.com/presenter. http://www. video.Designer’s Edge.com/ Acroservices . http://www. http://www.com Anark . www.htm ActiveSlide.adobe.info/ Allen Communications .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia.Media – Import 3-D Models. video.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.com Agile .activeslide. Do Not Reproduce 60 . visualization.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain.accordent.Thinkcap Studio . and images and turn them into 3-D training. XML.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.anark. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. http://www.

composica.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . Do Not Reproduce 61 .e2train. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.copycatsoftware. stand alone .turbodemo.htm Composica .php e2train . http://www.com/power point-presentations-index.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.brainshark.bridge-pt. pointers. http://www. and PowerPoint slides. http://www.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www.Content Point . Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. and animation. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. .lersus.Composica Enterprise . http://www.exe files.shtml Dynamic Media . video. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. Integrates various media.com/inde x. Builds quizzes.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.elearningpowertools.digitalworkshop. audio. CD Rom. buttons. rich text.com/ Counterpoint .htm Bernard D&G .uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. hotspots. http://presentation. video.com/product s/Pro. such as the following: Web.com/ Business Performance Technology . http://www. Flash.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop .dynamicpowertrainer.ht m Brainshark Inc. http://www.com/in dex_eng. http://www.ilessons. pop-up messages. http://www.co.com/eng/index.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .co. http://www.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.atlanticlink.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.uk/contentpoint.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming. DVD-video.

graphics.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.com/ Hunter Stone .experiencebuilders. http://www.com No authoring tool does everything. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.eedo.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .com Imaira Digital Media .gen21. Brandon Hall Research .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. 62 © 2006. http://www.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. Import rich media and customize graphics.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. http://www. Post the characters on any Web site. http://www. http://www.elementk. without programming knowledge. and installation files. http://www. and.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation .com/products/forceten.com/ka.hunterstone.eclipsys. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. http://www. http://www.com/Solutions/Elear ning.com Element K .com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. in the end.e-learningconsulting. HTML courses.sculptoris.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.com/index.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www. http://www. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. http://www. html E-Learning Consulting .elicitus.horizonwimba. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.epistema.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .Development Kits – Create Flash courses. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.

http://www. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.com/flashh ome.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.com/ Integrated Performance Systems . create courses specifically on how to use computer software. Do Not Reproduce 63 .ie/software/publisher. combining multimedia content like video. http://www.intecllc.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.intuition.seminar.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.ipsinc. centralized knowledge base.Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www.WTDS-Web Training Development System . shtml Itaca . Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. audio. http://www. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates.com/ KnowledgeXtensions . Word. http://www. http://www.knowledgepresenter.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.co. Built-in testing engine.easyprof.com/pro dserv.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.knowledgequest.com/home/home. and animations with tests and interactivity.knowledgextensions. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. http://www.pdf Intuition .com/ Information Transfer . with no programming and no plugins.elearninginabox. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.de/ Impatica .asp Knowledge Quest .js p Knowledge Planet .uk/ INTEC .knowledgeplanet.EasyProf .impatica. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.lecturnity.

com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. course publisher. graphics. and course player all in one software package. Brandon Hall Research .instant-demo.com/tbt/dac/index.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www.maxit. Ready-made button and navigation aids.learn.learnerland. http://www.customcourse.percepsys.com .Authoring Tools Learn. 64 © 2006. Works with SAP Learning Solution.ch/eLearning/EN /index.com/ NetPlay Software . http://www.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.maxit.ph p MindOnSite .Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.com/learncenter.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/coursegen.mindonsite.com/ OPTX International . http://www.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.htm MediaMaker .NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.mindiq. and other online presentations for play back to students.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.screenwatch. http://www.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.mohive.com/ Percepsys . PowerPoint slides.com/index. http://www. .com MyKnowledgeMap .co.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. http://www. http://www. http://www. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. http://www.uk/ MindIQ . with a built-in learning management system.mckinnonmulherin.LEARNERLand – Text.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www.

teknical. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.htm Suddenly Smart .softchalk.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.Publisher Professional .ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.com Rapid Intake .Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.net ReadyGo .podia. popups. http://www. http://nuvvo.rapidintake. image labeling. http://www. http://www.pointecast.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. and assessments. GIFs.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games.com/ Qarbon .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. and Flash.net/ PointeCast .readygo.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. customizable flashcards.scribestudio. http://www.com/ Scribe Studio .cfm Serco (technical) . http://www. JPEGs.com/sensasol ution.podiaOnDemand . crosswords.shtml Reusable Objects . without knowing code. Do Not Reproduce 65 . http://www.com/products/stud ymate.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/ Savvica .com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.Nuvvo .com Respondus . http://www. When content is developed.com/Products/elear ning_objects.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.sensalearning.or SCORMcompliant.In minutes. matching games.reusableobjects. a customizable. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.com/common/a ffiliateRefer. http://www. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .suddenlysmart.respondus. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. interactive Flash presentations and online training. image hotspot activities.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems. http://www.qarbon. Courses can be posted. Audio.E-Learning Objects .

html Westcliff – SCObuilder.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.php?from=menu SumTotal . http://www. http://www.toolbook. Brandon Hall Research . http://workforceconnections.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.htm time4you GmbH . content conversion. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. http://www.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. video. http://www. and rapid simulation.syberworks. and highly interactive e-learning content. http://www.toolbook.com/products/lc. http://www.asp TEDS .Authoring Tools SumTotal . 66 © 2006.gov/ Webex .com/Technology.Presentation Studio .de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start.funeducation. CD.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. http://www.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. images. http://www. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.westcliffdata.techsmith. http://www. audio. htm Techsmith .php?from=menu SyberWorks .Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.co.trainvision.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.com/learn_assistant . http://www. and wizards. kiosks.com/services/webpresentation-svc. and text.time4you.com/learn_assistant .2conformant objects and assessments.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author . or Spanish.com/camtasia.asp TrainVision .Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. or Network.uk/index.com/ US Government .php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.lectora. http://www.teds.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. French. templates.webex.com/product_sa.dol.

McMullen. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005.amazon. and host online discussions. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. P. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. De Bra.htm Zapatec . (2003). http://www. publish blogs.. BC. Canada.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.oswego. Melia. P.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. Vancouver. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. http://www.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.com/products/products _xwb.. Berlin: Springer.bloki.pdf Murray. http://www. http://www. D. (2005). Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA).oswego.xplana. C. www. Government.win. S. E. Lin (2005). M.brandonhall. See: http://www.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. June 2005.cs. and Riesbeck. Healthcare. Evanston.pdf Ramp. Do Not Reproduce 67 . and Pahl..com/downloa d_rb40eval.xstreamsoftware. S. (2005).com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. AACE. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana . Montreal. C. October 24-28. and Brusilovsky. Doctoral Dissertation. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. T.cs. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. E. L. interactive and intelligent educational software.editlib.. Blessing. (2005). Illinois. and Ainsworth.tue. 2005. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. Northwestern University.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. http://www. www. right in their browser with no additional software required.

http://www. Learning Circuits. Sunnyvale. Eindhoven.htm Tozman. Masters Thesis.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.learningcircuits. (2005). A. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Technical Univ. Learning Circuits.edu/~paws/publicatio ns.. Reuben (2004).brandonhall. Another new paradigm for instructional design. NL. http://www.learningcircuits. Nov.Authoring Tools Ramp. shtml 68 © 2006. June 2005.htm Woodill. http://www. CA: Brandon Hall Research.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. The myth about tools. Reuben (2005).htm Tozman. 2004. Brandon Hall Research .sis. E.pitt. Gary (2005). W. http://www2. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.com/publications/emerging/emerging.

Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. In the area of psychotherapy. Similarly. in the broadest sense. but in e-learning. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. In some situations.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. the avatar may represent an actual human being. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. especially in gamebased learning activities. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. for example. and generally simulates human activity. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.” Maldonado et al. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. In the context of elearning. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. Do Not Reproduce 69 . games. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners.

modular application.typepad. offering a large number of supportive functions. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.tmmy. http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.vcom3d.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio. http://www.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. http://blogoehlert. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.html Online Resources In Europe. In the toolkit.sculptoris. Inc.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.co. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.” which are avatars that teach. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.knowledgeenvironments.oddcast. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. See them in action at: http://www.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. http://www.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.redwoodelearning. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. users are represent-ed as avatars.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. in cooperation with a number of groups. Try them at: http://www.codebaby.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.co.telsim.exodus. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.daden.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. 70 © 2006. http://www. See: http://www.

A.. C. Nakajima. and T. and Morishima.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal.pdf Maldonado.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. 25. (2005). Brave.. www. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Raj (2003).Training Education & Education International Conference. Koschmann. Nass. Yamada.. (2004). J. Y. www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. B. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. 2005. In T. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. C...naccq.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 . 2003. and Weber.stanford.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. R.pdf Seth. and Nodder. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://isnm.. K.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.W. D. Aug.. http://www. Nexus Media. (2005). M. Suthers. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . New Zealand. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. S. Chan (Eds.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI..pdf Jung. Iwamura. H.ac. Ahad. S.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. H. Lee.

the use of blogs in education is here to stay. video blogging. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. A form of online publishing. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. Few. For teachers. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. screencasting. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. as the following examples show. Blogs are used for marketing. However. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. education.” As well. Nevertheless. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. 72 © 2006. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Similarly. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Clyde adds. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. who wrote. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. if any.” The Catalyst Group. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. in a note of caution. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Brandon Hall Research . Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. or they can be open to the general public. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Blogs are used for communication.

President of an instructional design firm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives. if they have subscribed to the blog. His blog. http://www. http://www. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. It’s found at: http://www.us/archives/026 753. Most blog writing is unstructured. other than simple word searching. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997).edtechpost. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket.wavemarket. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. is a great resource. http://www.internettime.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.com/spg. an applications company.elearnspace.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. with a wide range of writing styles.g.sonyericsson. Canada.weblogs. see: http://structuredblogging. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Find it at: http://www. For more information. http://www.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg.cramersweeney. http://www. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. In this approach.com/ Jenna Sweeny. Do Not Reproduce 73 .2megapixel blogging phone. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy. elearnspace.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.org/ http://carapace.com/wordpress/ http://informl. movie reviews look different than recipes. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.blogburst.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals.weblogs.html http://radio.ca/gems/matrix2 .

org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.metaxucafe.com/index. Find her work at: http://64.com.48.org/socialstudies/ blogs. Teresa A.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www. In March 2006.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse. there were 891 educational blogs listed. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib. http://blogpulse. View them at: http://video. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman. which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://www.elearningcentre.blogspot.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent.blogcatalog. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.google. http://www.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.71. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.pdf 74 © 2006. http://www.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.postgenomic. including educational blogging. http://www.co.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog. check out this site: http://www3.essdack.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. “blogs are cool.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. a librarian.pewinternet.anecdote.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.

Educational Blogging.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. (2006).org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.freepint. 39(5). Syracuse.com/wwwtools/m/10171.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006. http://www. Pew Internet and American Life Project.pdf Pierce. No.asp Davis. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.com/issues/130105 . eSchool News Online.htm Catalyst Group (2005).eschoolnews.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. 2006.00. Laurel (2005). January 13. www. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. James (2005). 1837604. May 16. July 19. A. http://www.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. AI3 White Paper. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes. http://www. eWeek.pdf A form of online publishing. http://www. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. 5.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.1895.ca/cgibin/page. March 24.com Bibliography Bergman.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.pewinternet.catalystgroupdesign.12.htm Canali De Rossi. Sept.teachesme. EduBlog Insights. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. Luigi (2004). David (2005). Enterprise blogging.fasfind. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 75 . http://www. Master’s Thesis. http://anne2. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example.downes. Syracuse University. http://www. 29. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. Dennis (2006). FreePint Newsletter.htm#feature Coursey.waypath. September/October.eweek. July 14. Blogs: a global conversation. Robin Good Blog. EDUCAUSE Review.educause. http://www. or they can be open to the general public. http://www. Michael (2005). 2006. go to: http://m.com. 14-26. July 11. 2005.asp Lenhart. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes.masternewmedia. Anne (2004). September 2005.masternewmedia. and Fox.com/work/theses8.everyhuman. Robin Good Blog. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community.174. Stephen (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. Luigi (2005). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.com/article2/0. Oct.pdf Canali De Rossi. S.pdf Clyde.lo w. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging.mkbergman. New York. Panelists: blogs are changing education.com/news/sho wStoryts.

Brandon Hall Research .com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. which owned the rights to Netscape.mozilla.com/firefox/). Internet Explorer.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. and photo sharing. http://www. http://www. thin clients. where many applications interact with each other automatically. (http://www. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book.mozilla. 2001).org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. Flock was launched in October 2005. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. has a small following.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. blogs. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons.omnigroup. Webtops Description For many.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. Like all technology innovation curves. or at least their influence is decreasing. the defeat of the Netscape browser. while Opera. Netscape. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. http://www. For example. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.mozilla.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.opera. (http://www. America Online. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). The Internet is treated as a virtual space. http://www.activeworlds. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. 76 © 2006. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. and “themes. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. bookmarking. search engines.flock. a browser that has been around for a long time.

Jan. (2002). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Malik.webdevelopersnotes. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton.. and Horton. 2002. http://money. WashingtonPost.com/desi gn/browsers_list.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p.pdf LeMay.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert. http://www. Boulder. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop. Aug.com. 16. CNN Money.2000061733.wikipedia. across several articles.washingtonpost. Still Perfecting its Pitch. http://www.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.html Engst.typepad.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. July 30. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en. 2005. http://www.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.cnn.php3 Bibliography Cox.00. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0: The Powerful Web Browser.networkworld.com/getbits.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.com. CO. William Horton Consulting.evolt. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. Oct. 2006. M. and Copeland.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. K.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en. Adam (2004). 21. 29.html http://blogoehlert. 742. 2004.0.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en. Renai (2005). Brandon Hall Research .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers.wikipedia. Opera Browser. Network World.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. http://www. ZDNet Australia. May 16.tidbits.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site.com.zdnet.wikipedia. John (2001). No. 2001. W. E. O. called “Webtops. TidBits.typepad.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. http://www.bestdegree.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. OmniWeb 5. http://db. Michael (2006).com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.39218173.

as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. 78 © 2006. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. However. Brandon Hall Research .Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. display. The devices keep students alert and involved. management. giving almost instant feedback. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. classroom communication systems. The use of clickers has several advantages. integrated with other types of learning technologies. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. increasing their motivation to learn. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. or clickers. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. 2006. costs can be an issue. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. clickers. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. Beatty. including the following (summarized from Cassidy.

com/Default.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. http://www.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.h-itt. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12.physics. http://www.optiontechnologies. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.” In spite of the costs.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. http://www.qwizdom.com/index. the costs and headaches multiply. http://www.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.” http://www.com/cps/index. training the faculty member to use the software. higher education.com/audi ence-response-systems/index. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.smartroom. http://umperg. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.pearsoned.gtcocalcomp.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.umass.com/index. Do Not Reproduce 79 .com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus.pearsonncs. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. corporate. http://www.learnstar. http://www.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. http://www. http://www. and military settings.com/products_int erwrite.com.einstruction.

cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). Upper Saddle River. NJ: Prentice Hall. Ian (2004). Brandon Hall Research .utexas. http://www. http://www. Inside CUA.pdf Mazur. ELearning Dialogue.utexas. integrated with other types of learning technologies. 80 © 2006. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Q. http://www. 3.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty. http://www.active-learning-site.jmu. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference. 2004.amazon.net/display. Research Bulletin.edu/articleprinter1. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. R. http://www. (2003). Tom (2004).Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.com/news_issue. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.aclearn.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. No. March 3. and Lederman. July 7.elearning.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. 41(5).au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. 3. Feb. including material on the use of classroom response systems.cua. http://www. 272-275.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.educause.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.ubc.itee. https://sharepoint. Educause Learning Initiative.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.uq. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Eric (1997). Volume 2004. Anne (2006). Australia. http://www. Melbourne. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. http://www.pdf Burnstein.cisat.pdf Cassidy. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. The Physics Teacher. http://inside.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.edu.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS.campustechnology.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. 2006.

doing. and collaborating. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. Do Not Reproduce 81 . organization. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. reduction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. it requires skill and experience.g.. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. through brainstorming). many respond. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. The Institute for the Future. evaluation. and consensus building.g. social bookmarking... clarification. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.g. e.

com/services/faq_basi cs.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. http://www.zoho. http://www. and bookmarks. http://www. and communication. collaborative file management.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.bantu.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. share files. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . and information technology adoption.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. voice and data collaboration.avecomm. contacts. http://www. with templates and workflows for product development.com/virtualoffice/index. and upload photos.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.inteam. organize. http://www. http://www. jot down notes.w3.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. collaborate. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. Brandon Hall Research . intellectual property management. http://www. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications.teamspace. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.com/product s/index. expert location.com There are many different ways to collaborate.com/ Blenks – In-team . http://www.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).html?ad-main Annotea .Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. 82 © 2006.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. calendar. Presence (see who’s online). http://www.bluetie. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .brightidea.backpackit.advancedreality. and instant messaging. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.

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Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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calendars. expertise.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. files.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . http://www. Works with Microsoft Project. and more. feedback.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.brevient.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. discussions. e-mail server. set user permissions. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.opmcreator.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. and other business communications.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. scaleable.com/company/news/pres s/2005. and data into a single storage area.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. http://www. stimulates idea generation.yahoo.Intuitive project management software for work teams. Use it out of the box. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .Instant setup. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. simple. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. online management for projects of any size and scope. http://www.writely.nexprise.onproject.25. Share multiple projects with multiple users. http://www.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . connects peers. http://www. XML-RPC server. http://www.projectdox.com/ onProject – myonProject . and share. FTP server. documents.com/project. assign tasks.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. and business relationships. or use it to build a Web application. http://www.tacit. http://www. interact. http://groups.webasyst. project. http://www.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .04. and share documents. newsgroup server. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. affordable.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . and e-mails. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.webcrossing.tomoye.axista. http://www.Processes email. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 . chat server.

integrated content management system. project planning. private/group chat.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.peoplecube. Access to the tool is also given to clients. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. navigation. http://www. print icon. content.com/ HP . and communicate with their project teams. shared whiteboard and presentation. annotation tools. and Web pages. invoicing.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . content button.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. whiteboard pages.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. http://education.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. visual. breakout rooms. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. shared desktop. Brandon Hall Research . URL sharing.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. and collaboration to timesheet management.hp. video. review button.photoninfotech.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. exit and help.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.project-open. and text chat. http://www.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting . http://www. http://www.teamdynamix. and save to disk icon. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.com/index. attendee list.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products.caucus. project tracking. and payments. identify and resolve potential problems. http://www.Features include Hands up. custom stamps.0 .nagarro.Projistics .HP Virtual Classroom .In-house tool developed to assist in project management. private whiteboards for each participant.elluminate.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . form to submit questions.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com Nagarro .Web event calendaring.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and human performance management applications. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.saba. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. data. http://www. http://www." virtual collaboration. scheduling solutions. applaud and meter.

com /internet_conferencing. and meetings.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. and collaborative content-building sessions.genesys.com/ Intralinks . Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. and Webconferencing specialists. online classes. e-mail invites.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. Allows holding live.interwise. http://www. synchronous online lectures.0 . session reports. http://www. Webcasts.elluminate. Record classes or Webcasts. video. application sharing.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. how often.A secure.horizonwimba. http://www.mixmeeting. virtual office hours. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. and content display.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . http://www.intralinks.Delivers unlimited voice. video.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . http://www. instant messaging.adobe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. guest lectures.Synchronous Webconferencing software.convenos. and Web conferencing with WebEx. http://www. http://www.glance. http://www. and more. http://www. Web. For example. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Features include shared documents. meeting management.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . sales presentations. and by whom.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.net/site/getglance/ex amples. http://www. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. and collaboration features. and videoconferencing. learning. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.batipi. office hours.communiqueconferencing.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. and phone use. http://www.

attendee lists. http://www. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/rndc/services /services. the Internet. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.ivocalize. online seminars. keyboard and voice chat. polling and quizzes. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. pre-recorded broadcasts. and real-time videoconferencing. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.com/bridgepoint.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. toll-free conference calling. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.telnetz. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. http://www. hand raising.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . desktop sharing. and into the enterprise.radvision.netspoke. e-learning classrooms. broadcasts files. http://www.com/ Linktivity Division.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .Collaboration Tools iVocalize . http://www.To support large deployments. live demos. any application. and a change presenter ability. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .raindance.com/action.meetingone. instant messaging. audio. Multilingual. or an entire desktop.liveoffice.com/website2/even ts_imc. and desktop videoconferencing services. http://www. transparency tools. http://www.linktivity. including Web conferencing. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. remote control.asp 92 © 2006.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.asp Meeting One – Click&Share. teleconferencing. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . record and playback. notes.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. annotations.Web and audio conferencing services.LiveOffice provides Web-based. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.

http://www. Requires only a browser and a phone. and instant messaging capabilities. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . show rich multimedia content and documents.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room .vodium. http://carbon. e-learning. http://www. send text messages.org Do Not Reproduce 93 . Webinars. Web conferencing. discussion forums. http://www. http://www. present PowerPoint slideshows.collabtech.webex.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. editing. or meeting.cudenver. 2006. The suite manages the creation. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. surveys. tour Web sites.edufolio.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .voxwire.webtrain.ctcevents. http://www.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. http://www. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. and moderation of Webcasts. conference calling. course. text messaging. and document collaboration. teleconferencing. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. share other applications. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. http://www.Powers online meetings.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).wave3software. and system management. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. Solutions include Web meetings.com/home/s_vmps. remote support. publishing. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. http://www.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. Japan on July 13-14. set up labs and conduct quizzes. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.

ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.org/tools. Web 2. http://www. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.usabilityfirst.springerlink.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. also known as “groupware.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.educause. http://www.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning.globalschoolnet. March/April 2006.kolabora. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.htm Mitre Corporation. http://collaboration.org/index.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://cde. http://www. 41(2). Bryan (2006).thinkofit. Brandon Hall Research .aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006. http://www. http://www.athabascau.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.writely.1 Bibliography Alexander.criticalmethods. communities.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. http://www.collaborationloop.” http://www. scientific.org/collab/in dex.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. also has a great list of collaboration tools. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.com/View.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. http://www.com/groupware/ index.1:100250.mitre. Sign up for free at: http://www.com/webconf/works paces.

Fitzgerald. http://www. Buckingham Shum. Curtis (2002). Eisenstadt. and Forster.bruck. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. 2565-2569. D.masternewmedia. J.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise.org/index. Chief Learning Officer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. Luigi (2003a). 4. June 5. Dalton. Live ELearning. CMS Watch.. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. J. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Luigi (2004a). http://www. 2002. http://www. Fred (2002). E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. http://www.editlib. Robin Good Blog. and Tate. 2003. N.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.htm Butler. D.com/writings. K.. http://eprints. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Maceió. Matthew (2004).cmswatch.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). T.htm Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. Nov. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.html Canali De Rossi. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.collaborate. Nov.masternewmedia. Shadbolt.. J. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing..diglib. (2004).htm# Clapp.masternewmedia. June 22. Models of collaboration. Proceedings.. Bill (2004).N. Findlay. Michaelides.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. S.htm Canali De Rossi. A.. http://www. Luigi (2004b). Page. http://www. http://www.com/Feature/109 Elliot.htm Canali De Rossi.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature.. Creating an eCommunity. 2003. January 21. Komzak.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.uk/12081/ Beshears. 2002. D.ecs. Sept.pdf Bonk. M. ChenBurger. Q2Learning White Paper. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. J.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration. Robin Good Blog. De Roure. Robin Good Blog. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. A. 3.. Robin Good Blog. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. Luigi (2005)..com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Collaboration First. June 30. (2004).htm Canali De Rossi.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . The State Of Collaboration Technologies.cfm/files/pa per_12386. http://www. Collaborative Strategies. and Coleman. R. Brazil.. A.ac. Potter. http://www. 2004. Robin Good Blog. Then Knowledge Management. Luigi (2003b).. http://www. May 2. (2003).asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck.clomedia. M. S.. http://www. September.soton.masternewmedia.

pdf Strijbos.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. & Weber. J. J.pdf Kaplan. http://www.edu. http://www. and Thomas... CA. Aavani.amazon. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. Brandon Hall Research . (Eds. M. Bjorn (Ed.html Munkvold. J. K. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.. A.rheingold.. 1(2). 827-829). Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. Evaluation.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns. R.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.Collaboration Tools Elliott. and Jochems. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. http://sleid.html Institute for the Future (2005). (2002).au/include/getdoc. Institute for the Future White Paper. Kirschner. K. A. D. Callan. http://cde.amazon. Norwell. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. & Purnell. J. VA: AACE..ieee. (2005). W.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. (2004). Technologies of Cooperation. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.editlib.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. Chesapeake. and Sharifi. Gibson.ieee.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006.. J... Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. London: Springer-Verlag. Willis.. K. Kirschner. 5(1). University of Athabasca. (2002). C. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.zcu.ca/online_book/c h8.) (2003). (2004). What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.. Palo Alto.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. August 2002. I. In Crawford. http://wscg. Educational Technology & Society.. Price. D.html Kreijns. and Miller. Studies in Learning. McFerrin. http://ifets.) (2004). January 2005. J. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. 5(1). http://ifets. Educational Technology & Society.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing.athabascau.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation. (2002). R. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. P. 24. http://www. P.. G.).org/index. http://www. R. Innovation and Development. Soren (2002). Carlsen..com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi.html Hurst. http://www. (Eds.cqu.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan. D. Nov. and Martens. e-Book.

