Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

The modern classroom. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Do Not Reproduce 1 . material. “things that make us smart. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. still used in many institutions of higher education. and recess. that lecturing. for example. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. or “reader.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Learning became standardized and linear. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. We tend to forget. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. the raising of hands. and language for communication. as books were scarce.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today.” Starting in the first century AD. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. with rows. the classroom became industrialized. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. But learning technologies have a much longer history. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. Medieval universities followed the same practice. Technologies are any technique. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. is a 2000 year old “technology. or device that extends human abilities.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. fire for warmth and cooking. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. They are. to quote Donald Norman (1993). various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. detentions. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. class periods. With these reforms.

it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. For example. 2 © 2006. memorizing. even if the originator of the words is not present. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. Sadly. changing the practice of teaching. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. When a new technology is introduced. chairman of IBM. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . There are. Eventually. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices.” Similarly. Thomas Watson. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. moving pictures (films). Brandon Hall Research . visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. in fact. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Schools were started to teach accounting. many different ways to learn. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Students in these schools learned by reading. When a new technology first comes into use.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Like all new technologies. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. A third way to learn is by seeing. linear teaching techniques online.” In 1970. and talking machines (phonographs or record players).just the ability to follow an example. and reciting. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. At the same time. in 1876 someone at Western Union. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision.

we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Rather than pages. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. as this is a non-technical guide. However. To realize these advantages. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Do Not Reproduce 3 . sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. 2006). mashups can only be done using computer technology. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. frameworks. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. 2006). AT&T was given what would become the Internet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. it needs to adhere to architectures. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . sometimes referred to as a mashup. and standards. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Rather than pages.

• • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. January.fr/publicatio n.grid.php). see the call for papers in Learning Grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. 4 © 2006. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Brandon Hall Research . 2005. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Number 3. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid.free.

http://sourceforge. http://ltsc. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. http://imsproject. research. http://www. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification.org) has a number of published documents that.org). http://www.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.adlnet.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. and makes extensive use of XML.aicc. At the same time.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.imsglobal. http://purl. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. In particular. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. Major specifications for e-learning. Do Not Reproduce 5 . the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.ieee. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. and education administration.accessgrid. At the same time. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. enabling the search for content.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. interactive learning components.oclc. taken together.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.elframework.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. In Europe. presentation and interactive environments. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).

Rather. “[a] pull economy . When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. Moreover. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. Bollier says. Instead of just providing courses. 2004). The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Instead. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. 2006) has argued.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .” In late 2005. reinforces this theme.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.is based on open. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. In business. They noted that “…in education. Brandon Hall Research . While packaged courses still have a place. 6 © 2006. This is especially true for adult education.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). Instead. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. As Anderson (2004. For example. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.

. March/April 2006. online resources. In the last chapter. Bryan (2006). Because this research report is meant as a reference work. M.com/wired/archive/12.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.ntnu. 12(10). (2005). Web 2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. http://www. I hope you will find it useful. along with selected examples.idi. and Conte. UK. October. New York: Hyperion.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Do Not Reproduce 7 . http://arxiv. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more.. mobile devices. M. Bibliography Abbas. Milan. http://www.. June 2005.org/abs/cs. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. and a bibliography. http://www.. McClatchey. Odeh. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005..pdf Anderson. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid.. and wearable computers.wired.. Chris (2006). is becoming commonplace.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. those learners are now keeping their own records. The Long Tail. (2005). Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).educause. the reader can approach any topic in any order. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. G. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. M. 10/tail. User-created content. From this. Italy. http://www. Ahmad. Bertolazzi. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.amazon. Wales. Five years ago. R.DC/0502051 Alexander. Umer. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. F.html Anderson. 41(2)..asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. Thus. A. R. 2005). Ali. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. F. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Wired Magazine. M. Reggiani. Z. ambient networks. Chris (2004). Cardiff. Zanichelli. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.