For Laurillard. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. chat. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.uk/deletacademictalk. http://www. VoIP.janison. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. html The Learning Place in Queensland. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.jisc. Do Not Reproduce 97 . and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. messaging. labs. discussion forums.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. telepresence. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. discussion groups. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. For example. It is being developed into a transportable. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.ac. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.com. blogs. a process referred to as “text mentoring. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. and yet tailored and flexible. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. Hegarty et al.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. instant messaging. UK. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. re-usable. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. telephony. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.au/eq/default. whiteboards.” http://goldenswamp.

and telephony tools.org/index.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. F. http://www. 13-20. developed in Brazil.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. 2004.org/ Online Resources Teresa A.co. M.co.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. International Journal on E-Learning.com/webconf/hostsi tes. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. http://www.elearningcentre. (2004). (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.warwick. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at. Mark (2004).thinkofit. M.ngfl. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.htm http://www.ac..htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.editlib. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.gov. Komzak. Computer Mediated Communication. CAP e-Guide.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.uk/schools/docum ent. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.google. University of Warwick. http://ewic. including communications tools.71. http://www.bcs.48. http://www2. and Cerri.com/wwwtools/m/2645. JulySept. Brandon Hall Research . D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. chat.editlib.elearningcentre.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.elearningcentre.conversate.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. and Bortolozzi. Find her work at: http://64.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. http://safety.htm 98 © 2006. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. http://www. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. S. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. http://m. J. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.pdf Eleuterio.co.fasfind. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.

com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. chat. June. discussion forums. J. (2000). Bostock. UK. 199-212. A. http://dircweb. D.uk/papers/Stone_ A. and Wales.ac. whiteboards.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. e-Book. I. http://cde. J. (2004).king. Nick (2002). Working Knowledge Newsletter.jisc. Learning Circuits.amazon. distance-learning course at Keele University.html Morgan. British Journal of Educational Technology. and Elliott. University of Birmingham. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. Pattie (2005).charityvillage. 20-21. Diana (1993).athabascau. J. http://www. R.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. 2002. Aug. Jan.org/micte2005/4. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. 31. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.. Sven (2002). and Collins. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. Francis.ca/online_book/c h5.learningcircuits. June. James (2005). London: Routledge. E-Learning 1. http://www. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email.html Laurillard. and Briggs.com/cv/research /rmed35. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). September 23.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool.formatex.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone. (2002). An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.com Library.ac.. University of Athabasca.pdf Kadirire.html Laurik. Technologies of Online Learning. CharityVillage. http://www.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.pdf LaCroix. VoIP. 19. 31 (3). 20-21. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.edu/item.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. Hegarty. 2005 http://www. 2002. 2002.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training.” Do Not Reproduce 99 . Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. (2002).hbs. http://hbswk. M. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. (Mlearn 2002). J. S.

The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. organizational and personal goals are tied together. skills.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. W.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. In 1973. a Harvard psychologist. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Edwards Deming. David McClelland. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. skills inventory.” it started in 1950 with Dr.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. skills verification. entering defined competencies into a matrix. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001).Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies.org/competencies /index. performance appraisal. competency-based training. 2005). hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). Competency tracking involves developing a competency model.imsproject. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Brandon Hall Research . Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. 2000). 100 © 2006.

com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended.learningcircuits.html The U. and carry out proper procedures.wmich.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.ibm.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.htm Many companies have their own competency models. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies. Do Not Reproduce 101 .htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. diagnose symptoms. For example. measurement. https://launchpad. See the list of competencies at: http://www. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. activities. http://www.S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. go to: www. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Read their white paper at: http://www.edu/paprog/clin_events .com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.org. and development interventions.com/article16. For a large list of competencies for physicians.desire2learn.. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. http://www.learnflex.cpgvision.itsc.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.ncrel. objectives.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.

and Neathy.cipd. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. New York: David McKay.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. April. Josh (2006). Chief Learning Officer. Competency Frameworks. 1-14. http://www.cipd. N.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. (2001). (1973).com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. London: Wiley. Rankin. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. v. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. (1982). Sudipta (2005). http://www. 2005. David. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.amazon.expresscomputeronline. http://www.clomedia.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. Competency and competency frameworks.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. Benjamin (1956). 102 © 2006. http://www.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Clare (2005).com/ 20050425/technologylife01. (2001). Building a skills inventory. American Psychologist. R.syberworks.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Ken (2000). April 25.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Express Computer.amazon. http://www.com/skillsman. pp. New York: AMACOM.co.amazon. L.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.oracle. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.” http://www.28.ht m Online Resources HRSG. regardless of industry or sector.amazon.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.ca/index.. http://www. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.shtml Hogg. a Canadian company.co. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.E. Study 706. Miller. London: IDS.hrsg. F.

E.htm Whiddett. University of Toronto. Rankin. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. Learning Circuits. Gary (2004). Michael.amazon.p df Rankin. Master's thesis. (2005). (2004). Ethan (2001). and Grigorenko.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . http://www. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. New York: John Wiley.operitel. and Expertise.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. Competencies. Fall 2000. (2001). http://www.) (2003). (Eds.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. White paper from Operitel Corporation. S.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. and Cahorn. http://www. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. London: IRS. P. Godfrey (2005).collectionscanada. S. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://parkinslot.amazon. Parkin’s Lot.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. N.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.com Woodill.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. G. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. N. http://www. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.operitel. Johanna. 2005.amazon. Ellen (2000). The Psychology of Abilities. Operitel Corporation. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. April 30. Competency based learning management.com/2. Sanders.html Radsma. http://www. E-Learning Competencies. and Hollyforde. http://www. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. http://www. (2000).blogspot. (2003). London: IRS. R. and Epstein. White paper.html Sternberg. UK: Cambridge University Press. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.1/features/e wette. 2nd ed.linezine. P. Cambridge. Creating a Culture of Competence. http://www.learningcircuits. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. (1999). March 2001.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. If you could afford it. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. LCMS. First. in fact. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. the standardized railway system still works while private. launching courses. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. displaying a course catalogue. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. Today. I feel that closed. Repositories. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.” As well. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. and reporting. With the advent of learning objects. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. 2006). and “topic maps. manage.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. you could hire a company to build a private. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. manage. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Do Not Reproduce 104 . Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. Learning objects. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. such as registering users. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time.

co. They have designed competitive. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Cisco Corporation White Paper.cisco. reuse in many places.atutor.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. (2005). (2004). They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. http://www. 2005. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper.blogspot.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks.” http://drupal. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.pdf Cohen. March 2005.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.clomedia.html Cisco Corp. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. Dec.e-learningcentre.com http://www.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. http://www. to date. According to its official Web site.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. San Jose.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.topicmap. TravelinEdMan blog.” Web services and “topic maps.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . http://sakaiproject.topicmaps. http://travelinedman. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. http://plone.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. http://www. Curtis (2005).uk Bibliography Bonk. rather than complementary. 18. functionality to an ECM. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Strategies for managing scalable content. http://www.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.cmsmatrix. Ed. http://www. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. and publish to multiple outputs.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. http://www. http://www.author-it.

http://www.operitel.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms.htm Simon. (2006). Retalis. http://www. McGovern. C.edtechpost.. elearnspace blog. (2003). B.gerrymcgovern.htm Siemens.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 .asp Woodill.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. S. C. Content Management: our organized future. Hershey. 40(3).educause. http://www. and Carmean. June 9. 2003. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. New Thinking Blog. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Scott (2005).pdf Weigel. and Brantner. May 15. 2005. EdTechPost blog. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.com/publications. May/June. and Oliveira.ca/mt/archive/00 0689.. “Monoliths. 2003.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. January 23.ntua. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. 2003. Gerry (2003). 2005.html McGee. Learning Solutions. (Eds. March 3. P. G. A. S. Why content management software hasn’t worked.elearnspace. http://www. http://www.softlab.) (2005). Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 2006. George (2003).gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. Jafari. Educause Review. http://www. Van (2005). PA: Idea Group. Budapest. Mashups.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Do Not Reproduce 107 . delivery models and infrastructure investment. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. 2000. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. knowledge discovery. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Luan and Willett. 2001). Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets.

pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.reeltwo.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. Do Not Reproduce 108 .php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.hkuspace. by applying fuzzy logic.wfu.com/index. http://www. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.uwaterloo. http://www. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. http://pami.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.soul.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. http://www. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). can generate meaningful results for the teacher. http://imej.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.icosystem. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.

kent.pdf Freitas. and Cheung. Piatetsky-Shapiro.com/PaperInfo. 13-16 http://asbointl. http://www. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.pdf Jantke.cs. Smyth. (2004). edited U. and Tschiedel. http://www.. Robert (2002).ac.pdf Iskander.kdnuggets.. P. 238-241.is. http://www. (2006). B.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. M Fayyad. K. Feb. In Proceedings. P. Grieser. pp. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. G.convera. In Pierre. K. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). G. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.pdf Loo.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc.html Hammouda. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Long Beach. S.unikiel.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. Learning by doing and learning when doing .actapress. Portugal. P. 1--34.. B. Innsbruck.informatik. R.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . Feb. G. Data Mining in e-Learning.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. and Smyth.usyd.cs. http://www. Porto.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages.kdnuggets. Samuel (Ed. California. 68(8).com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. What’s Not. Both products are from Convera.pdf Fayyad.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. (cited in Luan and Willett.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.amstatonline. Australia. Alex (2002). text mining.. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. and R. AAAI Press/MIT Press. B. http://www. Piatetsky. http://pami. Thalheim.2004. 1996. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. 1316. knowledge discovery.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. New York: Springer. http://www. M. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining..edu. Lange. New York: Springer. (2006). U.. K. Data Mining: What’s New. and Kamel. 2001) http://www. Grigoriev. and Web mining. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Austria.html Bibliography De Veaux. School Business Affairs. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. Uthurusamy. 2006. (1996). (2000).org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.uwaterloo.

computer. Yacef (2005). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. http://www.cabrillo.cnrs. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. K. T. 41-54. Data Mining in e-Learning. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).html Ueno. 7(1). http://www. E.pdf Mor. analyze for more adaptive teaching. Vol 4. NYC. A. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Gord (2004). 52-59.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. http://www. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. and K. (2001). Oct. http://www2004.-Dec. A. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.. http://dl. Maomi (2004). C. 3(1).Data Mining Luan. A. Yacef (2004). 39-40.org/index. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. http://imej. Oliveira.pdf Merceron. (2004). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). 15(4).editlib. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning.org/16915 Romero. Brandon Hall Research . http://csdl2. May 17-22. Train.pdf McCalla. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).ejel. and Yacef. C. 319-346. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. Claus (2004).ccsd. International Journal on E-Learning. and Willett.pdf 110 © 2006. 3(4).ags.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.asp Merceron. David (2005). S. C.compmech. and K. Scholl.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. http://www. MA: WIT Press. http://archiveedutice.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. store. J. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems.open. (2006). A. and Ullrich.pdf Merceron. Japan.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. and Ventura. 47-55. Billerica. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.pdf Monk.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef.aace. and Minguillon.ac.pdf Pahl. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results.unisb. (2004). M. J. http://www. (2004). 2004 (7).edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. Advances in Management Information.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk..com/acatalog/18 45641523. http://wwwjime.wfu. Hiroshima. RP Conference Presentation..

http://www. and 6) document results. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. http://www. 5) carry out a survey.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). 3) vote/prioritize.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.tkk. 2) categorize.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support.com/ Facilitate. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.decisionarium. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). http://www.facilitate. Do Not Reproduce 111 . the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.bnhexpertsoft.edu. For example. 4) develop an action plan. in their case study of medical education.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.une. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.

p df Chakrabarty.sal.utoronto. Brandon Hall Research . Raimo (2003). http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Kankana (2005).ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. 23(4). 112 © 2006. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.sal.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.hut. books.” http://dmoz.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. (2004).sal. see: http://www.com/index.. (2000). Jay (2004).pdf Ehtamo. M. http://www.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.hut. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. H. http://www. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.pdf Frize. 12(2-3).org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. http://www.net/index. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.uniserve. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. and Frasson.bnhexpertsoft. Hamalainen. V. For newsletters.edu.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. Online manuscript.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index. 101-110.whichbook. http://www.uottawa.meetingworks.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.html Hamalainen.hut. August.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.dssresources. http://science. R. http://www. and information on this area.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. http://www. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. C.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.site. and Koskinen. White paper from BNH Expert Software.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.

Enn (2004). Manchester.html Rhyne. In Proceedings.. Hershey. Memmel.ideagroup. http://damit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. http://www. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. USA. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Jan.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. (2003). June 20-24. Thalheim. Aachen. http://www.2004. and Laurindo. S. 6-9. http://www. Grieser. B.hawaii. B. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://www. Germany.manchester. 9. and Tschiedel. 2005. M. Oct. Porto. O.dfki.com/books/details.uniserve. Hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.pdf Power. SIGGRAPH publication.pdf Knolmayer. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Information Systems for a Connected Society.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT.unikiel. Portugal..edu.pdf Jantke.informatik. Enn (2005).html Scott. M. (2006)..asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 .): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.hicss. Jim (2002). P. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. and Tschiedel. G. CAL-laborate. August 16-18. Theresa (1998). K. Learning by doing and learning when doing . Rostanin.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. T. 238-241. Vol.. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.siggraph. Thalheim..actapress. (2004). Gerhard (2003). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.ac.html Shimizu. http://www. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. http://dssresources. Grigoriev. B.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. K. Hawaii. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. F. Lange.pdf Ounapuu. PA: Idea Publishing.com/PaperInfo.is. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. 2004. Dan (2003). DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Kauai. B..com/history/dsshist ory. 2002. http://www. http://science. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. de Carvaho. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.. 317-328.mc.

has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. In the near future. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. By stacking a second projector. head mounted displays. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. digital paper. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book.co. electronic paper.” Selected Examples Samsung.co. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. This can be a holographic image.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. projectors. Electronic paper could change that some day. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.theregister. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. In regards to digital paper.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. lighting up theater size screens. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. monitors. Finally. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. big enough to be projected on large walls. Do Not Reproduce 114 . For air displays. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. http://www. in cooperation with Sony. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly.theregister.

html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. In 2005.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.informatik.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. For a list of his publications. http://www.ntera.html Promera is a hand-held computer.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.unifreiburg. To access the articles. Inc. See a demo at: http://www. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.E. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.technorati.H. still/video camera. http://thejournal.provisionentertainment. intelligent interfaces. see: http://ad.edu/design/Camera.fogscreen.com/technology /overview NTERA. http://www.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.io2technology. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.siliconlight.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://www.com/about.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.firstmonday. see: http://www.ices. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. http://killer. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.cmu. Projector. Do Not Reproduce 115 .

php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. M.acm. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.jisc. Hamburg. 2005. Livingston. and Pizer. London: Springer.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. G.unifreiburg.. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. http://blog. http://www. http://portal. http://ad.. Largest LCD and video projection.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Vancouver. Hirota. Richards (Ed. Canada. and Ottmann. (2005). Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. Oct.pdf Wang. A. 3.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.com/timwang/index. Brandon Hall Research . and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). 2005. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.). Garrett..org/citation.loaz. (1996). T. Germany. E. State.. Healthcare. S. M.. pages 3053-3068. K. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Government. Whitton. Dec.informatik.ac. W. H. Pisano. In G. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate..uk/index. Tim (2005).

elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.chalkandwire. My first report in this series.co. http://www. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios. http://www. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.osportfolio.com/products/e portfolio/default. 2005).html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www.pebblelearning. and simple usability.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. open source electronic portfolio.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://isle. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.htm Educause.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://www.ac.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.livetext. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://www.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.pupilpages.co. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.foliotek. http://www.com/college/portfoli os. maximum flexibility. http://www.iwebfolio. Do Not Reproduce 117 .paisley. evaluation.uk/default.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.com/eportfolio/i ndex.angellearning.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.educause.

E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.asp?id=6984 Cohn. helping to transform education and training.com/article. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning..elearnspace. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. http://www.educause. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.com/magazine/va ult/A5260.campustechnology. Graham (2005). (2004). Brandon Hall Research . Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. B. (2002). Frederick (2005).ch/dyn/9.becta.nottingham. University of Iowa. THE Journal Online.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. with many links. http://www.org. March. http://elgg. http://www. College of Education http://www. J.amazon.criticalmethods.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0.imsglobal. 2004 http://www. FD Learning White Paper. Online Paper.ac.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. Bob (2004). http://www. Vol 27 No 4. http://www. an online resource on collaboration.educa.org/Articles/epor tfolios. Trent (2002).cfm 118 © 2006. and Hibbitts.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. http://www. http://www2. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.educause.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.doc Banks.org/collab/v.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://connect. thus. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.htm IMS. Educause Quarterly. Dec. has a section on eportfolios.pdf Conway. E.thejournal.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.pdf Batson. http://ferl.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download.

K. elearnspace.. Online paper.citejournal. vol. ePortfolios.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens..pdf Greenberg. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. D. M. Feijen. Fall.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. J. (2002). 28–37. Dec. B. Dublin. G. An Overview of e-Portfolios. Cook.org/papers/Learning_l andscape. C. (2004).. (2005). 4. Educause Review. http://www. B. 31(3). July/ August 2004. Trinity College.eradc. J. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. George (2004).. http://www. and Haywood.pdf Lorenzo.. Aalderink.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. W.elearnspace. (2002). D. Business Communication Quarterly.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224.. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.. Harvey. T. research... The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.amazon.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 . J. e-portfolios. Lee. 16. http://www. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. and portfolios.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal.htm Tosh.educause..educause. future thinking: digital repositories. http://www. Reflective learning. G. D. http://www. (2005). 2005. Online. Light. 39.. and McKean. G.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. (2005).A.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. and Werdmuller. (2003). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.ca/content/vol31. 144-169. Love. S. 2(2). Educause Quarterly. (Focus on Teaching). and Ittelson.3/tosh. html Young. P. & Figgins. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Fleming. J. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.. 37(2). Gary (2004).ac. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. http://www. http://www. Bryde. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. V. no.A. http://www.alt.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. April 1. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. and Wade..cjlt. M.educause. http://www.

from the University of Wisconsin. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. and learning (Amory. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning.secondlife. Examples include Hive7.com http://us. games. Brandon Hall Research . Constance Steinkuehler. see: http://news. writing about “first person shooter games. and Second Life. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Marc Prensky (2003).freescale. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. play. 2003). virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.facebook. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). 120 © 2006. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. as such.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082.com.com/ http://www. identity work. For a brief review of these tools. Dr. simulations. MySpace. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.hive7.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. Try them out at: http://www.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. serious games. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. 2005).com/ http://www.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. Facebook.myspace.com/ http://www.” says that “in the mod world. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms.cyworld. Cyworld.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. complex problem solving.

microsoft.mpjgaB KQdAe. For example. Started in North America.ucalgary. has game development tools for the Xbox.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. http://www. http://www. edit. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. You can read about them at Pluginz. along with their Web sites. Inc.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. The toolset. helping speed up the game creation process. implementation. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.pluginz.com/ In 2005.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.nasaga. create. dubbed XNA Studio.org/?14@33.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.clickteam.com/solutions/gam es/default.com/xna/ Softimage. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. Many of their learning games resources are free. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.softimage.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. Canada.” http://www.siggraph.magnetargames.com/news/548 http://www. allows members of a game development team to work together.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. http://www.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. produces educational games for training.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. Do Not Reproduce 121 . Review them at: http://esub.thinkingworlds. See the selection of games at: http://www. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.muzzylane. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.com/ Thiagi. http://www.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. This game allows users to play.

They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.coe.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. http://www.pdf 122 © 2006.futureplay.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. http://www.itc.education. Sign up at: http://www. researchers. http://www.org/index2.ac.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.ukzn.dk/people/sen/public. Hawaii. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory. and speakers on all aspects of gaming.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.seriousgamessummit.com/zo ne8/index. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.digiplay. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. Honolulu.htm Dr. http://www.seriousgames.programmersheaven. Alan (2003).htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. http://www.htm Dr.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.wisc. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference. 2003.” Read her research at: http://website. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games. June 25-28. Brandon Hall Research .uk/index2.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.org.gdconf.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003. http://it. http://www.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.uga.

http://www. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Language Learning and Technology..amazon. 9(1). 2006. 19. 2005.pdf Reynolds. http://www. 549-567. (2005). Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. (2005). and Maurer.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren.php Reynolds. R. D. H. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. see: http://www.itc.pdf Michael. and Chen.uwf. Multimedia learning in games. and Michael. Gamasutra.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. Rob (2006a).edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Train. Lloyd (2005).pdf Godwin-Jones. H. In Richard E. Chapter 33.marcprensky. Simon (2005). http://www. (2005). Dreher. Rob (2006b). S. Learning on Demand Bulletin. and Inform. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. June.xplanazine. D. Xplanazine.php Rieber.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. 2006. 2003.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.pd f Prensky. Jan. http://www.xplanazine. Technology Trends for the Year. Williams. Fourth Quarter.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. 17-22.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. Marc (2003). Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. http://www.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. Clifton Park. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www. March 10. http://www. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. 2005. New York: Cambridge University Press.amazon. Bryan (2006). Bob (2005).. http://www. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. Montreal. January 2. Gaming. Xplanazine. Oct. simulations and microworlds. Serious Games: Games That Educate.pdf Guetl.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. http://www. http://llt. Mayer (Ed. S.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. Developing Serious Games. IT-University Copenhagen.iicm.uwf.msu.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 . C.cambridge. SRI-BI.

Clifton Park. http://website. N. http://jason.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Brandon Hall Research . Beers. (2006). http://woz. http://www. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.p df Tye.pdf Swamy.msu.education.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler.teachableagents. Michigan State University. University of Wisconsin . Doctoral dissertation. (2005).edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis.wisc.. Masters Thesis. Jason (2004). NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.Madison. R. 2005. and Swamy. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. and Biswas. N. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Gupta. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. 2004.pdf 124 © 2006.commtechlab.amazon. G. Constance (2005). C. J.

Artificial intelligence techniques.fg2008.ac. London. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.fg2006. For a list of papers: http://www. such as Markov models. affective computing.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. including identifying commercial products. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. at the University of California.soton. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. http://www.cybernet.html Research by Dr. FG2006.” http://mplab. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.com/~ccohen/gest ure. FG2008. April 10-12 2006.tudelft. 2008. looking for particular sequences. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. haptics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. and robotics in elearning. artificial intelligence. was held in Southampton. UK.ucsd. Do Not Reproduce 125 . UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. http://www. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.ecs.

In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Deller. In Proceedings.org/10.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman..elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Michael (2003). Gao. P. October 14-16.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. L. W. http://www. F.pdf 126 © 2006. (2005). In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Shi-Kuo (2000). T. Aug. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.stat. Porta. Visualization.. http://www.org/reports/Report -NR-03.html Chang. 191-196. Ludwig-Maximilians University. M..11 09/CMPSAC. A.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. 3. July 1997. 19(7). J.ercim.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES. Y. (2000). 675 676 http://lcv. http://www. (1997). Face and gesture recognition: overview.. Korea.884693 Chen. http://www.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. and Bender. 2003.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02.com/PaperInfo. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.cse.actapress. Pittsburg. Las Vegas. http://www. (2005). (2002). Brandon Hall Research . Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. PA. March. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces..fsu. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. and Poggio.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat. 57-64.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.pdf Borghi. July 2227.. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. R. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Wesson. T.iscslp2006.smartkom. J.pdf Daugman. G. 18. 2000. Report No. IEEE Transactions. A. http://www.. Nicole (2001). http://doi. Lombardi. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. http://cbcl. M.pdf Ebert.mit. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. and Ma.ogi. Geiger. and Cohen.ieeecomputersociety.pdf Corradini. M. Munich.2000. Nevada. (2004).org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci.pdf Beringer.

research.pdf Loi.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. 2004:16.. http://www. 2004. January.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. Communications of the ACM.. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. http://portal. 27-30. 884 – 900. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. British Columbia.D.. http://interact. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Michael (2004). Chen.ucsb. C. Vancouver. Computer vision in the interface.actapress. 1999.20 05.. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Sato. D. Lee. IEEE Transactions. Fussell..mit.xml&DOI=10.hindawi.pdf Peixoto.. September 2002. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. J.recveb. (2003). J.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc..clayton. J. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 242-245.pdf Wilson. Sept. 47(1).edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. L. Proceedings. (2004).edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.acm. Lai. J. (1997). Robust face image matching under illumination variations.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. M.F (1999).edu/mas963/en hencedwall. Wong. 21(9).org/citation. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. C. Park. and Koike.150 Nakanishi.. L. Y. Y. (2005). S.rutgers. In Proceedings. X. S. C.1109/ICALT. Setlock. http://www. Canada http://cims. and Yang. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. 442-446. P. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. http://www.com/PaperInfo. and Carreira. A. and Kim. C. http://www.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . A.com/GetPDF. and Bobick. 2533–2543. and Wong. H. (2002). Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. http://csdl2. (2005).media. Y.pdf Ou.computer. and Chang.

com/TechIllustrator. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.techillustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. e-Learning By Design. Designing WebBased Training. and in his recent 2006 book. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.adobe.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 .html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. In acquiring Macromedia. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.autodesk.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp.avs.

com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.co.uk/index.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.itedo.com.org/cms/Home. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.0.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.ibm. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.co.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . and playback.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.siggraph.uk/index.broderbund.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. interactive creation. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.corel.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. http://virtuality3d.2.microsoft.3dlinks. animation. Download a copy: http://www. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks. In acquiring Macromedia. Do Not Reproduce 129 . The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models.google. http://esub. The most listings are for 3-D software.smartdraw.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. post-production.xaraxtreme. http://www. http://www.com/index.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics. rendering.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.acdamerica. Nevertheless.elearningcentre.co. http://www.com/E/1335.com SmartDraw http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.blender3d.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.

Fu-Kwan (2004). Edward (1990).com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.ucs. ED-Media Conference. Cheshire.amazon. Kommers & G. Frances (2004).edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.pdf Tufte. Edward (1997). Edward (2001).com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.amazon. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Germany.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. http://www. http://www. (2005). In P. Designing WebBased Training. Pallickara. 2nd Ed. Cheshire. S. Carolina Chapter. CT: Graphics. STC. June 1-3. http://www.editlib. Brandon Hall Research . CT: Graphics Press.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).pdf McConnell. Richards (Eds. http://www. Tools Usage Survey Results. Gloria (2004). Japan · Sept 7-10.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. Pheonix. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. New York: John Wiley.amazon. CT: Graphics Press. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.stc.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth.amazon. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman.carto. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Tokyo. NY: John Wiley.pdf Qiu. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). X. Potsdam.. and Uyar.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. Evidence and Narrative . (2004). e-Learning by Design. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Proceedings. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. William (2000). A. http://grids.indiana. Envisioning Information.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton.). William (1991). http://www. http://www. http://www.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. A. Cheshire.stcphoenix. http://www.org/index.amazon. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . William (2006). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.

Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).mpbtechnologies.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. gloves. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.pureform. Do Not Reproduce 131 . Finally. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. including pens.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. When used appropriately.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. Read the press release at: http://www. http://haptex.unige.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.miralab.handshakeinteractive. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. Haptic devices come in many forms. joysticks/ joypads. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.” http://www.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. and force-feedback mice.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. http://www. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. http://wwwpercro.it/projects/pureform.sssup.forcedimension. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.html http://www.

McLaughlin. http://www. suits. http://www. (2002). not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics.isfh. Reality bytes.org/persagen/DLA bsToc.com. M. N.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.se/index.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. and Ichitsubo. Matsubara. Iwane. http://www. http://www. 917-921.miralab. M. 2005. David (2003).unige.pdf Hespanha. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).smh..” http://www.xml&DOI=10. Nakamura.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. Italy in March.piaggio.haptics-e.immersion.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138. http://www. http://www..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc.computer. 132 © 2006. http://www.sensable.roblesdelatorre.phptr.asp Body-based devices include gloves. M.informatik.unipi.sensegraphics. and Sukhatume. New York Times (Online).306 Kushner. Proceedings. professional..html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.unitrier. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. http://csdl2. G. http://haptex.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. NJ: Prentice-Hall.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4.2005. July 31..” http://www.1. Deliverable D4. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Y.ccii.1109/ICAL T. J. 2003.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. (2005). Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Report delivered January 15. Brandon Hall Research . Upper Saddle River. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom. M. 2005.1_release-public. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue.

CA. (2001). 2004. Shahabi. Reaching through the net to touch. 1(3). (2003).journalofvision. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Centre for Intelligent Machines. and Rusbridge.. Chapter on Haptics. G. S.informit. M..ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.. Daithí (2003). (2000). Kaneko. L. 22. M. Proceedings.com/articles/printerf riendly.digicult.B.html Ross. A.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 .. (2004). R.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00.ra. Donnelly. Medioni. M. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. Research report. S. C. Abbott. http://www. http://www. Vincent (2005).pdf McLaughlin.usc. Blindness. http://www.ethz. K.S.. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03)..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. and Gillespie.. G. H.. April. J.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. G. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.mcgill.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239. (2005). http://web. http://www. M.net/article-7304.mit. A. Technology and Haptics. McHugh. and Hughes. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. and Essl.. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Wired News. Prentice Hall online article. (1997). McGill University. Oct.media. 2003. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. M.S. http://csdl. & Uchikawa. http://www. Haptics Laboratory. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. M..pd f O’Modhrain. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.pdf Rowell. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. Y.pdf O’Modhrain. D.pdf Ó hAnluain.computer. 250a. Laurie (2004). Dobreva. Santa Clara. Journal of Vision. Japan. The Haptic Museum.matr. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.html O’Malley. July 3.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2.asp?p=345621 Sakano. 3-5 June 2004. http://www. and Jaskowiak.cim. Sukhatme.

haptics. Called Librié. display technologies. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. see: http://www. human-computer interaction. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . wearable computing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. Now in the research and development phase. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. For a review. Writing will require special digital pens. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. gesture recognition. experience computing. they must interact with it through an interface device. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory.com/b/archives/ 002571.dottocomu. Philips. whiteboards Description devices. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. However. they must interact with it through an interface device. like digital ink and paper. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.html For humans to use a computer. input devices. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. handwriting recognition. and some. For humans to use a computer. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.html Sony.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. monitors. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. tangible computing. projectors. head mounted displays. digital paper. electronic paper. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).buffalo. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. http://www.

cmu.mit.ices.cfm Now in the research and development phase.” http://www. 3) throw.com/index. it is constantly being improved and updated.logitech.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.cmu.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.com/technology/howitwor ks. http://killer.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. Writing will require special digital pens. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.sony.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.edfacilities. and 5) build.eink.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.ices. http://www.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.html http://killer.edu/design/Digitalin k.lifehacker. http://www. http://www. http://www.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.ac. consisting of a pen and a charger. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. see: http://www. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/. http://www. These methods are 1) touch.swan. http://www.html In 2005. http://www. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.edu/design/Foldable Display. Do Not Reproduce 135 .org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. http://www. Although this technology has been around for a few years.channelnewsasia. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.media.wacom. 2) roll.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. textures. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years." http://web. 4) bend.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.smarttech.cs.

html http://www.html http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://whiteboards.devx.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.com/wired/archive/5. http://www. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.org. is described in a 2002 press release.mspx 136 © 2006. human computer interaction.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards. http://www.thegrid.becta.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards. Following are three such articles: http://www.wired.org. http://www. http://www.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.com/wired/archive/8.0 4/anoto.aclearn.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.microsoft.edu.co.au/edna/page458 8. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.wired.net/display.0 8/epapers.anoto.com/wired/archive/9. http://www. http://www.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.thewirelessdirectory. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.wired. with its use of digital ink.edna.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.usask. Brandon Hall Research .elearningcentre. See their advice and resources at: http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. and graphic.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.cs.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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A.edu. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Molinari. 2006.nxtbook. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.mq. Derek (2004).org/eun..edu. Jan. Proceedings. Chief Learning Officer. August. Pierre (2000). http://www. Learning Circuits. James (2003). and Tsiatsos. 2005. http://www.unitn. and Trifonova..zcu. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Building educational virtual environments. L.. http://www. Ed.pdf Tsinakos. (2006). A. and Walker. Exeter. Sam (2005). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies.building new education strategies for schools.pdf Dalziel. 4. October. WSCG Conference 2005.A possible future for online learning.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo. UK.pdf Cohen. James (2005).au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.. Plzen. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut.pdf Morrison.PDF Farmer.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). Aavani. http://www. T. April.pdf Sadeghi. Virtual Learning Environments.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 .ucisa.ac. 2005. http://tojde. http://www. 21. Proceedings of ALT-C.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. Avgoustos (2004). The puzzle: virtual learning environments .learningcircuits..bath. June 20-21. Czech Republic.htm Bouras. http://incsub. ICALT2002 Conference. Incorporated Subversion. and Sharifi. http://wscg. M (2005). M. M. Jan. Proceedings. 31-Feb. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. http://lttf.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). (2002). (2005).melcoe. 5(2). November 2004. (Online edition). University of Birmingham.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.pdf Dillenbourg. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . http://www.eun. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. C. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. A. http://www. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.anadolu. Ronchetti. R. T.ac. Report published by UCISA. J. Workshop on virtual learning environments. (2002).ieee.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Browne.science.

(2006).au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. May 2006 http://www. L.infodiv. May-June.aace.pdf 144 © 2006. and Quealy. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. 2005. Report for the Melbourne. and Higher Education 2005. Healthcare.edu. 40(3).cfm?fu seaction=Reader.org/newdl/index. Educause Review. Maomi (2005). J.pdf Wise.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Brandon Hall Research .Learning Management Systems Ueno. October 2005. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. http://www. Government.educause. LMS Governance Project Report. Vancouver.unimelb. Van (2005).

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. rapid learning. However. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. As online educational materials are produced. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. They are emulations of “software objects. a well-known standard for learning objects. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. Wiley.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. At the simplest level. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Rather. learning object model (LOM). sharable content objects (SCOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Learning objects have several uses. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. intelligent tutoring.” such as a graph. SCORM.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. The acronym SCORM. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Beyond that. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. 2006). reusable learning objects (RLOs). learning object repository (LOR). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. 2004. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Do Not Reproduce 145 .” This use has been more successful.

culture.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. indexes.org/index. http://learnware.fedora. computer-use practices. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. preserves.downes. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. http://web.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. and they can be general or subject specific.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.cdlib. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. http://www. http://dspace.educanext. curriculum. This idea is based on older. http://dlist.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. http://www.sir. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. Brandon Hall Research . Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. stores. http://www. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. and distributes digital research material.uwaterloo. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.arizona.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://www.uvic.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).

cisco. http://mlor.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.wisconsin.goenc.edu. http://www. http://www.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.merlot.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.dist. http://www. http://ideas. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).unsw.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.org/ci/en/ev.thegateway.profetic.oise.unesco.lolaexchange. http://www.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.publiclibraryofscience.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://www. http://lester.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.net/project. http://nsdl. http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.utoronto.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. with almost 15.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.rice. http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. http://www.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.lrc3.000 items.llearn.koha. http://portal.org/Home.edu/DesktopDefault.mcli.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201. http://www. with a focus on information literacy.maricopa.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 .

html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. Online paper.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.uwm.edtechpost.jcdl.org/blog/archives/ 002089.. authored by Rachel Smith. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.it/~lhci/002.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.uniroma1. http://www. March.org/guidelines/index. EdTechPost.doc Christiansen.org/eng/scientifiques.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. (2004).uis.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.lornet.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 .dis. http://www. http://www. CANCORE. http://www. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.dicole. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. http://www.amazon. http://www.elearnspace. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.ca/implementing_proje cts. C. J. http://www. Celentano. And Longo. M.nmc. T.cancore.uwm. 1(3).html For a highly critical view of learning objects.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.ca/mt/archive/000 681. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt. (2004). is available at: http://www.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. A. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. F.itdl. M.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.L.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. http://www. and Anderson.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. and Alderman. (2004).

(2004).editlib.. M. J. A Primer on Learning Objects. http://ideas.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability. D. http://www. Online document.ca/implementing_projec ts. http://www. http://www.itdl. Rory (Ed.org/index.9.. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. MacLeod.pdf Krauss. and Mohammed. D.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. R..org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3.amazon. 14.ca/protocols_en.. Learning Circuits.org/mar2000/ primer. 2004. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.htm Friesen.. Babin. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.. N. B. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.. T. Jan. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.html McGreal. S. M.edusource. Downes. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Hatala. http://www. March. 1 (3). and Morales.org/content/v2. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. http://www. Norm (2006).learningcircuits. Version .ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. http://www. (2004). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Rachel (2006). March. http://www..html Leeder. Online Education Using Learning Objects. G. http://www.) (2004). Stephen. http://www.aace. Friesen.itdl.cfm/files/pap er_11841. 5-16. Harrigan. and Schafer.html Heery. Anderson. http://dl. G.org. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. http://www. Roberts.cancore. International Journal on E-Learning. G..9%2015-11-03.1/downes.eduserv. Research Report. (2004). Paquette. Mattson. S.irrodl.. Software Architecture Document. 1(3).html Friesen.cancore. T.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Warren (2000). 2(4). Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 .org/14190 Downes. Norm (2005). Richards. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. Online. (2003). IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. A.. html Edusource (2003). & Strijker..blogs. March. Fredinand (2004).doc Fiaidhi. 2(1). K. London: Falmer.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.. R. Online paper. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2000).

1(7). Derek (2004a). E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. Final Project Report.bath. 2004.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. July 14.co.learninglab.ac. (2002). David A.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. http://www.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. http://proceedings.itdl. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.org/read/ Wiley. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Paper presented.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.fastrakconsulting.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. N. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. (2006). David A. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. Derek (2004b). M.learningcircuits. T.htm Nejdl. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Clive. (Ed. March.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). (2000).Rafts or Battleships? .org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. http://www. McGreal. R. Iterating Toward Openness. Rossano.informingscience. Wolfgang (2004). INTERACT 2005.uniroma1.dis. Brandon Hall Research . Objects of Interest. Doctoral dissertation.kth. April 2002.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.org/docs/dissertation.pdf http://www.ac. Jan. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education..).pdf Santally.. http://opencontent. Govinda. : http://reusability. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. Elizabeth (2004).htm Wiley. V. and Freisen.edu.bath. http://www.Part 2. http://opencontent. (2002). (2005).uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. http://www. Learning Material Repositories . http://www. M. Brigham Young University. (2004). David A.it/~lhci/rossanopres. and Senteni.html Murphy. Learning Material Repositories ..dis. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. and Pragnell. 7(1). Online. (2000).uniroma1. M. http://www. G. http://www. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. 12. A.Part 1.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.p df Wiley. http://www. Learning Circuits. June. 9.pdf Richards. Aug. InSITE conference.usq.Rafts or Battleships? .htm Shepherd. pdf Roselli.. Lori (2002). 2004.

galleries. However.S. users will be able to use a variety of devices. and wearable computers. as with any new technology. laptops. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). and security issues. findability. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. including cell phones. more demands for a person’s attention. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. galleries. proximity tools. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. geocaching. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. gaming consoles. location-based systems are found in museums. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. Do Not Reproduce 151 . Department of Defense.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. including privacy concerns. PDAs. navigation. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. personal media players.

edu/ the globe. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.com/ mapping service.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. Clark Labs . interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.mapinfo.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40.com/ Intergraph .http://www. and to learn about them using a phones. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.biogeomancer. laptops.http://www. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.esri.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery.org/ educational of Mars.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.smm.http://www. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.frappr. it is a great tool for teaching science. earth. PDAs.cadcorp. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.berkeley. http://www.us/research/G ESRI. http://earth. gaming http://www.pangonetworks. http://www. experiences that people.il.http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state. See how this direction. information. http://local.intergraph. to what a GIS system uses.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices.http://www. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.live.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006.clarklabs. Brandon Hall Research .com/ Geographic Information System.museum. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp .google.org/ http://www.com able to use a http://www.org/ consoles. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.google.google.greatestplaces. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.google. to model the climate in any place in the world.state.

ac.org/index.com/index. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.esri.geography.com/gis4mt/index. http://www.co.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. Earth.wisc.geog. http://pngis.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 .html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.bc.gees.ac. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.leeds.5372.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. http://portal. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. create.opensourcegis.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. http://platial.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. See their complete range of products. see: http://www. at: http://www.cetadl.uk/oswebsi te/education/index. http://www. http://www.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. http://www. as well as papers on trends in GIS. http://www.edu.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.eoscenter.fi/english/page.ordnancesurvey.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.confluence.edu/sco/gis/hi story.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.asp?path=5 00.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.ac.bham.chimer. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.” http://www.

A..php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. and students. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Issue 6.. Dec.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 . Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. DigiCULT Newsletter. Steve (2005).ac. and Location-Based industry professionals. D. We learning: social software and e-learning.directionsmag. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. Pavlidis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags.digicult. IEEE Report. http://www.intergraph.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.pdf Cardinali. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. http://www. G.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. A.learningcircuits. McHugh. Fabrizio (2005). Future LocationBased Experiences. M.geocomm. A. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.. Dobreva. C.pdf Spohrer.intelresearch..com http://geotags. Part II.guardian. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. 38(4). (2003). Heather (2005). Mapping.research. http://www. S..com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).htm McLean. http://education. and visualize spatial information. January. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. Chapter on Location Based Devices. Nov. http://geotags.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. Online article. 2005.com/ Bibliography Benford. 2003. and Borriello. F. and Chamzas. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.pdf Tsirliganis.. enthusiasts. 15. http://elearningeuropa.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.00.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. http://www. http://www.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. M.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. N.. Jan 2004. G.ibm. 1999. CAD.jisc. http://www. J. Donnelly. J. Abbott. manipulate. http://www.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.1642288.digicult. 2005. (2005). Koutsoudis. Eva (2004).uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. Arnaoutoglou.uk/elearning/ story/0. Learning Circuits.info/index. and Rusbridge.html Ross. (2001). (1999). IBM Systems Journal.C..co. Information in places.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.

E-learning in the workplace and. in schools and universities.” then.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups.” instructors. A “mashup. in schools and universities. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). run all by themselves. provides access to the API of another Web site. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them.” that is. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. composite applications. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. of how to communicate with each other. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. to a lesser extent. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. or through “Web services. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. or protocol. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. Similarly. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. tag clouds. hybrid applications. the rules for sending files across the Internet. Mashups are constructed in several ways. all expressed in binary code. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. integration. personalized. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . Many of these objects are software programs. For example. API clouds. Using SOAP. Programs can be “stand alone. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. to a lesser extent. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. also called “object learners and interoperability.

wikipedia. document management. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. http://www.htmlhttp://www. such as those for collaboration.businessweek.deitel. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. 2004).programmableweb.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. Brandon Hall Research . Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. communications.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.us.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. As Warlick (2006) has noted.icio. etc.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. Many have educational value.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. a writer for Business Week. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.0 APIs. http://www.deitel. http://www.mashupfeed. http://blogs. providing an informal collaborative environment. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. http://en.” It has many examples of mashups.com/ http://www. at the same time.emilychang.icio. http://del. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.Mashups.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006.programmableweb. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.html Rob Hof. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.

Mix.html Warlick. Do Not Reproduce 157 . Paul (2002).com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. David (2006).jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.pdf Stacey. Galen (2006). 2006.pdf Seimens. 6. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.infoworld.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. C.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. Enterprise mashups. http://www.operitel. Mashups.html Hof. http://www. J. techLEARNING. http://ww6.techlearning. Learning Technology newsletter. (2004). May 15. Learning Solutions. Infoworld. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. G. January 2004 http://lttf. July 25.htm Siviter. 2006.org/resources/webs ervices.com/products/print_fri endly. match.ieee. http://www. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. 2006. C. and Oliveira.. (2006). and Padron. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Dodero. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications.elearnspace. July 28. Vol. Business Week Online. Vol. Elearnspace. January 2004 http://lttf. Curriculum as Mashup. and mutate.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. George (undated).com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. 6.businessweek. March 6. 6. Dec. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Douglas (2004). Issue 1. Learning Technology newsletter. Web Services. http://www.com/publications. Issue 1. SOAP.bctechnology.html Woodill. 2002. http://www.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.htm Torres. Robert (2005).ieee. J. 2005.

Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. http://metadata. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. search engines. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. pervasive computing.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. http://simile. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.educause.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. An ontology. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. http://dublincore.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. and artificial intelligence are being developed.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).mit. community.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning.edu/content. Do Not Reproduce 158 .edu/o4e/viewhome. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. metadata. http://www. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. and institutional stores. http://www. http://iiscs. and services. http://www. in the context of information technology. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.imsglobal.cetis. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. repositories. to develop metadata standards. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.do?tm= O4E.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.wssu. Ohio. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index.mit.cancore.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. http://libraries.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.

cancore. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. C. October-December.html Gruber. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. Dec. and Chaput. Ellyssa (2005). A. 2006. (2004). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.delphigroup.. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy.org/. http://tomgruber.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. W. Online article. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 2003. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.blogsome. (2004)..org/10614 Mathes..tagcamp. (2004). sometimes A.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. B.htm Gruber. Delphi Group report. and Poulymenakou. Patrick (2006). Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. (2003). C. M.. Perich. 7(4).” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema..org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. D.edu/get/a/publication/ 105. TagOntology . P.info/issues. November. http://www. University of Illinois graduate paper.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . MA. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. A.ifets.greenchameleon. Benayache. Finin. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.pdf Friesen. Lenne. A.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Adam (2004).php?id=25 Chen. Dolog. Presentation to Tag Camp. F. tags into a BoxesAndArrows.info/issues.ca/editors. (2002). http://ebiquity. and Joshi. http://www. H. http://www. A.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Moulin. In Proceedings. 7(4).com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. 2005. 98-111. http://dl. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Green Chameleon. M. Defining “taxonomy”. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Thomas (2005a).pdf Delphi Group (2004).boxesandarrows..pdf Henze. April 21.umbc. Boston.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www. B. April 18. June 2004. 2002..adammathes.. 7.aace. http://www. Infotangle. T. October 29. Barry. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras. Norm (2005). http://infotangle. http://www.. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Pouloudi. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website.php?id=25 Kroski. http://www.ifets. and Mosoiu. N. Thomas (2005b).com/view/buil database as they enter data.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider. and Nejdl. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). http://www.. http://tomgruber. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. 82-97.

http://www. Norway. Understanding Metadata. J. July/August. and Shao.php?id=25 160 © 2006.dlib.html Wodtke. NISO Press. and Diaz. (2003).org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. Stuart (2005).ifets.htm Weibel. Christina (2002).info/issues.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.php?id=25 Tozman. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits.ecdl2003. 2002. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. BoxesAndArrows. Chen. P. http://www. 11(7/8). I. Reuben (2004). D-Lib Magazine. Another new paradigm for instructional design.boxesandarrows. S. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). BoxesAndArrows. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. 2004. April 9. 7(4).info/issues. D. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. G. M. 7(4). 26-28. and Godby. Nov. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.ifets. J. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. http://www. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. (2004). Wagner. Brandon Hall Research .ppt Ricci.boxesandarrows..org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel. Lytras.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. http://www... http://www.niso. Trondheim. http://www. Christian (2004). 2004. N.pdf Oin. 2005. http://www. May 22. (2004). 70-81.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. http://www.Metadata.

brokerage. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). times the number of personal computers (PCs). strong search capabilities. personalization. improved identity creation. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. 2004). This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . tablets.” Two years ago. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. and building. 2003). communicative skills and community interaction. location based technologies. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. Essentially. rich players. personal digital assistants (PDA). powerful support for effective tablet PCs. in mobile computing (McLean. personalization. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. laptops. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. you are. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. location-dependence. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. conversational learning. using ambient intelligence. podcasting. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. learning architecture [that] will support creation. time and space. mLearning. tablet PCs. wearable computing. multimedia. learning. laptops.6 billion units in operation by that year. and mentoring. pervasive computing. instant messaging (text. such telephones.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. cellular telephones. there were estimated to be 1. it is predicted that there will be 2. MP3 players. cell phones. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. video) and distributed databases. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC.” The Mobilearn However.

Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. movies.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. audio. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. compared to only 50 percent of computer users.edu.edu.computer. pictures.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. there were estimated to be 1.harvard.ccu.cs.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.ccu. http://csdl2. and pre-service teachers. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs).ccu. http://www. or a combination of media. Australia. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.mobilearn. http://gseacademic.edu.bbc. Israel.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005. 2004).pdf http://www. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.se/projectd ata.” and a “bird watching learning system.co.Mobile Devices Two years ago. Users can access and create location-specific text. in Japan.stockholmchallenge. US.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.net/ 162 © 2006.pdf http://www.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.” a “butterfly-watching learning system.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.cs. http://urbantapestries. (2004). http://www.cs. Brandon Hall Research . http://news. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC.” http://www. Cited in Prensky.” They have a “firefly watching system.

http://213. including issues.co.beta80group. http://www.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. technologies. http://llt. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.telus.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.elearningcentre. http://www. For example.” http://m. Gaming.ac. Ireland.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.eee.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://www3.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 .knowledgepulse.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.com/wwwtools/m/2717. applications.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. http://spotlight-mobile.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.msu.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.94. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.com/home_en. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.mobilelearning.bham. links. resources. http://www.232. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.uk/handler/publi cations. 2006 in Dublin.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. Learn more at: http://www. http://urbantapestries.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.htm Jari Laru.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. and a glossary.135/ipodined/news.com/wwwtools/m/2737.fasfind. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.iadis. activities. http://www.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.com/wwwtools/m/8907.fasfind.fasfind. http://www. of the University of Oulu in Finland.

International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. J.net.pdf Jasola. (2002). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.jisc.jisc.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.edu. (2005). Gaming.pdf Colazzo. 9(1). L.pdf Anderson. A.itdl.a u/edition06/download/geddes. No. Bob (2005). Ronchetti. (2004). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. EDUCAUSE Review. January 2005. Language Learning and Technology. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.. 19. 5.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. B. http://www.org/micte2005/4. of Birmingham http://www. http://knowledgetree. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.msu. 17-22 http://llt. (2003).. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Learning and Skills Development Agency.pdf Chen. R. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. S.kaywa. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.science. Report. Bryan (2004). Y.uk/eli_practice.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. Emerging technologies: Messaging.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.unitn. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.pdf Geddes. and Pagani.idi. http://www.educause.. 2(9). 347-359.J. and Trifonova. http://www.flexiblelearning. September 2005. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.cs. JISC Guide. http://www. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.html Kadirire. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.pdf Godwin-Jones. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.formatex. http://www. T. 39. Sept. Vol.ac. Molinari.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. E. and Sharma.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.m-learning. James (2005). (2005).html Grew.html Bibliography Alexander.htm JISC (2005). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Jill (2005).ccu. P.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). and Sheu. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Kao. No. A.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. Paul (2005). http://www.ac.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . M.6. Univ. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. http://www.pdf Attewell.ntnu. http://www. http://mobile.

S. 2002.doc Meisenberger. June 27. Chan. T.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. August 29-30.pdf Mellow. Donnelly.. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. M. E..info/index.acm.century. F. and Nischelwitzer.fhjoanneum. Neil (2003). T. http://www. http://doi.htm#Implications Prensky..2002.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Malavasi.. 2005. Presented at WMTE 2002.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . Coralini. and Dobreva.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light. M. Romagnoli.digicult. June/July 2005.innovateonline. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Växjö University. (2004). Ann (2005).org. Kristóf (2002). 2004. J.pdf Metcalf.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Teleborg Campus. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. J.. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.ieeecomputersociety. S. Australia. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. and Cultural Heritage. Glyfada. Pigozzi.. M. (2005). http://portal.amazon.oucs. Wang. M. Marc (2004). Proceedings.. (2002). http://www.. UsabilityNews. A.. computer-aided.ox. T. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.phil-inst.ascilite. Feb. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.asp Liu.1109 /WMTE. Peter (2005). E.com/news/article2 490. http://www.ac.org/10.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. H. http://www. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.pdf Scagliarini. L. Växjö. Proceedings. David (2006). A. and Sforza. Liang. Galasso. Sweden.1039222 McLean. Archeology.2. MA: HRD Press.org/citation. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://drei.. Conference on Virtual reality. (2001). Greece.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. Cinotti. and Yang. Brisbane. Vecchietti. multimedia-based learning application. Roffia. http://www. http://www. D. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. http://21st.. 1(5). M.usabilitynews.. Amherst. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.

fil.com/content/templat es/clo_article.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. May 23. E-Learning on the move. Feb.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. Draft paper submitted for publication. (2005). Mike (2005). http://kn. EDUCAUSE Review. 2005.ac.pdf Thomas.co. 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. May/June 2005. Christopher (2005). Michael (2005).uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.guardian.00.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. and.open. http://education. M.ac.html von Koschembahr. April 2005. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. Chief Learning Officer. and Vavoula. Enabling Mobile Learning. A theory of learning for the mobile age. 40(3). Guardian Unlimited.uk/public/getfile.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298.. http://www. 40-53. http://www. http://www. Understanding. G. http://www.educause.clomedia..bham.1490476. Taylor.pdf Sharples. Learning in the Mobile Age.eee. Budapest. J.uk/elearning/ comment/0.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . Hungary. Ellen (2005).

not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. (2004).e. natural language understanding. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. http://dmoz.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. natural language generation. Kim (2000). i. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.itc. rather than just returning Web pages. speech synthesis. (2005a. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). http://tcc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.york.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.it/index.” See also Jordan et al.uk/~silvia/litReview. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. speech recognition. machine translation. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. Di Eugenio. (2004). http://wwwusers.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. Lee et al.translating one natural language into another. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). Do Not Reproduce 167 . an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. http://www. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. et al.lexxe.. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.cs. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.ac.

An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries.upenn. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. 62-76. Christian (2001).ac.cs..bham. B.ed. D. and VanLehn. M.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon. tools. (2004).org/Voice/Activity.w3. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). A. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.org/softwaremap/trove_list .ldc. http://www. D.html#fn1 Di Eugenio. K. http://www.uic. Maxine (1999). January. (2005a). Issue 5.. http://eduforge..demokritos. http://www. University of Edinburgh.pdf Di Eugenio..uic. http://www.amazon. Paper presented at ACL2005. M. Language Learning and Technology. Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Coxhead.. Fossati. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. (2004).cs. Yu. B. Paul (1994)..uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.pdf Eskenazi.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. November 2004 http://imm. pdf Jacquemin. http://www.ac. Volume 1. D. MA: MIT Press.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. Haller. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. http://www. P.cstr. S. S. http://www. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . http://www. 2(2). (2005b).uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. http://www. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. J. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education.org/aitopics/html/natlang.aaai. Fossati. Haller.html Bibliography Bagshaw.elsnet. M. http://llt. Online.pdf Drigas. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Yu. Makatchev. and standards.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. and Glass.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. and Glass.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and Vrettaros.. Cambridge. research.cs. D. Peter (2001).msu.

pdf Zhou. Paraguaçu (Eds. In J. (2004). Feng-Jen (2001).cs. McHugh.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. Illinois Institute of Technology. M. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.pitt.iit.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. August 31.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram. 435-439..iit. (2005). and Glass. Doctoral Dissertation. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Brazil.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 .amazon. http://www. D. MA: MIT Press. http://www. and Rusbridge. Maceió.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. A. A. (2004). http://www. http://www.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. Illinois Institute of Technology.cs. Dobreva. Upper Saddle River. A. Doctoral Dissertation.iit. A.. (2000). M.) (1999).pdf Jurafsky. and Moorman. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System.linckels. C. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (Eds. Chicago. http://www. M. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Doctoral Dissertation. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Illinois Institute of Technology. Cambridge. and Martin. http://www. (Eds.edu/papers/daveDisser tation.pdf Linckels.. Univ. Abbott. http://www.H. Chicago. Doctoral dissertation. R. Chicago.). Vicari.colorado. http://www. M.) (1999). Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. computational linguistics and speech recognition..pdf Lee. and Moorman.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss.amazon.cs.cs. Yujian (2000). S. C. MA: MIT Press. Cambridge. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross.iit. D.pdf Steinhart. Donnelly. and F. K. NJ: Prentice Hall. and Meinel.pdf Ram.amazon. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. M.pdf Yang.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. K. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. S. Jung Hee (2000).digicult. David (2001). J.. http://www. C. http://lsa. http://www. of Colorado.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. Lester. Evens. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System.

170 © 2006. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Brandon Hall Research . 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . or e-learning environments. As personal computers become more powerful.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration.org/science/setiathome. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. Jokela (2003). All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. chat rooms. movies. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education.seti. thus bypassing a central server. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. thus bypassing a central server.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. and games. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. memory.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. http://www. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. Collaborative Peer Relationships . sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. whose research is based on activity theory. instant messaging. and storage. In the future. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching.

This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. http://www. Any computer can join the infrastructure.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://oceanstore.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes.washington. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://publius.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers. sharing. http://lockss.cdt.groove. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. where students meet to share and exchange their productions.berkeley.com/ eduCommons . and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. and translation servers throughout the Web. http://www.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.jxta. http://data.lcs.weblogger.campusmoviefest.pdos.edu/piazza. encyclopedia. http://wwws. http://p2p. http://cosl.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival.ucsb. Do Not Reproduce 171 . persistent digital cache" of e-journal content.cs.cs. each with its own data schema. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.md3. http://www. http://www.usu.sun. http://edutella.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users.edu/info/ove rview.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously.stanford.The eduCommons is an open system for creating. http://picto.cs. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources.mit.

html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.internet2.co.edu/apps_list.advancedreality. http://www.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www. http://p2p. no adware. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality.bdaweb.psu.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.com/english/content/ho me.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.overnet.stockholmchallenge.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.elearningcentre.net/index.” http://www.” It also says that there is “no spyware.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .bdaweb.movedigital.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. Mac. for a small fee. http://www. musicians. http://www.com/products/in dex. http://www. cross platform application (Win.limewire. http://www. http://www.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.com/ Overnet is an open source. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop. and videomakers. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists. headquartered at Penn State University.se/proje ctdata.html MoveDigital.its. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques.llearn. http://www.fastrakconsulting.co. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://lionshare. data. allows anyone.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.

http://www. 2005. University of Texas. Judith (2006). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Bokma.). Tektonidis. http://www.kbs. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Learning Circuits.intranetjournal. H.htm Cross. P2P and its impact on the enterprise.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . D.html Fletcher.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise. In Cunningham.unihannover. Campus Technology. R. Intranet Journal. How P2P will change collaborative learning. and Koumpis. 301-313. http://www. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing.sunderland. Online paper. significance and impact.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing.learningcircuits.. Luigi (2005). Martin (2004).html Jokela. Paul & Cunningham.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. Jay (2001). January 2002. K. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology.pdf Farges..com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. and Higher Education 2003. Government.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Healthcare.masternewmedia.editlib.learningcircuits.campustechnology. http://www.ac.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://www. eLearning and future trends. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. Robin Good Blog. July 2001. Online article. http://www. Julita (2004). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. pp 1051-1058.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. pp. (2004). http://julita. Ginty. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://voyager. June 1. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises.edb. http://www. and Guergachi. (2002).htm Farago-Walker. 2006. AACE Journal 12(3). January 17.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. A.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. Jennifer (2002). Austin.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. Wolfgang (2002). Applications.usask. A.utexas.editlib. Paivi (2003). http://www. Case Studies. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview.pdf Ratti.org/index. Susan (2003)..pdf Vassileva. N. 1624-1631. http://www. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues. Miriam (Eds.org/index.

). e-portfolios. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. (Cortlett et al. wikis. amongst institutions. In many cases. This requires support over time. such as search engines. often only for the purposes of the course.. social environments. Secondly. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. etc. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. and. whiteboard). This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. A PLE must support lifelong learning. learning management systems. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. blogs. Technology needs to be situated. discussion forums. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). chat. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. there can be no electronic interaction. To practice real-world situations. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. for the learner. learners need to be in real-world situations. libraries. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. but these are only available to members of the course. as learners move between institutions. work places.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. and social bookmarking sites. 174 © 2006. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Individualization in an LMS is weak. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. Brandon Hall Research . A PLE is structured by the learner. without an offline client to the LMS. and through a variety of technologies. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner.

bath. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. 2006.jisc.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog.pdf Farmer. manage.ac. http://www.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham. http://www. T. http://elgg.. Online case study paper. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.edublogs. Edinburgh. D.elearning. track. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. http://terrya.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. O.cetis. M. J. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 175 . PLE Reference Model. Jan. Terry (2006).ac.org. UK.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.ac.ac.uk/index.cetis.cetadl. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://www. 22-27 July 2005.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett. Chan. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. and Westmancott. Incorporated Subversion. Running on the learner's PC. 2006.uk/ilogbook/de fault. Ting.bham. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Nevada.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK..ppt University of Birmingham (2005). http://portal. and review his or her learning activity.. http://www. James (2006). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.ac.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. it helps the user plan. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.za/CD/papers/Corl ett. January 9. Las Vegas.jisc. http://www.ac.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. http://incsub.ac. (2005).mlearn. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. Colin (2005).doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Sharples. 11.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan.

Often. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. through a questionnaire). Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. learning environments. Do Not Reproduce 176 . or it can be an implicit model. rule-based filtering. 2005). artificial intelligence.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. colour.g.. collaborative filtering. However. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. etc. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. (Filippini-Fantoni. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.. However. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). These techniques include content-based filtering. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Keenoy et al. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.g.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Furthermore. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop.).) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. etc. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. picture.

wireless networks.calimera. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user.ca/English/Per sonal/index.ed.g.directa.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum..nl/publications/papers/M traits. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.beta80group. The trails can useomarmo. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. http://www. A demo is available at: http://www.uk/ilex/final. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.html (handheld PCs.ecdc.firstmonday.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. objects leave “trails” .asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.noech.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile.org/en/index.hcrc.org/default. chc021 http://www. http://www. and/or presentation of materials.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.pdf kaleidoscope.elenaproject. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. http://www. the personalization can be applied to content.time-ordered http://www. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. PDAs). http://www.net/home. dynamic user profiling techniques.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.virtualmuseum.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. navigation.emarcon. http://www. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. Do Not Reproduce 177 .ac.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.

De Carolis. K.unibo. Italy. William Niu.metmuseum. and Kuflik. Gallipoli.. May 25. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). Calimera Guidelines: personalization.pd f Cavalluzzi. T. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. and Cook J.pdf Beler. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. A. S. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.umuai. Cozzolongo... G. Ngo. X. A.org. (2004). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.pdf Callaway. May 25.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.CY/0409055 Boyle T. with a particular focus on the museum sector. http://www. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. 2004. https://www.arts. (AVI 2004). Online paper. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces... Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.pdf 178 © 2006. HATII. interactive services in home automation.Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.calimera.arces. Melbourne.(2001). W.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. http://smart. and Verdaguer. http://tmtfactory.org/mymetmuse um/index. and Nuguid.unimagdeburg..org/pdf/cs.cs. and FilippiniFantoni.. University of Glasgow. PowerPoint presentation. (2005). http://arxiv.org/ Bibliography Abbott.pdf Calimera Project (2005). A. (AVI 2004). (2004). Kay. 2004. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. Online paper.pdf Ceccaroni. http://www.hatii. Gallipoli. Brandon Hall Research .it/intint/people/paper s/aims04. (2005).. http://adiret. J. Italy.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. D.di. Borda. Magical Mirror: multimedia. A.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. (2004).com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.pdf Bright. L. http://www. http://www. B. Ler. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Daisy (2002).it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. C.uniba. S. The Future of Access (or.ac. J. http://www. Pizzutilo.gla. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Bowen.ascilite. A.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access..

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Portals Related terms Collaboration. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Knowledge Management. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. content management. Brandon Hall Research . 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. vendors. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. 2001). and other roles outside an organization (Collins. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. which form a dynamic user profile. instructorled. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. collaborative environment. In the business world. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. learning management systems.

administrators. As of early 2006.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.fathom.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.elementk. Do Not Reproduce 185 . e-mail distribution lists.microsoft.executrain.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.proquest.000 lesson plans http://www. the portal offered information on more than 20. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. and shared lists for tasks.cyberu. news and announce-ments.hp. instructor-led.saba. http://www. museums.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121. interactive discussion groups. instructors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. students.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. http://www. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://www. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.700 online courses http://www.000 publishers worldwide http://www.000 online courses http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.com/home.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. audio and/or video.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. and schedules.teach-nology.300 online courses http://www.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.worldwidelearn.asp Element K – Access to over 2. http://h20219.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. school administrators.trainingregistry.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.elearningeuropa. calendars. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.microsoft. and universities.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. go to: http://www.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. online meetings with text. instant messaging. collaborative environment.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo. document management information.www2.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.

org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. You’ve come a long way. New York: AMACOM. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.campustechnology. A.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. http://www. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. K.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. http://knowledgemanagement. category. and Sheehan.. C. Hershey. http://www.ittoolbox.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.learningcircuits.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.educause. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. baby! E-learning portals. (Eds. May 2000.asp Katz. PA: Information Science Publishing.educause. including educational uses. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Campus Technology Magazine.amazon. http://www. and Sheehan.learningcircuits. San Francisco: JosseyBass.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . Campbell. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www..asp Terra. Ron (2004).edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. Cornelia (2000). A.tamtam. (2003). A Portrait of Learning Portals. Richard & Associates (2002).htm Brockbank. Hershey. and Aucoin. Heidi (2001). M.nl/mart/CategoryView. http://www. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.amazon. R. (Eds. M.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. Reviewed at: http://www. March 1.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Learning Circuits.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins.com/article.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. and Gordon. September 2000.Education. http://www. http://blogs. J. In Jafari.amazon.amazon. 2004. Heidi (2003). Bray (2001). (2003). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.asp?id=9028 Barron.) (2003). Tom (2000). New York: AMACOM. http://www.

Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. web conferencing. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. the word “lecturing” means “to read. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Do Not Reproduce 187 . the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. the word “lecturing” means “to read.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.replayhq. Skypecasting. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. In fact. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. However. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.com/site/index. http://www. Consequently. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall.lsc. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. when experts are not readily available. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. In fact. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. Experience them at: http://www. virtual classrooms. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars.” In the Middle Ages.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.macromedia.” In the Middle Ages. webcasting. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. Online presentations can be very boring.

htm http://www. http://www. groupware. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. videoconferencing. instant messaging.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.html#a1185 http://weblog.ccimeet.edu/TEAL).htm http://www.kolabora.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. http://weblog.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. online meetings. http://www.380000 5416. and Web presentations. and e-learning. While it is expensive.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. http://www. independent listing of Webinars.acue.humanresourceWebinars.elluminate.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. http://www. http://icampus. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.kolabora.brandonhall.edu.00. a columnist at InfoWorld. virtual teams.masternewmedia.athabascau.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. http://www. in partnership with Dreamworks. http://cde.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.39155030.infoworld. social software for online collaboration.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.com Hewlett-Packard. videoconferencing. http://www. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.mit. online communities. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. Webcasts. http://www. although many are trying to change this practice. See the TEAL Project at MIT. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.com/cxoextra/0. http://www.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .adelaide. intranets.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.infoworld.hp.com/webconf/index.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.com/publications/lel/lel. http://ajax.silicon. forums and message boards. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.thinkofit.

uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. brain.eweek. and Flash.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.timelyweb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.html Using Apreso software.com/presentatio ns/index. and whiteboarding.co. htm http://www.com/software/presen tation.filesland.co. Web seminars. Web conferencing.uk/eclipse/Resources/live.elearningcentre.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.apreso. http://www. http://buyersguide. http://www. Authorware.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. http://www. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.com/eweek/webc onferencing.com/downloads/sea rch.elearningcentre. http://www.elearningcentre.co. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.programjunction. http://www. virtual meetings. and kidneys. Dreamweaver. http://www.co. http://www.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.” http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.elearningcentre.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.co.presentations. Captivate. Breeze.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . presentation and streaming presentation tools. virtual classrooms. Coursebuilder.e-learningcentre. although it does not have to be.lsc.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. http://www.

May 15. Luigi (2003a).. and Furr. (2002). Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.htm Duckworth.russellmcnally. Luigi (2003b). 7(3). 2004.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 .masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi. Live and Online!: tips. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. Sept. July 26. July 8. Digital Inspiration. http://labnol. http://www.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus.pdf McFerrin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.htm Canali De Rossi.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth. http://www.asp McNally. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. Sept.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.pdf http://www. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).russellmcnally.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. Jennifer (2004). Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal..01. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Live ELearning.amazon. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.htm Hofman. K. P.com/wwwtools/m/21593. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.blogspot. http://www. 2005. 2003. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze. (in two parts) http://www. http://www. Christine (2001).aace. Armit (2005).aln. Learning Circuits.fasfind. July.com/product /software/795/index.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. http://www.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. http://www. Robin Good Blog.com/BreezePart 1.learningcircuits. 2003. Luigi (2003c).masternewmedia.downloadjunction. April 30.html Canali De Rossi. 2003.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.masterviews. http://www. Russ (2004). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. http://www.com/BreezePart 2. Robin Good Blog. 3. Belinda (2003). http://m. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.

Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. 11. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. (2003). and Equipment. P. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.pdf Spielman. http://www.ac. Choose the Right Vendors.open. S. L.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . Feb.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.presentations. (2004). Dec. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Software.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.. InfoWorld. AMACOM.infoworld.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display.html Zielinski. 2005. Dave (2002). Start Saving Time and Money Today. and Winfield. but… Presentations Magazine.amazon. Choices are great. http://kmi. and Quick. K. http://www.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1.

FAQ. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. simple. a demand to produce online content very quickly. According to Ready Go!. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Standardize approaches. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. For example. learning objects. or where the online information frequently changes. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Navigation built in . where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. including tools and templates. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Deploys easily . Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. glossary. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. In the second sense of the term.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. It is best suited to textbased materials. It can refer to learning something quickly. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. tests. are built in. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Does not require any advanced skills. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. but not always good for you. usually when it is needed (Brodsky.does not require any plug-ins. or HTML knowledge. programming. extreme e-learning. and drill down pages.automatically assures that all navigation works. Do Not Reproduce 192 . Advanced features. just-intime e-learning. graphics. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. Instructional design built in. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. easy to use. such as creating links. In the first case. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. by necessity. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Tools for rapid e-learning are. It can refer to learning something quickly. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. 2003).

conferences.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. See a demo at: http://www. Kendrick (2006). computer games.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. To be effective.e.microlearning. Assign SMEs who are committed. http://www. and other good stuff. Clark (2005).readygo. a demand to produce online content very quickly.elearningguild. 2003).com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Future-Proofing.com/studio. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.raptivity. http://www.” Find out more: http://www. Leverage professional project management methods and tools.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. http://www. Learning Solutions. and communicate deliverable expectations. Enhance. Edit. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. virtual classroom. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.masie. Templates. schedule and due dates. http://www. or where the online information frequently changes. and Publish.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. version control protocols.elearningcentre.scate. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. centrally located files. See sample templates at: http://www.articulate. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. which contains information on resources. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. Reduce the number of development vendors. low.org Web site.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.versus high-interaction).amazon. January 23.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer.htm Bibliography Abell. Do Not Reproduce 193 .pdf Aldrich.. manage the content and the users. 2004). and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. 2006. http://www. Reusability.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.

elearningguru. June. 9.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning.com/articles/ab stracts/index. http://www. Paper. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks. (2004). Mar.transformmag. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Learning Circuits.ltimagazine. E-Learning for short attention spans.com/showArticle. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. LTI Newsline. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Making rapid elearning work. and Bersin. tools.bersin. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning.clomedia. 2002. 2004.pdf Gustafson.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. LTI Newsline. LTI Newsline. J. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. J. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. Penny (2004). Chief Learning Officer.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Chief Learning Officer.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Kevin (2002). Jennifer (2004). Ray (2006). June 30. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Brandon Hall Research . Mark (2003). Transform Magazine.elearningguild. Larstan Business Reports. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. Josh (2005). http://www.pdf Jimenez.pdf Brodsky.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Lane (2002). Josh (2004).meetingone. January. Ray (2005). http://www. http://www. 2006. 10.ltimagazine.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.pdf Crosman. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.clomedia.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Tips and Techniques.adobe. e-Learning Crop Circles. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Joe (2005).asp Bersin. Learning Solutions. July 2. http://www.pdf Jimenez. August 2004. http://www.elearningguild.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Jay (2005).com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. http://www. Nov. http://www. Rapid Intake White Paper.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. http://vftraining.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. http://www. Bill (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. http://www. July 2004. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.learningcircuits. http://www.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Dianne (2005). Jan.elearningmag. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. http://www.clomedia. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.htm Bersin. Garin (2004).Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. http://www. April. 2006. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.com/content/templat es/clo_article.

Mobile and Device Based Learning. (2004b). January 16. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. http://www. Press release.macromedia. Stephanie (2006). Learning Circuits.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.clomedia. Clive (2006). 2005.trainingfoundation. http://www. http://download. http://www.trainingpressreleases.elearningguild.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. Nick (2005). Macromedia White Paper. February 2005.learningcircuits. Ed (2004).com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Macromedia White Paper.htm Masie Center (2005).clomedia. http://www.com/news story. January 2003. 2006. The Training Foundation online article.pdf Mayberry. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Simulation. http://download.macromedia. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.com/articles/ default. April 20.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Eric (2003).pdf Shepherd. Learning Solutions. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. (2004a).pdf Macromedia Inc.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. June 2004.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 .

Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.active-robots. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.com/ http://www. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Do Not Reproduce 196 .com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. http://www.org/aboutbotball/overview. and math.gov. for underwater exploration. technology.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.nasa.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.aad.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. and mathematics. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.botball. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.lego. http://mindstorms.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.ife.whmsi. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. engineering. technology. http://www. Inc. http://robotics.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. engineering.

http://www.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.atr.rec.kipr. It features news. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. and mathematics.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. links. http://www.nasa.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.jp/ See also: http://www. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. http://www. and vocal tics.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.com/r_home.ed.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.gov/rcc/index.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.profetic.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.cmu. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. http://www.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.cuny. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.net/ Run by NASA. http://www.microworlds.ac. engineering.edu/index.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. Find out more about this group at: http://www. and other information on robotics. http://robothaven.org/article. one child at a time.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. http://robotics.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.euron. Do Not Reproduce 197 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.sci. particularly robotics.edurobot.brooklyn.irc. go to: http://www. By donning motion sensors. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.eng.ri. lip movements. Mr.osaka-u.ams.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.evolution. technology. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.

and Rusbridge. and Yanco. J.fhbrandenburg.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.pdf Cooper. G. Miller. http://www. (2004). Yanco. D.l3s. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.cs. AAATE Conference 1999.cmu. June. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.amazon. I. Computers.wtec.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. L. Abbott. H. Heinsohn.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. Kumar. A. Artificial Intelligence Conf. and Wagner.. Robots in the classroom . Lathan.pdf Boersch. Proceedings. New York: Syngress Publishing. Harwin.ccmlab. L. Donnelly. http://www.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro..amazon.. Mindstorms: Children. C. U.uml. A. K.andrew.. Keating. (2001). Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. D. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Ottawa.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. New York. Ontario. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. I. D. Ferrari.l3s. H. and Hempel. M.. R.pdf Papert. http://zeus. Dobreva. Paper at the American Assoc. Sept. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. and Dautenhahn.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. and West.digicult. W... Sept.. (2004). (1980). Basic Books.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www. R. M. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. (1999). Kumar. Düsseldorf. D. http://www. S. (2005). P. Meeden. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. T. (2005). http://rob.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. and Powerful Ideas.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er.brynmawr..pdf Blank. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. (2001)... H.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). D. http://www. Germany. Hohmann. http://www. (2004)...tools for accessible education. D. (2004).pdf Ferrari. M. and Meeden.pdf Stewart. B.pdf Nourbakhsh. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . S. M.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics. and Mataric. http://dangermouse.pdf http://www. November. 28-30. Germany. M. McHugh. http://www. and Loose. D..

Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . Do Not Reproduce 199 . Examples are Google and Overture. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. such as Google and Altavista. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Web directories. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. collective intelligence. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. as this section of the report shows.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. which submit queries. search engine optimization. each with their own defining feature sets. But. a rich user experience. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . federated search. One is the problem of finding relevant. Meta–search engines. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. They bring into the equation user preferences. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information.examples are early yahoo. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. collaboration. in parallel. dependable information. information retrieval.com and Alta Vista. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. meta-search engines. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. resource discovery. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search.so they take the structure of the Web into account. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. data mining. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. such as Yahoo. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. Ezzy (2006a.

com Gada.aeiwi.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. for a variety of reasons. http://www.convera.com/ 200 © 2006. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.aol.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. video. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. http://www.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.faganfinder. http://www. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. http://www. http://search. http://www. http://www.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). then fill in the search box. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.answers.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.alltheweb. and text. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.com’s search service http://a9.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.altavista. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. get answers http://www.ask.gada. http://www. http://www.gigablast.com About. 2004).com/ Answers.alexa. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.about.

http://www. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.looksmart.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. http://oaister.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.com/search/def ault.com/ 201 © 2006.google.grokker. rather than just returning Web pages.squidoo.umich.otavo.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://dmoz.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://channels. and the Web.com/v2/index.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.gnod. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://www. http://getoutfoxed. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.mooter.gravee.icerocket. http://search.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www. http://www. http://search.qelix. blogs.com/ Gravee .com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.netscape. http://www. http://www.hotbot.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.umdl.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://qube. http://www.msn. http://rollyo.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.pubsub. http://www.lexxe. http://www.jookster. Brandon Hall Research .com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://www.

Clusters results. and movies. http://www.ucr.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.ujiko. http://froogle.google.wink.govmine.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://infomine. http://vivisimo.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.gpoaccess.sri. Wink then diplays the results.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://books. http://www. http://tagjag. http://icerocket.stumbleupon.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://swicki. http://www.blinkx.acronymfinder.google.psu. Much of this information is hidden from view.com/ 202 © 2006.imdb.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. http://firstgov. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://citeseer.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.yahoo.google. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://www.ist.eurekster. books. http://www.healthfinder.ai. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://www. http://www. http://scholar. Brandon Hall Research .gnoosic.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. users tag their favorite results and block spam.com/ Wink – Using social networking.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.com/v2a/flash.gov/ http://www.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. reviews.

IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. AwesomeLibrary.nlm. http://wwwqbic. FactMonster.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.gov/entrez/query.ithaki. http://lawcrawler. http://kids.com/ MediaFinder .omgili. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.com/ LitLinker .fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.pandora.rawsugar.nih.krugle.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. ArtKIDSRule.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. http://www.koders. Yahooligans. http://www.acm. http://www.imdb.cfm?doid=105 6808.convera. http://www. http://www.rrzn.ncbi. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www.org/citation.f cgi QBIC .fm/ LawCrawler . Brandon Hall Research .last. AolKIDS.almaden.merl.uni-hannover.liveplasma.findlaw. http://www.com/ Last.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. http://www.ibm. http://www.scirus.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. http://www.org/ Omgili .com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006. reviews.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. & KidsClick!.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.A legal search engine. http://portal.

ee.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ. http://www. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. Known as “meta-search” engines.psu. http://smealsearch1. http://www.4 billion links.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.zoominfo.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. and tracks a user's search history.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.columbia.technorati. as of this writing.ee.xcavator.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.columbia. http://nlp.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.soundspotter. companies.cs. http://techsearch.nyu.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.searchedu. or federated searching. http://www.searchking. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. Brandon Hall Research .htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://www.columbia. http://wang16. bookmarks.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://www.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www.seekport.com 204 © 2006. and notes.truveo.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://a9. http://www.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu . and their relationships.ist.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.” Content-based search engines for pictures.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.psu. http://www. http://www.ee.cmp.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.

Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. shopping sites. http://www. weather. news sources.searchtools.copernic. http://www. http://www-rocq.search.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.inria. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. health information sources.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. http://www. apartment rentals.intute. dating and personals.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. maps/directions. is a valuable resource for researchers. classifieds. including a set of international telephone directories. http://clusty. greeting cards. jobs. http://www. produces a visual display of the clusters.researchbuzz. flights. http://www.net/indexu.info. movies.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. city guides.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.ac. tickets.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. audio.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. lottery results.dogpile.ixquick.ithaki. http://www.com/ Info – Searches reference works. http://www. http://www. video. http://www.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. yellow pages.zapmeta. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . white pages. http://www. and links the clusters.com/ 205 © 2006. pictures. games.trovando.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://vivisimo. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. and Web mail for the topic entered. therefore. hotels.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. eBay.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.uk/ SearchTools. http://www.kartoo.

http://searchenginewatch. http://infomine. S. http://www.tveyes. phrase. Frank.bolton.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.eurekster.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. can be published on the user's site. 10(12).. (2005). is against the idea of federated searches.co. the user's community has total control over the results. Y. focused searches on topics they care about.citysearch. Unlike other search engines. http://swicki.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. http://firstgov.firstmonday. For example. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. or swicki.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.ac.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. and Shoham.com/ Stephen Downes.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.html 206 © 2006. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site.ucr. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. or topic .com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. http://www.netmasters.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.elearning. http://www.gov/ http://www. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. A.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. December. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. Users can also browse by subject category. http://www.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. First Monday. This search engine.ac. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.downes. http://www. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.searchenginecolossus. Brandon Hall Research .just as a search engine is used for text.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.gpoaccess.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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2004. F. http://www.ifets.pdf Tao. D. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Karenos.uk/selene/reports/D el3. (2003).info/journals/7_4/5. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. Nov. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. K.amazon. (2004). http://www. John (2004). Journal of Educational Technology & Society.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. http://www. Networks.marketingprofs. G. Syllogism. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. L. 2003. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. http://eprints. P. (2004). R. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. C. D.unikarlsruhe. J.html Stojanovic.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita... and Woukeu. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. Schmitz. http://www. 2005..soton. G.bcs. New York.inria. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. USA. http://www2004. Economics and Culture. Davis.ecs.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. The Semantic Web. Staab. http://www.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. New York. http://ewic.pdf Tao.shirky. (2001). Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. M... Andy (2005).. 26-28. May 17–22. D. Clay (2003). F. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. Marketing Profs.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. 2004.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. 7. Wagner. Paper presented at the GLS conference. and Diaz.pdf Samaras. Millard.ac. and Christodoulou. H. H.pdf Shirky. http://www. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. (2005).dcs.asp Udell. G.pdf Sampson... InfoWorld. (2004). A. Lytras. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.aifb.html Do Not Reproduce 213 . and Stumme. (2005). L. August 2.bbk. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. http://www.pdf Updegrove.com/login/sign up. Greenwich. S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin.infoworld. CT: Manning. 7 (4). Woukeu. E. G. Millard.ac. and Gouarderes. December 3. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.pdf Tane. Thomas (2004). http://wwwsop. and Worldview. A.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. and Studer.. and Davis.

00.cetis.w3.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. (2003).uk/elearning/ story/0.cetis. and Miller. 2005. Scott’s Workblog.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . http://www.10577.darwinmag. http://www.html Wilson. Scott (2002). http://www. http://poorbuthappy. Online article. Peter (2003). June 14. trust.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).ac.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. January 17. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. L.com/read/swiftkick /column. Darwin. and the Semantic Web. Scott (2005). Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion.guardian. B. http://education.981948. David (2002).com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. CETIS Online article. 2002. June 21. 2003. Who said that? Metadata. Semantic Web. Online article. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.co. http://www.

2005). According to High (2004).gov/ Winters et al. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. microworlds.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. but information about it remains on the Web.ncsa. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.uiuc.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. participants will be motivated to evaluate. http://www. learn.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. It was decommissioned in 2005. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. Do Not Reproduce 215 .calt. especially ones set by themselves. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.noaa. http://cave. http://www.calt. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. i. games.insead. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.icherubini. http://sos. reviewed simulations as an online content format. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.insead. role-playing.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.” My first report in this series. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.e.

edu/geowall/ind ex.edu/harvey_about. Linux.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.sdsu.sdsu.calt.calt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. with many examples to try.insead.geo.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index. they are only available for Macintosh computers.fsl." http://www. http://www. http://www. However.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.insead. breathing." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. Mass. http://thinkertools. heart sounds.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.calt. http://geowall.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.insead.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.umich.shatters.net/celestia/index.miami.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. http://www. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.edu/ http://um3d.edcenter. It runs on Windows.edcenter. http://www. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.med.insead. pulse rate.dc..edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. Do Not Reproduce 216 .lsa. http://www.calt.berkeley.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning.noaa.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. http://www.making-history. and Mac OS X.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. http://crme.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.soe. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting. http://www. http://www. and murmurs.umich.

without programming knowledge.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .virtualfishtank. Integrates with many media types.experiencebuilders. http://www.knowledgeplanet.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. go to: http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .com/broadcastoverview. http://www.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.knowledgepresenter. create courses specifically on using computer software.adobe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.knowledge-director. http://www. http://www.com/ MaxIT . to play in a virtual fishtank.com/product s/firefly.atghome.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.knowledgequest.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.biographix. http://www.ISLE .assima.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.ht m Intermezzon .com/ MaxIT . http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .com/ Kookaburra Studios .com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.maxit. http://www. http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.maxit. For example. http://www.intermezzon. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.net/ Biographix .com/ Knowledge Planet .DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma . http://www. http://www.com/ Forio . http://www. http://www.stt-global.forio.adobe.

http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. http://www. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.com/3dTraining.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.xstreamsoftware.virtualcontrolroom.stottlerhenke.sdsu. http://www. http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com/products/sim.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 . http://www.outstart.icherubini.reusableobjects.stagecast.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. including simulations.learning2005.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation. http://coe.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.elearningcentre.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.qarbon.com/portal/index.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www. which can then be used to build simulations.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.com/product_r pe.co. http://www.percepsys.teds.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie.” http://www.com/ Reusable Objects .com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .nexlearn.

2004. Bjorn (2004). Clark (2004). DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. Sept. p. A. Shannon (2004). Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). P. International Workshop.learningcircuits.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. 2004. Holland. Simjour. http://www. http://www.science. 4. computer games..bbk.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.com/news/showS tory. San Francisco: Pfieffer.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. A. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. In Interaction Design and Children.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. http://www. 2004.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. Aug. html Bibliography Aldrich. Learning Circuits.. Chief Learning Officer. T..uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Financial Times.. Kamau (2004).htm eSchool News (2004).clomedia.com/content/template s/clo_feature. U. (2005). Taghiyareh. October 2004.blikstein.pdf DeVries. September. http://www. Clark (2005).htm High. http://www. Rasmussen. and McCloughlin. Learning Circuits. F.pdf Cherubini. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.html Do Not Reproduce 219 . and Bostan. B.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.uva. A. The promise of online simulations. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. http://www. http://www. eSchool News. Six criteria of an educational simulation. Mazloumian.bc.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Utrecht.. Learning Circuits.ac. http://www. http://www. Making the most of software simulations. 12.jibc.htm Aldrich. http://www.PDF Blikstein. Paper presented at Robocup conference.eschoolnews.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich.learningcircuits. http://www.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. How playing power drives lessons home.amazon. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. and Wilensky. http://www. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. (2002). Gash.ft. Feb. June. (2004). J. 8. 2002.medialabeurope. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.learningcircuits. Jennifer (2004). M. H.

and Sund Martin. Laser. Cherubini.. Sherry (1997). Florida. http://www. AACE conference. http://www. and Hou.simplay. (2001). Online paper at: http://lsm. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.for Philosophers and Engineers. http://www. In Association for Computing Machinery. A.uc. (2003).com/protonMEDI A_white_paper.ac. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Computer simulations in distance education. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. J. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. A. Les (2004).org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. 1997. October. A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer.html Winters.projects. Simulation levels in software training. Fort Lauderdale. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . Mar. A.ncassr. and Strohecker.protonmedia. http://www. Online report. Aaron (2005).html Lunce.. and Ip.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. T. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. The American Prospect.icherubini.cs.prospect.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.net/papers/ELearning. Implementation and Evaluation.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. R. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.case studies. Learning Circuits. September. http://www. USA.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . N. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. http://www. October 15-19.. L. Montréal.html Sobeih.html Linser. Department of Computer Science. Viswanathan.ht m Sloman.learningcircuits. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 284-294. J.bham. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.-Apr. (2001).pdf Tjaden. 1(10). (2002). & de Jong. http://www.pdf Turkle. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems... July.dei.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.pdf Swaak. C. 17. 8(31).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. Gary (2003). http://itdl. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. April. (2004). M.

. Do Not Reproduce 221 . this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. RFID technology is developing rapidly. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. For a full discussion of this issue. especially for tagging retail items in stores. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. which transmits over short distances. therefore. http://www. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.ala. They are programmable and. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. optical tags. grease. 2005). RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. easily changed. infrared (IR) tags. While controversial. or water. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. especially in museums and for outdoor education. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.org/Template. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.

Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.. symbology tags. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www.open. Osawa. http://cnm. K. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.aace. K.com/default . http://www.. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. (2005). Ando. & Kondo.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.msu. G.edu/index.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. S. P.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations..csmonitor.org/newdl/index.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. http://www. In Kommers.digicult. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. June 27. 2004..asp?id=1222 Ross et al.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x.com/monthly/articl e. N. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. http://www. 2005. especially for tagging retail items in stores..pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.ac. and Case.” http://vis..iu. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. http://uitspress.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 . http://www. in a 2005 online article.toydirectory. (2004).html (Online). Tsukagoshi.org/ Bibliography Borck. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Noma. & Richards.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.iu. Shibuya.aace..” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. April 13.infoworld. http://www. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal.checkpointsystems. (Eds. A. James (2006). A. http://www.cfm?fus http://www. C. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.).com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. T. 5.edu/102605_meal. Oct.rfidnews. Infoworld. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. Noda..

4(3). and Backhouse. Michigan State University. (2003). RFID: frequency. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 .com/monthly/article .cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. and Dobreva.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. March. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).digicult.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602.eschoolnews. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. http://www. standards. S. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. M. 2004. eSchool News Online. TD Monthly.msu. http://www. Aparna (2004). Ogata. Y. Andrew (2005). RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box...org/persagen/DLAbsT oc.toydirectory. http://www. M.org/news/showstor y. Proceedings. R. van Kranenburg. 261-263. M. R.. http://www. (2006).66 Ward. H. January 1.. G. Corey (2004).pdf Robinton.computer. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. adoption and innovation.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal. Donnelly.pdf Salcedo. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. (2005).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc. and Yano.2005.jisc.asp?id=1222 Ross.xml&DOI=10.1109/WMTE. Masters Thesis. Technology Watch Report 1. http://csdl2.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.us Web site (http://del. Flickr held over 100 million images. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. As of April 2006. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. The result is something called a tag cloud. or distributed in emails. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. printouts.” However. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.icio. in turn. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Fifth. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.First. For instance. faculty. ontologies. Second. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. tagging. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. they act as an “outboard memory. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. as each member can upload resources discovered. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. metadata. and books. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. For example. music. researchers at all levels (students. Students. search. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Fourth. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. scattered across different browser bookmark settings.us) post their favorite Web sites. no matter their location or timing. Do Not Reproduce 224 . while users of the del. and Web links. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. Third.icio.

com/ Furl . RSS. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.citeulike. users can see what others are Blinking.com/archives/beta_up date/index.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. users submit stories for review. and/or books and find them again.org/ Consumating .A free service to help academics share. http://blog. http://flickr.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. http://www. http://www.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. share references with colleagues. blogging. Blink also provides tools to sort. or check out what everyone wants to do. music. but.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.com Clipmarks . and search for a specific user's Blinks. http://ask.metafilter.us . store.43things.icio. Also. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. and to share them. http://www. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. http://www. and share photos with others.clipmarks.net/ CiteULike .furl. search. They can save references. Do Not Reproduce 225 . http://blogmarks.connotea.blinklist.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. http://del. http://www. connect with others. get inspired. Also retrieve it easily.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.feedmarker. With digg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. sort. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. share their stories.icio. http://www.com/ Del.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.digg. the users decide. http://consumating. and non-hierarchical editorial control.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers.us/ Digg .A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.com/ Flickr – Store. http://www. and organize the academic papers they are reading. describe.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.eventful. search others’ references. http://www.com/ Blinklist .org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.

http://www.memeorandum.northwestern. http://www.A free. http://www. http://www. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.com/ Kaboodle .gnolia. http://www. http://myweb2.netvouz.com/ Project Pad .pageflakes.eu/products/networ k_menus.com/ Simpy – Search tags.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.netscape.yahoo.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://ma.com/ Magnolia .A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.spurl.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 .kaboodle.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.html Linkroll .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://www. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. Tags can be shared or kept private. or enter new items and tag them.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster . http://jots. updated in near real time.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://www. http://www.networkltd.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://projectpad.org/news.smugmug. http://www. share. http://www.simpy.search. http://www.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/ Jots .jookster.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.shadows. based on what is happening in the news media.rojo. http://www. and discover relevant links.edu/ppad2 /index.linkroll. similar to Digg.

com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.us.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.quickonlinetips. http://unalog.quickonlinetips. http://www. Flickr.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup. http://www.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.wists. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. http://tabblo.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. http://www. http://www.S.icio.quickonlinetips. http://weblog.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . http://www.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.icio.A. tags. with contributions from users.com/udell/gems/d elicious.” http://www.html http://tagsonomy.zvents.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.us.veotag. http://www. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.wink.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. http://upcoming.peterme. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.suprglu.com/ SWiK . and social bookmarking.yelp. http://www.educause.html http://www. http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. If a city is not there. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. and Digg.com/index.html http://atomiq. http://swik.infoworld. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.com Wists – A social shopping site.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.tagzania.com/archives/00055 8. and share it with others.

org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.ht ml Mejias. June 21. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Lund.sid19_gci1195182. B. April 2005. Andy (2006). 2005.htm Hammond.plasticbag. and Scott. T.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.php Lund. Adam (2004).com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. http://dlib. M.techtarget. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.ascc.educause. April 2005..cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.00. Shamus (2006). HP Labs Report.. Plasticbag. http://searchcio. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Online paper.adammathes.pbs.ejournal.dlib.pdf Gurber. B.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. T..typepad. Tom. Keynote address. http://ideant. and Hannay. S.html Mathes. and Huberman. 2005..org.hpl.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.fasfind. Hannay.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. 2006.com/wwwtools/m /7172. Tom (2005).corante. http://www. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.fasfind.shtml Golder. (2005). T.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. (2005). J.org/teachersource/learning . http://www. Jan. SearchCIO. 20. B. http://www. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. http://www. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. http://many. Web 2.hp. Ulises (2004). http://tomgruber. Bryan (2006).. 2. Hammond.” http://magazines. Sept. http://www.com/originalCo ntent/0.html McGillicuddy. 11(4). (2005). March/April 2006.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. D-Lib Magazine. 11(4). Social consequences of social tagging. Brandon Hall Research . Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. 41(2).Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. T. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Many2Many. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. 2006.com.289142. May 5. http://www.html Coates. D-Lib Magazine. Liz (2005).com/wwwtools/m /6350.pdf 228 © 2006. (2005).html Lawley. Flack.

Nicholas (2004). Jon (2004).isi. Ulises (2005). 2005. InfoWorld. 2005. Online Paper. July 20. Ideant. http://www. 2005. http://www. Tag mania sweeps the Web.typepad.pdf Richardson. Trusted Sources.weblogged. Tags vs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.html Mote.infoworld. Jon (2005).edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Will (2005).com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. The New School of Ontologies. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . 2004.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th.infoworld. InfoWorld. August 20. May 20. Webblogg-ed.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. http://ideant. Aug. 2. Collaborative knowledge gardening. http://www.html Udell. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.

) Experience Sharing (blogs. communities of practice.al. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. tagging. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. e-mail. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.) Relationship Management (Orkut. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. shared links.icio. etc. etc. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. photo sharing sites.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. dating sites. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors.” that is. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. 2005). social software. My first report in this series. photo albums.com.us. online personals such as Match. etc.com. shared link libraries such as del. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. Do Not Reproduce 230 . SMS. social networking sites such as Friendster. etc. e-mail. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging. family. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. Friendster.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. reviewed social networking as an online content format.

and geographic regions.com/introNetwor ks. high schools.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.freeopendiary. http://www.my-diary.last. documents.linkedin.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.com/ Live Journal .” http://www.html Last.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. photos. http://www.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.facebook. http://www. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. http://www. Share it with others if desired. work.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.faceparty. audio.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. Facebook has networks for colleges.livejournal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. List who a person knows and find out who others know. http://www. http://www. and files and then make them available to others.intronetworks. and the military. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks.codeville. as a blog.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.com/ Orkut .myspace. video. and within “communities of interest.diaryland. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.classmates.com/signin/index. http://www. which is then open to other readers.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. https://www.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. http://www.friendster.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. workplaces.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. http://www.esnips. https://www. http://www.orkut. http://www. or as a social network. Do Not Reproduce 231 . http://www. in associations.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.

htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software. http://360. coupled with NetDraw.S. http://jnthweb.netminer.com/reg/sample. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. check out the map at org. http://www. upload photos. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College.” http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.com/index.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. Brandon Hall Research .com/hijackers. Columbia University.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. intelligence (1993-2001).pbs.orgnet. http://www.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.orgnet.typepad. http://www.html 232 © 2006.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr. see the JNthWeb Wiki. It costs several thousand dollars. http://www.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.stumbleupon. http://ideant.com/inflow3.yahoo. http://www. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www. http://www. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://platial. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that.analytictech. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.spartasocialnetworks.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.orgnet.xanga.com/ucinet.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/index.analytictech. http://www. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.pbwiki. Users share their writings and meet each other.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis.html Org.

odnetwork. http://www.. Knowledge Management Magazine. http://www1.fmg. http://www. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. Christopher (2004). Virtual Canuck.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis.socialtext.. 2004.elsevier.edublogs. but.ucr.insna. Nov.usemod. OD Practitioner. May 2003.co.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites. http://www.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.futurelab. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam. http://www.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me.html Allen.org. see the list in Wikipedia. Verna (2004). Oct. http://www. http://en.lifewithalacrity.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.elearningcentre.theworkfoundation. Life with Alacrity.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. Educational Social Overlay Networks. http://www. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites. http://www. KM and the Social Network.pdf Bibliography Allee. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.kmmagazine.jsp SocioSite: Networks.html Anderson. Patti (2003).uva. 13.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 . http://terrya.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. http://faculty. 28.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu. Groups.net/ssa/index. Terry (2005).org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets. 2005.com/cgibin/mb. http://www2.com/xq/asp/sid.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. http://www.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.wikipedia.analytictech. http://www. 32(4).

ca/files/osn. 14.1225/R0503H Cross. Feb. Feb. Research Report.com/read/090103/ social. Cambridge. The Barriers of Content and Context. Stowe (2003a).darwinmag. and Parker. Harvard Business Review. May 2003. July 12. OLDaily. L.jsp Downes.. The Hidden Power of Social Networks.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd.eurodl. Cracking the social code. Winter 2002. and Prusak. and Parker. June 2002. January 2004.downes.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.contentdirections.00. 44..edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. http://www. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. March 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. R.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 .1 648185. (2002). Cambridge. Social Capital & Social Software. Business Networking Systems. but. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.darwinmag. and Weiss. The Work Foundation. MA.darwinmag.htm Davies. Distance and E-Learning.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. California Management Review. No. http://www. J. S.amazon. A. http://harvardbusinessonline. MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. John (2004). http://www.theworkfoundation. A.html Cross.hbsp. Darwin. (2002). Stowe (2004). (2005). http://doi. September 2003.hbsp. http://www.1759. Darwin.com/mr/hbsp.com/read/010104/ context.harvard . Stowe (2003b).pcmag. (2004). Borgatti. Stephen (2004). http://www. R. You Don't Know Me.ca/cgibin/page. L.. 11. Stephen (2005). Vol. William (2003). A. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.downes.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. The Semantic Social Network. Christian (2006). European Journal of Open. http://www. Liedtka. Stephen’s Web. (2002).com/read/050103/ social.analytictech. Perseus Publishing.pdf Cross. http://www. R.harvard . Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.html Boyd.. Dead Already? PC World.. http://www.html Dvorak.com/article2/0. L.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes.html Boyd. Linked: The New Science of Networks. 2004 http://www. http://harvardbusinessonline. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. R. http://www.j sp?doi=10. 2005. September 20.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. Harvard Business Review.

K. Riverside.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. CA: University of California..edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. 15. 8(8). http://faculty. and Facer.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. 29. How to Save the World Blog. Social Networks. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Online paper. S.learningcircuits. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. (2003). Allan (2006). Caroline (2005). (2006). Ulrike.uiuc. (in 2 parts) http://www.. Introduction to Social Network Methods.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. Feb. Learning Circuits. http://www. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. April 15. (Eds.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. L. A.amazon.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. R. First Monday. August.htm http://www. L. 2006. (2000).learningcircuits.org/cgi/viewconte nt.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . (2005). D.planetwork. Hauser.). Bristol.pdf Jordan. and Foster. Research Report.. Oliver. M. Zucker.cdlib. K. S. Art (2003).netform. J.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel. New York: Little. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. 2005. Lanham. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. http://blogs.ac.h tml (Review) Gladwell.futurelab. http://repositories. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet.ed. http://asn.. Brown.net/ir/reviews/revs163.net/AugmentedSocial Network.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. UK: Futurelab. CogDogBlog. http://cogdogblog. No.ucr. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. M. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. & Barney. http://lrs. Grant.. Institute for Social Science Research.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. (2001). Social software in action (No real software required).uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.salon.wun.org. Seven Principles of Social Networking.htm Kleiner.pdf Pollard. (2004). A. and Brewer (1994). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources.pdf Levine.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. J. July 14. Eva (2003). http://www. and Riddle.. (Online book). David (2005a). http://www. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. 2005. Social Software and Learning. 21. Research Report. Sayers. Dec. Malcolm. http://www. Southhampton.

html Do Not Reproduce 236 . David (2005d). 2006. Thousand Oaks. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. http://www.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens. http://elgg. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). How to Save the World Blog. B. http://www. and Werdmuller. (2004).salon. Rescuing social networking. Nov.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. http://www. Luis M. June 2. http://blogs. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. Salthe. Clay (2003). Draft paper online.com/article2/0. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. http://blogs.html Ravid. 341-358.htm Tosh.firstmonday.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. Learning and Computing.com/booksProdDesc.salon. Social network analysis: what to map. Social Software presentation. Christopher (2006a).indiana. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet.Organization.00. In: S.net/csessums/weblog/6238. How to Save the World Blog. and Raefali S. Aug. John (2000). Scott. Connectivism: learning as network creation. David (2005c). Kluwer Academic Publishers.edu/rocha/ises. First Monday. May 5.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. Teaching.h tml. (1998). The social networking landscape.com/writings/group_poli tics. 2005.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. David (2005b).salon.html Siemens.pdf Ulanoff.html Pollard.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html Pollard. March 9. and M. Lance (2005). Social Network Analysis. Van de Vijver. 2005. 2005. Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. CA: Sage Publications. George (2005). http://www.). How to Save the World Blog. 9(9). September.1 842806. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.1895. 11. 2003. G.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha.cnet. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. Jan.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16.sagepub. Aug. http://eradc. pp. 8.learningcircuits. 2.h tml Shirky. Social software and the politics of groups. (2005). CNET.net/csessums/weblog/13748. Nov.shirky. Elgg: Community Learning Space. 2006. 2005.pcmag. Learning Circuits. http://www. 2005. June 16. Delpos (eds.asp Wood. 23. Molly (2005). http://informatics. G. http://blogs. http://elgg.ht ml Sessums. D.

Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. and the sense of contact with.html http://www. presence. another person while communicating via the Web. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. retrieving. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g. 11. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. cameras. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV)..com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. Do Not Reproduce 237 . 2001). are also available. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. and shout over each other to try to be heard.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. as if they were in the same room. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. just like during a real meeting.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. http://www. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence.com/halo/index. "online" or "offline") of other users. 2001. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.hp. When it is fully successful. presentation tools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging.” but other more elaborate technologies. share files and documents. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. In 2000.hp. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners.

http://www.ac. in every sense.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.open. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. http://messenger.unizar. http://www.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.net/ Jabber – An open. The driver sits in a box. the CAVE.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.' http://cnm. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence.jabber.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.percro.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.sourceforge.ibm.strath. http://www.ht ml http://www.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute.live. http://laimuz. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.advanced. http://telepresence." http://www. MacOS X.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.ac. http://get. http://gaim. at a physically remote real world site. and Windows.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.aim.org/teleimmersion2. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. http://www-142. http://www.ebuddy. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .yahoo. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. http://www.fakespace. a communication link between the home site and a remote site.dmem. secure. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user.advanced. BSD.uk/ind ex.org/teleimmersion.com/index. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Ins and outs of teledildonics.kth.pdf Fontana. Davide. Network World. September 24. June 1. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www. 44-49. G. Donnelly. Presence applications poised for takeoff.no/at/nmm/enlund. Being There: Concepts.digicult. (Eds.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. http://www.se/pdf/CID-206. Ken (Ed. S..com/news/culture/0.pdf Lynn. January 2005.. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). Regina (2004).hig.pdf Knudsen. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.acs.nada.kth. A. http://www. A. (2005). effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.. London: Routledge. Nils (2000). and Naeve. 2004. (Eds. as well as news.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence.html Goldberg. Online memo.ieor.nada.amazon. Banff. and Handberg. Calgary.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.wired. Wired News. 6. Sept. http://cid.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund.) (2000).pdf When it is fully successful.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. history..65 064-0.ietf. http://kmr. Do Not Reproduce 239 . MA: MIT Press.networkworld. Abbott. Cambridge. and Pejas.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. J. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. http://www. Alberta. http://www. A.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. M.org Bibliography Dreyfus. and Rusbridge. J. In Soldek. and IJsselsteijn. C.berkeley. http://www. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.org/rfc/rfc2779. F.virtual-presence.) (2003). John (2004). Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. McHugh. On the Internet.amazon. Network Working Group (2000).com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Naeve. M.. W. Hubert (2001). Dobreva. L. 2002. http://www.txt Knudsen.html Riva. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.. C. A. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. D. http://www2. (2001). (2002).

C. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. Jon (2005).swedishlearninglab. http://www.Learning.modes. and Handberg.pdf Udell. http://www. (Eds. L. In Hoyer.org/docum ents/Sponberg. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.infoworld. Knudsen. Germany: Hagen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. et al.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . (2001).) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. H.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. Jan. H. InfoWorld. 28..

However. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. 2002). bandwidth becomes an issue. Once video goes on the Internet. screencasting. Do Not Reproduce 241 . PDAs. vlog Description Video.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. in all its formats. tlearning. vodcasting. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). videocasting. television. Video. Video blogging has become common. A new version of television. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. My first report in this series. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. the largest Internet telephone service. IPTV. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. 2005). telepresence. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. amateur and professional video cameras. cell phones. even a video plug-in for Skype. video blogging. streaming video. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. reviewed video as an online content format. in all its formats. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb.

DFILM launched the MovieMaker. even a video plug-in for Skype. video. a three-minute videoblog. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world.com.uk/index.apple. cell phones.dmeurope. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. and multimedia content to customers. partners. BT. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further.ar/iptv_en. amateur and professional video cameras. See samples at: http://www. and maintains loyalty.dfilm. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.co. the Internet telephone service. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. http://video. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem.on2.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. voice. improves the satisfaction of the client.com/index_about. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. http://participatoryculture. with IPTV. the “triple play” of video. http://www.com For an example of a video blog.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://www. http://www.html Dialcom Networks.brightcove.google. or students through a high quality. In spite of the limitations.rocketboom.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.org/ In 1999. PDAs. employees. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. see Rocketboom.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. according to Foroohar (2006). low bandwidth video stream.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. the largest Internet telephone service. It is still going strong at: http://www.rocketboom.medialogic.com/default. Britain's largest telecom firm. http://www. As the following examples show.com Do Not Reproduce 242 . http://www.axor.

mil/index.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.bittorrent.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. whether dial-up.org/ At YouTube. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. and visual resources.hpc.bittorrent.com/pressreleas es. desktop. See the current selection at: http://video. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.youtube.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. http://www.” Users can upload video clips for free. cellular.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.concord. tag them. http://www.com/nara.veotag.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. and divide them into chapters or segments. read “Ten video sharing services compared.veoh. http://www.navy. http://eduscapes.google.spider.com/ BitTorrent. For example.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.com/seeds/index. http://www.elearningcentre.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. http://www. or set-top box. video.dvguru.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.com Do Not Reproduce 243 . http://vpb. https://www. PDA.ourmedia.xstreamengine. http://www. http://www.addictingclips. See examples at: http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.” http://www.co. http://www.

as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. and by tags.com/webconf/video. http://www. Online article at: http://www.500 vlogs organized by popularity. http://www.” http://www. by alphabet.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.wharton.pdf Bardia.streamingmedia.co.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.lsda.pjb. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. t-learning Study .” http://www.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. but business models are fuzzy.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. D.thinkofit.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. Peter (2003).htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. http://www. which users can submit.org.mefeedia. termed “mobile television.com/article. P.uk/files/pdf/1443.upenn.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.elearnspace.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.uk/tlearning/contents. and Bates.edu/articl e. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 . The site already contains nearly 6. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.masternewmedia.iptv-industry. www. Pradeep (2004).com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005. http://www.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.” http://knowledge.” http://www. http://www.masternewmedia.org/doing/media.masternewmedia. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.educause.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. (2003).

Beyond Wireless Broadband. http://www. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Robin Good Blog. 2.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. Nov. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. 2005. Dec. Matthew (2005). Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.bcr.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .com/showArt Thornhill. http://www. Wi-Max. and Swenson. Dec. http://www. (2003). Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2005b). discussions and Curtis. 2005. Brian (2005). http://www. University of Missouri.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax.ac. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. Brian (2002).uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.pdf tough road deploying IPTV. Rana (2005). Durham. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp.aace. Telcos face http://www-rcf. April 26. P. Changing Channels. Foroohar. Goldfarb. (2005).com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. C. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.campustechnology. http://www1. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. http://www.masternewmedia. Peter (2005). Jonathan.networkingpipeline. http://edmarketing. Tom (2005). June 6. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. 7.masternewmedia.) (2002).amazon. Luigi (2005a). Online paper. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. The IPTV Revolution. NC: Duke University. (Eds. 2005. G. 8-9. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle.).pdf ction=Reader. Mon. and Young.ibm. 2005.org/newdl/index. S.msn.htm IBM (2006). L. implications.). IBM Institute for Business Value study.msnbc. Networking Pipeline.pdf http://www.. 417-419). Asensio.php te/newsweek/ Taplin.com/article. Campus Technology.com/id/8018601/si 8. Wi-Fi.cfm?fusea . 1.usc. Newsweek (International Ed. 2005. 2005. Friedman. (Ed. Manchester.apple.umist.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi.htm Canali De Rossi. M.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. In Richards.pdf Klass.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.asp?id=7769 Meng. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. Feb.

augmented virtuality. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. inventors. desktop virtual reality. http://www. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.columbia. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. simulation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. http://ancient.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. http://solipsis.futurelab. http://www1.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. interaction. Do Not Reproduce 246 .uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. skin color.net/wiki2/index.kahootz. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. and storytellers. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. Near Eastern. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. The space is persistent. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. mixed reality. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.org. Exploration and discovery are enabled.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. and the aim of the virtual experience.ubc. and Religious Studies department.arts. designers.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.cs.ca/index. exchange enabling. distributed virtual environments. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Videoconferencing is not required. Creed. http://www.netofpeers. To do this. By using aspects of game play.

The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.html The U.secondlife.epfl.informationinplace. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.healthdatamanagement. http://vads.com/edu/index. http://vrlab.ac.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.shapedc.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.org/highlights/augur. http://www.equator. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 247 . and the aim of the virtual experience.ch/About/about_index. including education.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. Shape has developed the augurscope.ahds.opencroquet.mil/index.html http://vads.ac. For example.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.com http://www.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.navy. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.S. http://www.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. https://www.activeworlds. http://www.hpc.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.org/index. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. http://www.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. http://www. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).ergonetz. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.spider.ahds.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.

Stephen (2004).com/article. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Sept.uk/elearning/ story/0. 2004. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. Learning Circuits. http://www.00. 27.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3. East Carolina University.coe. Technology Area .org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. T. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. http://vr. T. http://education.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.10577. http://www. T. Research report.pdf Bouras. and Tsiatsos. http://www.intuition-eunetwork. Eva (2004). Philopoulos. and Tsiatsos. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. Michelle (2003). C. J.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. Hornig.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). A.guardian. 175-199. Trend: augmented reality check. http://ru6. C.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. (2006).cti. http://www. (2001).htm Do Not Reproduce 248 .ecu.learningcircuits. Guardian Unlimited. http://ru6.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4. Triantafillou. Campus Technology. Dec. V. http://ru6. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.html Jones. 2004.cti. Sept.cti.htm Bibliography Bouras. 2006.. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.edu/vrel. 28.campustechnology. August 9..1314022.masternewmedia. and Hicks. 2004.oln. G. (2001). 24.co. http://www.htm Dickey. Luigi (2004).pdf Hoare. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. C.pdf Bouras.unt. G.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. (2004). http://courseweb. Robin Good Blog.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. and Tsiatsos.

M..unibo. Conlan.p df Prasolova-Førland. Dobreva. https://www.. La Coruna/Spain. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. M. D. http://www. Abbott. Petridis.. C.actapress.icc2005. R. E. (2002). (2004). July 9-16.pdf McArdle.ie/Owen. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. A. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. G..actapress. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. M. No. January 2005.org/htmleng/english. M. Gerard (2002).pdf Katterfeld. http://www. 2005.ikg.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.com/Reference.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10. Donnelly.com/PaperInfo. Lister. (Section on Virtual Reality). Web Based Education 2005 conference.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B..de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. O. Bertolotto.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. McHugh.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.unihannover. and Mangina. 35.digicult.html Liarokapis. ISPRS. A. http://www. P. F.eng.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. S. T. (2005). (2005).com/PaperInfo. http://www.monash. and Sester.pdf Ross. (2005). M. http://www. Ekaterina (2005). http://www. and Seyedarabi.. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.. Web-based Education 2005 conference. Monahan.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . C. & Sester. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. and Rusbridge. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Proceedings. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Istanbul. M. 1(2). 1. 2004. (2005). International Archives of Photogrammetry.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen. and White..actapress. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. P.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. http://www. Vol.edu.elearning. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Proceedings.tcd.cs. F.

data mapping. et al. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. Flash. allowing for innovation or new understandings. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. location based systems. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.dpc. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. 2003). The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Do Not Reproduce 250 . geographical information systems. visualization can represent alternative points of view. images. cybercartography.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. 2005). See some amazing demos at: http://www. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. data filtering. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. On the other hand. mapping.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. The educational advantages of visualization are many.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. and data rendering. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. My first report in this series. cognitive collage. Finally. GIS. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. pattern recognition. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. reviewed visualization as an online content format.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.ucar. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. dynamic displays. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. graphics.inxight.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques.idc. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.html http://www.semagix. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography. http://www. http://www. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. For an example.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch. which showcases their potential.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. http://www.nlm.alice.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. and will require visualization applications.tmm. http://www. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival. http://www. delivery.com/solutions. Free demo at: ew_68. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.esrin.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.vrco. http://www. Museum Edition.vista. and display (without glasses!).com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.ddd.0 as an approach authoring system. VR. http://www.ontopia.ubc.ac. http://www.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.unifiedfield.” http://richie.esa.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.zoomclouds. http://www. http://www.pdf tracking. allowing 2-D image stitcher.typorganism. See: to education.net/omnigator/models/i ndex. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.edu/index. see ZoomClouds.ul.cs.nih. such as a blog.bham. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. whatsoever.utexas.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .

http://www.html For a practical application of visualization.lecielestbleu. Sample their efforts at: http://www.gov/index.vrvis.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.com/solutions.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. http://www. http://www.media. http://www. See their tool set and examples of their work.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.nasa.com/VBody.medtropolis. April 7th.medibolt.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality. http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.feedtank.in English or Spanish.edu/ Paul Nixon. Sample the collection at: http://svs.gsfc. http://www. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.html 252 © 2006. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.co.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. a young graphic designer.com Web site in Tokyo.nixlog. 2004. http://makingmaps. http://www.semagix.”’ BBC News.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.edu/postcartoaag06. http://news.at/home.com/index.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. It has images of space and the earth from space.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.org/timeformations/ intro.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .bbc.net/omnigator/models /index.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.indiana.” http://www. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.owu.marumushi.skyscraper.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.cs. Be sure to explore the “zoo. http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www.ontopia. Brandon Hall Research . http://chatcircles.mit.

at the University of Maryland.nlm.http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.mccrackendesign.amnh. retrieval.html How do users visualize very large data sets.microsoft. http://www.http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. for example.com/cat/dashb oard/index.idashboards.spotfire.html XCelsius . http://www. See this technology in action.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries. http://research. anatomically detailed. http://www.xcelsius.com http://www. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.noaa.arcscience.com WorkPlace .gfdl. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.ibm.com/index. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.org/about. http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.umd.html Top Tier http://www. in the U.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.htm Using time as an added dimension.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. http://clustrmaps.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.vicodi.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.nih. and information presentation.com/omni.corda.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.cs. http://www.ambientdevices. one million items. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.unifiedfield.S.http://www. http://www.com CenterView .com/applicatio n. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.

microsoft.esri.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. http://www.topozone.media.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. associations.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. Didger. and.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. networks.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.musanim.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. http://www.timemap. http://www. Grapher.golden.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://research. trends.mit. http://www. MapViewer. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. http://www.advizorsolutions. http://www. http://www.S. They have worked with the U. http://www. for 3-D data visualization.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. http://www. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.com/mam/mam.mapinfo. Strater. including the following: Voxler.oziexplorer.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.visualanalytics. and anomalies in data. for well log and borehole plotting.softill. for 2D and 3-D graphing.intergraph. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://tangible. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. http://www.

Carrara.agocg. Following are two: http://graphics. animation. for 3-D modeling. http://www.edu/index. http://www. http://www.ac.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. http://www.” http://www. including the following: Bryce.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.liveplasma. together with their estimated depth of influence. http://www. and rendering software.accurender.formz.okino. Clicking a related term extends the process.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.com/vc/index.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. Try a demo at: http://www.com Pixologic is 2.cs. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies..com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.ubc. for 3-D landscaping and animation.edu/eet/ Ell.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. P.daz3d.” http://vis.visualcomplexity.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.sdsu.stanford.iu.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. http://www.5-D modeling and rendering software.masternewmedia.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. is available online. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 .shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. http://coe.visualthesaurus. http://www.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. many of which are unique.topicmap.pixologic. modeling. and rendering.

edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.htm http://www. Jacques (1983). E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. Proceedings.com/ http://www. and Shneiderman. Sherman (2003).ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.com/ Bibliography Alpert. http://www. Jacques (1967). http://www. Luca (2003).pdf Bergmann.edu/research/resea rch. EXYSTENCE network.gvu. http://www. (2003).pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.vrco. J.complexityscience. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.fakespace.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. A.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.mit. 3149 http://www. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. He finished his PhD.gatech.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. Paris: La Haye. 1-34.editlib. Lugano. J. and Resetarits. Working Paper. http://www. les réseaux. http://acg.istituti. G. both visualization companies.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.pdf Bertin. http://www. pp. Paier.net/printRec. (Eds.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Madison: University of Wisconsin.amazon.ualber ta.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.gatech. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 14(1).com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. K.infovis.usilu. B.complexityandeducation. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.) (1999).org/index.topicmaps..com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. The Semiology of Graphics.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. and Woodill. http://www. http://acg. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.media. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. http://www. Switzerland: University of Lugano.media. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. http://www.edwardtufte.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.mit. les cartes. J. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.gvu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. http://www.. Mackinlay.

and Rusbridge. 329-351. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. (1992).cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. http://itdl. L.. http://www. Donnelly.. (2005).com/article. 42. Canadian Journal of Psychology.siggraph.fr/CanJ/CanJ. September. K.asp?id=11222 Metros. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Durham. 69-82.ac. available online at http://www.educause.org/dl/index. No.cfm/files/paper _5994. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.com/publications.. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. S. http://www. S. Arns. and Pagalthivarthi. August 11. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.campustechnology. Siggraph. Luca (2005). Theresa (1998). and Woolsey. P.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.. J. A. 46: 461-488.K.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. J.univparis5.agocg. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 .editlib.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. EDUCAUSE Review. http://nivea.ht m O'Regan.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. eLearning Developers’ Journal. June 1.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. A. 41(3). (1998). (2005). 4(1). D. http://www. 2005.aace. C. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.pdf Goldfarb. http://www. Morales. (2006). More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.html Ross.org/index. and Knezek.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Ruth (2003). http://www. McHugh.amazon. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. M. 3(1). 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. K.. Vol. K. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.asp Mittal. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. (2005). Educational Media International.elearningguild.psycho. and Bertoline.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. 17-30. M. (Section on Visualization). (2005). Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes.html Madhavan.digicult. Abbott. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.html Rhyne. Campus Technology. 3. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. A. January 2005. http://createdrealities.com/articles/abst racts/index. http://www. G.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Brian (2002). May/June. Dobreva.. NC: Duke University. G. 16(4). Brent (2006).

New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.amazon.com/tufte/index Ware. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Threshold. 185–213 http://www.amazon. http://www. Envisioning Information. Colin. Mike and Rogers. Sharpe. Vol. Edward (1990).com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. Spence. B. (2004). MA: Addison Wesley Longman. http://www. 2nd Edition. Computers. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.com/tufte/index Tufte. 4th Edition. http://www.edwardtufte. CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. Edward (1997). 2nd Ed. CT: Graphics Press.amazon. No. Reading.edwardtufte. Cheshire.slis.ciconline. Robert. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Visualization Technologies Scaife.pdf Shneiderman. England: AddisonWesley. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire. Digital Information Graphics. 45. http://www.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Information Visualization. Visualization.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. Harlow. http://www. http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education. Edward (2001).com/tufte/index Tufte. CT: Graphics Press. http://www. Yvonne (1996). David (2002). (2004). Matt (2002). 2. David (2005). Cheshire.indiana.E. pp. Information Visualization: perception for design.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman.org/threshold Tufte. Fall. http://www. August. (2001). Brandon Hall Research .amazon. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. M. evidence and narrative.

While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. http://www. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. 1996).infoworld.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. http://www. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. in remote communities. but it is rapidly improving. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Internet telephony is relatively simple. http://www. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.elearningcentre. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.envisioninc.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. Using VoIP. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.co.avaya.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. http://www. Internet telephony.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 259 . bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.jajah.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. headphones or speakers.skype. In the near future. requiring an Internet hookup. communications tools. and a microphone.

susx. http://www. Meredith (1996).ac.msu. March 2005. http://llt. Steven (2005).ieee.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . Stojanov. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.cogs. IEEE Spectrum Online. Geraldine (2005).ieee. 260 © 2006. http://www.voipreview.org/xpl/freeabs_all. September. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. M. http://www. Mobile distributed e-learning center. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing..weblogsinc.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.pdf Ganchev. http://ieeexplore.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. and O’Droma. S. Robert (2005). The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. http://www. 9(3). but it is rapidly improving.nald. I.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. Join the discussion at: http://voip.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.pdf Ottoson.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. (2005). Language Learning and Technology.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Brandon Hall Research .org Bibliography Cherry.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. 9-12.spectrum.

and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. like a wristband or jewelry. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. Do Not Reproduce 261 . Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.p df http://www. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.edu/design/Ion.bris. including batteries. http://killer.ac. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. anytime. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.bbc. The entire system.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. For example.co.cmu.hubuska. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. http://wearables. training to do their jobs. managing. http://news.cs. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.learnexact.ices.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. http://www. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor.checkpointelearning.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. http://www.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. including wearable computing. weighs less than three pounds. Selected Examples In Europe.ppt In January 2006. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.

http://isd.media.bham. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications.uoregon.70 481-0. Wired News.gsfc.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.wired. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.ac. http://www. 2004.uk/index.org/index.ices.nasa. http://www.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. M. (2004). Brandon Hall Research . http://www.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.toronto.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. http://www.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).org is a rich source of references.org/index_graphical.com/Home/Home. Simson (2004).html The design of “smart clothing. and other organizations involved in inspecting.com/read_art icle.mit. http://killer. http://www.jisc. http://www. What you’ll wear in 10 years. http://www. C. http://about. Wearable Computing for the Commons. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. See: http://genesis. S. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.sportbrain. 1.toronto.” including computers built into underwear.html Garfinkel. M.technologyreview.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. like a wristband or jewelry.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.ethz.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.wearable.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.edu/ http://wearcam.eecg. (2003). http://www.704 81-0. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.edu/research/wear ables/index. especially in the area of wearable cameras.wired.ac.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. the automotive industry. training. http://www. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. 2006.com/news/culture/0.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. or repairing complex machines.html http://www. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.cs. Technology Review (Online).com/news/culture/0.eyetap. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. and Lupisella. and Levene. Dec.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006.eee. Mmoma (2006).cmu.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.eecg. especially for comercial airlines. March 24.edu/design/VuMan.

com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. May 12-13.html Do Not Reproduce 263 .org/icwckeynote. ICWC98. Olga (2005).amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. http://wearcam. Steve (1998).businessweek. Fairfax. Wearable computers that you can slip into.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. March 8. S. htm Mann. H. and Niedzviecki. 2005. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. http://www. VA. Toronto: Anchor Books. http://www. (2002). Business Week Online.

Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. and electronics. and laptops. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. and course offerings. podcasts. Do Not Reproduce 264 . When changes are made to a Web site. job searches. and Atom is the second. photo collections. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. To read content from a Web feed. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. feeds. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). blogs. PDAs. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.0 format). with all the potential for viruses and spam. TV guides. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. listings of the latest books.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. CDs. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. basic text format for quick review. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.” as its content is changed by the author. including cell phones. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. social bookmarking. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. Instead of having items emailed to you. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.

pubsub.co.com/ 9. Pluck .fuzzyd.ca/edurss02. each http://www.http://gregarius.com tml 2. OnFolio .com/ Attensa . Fuzzy Duck http://yole.feedroll.sharpreader. Protopage Bloglet .topix. RSS-to-Javascript .org/ shtml .rsscalendar.feedburner. and Atom is the second.pluck. FeedScout 4.com/produ http://neosmart. FeedPublish http://www.com/ Awasu .net/ http://www.com/ http://www. Newsgator Aggie .org/Aggie.com/ Brightcove . RSS Software . PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.rss-to.rssreader.com/productBlogExpress. Project D. Rojo .http://www. RSSReader http://www.com/ .com/v2 BlogLines .com 4.com/ 8.rssbandit.html http://www.feedjavascript.feedpublish.net/ .com/thunderbird/ .http://www.rojo. feedbeep . Feedroll .bytescout.http://www. EaZy RSS reader 5.com directory.brightcove.com/ 3. Syndirella . Feed-Directory . 6.com/feedscout.com/ Selected Examples 5.feedster.http://feedtier.h http://www.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.feedreader.attensa.mozilla. FeedForAll .com/ http://www.6. Sage .rssreader.http://www.com/rss2exchange/ .com/rss/ http://www.protopage.http://www. Gregarius .htm http://www.2 7.http://bitworking. LearningFeeds 8.disobey.onfolio. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).U. RSS2Exchange http://www.com/ 5.feedzilla.mozdev.net/index.http://www.downes.http://www.com/ 3. NewsIsFree http://www.awasu.http://www. Videora .ht with its own features.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.com/ http://www.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ . PubSub .learningfeeds. RSSCalendar .org/ .net/dl.http://www. Reader http://usablelabs.html http://www.http://www.http://www.com/today/ http://www.com Amphetadesk 8.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .com/ http://www.com/ BlogExpress 1.somee.com/myrsstoolbar. StepNewz .hexamail.com/ 6.videora.projectdu.http://feedbeep.puremis.bloglines.http://www. Do Not Reproduce 265 .shtml . RSS Orbit .feedforall.http://www.com/ 0.com 9. Feedtier .bloglet.com 2.http://www. FeedBurner http://www.newsisfree. Thunderbird . RSS Bandit http://www.http://sage. SharpReader http://bytescout. Feedster . Here is a list of 48: ml 7.blogplanet. Edu_RSS 0.com/ http://www.http://www.http://www.com/ 0. FeedReader 1.com/amphetadesk http://www.newsgator.uk/rssreader/ 7.com/ .http://www.

cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 . eLearning Developers’ Journal.downes. Read his article written specifically for educators.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.maricopa. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.teachinghacks.lo.pdf Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2004).ca/edu_rss. 2003. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.dist.contentious. RSS could transform online communications. 2004. Brian Lamb.ca/cgibin/wiki. Aug.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.ca/files/RSS_Educ.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. http://www.php Online Resources Stephen Downes.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. a blog by Alan Levine. May 19.wcc.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. http://timyang.masternewmedia. see: http://www.htm David. Dan (2004). has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. http://www. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www. 3.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.hebig.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. http://www.eschoolnews. To have a blog aggregated. 2004.elearningguild.com/news/showS tory. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. http://www. Robin Good Blog. http://www. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . eSchool News. Oct.redjupiter.com/wiki/doku. and D’Arcy Norman.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.php.downes. http://www. including listings for various electronic devices.mcli.elearning. Bill (2003). http://careo. 31.Possible Future Evolution. http://www. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS.ubc.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.vccs. Brian Lamb. maintains a long list of RSS resources.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.

(2006). MediaThink White Paper. Jon (2005). USA Today (online). http://www.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.learningcircuits.htm D’Sousa. http://www. http://www. Jenny (2005). An Introduction to RSS for Educators. http://www. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.htm Downes.htm Levine. (2003). and Norman.html?page=1 Udell. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. June 18. Sept.infoworld. Using RSS for data integration. May 2004. 5-8.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. The Shifted Librarian.1. Online paper. D.Web Feeds Downes. Namespaced extensions in feeds.teachinghacks. A. 2005.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine.learningcircuits. 2003.dist. BC. 13. 3..xml.org/2004/jun20 04/downes.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. http://googlereader. Otherwise Engaged.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.maricopa. http://www. Learning Circuits. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.html MediaThink (2004). Eva (2004).com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big. March 23.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x. Learning Circuits. Lamb.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Mihai (2006). RSS: the next big thing online.downes. http://www. 2006. Aug. T. http://www. Alexandra (2005).com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. 2006. University of North Carolina.blogspot. July 7. InfoWorld. http://www. Aug. RSS: the next killer app for education. July/August 2003.pdf Parparita. Anh (2005). Vancouver. Online paper. O’Reilly Network.oreillynet. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. M. Version 1.html Samuel. Aug. 2005. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://www. Mary (2003). 2005. http://www. B. The Technology Source Archives.html Do Not Reproduce 267 .org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends.alexandrasamuel.htm Harrsch.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. http://www.theshiftedlibrarian.html Powers. 1. Shelly (2005). and Webb. Stephen (2002). Google Reader Blog. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.usatoday.pdf Gannett. RSS Ideas for Educators. Quentin (2006).html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Stephen (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.ca/files/RSS_Educ.mediathink.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. http://www.oreilly. http://technologysource. RSS: a learning technology.mcli. 2005. June 2004.

time-less. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. With some basic instructions.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. approaches. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. RSS. http://www.tikiwiki. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Anyone can add to it.com/ For wikis to work.org/tiki-index.wikipedia. 2. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Do Not Reproduce 268 . Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. http://www. Content is ego-less. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. http://www.net/features. 3. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. is available for other applications. See the progress at: http://edu. 4.schtuff. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. features.com/cgibin/wiki. and email notification.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. and projects. http://wikipedia. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. custom permissions. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. it is important to have several contributors. There are now over 1. and never finished.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.300. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. My first report in this series. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. an image gallery. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. can be used by a team for joint writing.usemod.org/index. 2005).sourcewatch. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. the software used to run Wikipedia. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.sourceforge. http://www.

seedwiki.” is projects. http://www. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. http://www.usemod.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.com/cgibin/mb.ubc.dicole. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.infoworld.10. A free trial is available.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.socialtext. http://kairosnews.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16. Swiki. features.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. an archivist with the British systems.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. http://flosse.com/artpdf/GR12.html Do Not Reproduce 269 . a rich source of information on wikis.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.” Essentially.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. Columbia Archives. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.gilbane.com/ Jon Udell.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. http://radio.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison. See why it is different.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.elearning.Weblogs. Twiki.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.infotoday. http://weblog.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.learningwiki. http://www. His article. “Quickiwiki. http://www. of the University of British Columbia.jot.shtml Brian Lamb. http://www. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. http://en. http://www.wikibooks. http://www. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. http://careo.

International Journal of Information Ethics.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. L.ascilite.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. and Zhou.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. Andrea (2003). Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Operation of a Large Scale. http://64. Phantom authority. http://whiplash. Australia. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.pbwiki. Dec. http://container.71. including a section on wiki tools.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. http://www.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. that she updates regularly.com/wwwtools/m/25242.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar..zkm. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.ucalgary. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. http://m.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. July. Nov. http://firstmonday.” http://tlc. Anja (2004).educause. including wikis.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. http://www. (2004).elearningcentre. Dec.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. R.org. 5-8. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. Teaching and learning online with wikis.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 . (2002).pdf Fountain. Wiki pedagogy.nu’s first nine months in service.profetic. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. http://www. 2. 8(12). cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson.co. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .se/wikipaper.fasfind. First Monday. Online paper.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki. W. N.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.org has lots of resources on wikis. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. Raitman.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.” http://writingwiki.html Augar.html Ciffolilli. Perth. http://www.ikiw. Renée (2005).48. http://aronsson.

Brian (2004). Ariadne. Bo & Cunnin.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 .com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Jon (2004). International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://gilbane. Online article. (2006). http://www.ariadne.. David (2004). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. Clark.com/udell/2004/ 10/19. Richard (2003). Online article.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison.pdf Leuf.educause. (2001).irrodl. April 2004.com/article2/0. L. July 7.shtml Rubenking.infoworld.oreillynet. Wiki Tools. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.. S. Sept.html Stafford. David (2003).Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Why Wikis Work Not. Online article at: http://www. InfoWorld. http://www.com/artpdf/GR12. UniversityWiki. (2004). Oct. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . 19.html Tomkin.com.html Wood. and Rudolph.1/technote _xxvii.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.uk/issue42/ Udell. 36-48.com/cgibin/mb. Lauren (2005).pcmag. Educause Review. Online article at PCMag. January. M. Cossarin. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. http://www. 12(10).amazon. 2005. J.00. Issue 42. The wiki way. http://www. http://c2. http://Weblog. Emma (2005). Quickiwiki.10. http://www.ac. April 2003. 2004. Twiki. 2006.usemod.infotoday. T.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. and Webb. M. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report..14 02872. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. Neil (2003).. Making the case for a wiki.Oct.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. Swiki.asp Schmitt. Searcher.org/content/v5. O’Reilly Network. W.4149.

Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which can then lead to inventions. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. floppy disks. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. in turn. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. Do Not Reproduce 272 . may or may not be adopted by the significant population. After a product has been successfully launched. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. CD-ROMS. However.

This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. This is due. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. ascend the curve. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. both in classrooms and online. Further. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. But not all technologies will travel this road.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. in both formal and informal settings. However. In any field. while others will last for decades. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. This is due. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. this approach is now rapidly changing. Do Not Reproduce 273 . peak. to the complex. and decline. Some will die quickly. However. in part. Ontologies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. or may never become commercially viable. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. change itself seems to be inevitable. change itself seems to be inevitable. For a variety of reasons. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. to the complex. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. in part. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. In any field. mature. some will never leave the development stage.

the space race. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. and computers.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. The children of the baby boomers. video games. The experience of younger learners with television. the civil rights movement. ecological disasters. video games. the baby boomers. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. p. terrorism. In contrast. 274 © 2006. libraries. global warming. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. 28). Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. generally went to work earlier.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Brandon Hall Research . 2002. mobile phones. gaming consoles. Their children. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. Because of this. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. 2003). means that they actually think differently. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. movie theaters. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. 1994). demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. born in the 1970s. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. The technology of e-learning. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. mind-altering drugs. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. television. The speed of change increases with each passing year. and personal digital assistants. electronic media tends to be on the surface. Once we master the art of reading. For the older generation. In North America.

It is already a place for massively multiple player games.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. shortly. It works for a time. In approaching electronic educational media. Do Not Reproduce 275 . until we become habituated. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. we will see the restructuring of education and training. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). the computer. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. designers of Sesame Street.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. With feedback. the learner. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. and digital ink and electronic paper. results in an action by the other participant. technologies. or violence is needed to keep our attention. commercials. portfolios. Guides are optional. wearable computers. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. sex. creative products. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. whereby the action of one participant. But they are usually disappointed. However. and the mapping of everything. Likewise. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. digitization of smell. touch and taste.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. that is all about to change. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. Then even more movement. Two hundred years ago. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. in a back-and-forth exchange. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. Generally. Within the next five years. surprise. In approaching electronic educational media. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. huge data wall displays. In the next wave. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty.are usually ing paths. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. For example.

New York: McGraw-Hill. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Texas. James (1994). Gary (2006).com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content.amazon.amazon. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. http://www. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . technologies and services for the next 5 years.com 276 © 2006. May 2006. Bob (2006).amazon. Dallas. Marc. (2001). Digital Game-based Learning. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Clayton (1997).com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Douglas (2005). New York: Collins. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. http://www.operitel. http://www.amazon.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.amazon.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. http://www.

DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.unige. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.myself-proj. Den Dolech 2 P.informatik. 17th Floor.bham.nngroup.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.O.umu. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.bartneck.51.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. New York. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. 1515 Broadway.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.ac.mit. Marc Schröder.de/link/affective_portal .com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 .html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.se/~muse/ho me.cs.media. Box 513. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.

UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.W. Building 5. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.edu Extempo Systems. L69 7ZF. UK http://www.Portugal Tel. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. O.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av.informatics.com Do Not Reproduce 278 .org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.rit. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.webist. CA 94304 USA http://www. P. L69 7ZF. 3400 Hillview Avenue.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Edmonton. Washington. Bloomington. Suite 206 Boulder.educause. 10004-104 Avenue.ailive. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. 27A 2º esq.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. 2910-595 Setúbal .isi.org/ AiLive Inc. #1910. 1900 East Tenth St.computer.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.net/ Auburn University Auburn. Inc.liv.indiana. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Box 2124 Menlo Park.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. D.extempo. Palo Alto.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.codebaby.ac.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. N.auburn. Manuel I.agentlink.csc.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.

Inc. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.ascension-tech. Burlington. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.catoolkit. Box 5200. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury.apple.autodesk. Wellington.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.animats. Avid Technology Park.com Alchemy Mindworks P.ascilite.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. 110 Cuba Mall.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . W Toronto. Secretariat.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. PO Box 24478.com/ Avid Technology.O.org. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.adobe.animationfactory.org/ Apple Computer.O. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Box 527.avid.php/Main _Page Autodesk.redwoodelearning. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. Huntsville. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.mindworkshop.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.com/home.au/index.

5131 Beckwith Blvd.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.massivesoftware. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .swishzone.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.org Do Not Reproduce 280 .com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. TN 38152 USA http://www.A. 190th Street.818.460.com/index. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. Inc.com/pub/index. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.6450 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.htm Macromedia. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.newtek.com/ NewTek.org/home. Santa Barbara. San Antonio. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.aaai.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab.org/ SWiSHzone.com Pty Ltd The Basement. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.S.siggraph.viewpoint.autotutor. Inc. Suite 100 Menlo Park.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. Suite #480 Torrance. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.aclweb.html Ulead Systems 970 W.eitechnologygroup.psych.macromedia. Tel: +1.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group.ucsb.

usyd.teluq. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.cmu. H-1111 Budapest.iit.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.ke-corp.W. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .edu Quantum Simulations. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.gemini. West Montreal.cmu. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.it. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. u. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.10th Street S. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.cs. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. 1. 100 Sherbrooke St.edu. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cs.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.cognitivesciencesociety.eden-online.pact.org/eden.cs. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. Calgary.com Do Not Reproduce 281 .ca/eng/ind ex.com/index.licef. Egry J.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. Inc.uquebec. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.

scit.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.enel.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.unimelb. Chantilly.ulster. Suite 360 San Mateo.umuc. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.cis.W. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. Alberta.stottlerhenke.brainbench. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.ucalgary.cshe. Calgary.ac. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.cs.edu. CA . VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. Suite K.uk/home.wlv.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.uk/cticomp/CAA. Newtownabbey. Co. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. East Adelphi.ac. Antrim BT37 OQB N.edu.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. Suite 1500 Montreal.unisa.wpi. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.virtuelage.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.

Suite 201 Peterborough. FL 32720 USA http://www.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.tcet.S.ets. Suite 753 Madison.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue.flaguide. Suite 105 Princeton. Norwalk. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .ingeniousgroup. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www. Boulder. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.pedagogue.redinq. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.operitel. Johnson Street. Box 317 New Hartford. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www. Suite 100. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.com/redinq/html/index.O.questionmark.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.O.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.rmsuk. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.unt.horizonwimba. Box 305280 Denton. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.colorado. Suite 2300 New York.quintcareers.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.

epnweb. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www..com AudioLink.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh. 50 Hunt St. Laurent Blvd.com XStream Software. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.com/AudioTools/ind ex.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www..avsmedia.multitrackstudio.aspx BIAS.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.com/home.bias-inc.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Ontario. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.com/lipsync/ind ex.uiuc. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.adobe. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.cakewalk.audiolink. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.xstreamsoftware.vantagelearning.oir.html Do Not Reproduce 284 . MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. 2280 St. Inc.automaticsync. Watertown. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall. Suite 100 Newtown. Inc.

com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.com/power point-presentations-index. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. Continental Blvd. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.O.anark.apple. West Perrysburg.purdue. Sheffield Technology Parks.A.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. Arundel Street. Inc. 136 South Main Street. 860 Sandalwood Road.brainshark. Suite A300 Salt Lake City..co.trainvision. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. San Jose. Sheffield.com Brainshark.envision.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.com/index. Grime and Associates.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue. S1 2NS UK http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www. Inc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .com AcroServices c/o L.e-learningcentre. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.edu iTunes Apple Computer.sonicfoundry. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www.bloki.accordent. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. Waltham.acroservices.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www.adobe. Suite 200 Boulder..mckinnonmulherin. Suite 200 El Segundo. Cooper Buildings.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.

atlanticlink.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. Inc.horizonwimba.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www. UK Tel. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32. NG8 6PE.bridge-pt.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.learn.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.com/Index. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.customcourse. 20100 Milan.allencomm.com 286 © 2006. Nottingham.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.copycatsoftware.uk/contentpoint. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Ste.maxit. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. Italy http://www.co.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.com. Austria http://www.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. Suite 2300 New York. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.lifeboatdistribution.dynamicpowertrainer. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.ciscolearning. 200 South.

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BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: 1 (800) 616-5409 Fax: (250) 361-9362 http://www. Courtice. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www.knowledgepresenter.digitalworkshop.microsoft.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations KnowledgePresenter GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.learnerland. OH 45202 USA Tel: (877) 929-0188 http://trivantis.com Lecturnity c/o imc AG Altenkesseler Straße 17/ D3 66115 Saarbrücken Germany Tel: +49 681/ 94 76 .com Lectora c/o Travantis 311 Elm Street. GA 30092-4207 USA Tel: (770) 248-0442 Fax: (770) 248-1949 http://www.com Learning Composer c/o TEDS Inc.net Do Not Reproduce 289 .com podia Ltd 6th Floor.lersus. Padge Road.com/tbt/dac/index. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo.mindonsite. Suite 200 Cincinnati.teds. Warwick.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ MindOnSite – Integral Coaching SA Soleil Levant 6 1170 Aubonne.podia.com/ LEARNERLand c/o MEDIAmaker Ltd MEDIA HOUSE.com MindIQ Corporation 7742 Spalding Drive.php Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc.0 http://www. FRANCE Tel: +41 21 807 01 31 http://www.de Lersus easyContent c/o Delfi Software Lietzenburgerstr. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 www. Beeston Nottingham UK NG9 2RS Tel: +44 (0)115 925 5440 http://www.html Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 235 Mountain Empire Road Atkins.com Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. VA 24311 USA Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www.lecturnity. ON.com/eLearning/EN /index. 46 10789 Berlin Deutschland Tel: +49 (30) 81298133 http://www.mindiq. 110 Fourth Ave. #205 Norcross.

php? content=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. Redmond.com/services/webpresentation-svc.co.Companies and Organizations PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West.com Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www. Inc.screenwatch. Ontario. 2280 St. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.com 290 © 2006. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 2280 St. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www. CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Laurent Blvd. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www.com RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.readygo.php? content=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd.com SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. Suite 200 Ottawa. Suite 150 Lindon.webex. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.westcliffdata.articulate.pointecast.com Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr.uk/index.respondus.reusableobjects. 3rd Floor Magalia. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.co.xstreamsoftware. Richmond. 200 South. Laurent Blvd.xstreamsoftware. Ste. Inc.uk/index. Johannesburg.com ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Cedar Ave & Napier Road. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Ontario..com Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.com Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. Suite 200 Ottawa.westcliffdata..allencomm.com RapidGuide c/o XStream Software. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Brandon Hall Research . 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Inc.

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co. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.vcom3d.co.daden. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. #1910.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.maxit.. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue. Suite 1550 San Jose.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. Suite 260 Orlando. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.html Knowledge Environments.xplana. 323 Newbury Street Boston.com DA Group The Lighthouse. Edmonton. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. B13 9SG.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.uk/chatbots.tmmy. 219 Tampa. Moseley. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.turbodemo. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. 11th Floor New York. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.redwoodelearning..com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Ste. Inc.. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.com Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. Birmingham.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 55 South Market St. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.. W Toronto.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.knowledgeenvironments.qarbon.telsim. Dale Mabry Hwy.uk Do Not Reproduce 292 .oddcast.codebaby. Inc.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.

htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Inc.com/v2/index.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.mozilla.com Do Not Reproduce 293 .wavemarket. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.blogburst.O.qelix.. INDIA. P.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.gtcocalcomp. USA http://www.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.flock. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Mumbai 10. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.cramersweeney. Nesbit Rd.com WaveMarket.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Suite 900 Austin.omnigroup. Inc. Inc. Suite 209 Moorestown.active-learning-site. 6th Flr. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.opera. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Mary Apts.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.O. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.com GTCO CalComp. CA 94608 USA http://www. Mazgaon. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.

Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Pleasant St.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.0162 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto.adobe. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Do Not Reproduce 294 . Jospeh Street. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.qwizdom. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.avecomm. Inc.com. 12617 Meridian E. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Orlando.944. SW. Suite 101E Falls Church.batipi.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.com BlueTie.backpackit.smartroom. NJ .bantu.com Batipi 11 St.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Suite# 401.umass.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Inc. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Pittsford.aspx Qwizdom. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.physics.pearsoned.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. Amherst. Inc.bluetie. Ontario.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Somerset. Puyallup.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Inc.brevient.inteam.optiontechnologies. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.

NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.citrix.communityzero.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.communiqueconferencing. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. 6th Floor New York. 6th Floor San Francisco.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. 795 Folsom Street. 100 North Lake Avenue.courseforum.telnetz.html Citrix Systems. 1192 East Draper Parkway.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St.caucus. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor.centraldesktop.brightidea.com Centra c/o Saba. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Draper.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.comotivsystems.com Brightidea. Suite 522. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.convenos. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Inc. 170 West Tasman Dr.cisco.com Do Not Reproduce 295 .com 404 Fifth Avenue.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com Cisco Systems. Inc. 232 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. Suite 950 Portland. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. #205 Pasadena. Suite 630 McLean.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Suite 600 Ottawa.saba.collaborationloop. San Jose. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.

MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.forumone. Inc. Lauderdale.same-page. 57th Street Gainesville.facilitate. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com LLP PO Box 325.emc.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.digite.com Digité.com 296 © 2006.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.com Engineering. 82 Pioneer Way.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.flypaper. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. Brandon Hall Research .com eStudio c/o Same-Page. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.exactamerica. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. Ontario.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. 1034 N.W.edufolio. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.digi-net. Inc.epam-pmc.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Sanibel FL. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.engineering.ezmeeting.elluminate.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.

Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.horizonwimba. ON.net Groove Networks.genesys.grapevinesoftware. Suite 500 Markham.net GroupSupport. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. El Camino Real. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. Inc. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.net Global School Net 132 N. Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.hp.com c/o Citrix Systems. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.com GoToMeeting. Inc.com B.gotomeeting.hotcomm. Clevedon.4517 http://www.gordano.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.com Groupwise c/o Novell. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Ste. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. 395 Encinitas. Suite 2300 New York.com Do Not Reproduce 297 .com Glance Networks.glance. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.groupsupport. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.V.globalschoolnet. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.groove.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.novell. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.

25 First Street.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.iceweb. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com Interwise. Suite 100 Tucson.ibm.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. #115 Rockville.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. Phoenix.inquesttechnologies.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 .intralinks.linktivity. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. 44th St. Sunnyvale.interwoven. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.jdhtech. Inc.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.microsoft.interwise.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.hyperoffice. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.ivocalize. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. Suite 412 Cambridge. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Suite #150 Herndon.ilinc. 11th floor New York.

opentext. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.mayeticvillage.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.near-time.mitre. Harbor.peoplecube. Suite 1401 Denver.oracle.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Inc. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.netspoke. Riverside Plaza. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.h tml Parlano 10 S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.com/collabsuite/index.onproject. Suite 1450 Chicago. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.liveoffice.org/tools.com Near-Time. Suite 300 Torrance.. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com onProject.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn. Inc.opmcreator.parlano. 3 Wing Drive.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.meetingone. 1289 N.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.performancesolutionstech. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Fordham Blvd.

3679 Concord Road. Suite 440 San Jose.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.stalker.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. 51.com SpiderWeb Communications. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Suite 210 Maynard.microsoft. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. 17-17 State Highway 208. Box 3325 York.cyber-grad. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.O.project-open. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.com Raindance Communications.com/content/default. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. Inc.photoninfotech. P.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.com Selden Integrated Systems.sharemethods. Suite 445 Scottsdale. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. New No.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.com RADVISION Inc.radvision. 1175 58th Avenue. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Suite B.raindance.seldensystems.Adyar Chennai. Cactus Rd.nagarro. Ste 275 Mill Valley. Suite 200 Greeley.projectdox.q2learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.sitescape.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. Inc. 35. Inc.

com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Suite 950 Washington.tacit. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.sumtotalsystems.viack. Suite 810 Toronto.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.trichys.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.vignette.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. Kierland Blvd. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.webofficepoint.teamspace. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.. Ontario M2N 6H8.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. Canada http://www. Suite 100 Austin.teamware.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.wave3software. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.tomoye.vodium. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.O.txl Viack 14811 N.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.teamdynamix. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.usabilityfirst.com Teamware P.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .com/groupware/in dex.

Ontario.O.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. Inc. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver.backpackit. Suite 115 Pleasanton. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. CA 94588.P.net WebEx Communications.webtrain. 130 St. Inc. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.cpgvision. Inc.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www. Inc.webcrossing.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. 5200 Franklin Dr. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. Toronto. George St. Robarts Library.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.. First Floor University of Toronto.webasyst.atutor. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.com Do Not Reproduce 302 .gov.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.zoho.webex.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.axista. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.qld. P.author-it.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.santacruznetworks.

TX.facilitate. Cooper Buildings. Sheffield Technology Parks. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401.html Do Not Reproduce 303 . Sheffield.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.une.kdnuggets. Suite 201 Peterborough. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.edu. Arundel Street. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.oracle.. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www. Laurent.convera.e-learningcentre.bnhexpertsoft. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.co. S1 2NS UK http://www.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. 4000 Steinberg Street St.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.desire2learn.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.syberworks. QC. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario. Suite C215 Houston. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc. Prof.hrsg.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.learnflex.

98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.pebblepad.com/ LiveText 1 S.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road.co.nuventive.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.chalkandwire. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. La Grange Road.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext. San Francisco.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. Suite 606..meetingworks. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www. Inc.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.fogscreen. West Conshohocken.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting. Telford.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S.io2technology.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth.com Do Not Reproduce 304 .foliotek. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.provisionentertainment. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki.siliconlight. WA. Second Floor La Grange. Catherines. Suite 100 Indianapolis.angellearning.

ucsd.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning. SR6 0AN UK http://www. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc.softimage. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.freescale. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. NW Washington. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.clickteam.com/solutions/game s/default.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.thinkingworlds.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology. Puebla Lucia local 7..edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. 0445 La Jolla. Inc Avid Technology Park. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.magnetargames.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.microsoft. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. One Park West Tewksbury.avs.programmersheaven. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.adobe. Dept.

ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .immersion. Suite 1900 San Francisco.mpb-technologies. Washington Street Denver.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.corel. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.com SmartDraw. Suite 300 San Diego. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Unit 9 Waterloo. Inc.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.miralab.handshakeinteractive. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.ibm. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.smartdraw.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.microsoft. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.tech-illustrator. Suite 300 Burlingame.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. 100 Pine Street.itedo. Inc.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.ch MPB Technologies Inc.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose.blender3d.forcedimension. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.unige.broderbund. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.autodesk.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www..com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.

com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.wacom.sensable. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.eink. Ste.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.piaggio.allencomm. Inc. 2-56126 Pisa. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.ccii.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. 12th Floor Oakland. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.logitech. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. D. Washington..fujitsu.unipi. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. Suite 300 Calgary.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.com Do Not Reproduce 307 .it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW.anotogroup. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. NW Suite 700.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc.C.com Logitech Inc. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.se SensAble Technologies. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. 200 South.sensegraphics. 7677 Oakport Street.edfacilities. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www. 15 Constitution Way Woburn.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista.smarttech.

n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. 6947 University Blvd.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F.elementk. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. Huntington Building. Suite 660 Longueuil. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. Inc.netdimensions. Suite #620 Santa Monica. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.intellinex.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. East Dundee. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.cornerstoneondemand. Inc.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. Quebec. Inc.html?Ope n InfoSource. 111 Water St. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.webraven. Suite 200 Cincinnati.ips-inc. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. Suite 225 Golden.howtomaster. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.strategia.com/redbooks. 4600 Westown Parkway. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.redbooks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.com DOTS .trivantis.com Do Not Reproduce 308 .gen21. Winter Park. Suite 301 West Des Moines. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai. Colfax Avenue Building 200. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC.ibm.geolearning.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.

Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnsomething. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www. Suite 260 Foxborough. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. Chantilly.maxit. East . Suite 201 Peterborough.websoft. Inc.com mGen Enterprise mGen. 1 West Front Street Red Bank. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. Inc. 100 Foxborough Blvd.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. 550 Queen St.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. Inc. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.meridianksi.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.intralearn.com Do Not Reproduce 309 .Suite 350 Toronto.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.wizdom.isnewmedia.com. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.learn. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.compendiumcorp.mgen. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.learnflex. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.knowledgeplanet. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.

com Do Not Reproduce 310 .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.com. Suite 2200 Chicago. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.syntrio. Fifth Floor Montreal.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. Suite 700 Arlington. West. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.saba.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.teralearn.plateau. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Glebe Road. 500 West Madison.technomedia.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. LTD 671 N. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com TEDS Inc. Louis.sumtotalsystems. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal.outstart.sap.sselearn.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.teds. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. St. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ssaglobal.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.

net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.xstreamsoftware. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. 4 Expressway Plaza. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.wbtsystems. Suite 101 Houston. Suite # 105 Columbia. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond..vbtrain. Ontario. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 122 West Way.vuepoint. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Inc. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.risc-inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.edutools.xtention. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Inc. 17041 El Camino Real. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Suite 200 Ottawa. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Inc.avilar. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. NY.com Tracker.ttg-inc.fldata.info/index. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.O. 2280 St.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Victoria.gyrus. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Box 9752 Boulder. 240 Bay Street.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . Inc. Laurent Blvd.trainingpartner.

sir. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.ca ENC Learning Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 312 . OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.goenc.netera. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.arizona. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.cdlib.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.uwm.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. 4th Floor Oakland.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.

merlot. Hertfordshire.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. CT 06459 USA http://www. Box 1892. Box 3000 Boulder.dist.thegateway.llearn. Rice University.4464 Markham Street Victoria. Stevenage. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.maricopa.O. Fondren Library.rice. Suite 1600 Tucson. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Norton Road. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. 5151 East Broadway.org/eng/scientifiques.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. ETRAC.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.edu.O.lornet.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. SG1 2JY.lrc3.clarklabs. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. AZ 85250 USA http://www. P.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. MS 44. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Sterling Court. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. AZ. Houston.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.unsw.lolaexchange.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. Suite 3100 San Francisco.mcli.edu/DesktopDefault.plos.cadcorp.

uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.asp?path= 500. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.fi/english/page.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. P.edu.esri.smm.org Metadata.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. of Geography.cetis. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.intergraph. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.geocomm. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. 959 Concord Street.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.eoscenter.edu PanGo Networks.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.com/gis4mt/index. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Box 240000 Huntsville.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.O.O.5372. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.ac. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. Dept. Inc.pangonetworks. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.berkeley. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300.cancore.mapinfo. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Suite 100 Framingham.

org/aitopics/html/natlang . TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.ac. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.mobilearn. Electrical and Computer Engineering.org/ Spotlight Mobile. Suite 100 Menlo Park. 19104-2653.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.upenn. Italy http://tcc. PMB #112 Lake Mary. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.stockholmchallenge. Inc.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.elsnet.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .html ELSNET Trans 10.knowledgepulse.eee. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. PA.lexxe. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Austria http://www.advancedreality. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.ldc.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.itc.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.bham. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.imsglobal.aaai.uk/handler/default . Suite 501 Portland.

947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Brandon Hall Research .com MoveDigital.stockholmchallenge.org 316 © 2006.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Suite 300. Whisman Road Mountain View.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.movedigital.org/site/pp.llearn.sun.ac. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.cetis.net internet2.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.lockss.4464 Markham Street Victoria. Inc.groove. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.seti.internet2. NY. Deane Rd.asianart. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.overnet.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. 10010 USA http://www. Inc. Inc.

com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. Suite 600 Alpharetta. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.trainingregistry. 3º 08021 Barcelona. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.17th Avenue SW Calgary. 3333 http://www.microsoft. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Suite 225 Santa Monica.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau. Eisenhower Parkway P.elena-project. Box 172 1039 .com Teachnology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.com Portals CyberU.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.O.cyberu.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.rmv.executrain. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.worldwidelearn.com ProQuest 789 E. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Inc. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. New York 10973 USA http://www.elementk. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.elearningeuropa.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.virtualmuseum.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .teach-nology. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.proquest. 1st Floor A . Alberta. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.saba.Project Coordinator CSI .

NE Calgary. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Raptivity P. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Redmond. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.elluminate.com ReadyGo Inc.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www..com/presentatio ns/index.com 50 S.mit. Alberta. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.lsc. Michigan.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Suite B Orion.com Do Not Reproduce 318 .com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. O. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.readygo. Ninth St. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.articulate.org Macromedia.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.6526 http://www. CA 94040.hp. 3016 5th Ave.presentations.com/halo/index.scate. Minneapolis.macromedia.saba. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Box 2827.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.apreso.raptivity.333. Inc. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.genesys.com Presentations.

Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.gov.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.org Euron c/o Prof.osaka-u.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.active-robots. Chilcompton. Centre for Autonmous Systems.ed.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.org Evolution Robotics.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. SE-100 44 Stockholm. D. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.ife.botball.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. SWEDEN. Union St. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.irc.cmu.euron. Henrik I Christensen.whmsi. Radstock Somerset. Inc. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Lindsey Bldg. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. 130 W. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.eng.nasa.generalrobotics.ams.evolution. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Inc.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.ri. 100 Norman.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. Pasadena.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. Ste. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.rec. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.aad.ac.atr. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.

CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.findlaw.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.6100 http://www.O. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.dogpile.com Gada. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Suite 500 Oakland.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.copernic.google.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.com Ask.gnod.com Google (including Froogle.gigablast. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.about.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.convera.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.alexa.excite. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. Google. 42nd Floor New York. Suite 60 Quebec. Brandon Hall Research . NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.com Gnod. Inc.net/ 320 © 2006.ask.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com excite.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.

O.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.krugle.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800. Chicago.org/citation. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.lalisio.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 . Ltd.acm. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.icerocket.1057022 LookSmart.kartoo. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM.healthfinder.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.com Info.ixquick.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search. 601 108th Avenue NE.net Koders Inc.looksmart.lexxe.mooter. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.intute. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. Box 1133 Washington.info.ac.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.msn.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.metacrawler. Suite 1200 Bellevue. 17th Floor New York. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.koders.cfm?doid=1 056808. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.

2400 N. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.qelix.W. NY 10003.seekport.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC. 23rd Floor San Francisco. 360 22nd Street.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . Mary Apts.com SearchKing.ee. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. INDIA. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk..com Pandora Media.columbia. Nesbit Rd.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. Mazgaon.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.pandora.almaden. Inc.82152 Martinsried http://www. 64 Fulton Street. Inc.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.cs. 6th Flr. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.searchking. Seventh Floor New York. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 23rd Oklahoma City.pubsub. Inc. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Suite 211 Palo Alto .com Technorati 665 3rd Street.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Mumbai 10.nyu.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 .edu/ PubSub Concepts.com/v2/index.W.truveo. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.technorati.rawsugar. New York.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.convera.biz Truveo. Suite 207 San Francisco. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. Inc.. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. 7th floor.netscape.ibm. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.

de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.biographix. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .ibm.O. Yahoo http://www. Ontario.com Flash c/o Macromedia. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.experiencebuilders.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.yahoo.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 . New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Box 1558 New Canaan. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.atghome.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.personal-reader.alphaworks.assima. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.com Assima Ltd.macromedia. EC4M 7NG London. 10 Old Bailey. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. Inc. Inc.elena-project.zoominfo.com Zoom Information Inc. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.macromedia.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.tkk. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. 1st Floor A .com Captivate c/o Macromedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.seco.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .

com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.xstreamsoftware. Suite 200 Ottawa.intermezzon.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.knowledgepresenter.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. LLC 100 South Main Street. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.learning2005.fsl. Laurent Blvd.noaa.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.knowledgeplanet.knowledgequest. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. England http://www. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 2280 St. GreenPark Reading. Suite 360 San Mateo. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Inc. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. Inc. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com NexLearn.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.nexlearn. B15 2TT. Newburyport.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.muzzylane.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.bham. Suite 300 Wichita. CA .stt-global.forio..uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.cs.knowledge-director.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.com MASIE Center.stottlerhenke. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. Ontario.

Light & Acoustics. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.stagecast.stt-global. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Taschereau Ouest. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www..iu. Suite 125 San Diego. CA 94089 USA http://del.eduperformance. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Suite 400. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive.maxit. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.icio.teds. Suite A-207 Brossard.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.qarbon. 55 South Market St.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.assima. Inc. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.com Stagecast Software.edu/index. Québec.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. Suite 1550 San Jose.virtualcontrolroom. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.checkpointsystems.us Eventful c/o EVDB. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Inc.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.com Do Not Reproduce 325 . 101 Wolf Drive. Morton Street. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. Schaumburg.com Softsim Outstart Studio.com/English/t6 essai. Thorofare. Suite 240 Atlanta. 1821 Walden Office Square. Suite 224 Bloomington.outstart.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.icio.

Inc.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.rojo.com Classmates Online.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.gnolia.spurl. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. SW..net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.O. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Menlo Park.tagzania. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre..com/ mag. First Floor San Francisco. Ltd. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 795 Folsom St. Suite 500 Renton.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. CA 94105 USA http://www.com 326 © 2006. Inc. Inc.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.com Friendster.netscape. 2001 Lind Ave. Suite 900 Austin. Box 920089 Needham. WA 98055 USA http://www. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.eu Rojo Networks. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.networkltd.com Spurl ehf. Brandon Hall Research .classmates.zvents.furl.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge..friendster. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Inc.analytictech. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. CA.shadows.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.

com Jabber Software Foundation P. Suite 900 San Francisco.net Sparta Social Networks. New York. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P. Inc. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.apple. Cupertino. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.O.fakespace. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .com iTunes Apple Computer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.brightcove. Church Street. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto.percro. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Inc 1 Infinite Loop. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.dfilm. CA 90028 USA http://www.hp.html Do Not Reproduce 327 .advanced. 4th Floor Marshalltown.O. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Brightcove.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.com/halo/index.bittorrent.spartasocialnetworks.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.sociosite. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.socialtext.jabber. CA 94105 USA http://www. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. Box 1641 Denver. Box 1641 Denver. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.org Fakespace 11 E.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.jabber.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.

hpc. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.activeworlds. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .ergonetz.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.informationinplace. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.percro. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.org.org Veoh Networks.com Intuition 9. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.veoh.accurender. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. CA 92121 USA http://www.coe. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.edu/vrel.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. 7220 Trade Street. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.futurelab.spider.navy. Inc.intuition-eunetwork. Suite 206 Bloomington.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 .net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.xstreamengine.epfl. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. VA 23461-1924 https://www.ecu.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.

IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.ambientdevices.com ESRI Suite 300. 809 14th Street. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Draper.cs.esri. 1333 Butterfield Rd. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. Inc.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street. Inc. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.advizorsolutions. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Box 240000 Huntsville.corda.ac.xcelsius.V. Cambridge. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Golden.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.formz. Danvers.O.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.idashboards.umd.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Suite 317 San Diego. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. Suite 100 Lindon. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.daz3d.intergraph. Troy.com/ MapInfo One Global View. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Inc.bham.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Williams Building College Park. Suite 3 Brooklyn.com Do Not Reproduce 329 . MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www..feedtank. Columbus. Suite 110 Troy.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. 350 South 400 West.mapinfo.com Golden Software.golden. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.vista.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.

155 Spring Street. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.O.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville.vicodi.net Pixologic. NY 10012 USA http://www. MA 01863 USA http://www.com Spotfire. Ontario L4V 1T8.pixologic. 20010 Fisher Avenue.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. Tracy. Inc.com Unified Field. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.nih.microsoft. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.visualthesaurus.visualanalytics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Unit # 1 Mississauga. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. U. 73 Princeton Street.unifiedfield.S. CA 94712 USA http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. Suite 3A New York.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.okino.topozone. Riga. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Inc. Inc.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.musanim. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.spotfire. 9th floor New York. Inc. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.softill.com Do Not Reproduce 330 .org Visual Analytics Inc. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. Box 884. 3 East 28th St.nlm. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.ontopia.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.mccrackendesign.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.

OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 . CA 95008 USA http://www.com JAJAH Inc. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.attensa. Inc. Hanover. California.feedforall. Unit A2 Naples.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. FL 34108 USA http://www.inxight. Suite 100 Campbell. 11211.ethz. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.feedburner. 94043 USA http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Valdeku 100. Donau-City-Strasse 1.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.com Web Feeds Attensa. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.skype. Estonia http://www. Ltd. 869 97th Ave N.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.jajah. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Suite 102 Mountain View. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Inc.wearable.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Suite 2260 Portland. Tallinn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.bloglines. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.vrvis. A-1220 Vienna.feedreader.com Brightcove. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Inc.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. 2513 Charleston Road.brightcove.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.sportbrain. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.

Pacific Business Centre #101 . 795 Folsom St. San Francisco. Coldbrook Business Corp.mozilla. Suite 900 Austin.feedster. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. South #358 St. Petersburg.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.rojo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. 116 New Montgomery Street. 64 Fulton Street.pluck. Suite 381 Vancouver. Brandon Hall Research . California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.feedzilla.onfolio.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond..com PubSub Concepts. Inc.1001 W. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Switzerland http://www..socialtext.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. Inc.715135858 http://www.com Rojo Networks.com Feedster. Building K Mountain View.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.microsoft. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.. 3rd Floor Cambridge. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. 200 2nd Ave. P. Inc.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.pubsub.rssreader. Nederland Tel: +31. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Inc. 167 Hamilton Ave.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. Broadway.jot.com 332 © 2006.V. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.org JotSpot. Seventh Floor New York.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. First Floor. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

259. 275 Affective computing. 120. 15. 255 Architectures. 97. 232. 62. 65. 269. 161. 202. 113. 161. 230. 90. 35. 18. 268 Communications Tools. 26. 217. 75. 176 assessment. 215. 245 Browsers. 93. 51. 138. 226. 46. 67. 244. 244. 35. 60. 253 Data mining. 77. 22. 149. 217. 226. 22. 47. 33. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 29. 9. 179. 4. 156. Brandon Hall Research . 120. 173. 2. 67. 247. 125. 95. 25. 247. 199. 17. 43. 31. 55. 88. 198. 26. 91. 104. 92. 7. 218. 4. 31. 118. 91. 24. 251. 230. 107. 259. 87. 12. 177. 250.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 61. 244. 85. 172. 84. 184. 34. 47. 54. 52. 188. 100. 13. 97. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 230 Competency Tracking. 236. 250 cognitive maps. 78. 106. 16. 31. 69. 73. 156. 174. 254. 268. 64. 154. 224. 131. 96. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 118. 142. 18. 274 Communities of practice. 89. 235. 121. 101. 17. 246. 5. 218. 209. 51. 251. 54. 33. 48. 264 Classroom response systems. 226. 18. 243. 62. 175. 83. 61. 101. 251. 53. 87. 26. 250. 270 Boolean searches. 92. 289 Authorware. 266 Augmented reality. 33. 59. 279. 85. 30. 69. 110 Adobe. 165. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 57. 260. 86. 174. 160. 96. 86. 161. 104. 129. 68. 3. 46. 183. 70 barcodes. 66. 200. 102. 164. 190. 162. 20. 115. 45. 64. 69. 268. 217. 61. 209. 162. 225. 17. 125. 28. 67. 148. 151. 114 cybercartography. 252. 257 Adaptive systems. 60. 82. 285. 117 Assessment. 163. 218. 51. 86. 97. 122. 227. 109. 88. 199 334 © 2006. 89. 83. 63. 168. 187. 205. 269. 25. 259. 250. 28. 268 Broadband. 204. 159. 67. 25. 266. 246. 19. 277 Agents. 248. 106. 108. 156. 59. 21. 74. 89. 81. 76. 142. 209 Air display. 284. 143. 96. 26. 47. 250 Dashboards. 63. 46. 80 Cognition. 14. 296. 60. 188. 111 Blogs. 61. 48. 90. 105. educational. 185. 60. 177. 3. 246. 25. 250. 161 Cooperation. 161. 246. 91. 28. 78. 70. 155 Ambient computing. 45. 110. 242. 83. 29. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 56. 94. 250 collaboration. 64. 76. 111. 266. 184 Conversational learning. 184. 79. 34. 138. 156. 139. 28. 87. 103 Complexity theory. 105. 98. 216. 155. 261 Animation. 49. 34. 45. 202. 148. 140. 225. 3. 82. 24. 37. 186. 93. 154. 275 Computer based assessment. 105. 78. 64. 221. 128. 120. 241. 176. 231. 94. 120. 123. 88. 80 Clickers. 235. 174. 143. 150. 111. 19. 87. 28. 217. 248 Authoring tools. 3. 255. 32. 161. 231. 194. 21. 84. 201. 66. 241. 33. 275 Collaboration. 95. 138. 116. 201. 108. 29. 65. 117. 184. 98. 40. 61. 177. 258 cognitive collage. 185. 97. 76. 162. 157. 221. 45 Content management. 224 Cell phones. 46. 37. 230. 111. 67. 87. 66 AJAX. 82. 32. 247. 209. 129. 60 Avatars. 29. 56. 242. 44. 220 Audio. 36. 27. 228. 93. 77. 241. 72. 32. 55. 146. 230. 242. 57. 255. 97. 25. 264. 221 Bayesian probability. 201. 85. 266. 39. 118. 91.

242. 39. 228. 174. 276 images. 216. 72. 193 Facial recognition. 109. 114. 3. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 15. 62. 5. 191. 224. 305 Geocaching. 87. 185. 28. 161. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 250 e-Commerce. 114. 218. 5. 134. 128. 128. 222. 145. 192. 65. 6. 184. 134 Healthcare applications. 224. 168. 139. 106. 138. 15. 241. 273 Interoperability. 250. 170. 151. 126 GIF graphic format. 73. 125. 118. 247. 236. 65 Google. 31. 24. 48. 189. 251. 251. 33. 73. 62. 111. 123. 250. 108. 217. 211 evaluation. 156. 250. 92. 91. 201. 122. 45. 206 Findability. 155. 17. 192. 1. 174. 104. 156. 4. 33. 228. 236 e-Science. 114. 83. 4. 2. 276 Instant messaging. 246. 31 Emotional design. 169. 37. 64. 7. 61. 82. 254. 12. 248. 176 Interface devices. 70. 128. 233. 88. 121. 246. 115.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 26. 120. 104. 231. 253. 267. 7. 60 Displays. 220. 151. 35. 158. 132. 203. 242. 203. 153. 113. 104. 5. 274. 96. 80. 10. 252. 275 Director. 152. 199 Informatics. 306 Individualization. 215 Expert systems. 83. 160. 134. 86. 18. 68. 3. 76 Flash. 267 formative assessment. 122. 273. 198. 179. 18. 26. 98. 78. 275 Distributed systems. 188. 148. 211. 136. 56. 119. 84. 134. 10. 157 Hype in e-learning. 252. 84. 86. 186. 5. 15. 61. 76. 8. 55. 32. 153. 118. 239. 21. 9. 27. 193. e-learning. 19. 12. 17. 255. 127. 134. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 246. 24. 230. 208. 129. 80. 6. 28. 39. 247. 135. 30. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 60 dynamic displays. 3. 244. 24. 45 Frameworks. 134 Haptics. 71. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 135. 93. 12. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 29 e-Portfolios. 155. 46. 45. 111. 254. 170. 12. 250. 268 Knowledge management. 254 Gesture recogntion. 65. 128. 138. 133. 194. 202. 59. 199. 287. 13. 320 graphics. 12. 32. 158 iPod. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 170. 111 Extreme learning. 255. 60. 275. 177. 112. 257 Grid computing. 223. 200 Design. 32. 43. 159. 92. 31. 29. 28. 241. 261. 161. 115. 121. 66. 48. 246. 134 Head mounted displays. 250. 18. 259. 323 Folksonomies. 117 Experiential learning. 152. 215. 278 Infrared tags. 25. 30. 132. 155. 170. 120. 210. 102. 243. 215. 154. 43. 125. 70. 131. 77. 209 Handwriting recognition. 97. 69. 151 FireFox. 110. 273 Informal learning. 90. 196. 145. 262 Hybrid systems. 87. 205. 257. 54. 30. 207. 273 Human-centered computing. 23. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 243. 34. 126. 139. 222. 10. 237. 250 Graphics. 77. 199. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 59 Fuzzy Logic. 251. 238. 256. 244 Games. 167. 19. 33. 119. 115. 21. 215. 171. 3. 91. 199. 129. 120. 98. 113 Deep Web. 205. 192. 135. 72. 227. 28. 205 History. 82. 217 Federated searches. 159. 104. 62. 152. 139. 257 FrontPage. 94. 63. 245. 25. 132. 192. 76. 99. 258. 204. 194. 171. 145. 5. 44. 114. 114. 31. 136. 78. 151. 125. 115. 250 Immersive environments. 34. 167. 9. 135. 62. 221. 112. 92. 219. 40. 54. 155. 117. 92. 217. 260 Dreamweaver. 30. 34. 158. 97.

164. 201. 209. 261 Macromedia. 30. 145 learning object repository. 228 Optical tags. 191. 66. 82. 32. 162. 209 pattern recognition. 232. 85. 59. 147. 210 PowerPoint. 156. 219. 129. 202. 102. 273. 82. 231. 151. 221. 119. 175. 89. 194. 287. 242. 32. 152. 193 Projectors. 64. 234. 215. 177. 139. 185. 274. 174. 145. 84. 195. 151. 76. 121. 118. 209. 17. 120. 139. 171. 131. 5. 7. 187. 190. 171. 6. 59. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 101. 62. 31. 192 Networks. 261. 223. 193 Microsoft. 244. 315 Motion Graphics. 164. 163. 241. 218 Metacognition. 177. 148. 171. 2. 158. 192. 176. 143. 260. 45. 145. 90. 223 Rapid e-learning. 200. 160. 222. 151 Quizzes. 42. 78. 247. 108. 268 latent semantic analysis. 10. 162. 205. 330. 99. 186. 241. 111. 145 Learning Objects. 146. 182. 166. 160. 47. 171. 100. 144. 60. 235. 284 Portals. 151. 145. 233. 54. 33. 289. 31. 195. 5. 163. 72. 197. 179. 193. 135. 103. 271. 221. 273. 300. 224. 183 Navigation. 78. 244. 274. 161. 138. 280. 87. 147. 177. 177. 79. 165. 188. 270. 90. 20. 105. 6. 33. 95. 219. 12. 179. 104. 161. 196. 27. 56. 97. 17. 227. 101. 19. 246. 140. 83. 61. 211. 92. 73. 183. 174. 237. 4. 250 Mashups. 241. 172. 159. 186. 13. 175. 161. 139. 136. 45. 151. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 186. 145. 91. 93 Radio. 55. 185. 64. 178. 158. 182. 163. 65. 162. 59. 193. 155. 170. 12. 162. 177. 306. 66. 230. 184. 8. 190. 61. 117. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 187. 5. 222. 134 Proximity tools. 312 learning object model. 290. 28. 176 Personalization. 190. 60. 148. 64. 123. 230. 203. 105. 52. 159. 197 Legacy materials. 47. 152. 65. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 146. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 184. 32. 135. 255 Neural networks. 32 Metadata. 5. 40. 141. 218 M-learning. 112. 85. 65. 262. 174. 115. 171. 47. 154. 7. 314 Meta-search engines. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 100. 62. 254. 294. 177. 6. 147. 245. 201. 28. 73. 59. 58. 175. 158. 161. 128. 80. 86. 309. 323 mapping. 64. 267. 138. 172. 238. 55. 32. 110. 165 Mobile computing. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 57. 156. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 187. 60. 22. 170. 217. 209. 189. 332 Microworlds. 250. 104. 85. 189. 142. 224. 62. 5. 3. 36. 179. 209 Microlearning. 221. 159. 6. 144. 55. 187. 25. 83. 311 Learning Management Systems. 86. 321. 157 Medical applications. 109. 317. 45. 114. 260. 192 Libraries. 221. 158. 250 Pedagogy. 115. 179. 105. 18. 159. 189. 5. 222. 141. 84. 43. 210. 181. 7. 61. 82. 221. 88. 142. 298. 138.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 159. 210 Pervasive computing. 54. 192. 192 Lecturing. 158. 318 Privacy. 65. 27. 164. 125 Ontologies. 189. 166. 151. 244. 230. 72. 31. 161 Podcasting. 311. 234. 243. 178. 230. 59 Presentation tools. 55. 305. 79. 3. 146. 104. 104. 155. 66. 24. 106. 120. 152. 63. 161. 224. 54. 227. 91. 308. 154. 206 Microformats. 259. 20. 254. 199. 254. 38. 198. 173. 89. 44. 107. 273. 52. 63. 24 Museums. 178. 63. 184. 227. 174. 3. 221 Project management. 188. 318. 111. 204. 151. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 318 Location based tools. 3.

199. 266. 187 Smart labels and tags. 244 Tours (online). 6. 260 Telepresence. 331 Wearable computing. 100. 251 Serious games. 12. 15. 113. 152. 143. 230. 10. 76. 174 Virtual reality. 222. 201. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 152. 5. 199. 232 Speech recognition. 10. 76 T-Learning. 55. 224. 221. 212. 250. 259. 66. 62. 261 Shockwave. 134. 236. 97. 228. 215. 81. 48. 264 Social networking. 150. 62. 171. 209. 174. 164. 259. 220. 217. 145. 224. 204. 242. 75. 121. 222 Tag clouds. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 253. 254 Taxonomies. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 160. 45. 327 Videocasting. 38. 32. 206. 33. 47. 226. 158. 59. 5. 81. 188. 49. 98. 33. 237. 127. 43. 142. 252. 67. 138. 252. 275 Vlogs. 24. 2. 169 Streaming video. 167. 255 Single-user wiki. 265. 197. 69. 331 Web conferencing. 244. 120. 255 Turing Test. 233. 221 self-evaluation. 5. 46. 16. 6. 45. 206. 242 Security. 66. 227. 52. 238. 241. 226. 161. 226. 170. 148. 225. 194. 218 Scenarios. 76. 254. 145 Robotics. 47.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 7. 187. 241 Search engines. 63. 225. 26. 65. 190. 256. 151. 187. 158. 51. 9. 123. 115. 209. 145. 122. 275 Translation. 151. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 31. 158. 202. 151. 244 summative assessment. 274 Tests. 193. 214 résumés. 159. 10. 267. 98. 187. 138. 125. 167. 246. 319 Role-playing. 45. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 155 Tagging. 226. 134. 104. 261 Usability. 232. 46. 167. 143. 192 Thin clients. 4. 45. 145 Screencasting. 50. 3. 57. 218 Science. 33. 221 Social bookmarking. 12. 201. 2. 227. 243. 247 Video. 187. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 139. 201. 224 Team management. 62. 222. 84 Telephony. 251. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 155. 224. 245. 7. 155. 231. 88. 65. 72. 76. 147. 120. 189. 244 Tangible computing. 171. 52. 246 Visualization. 5. 196. 160. 195 Virtual learning environments. 137. 302. 219. 231. 134. 169. 217. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 263. 261. 119. 180. 224. 242. 62. 97. 51. 85. 187 Virtual classrooms. 214. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 97. 147. 5. 159. 148. 241 virtual classroom. 69. 273. 225. 228. 260. 109. 241 Television. 63. 213. 106. 165. 268 Tags. 241. 45 Symbology tags. 198. 159. 215. 45 Semantic Web. 128. 226. 230. 60. 228. 264. 203. 216. 241. 27. 226. 120. 157 Simulations. 196. 268 Skypecasting. 19. 63. 183. 218. 145 Repositories. 208. 146. 247. 156 sharable content objects. 202. 61. 281 SCORM. 275. 216. 196. 219. 156. 33. 190. 227. 209. 268. 202. 4. 174. 221. 179. 112. 158. 241 Vodcasting. 255. 3. 273. 154. 200. 119. 114. 145. 60. 244. 117. 241. 176. 12. 205. 215. 212 reusable learning objects. 139. 262. 203. 156. 149. 146. 158. 46. 239. 73. 223. 119. 97. 243. 60. 240. 210. 8. 332 Webcasting. 216. 242. 18. 221. 86. 117 Reusability. 9. 238. 211.

267. Gary. 5. 106. 232. 116. 86. 80. 134. 168. 115. 97. 174. 136. 332 Woodill. 114. 256. 87. 68. 103. 268. 157. 1. 209. 59. 233. 272. 269. 307 Wikipedia. 270 Wikis. 90. 84. 270. 3.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 276 Word. 271. 137. 135. 156. 53. 104. 77. 266. 6. 187 Whiteboards. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 10. 269. 268. 233. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 82. 184.

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