E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti.aspeninstitute.a sp Chatarji. http://ewic. Weiss. N.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. http://www..gmu. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. Brandon Hall Research . Chrysostalis.org/celda2005/index.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. http://www.devshed. Athabasca University. and McGinnis (2004). K.pdf Friesen. T.pdf Cerri.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis.pdf Erl. 2002. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. http://www.ca/softeval/report s/R110203. http://www. 4-36. 16. 2004. Porto. March 2002.cscsi. Stefano (2005). 6-8. http://ru6. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. (2002).com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. S. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Online. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www. http://www. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Lausanne. David (2005). Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.cti. 13-16. Madison. M. Montreal. Aug.edu/pdf/ajde.cancore. M. 14-16. Triantafillou. K.. 2. Likothanassis. and Votis.bcs..htm Bollier. Centre for Distance Ed. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.. Upper Saddle River. (1996).. http://cde.amazon. International E-Learning Specifications.. Tsiatsos. Oct. Giotopoulos. R. G. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. of Distance Education 10. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.athabascau. Norm (2006). 2004.ca/protocols_en. and McGreal. 13. N.virtual. Sept. C. Hornig..ICALT 2001.. Nov. 19. Switzerland. V. Dec. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.htm l 8 © 2006.Dev Shed. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. 2001. http://www. American Jrnl. Web Services . Portugal. USA. (2001).iadis. (2002). C. Jagadish (2004).asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. T. WI. Thomas (2004)..pdf Bogonikolos.

and Albert. for the Australian Dept. L.html Kong. http://ewic. April 18. (2005). http://www.. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. and Brown.infoworld. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. January 2005. Sept. MA: Perseus.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc. (2005).pdf Neumann. Sept.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa. (2002).com/paper_pushpull . 2003. of Education and Training. E.bcs. 27 . and Geys..det.200 5.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.gov. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .computer. http://www. Stephen (2004). Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. R.unikarlsruhe..pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . http://www.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1.S. (2005). V. Proceedings.c om/docs/SOA_World. Hao (2003).xml&DOI=10. J. ThoughtWorks White paper.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies. T. 1026-1032. and Borck. J. SCORM and the Learning Grid.xml.ascilite. and Zhang.aifb. Lausanne. and Putland. (2004). International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Switzerland. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. J.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids. W. Erlanger.56 Marshall. Australia.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1. Gregor (2005).bcs. J. Education.au Limited. Infoworld. http://www. (2005).28 April 2004. Working paper. 30.com.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. (2003). F. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. I.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall. J.1109/CIT.pdf He. http://www.johnhagel. Donald (1993).. Luo.org. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. G.pdf Millea. http://www. Perth. http://www.amazon. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. A field guide to software as a service. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. G.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2. 2005.htm Hohpe. http://csdl2. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. C.pdf Norman. 2002 http://ewic. Green.xml. http://www. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Cambridge.act. Stuttgart.html Hockemeyer. and Vossen. D.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel.pdf Knorr. Germany.

. e-portfolios.astd.alt. C. Dublin. http://www. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture.iis. Learning Solutions.ac.com/publications. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.pdf Werkhoven.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publicati ons/ATLAS. Lee.edu. (2003). Berlin: Springer. May 15. J. http://www. J.operitel.acten. Rhonda (2006). Zhou et al. and Weggen.sinica.pdf Woodill. 2005. In W.aspx Yang. 2006. ACTeN E-Content Report No. Reflective learning.informatik.pdf Urdan. T. Klamma. Brandon Hall Research .com/gp/product/18 46283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. M. G.ac. future thinking: digital repositories.. pp. Research report. 193– 205.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. (2006).pdf Spaniol. (2005). Birmingham. M. ICWL 2003. C. and Oliveira.pdf Roberts. Trends in elearning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.alt. S. Harvey.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILT A_white_paper_2005. G. C. W.. http://www. UK. Cook..R. H. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.): Proceedings. Feijen. and Ho. (2000). M. Samuel (2006).. Mashups. http://www.tw/JISE/2005/ 200509_06.rwthaachen. http://www-i5.. (Eds. Library+information Show. Hambrecht and Co. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. V. W. http://www.pdf 10 © 2006. http://www.amazon. April 1. 2006. April 26-27. 9. (2005). and Jarke. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. 911-928. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Pierre. Trinity College. Aalderink. 21. and Wade. Peter (2004).net/uploads/images/4 31/experience_machines. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. R. http://www.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF 5659-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.

Included are related terms. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. Do Not Reproduce 11 . online resources to learn more about each technology. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. selected elearning related examples. and a bibliography for each section.

et al. gestures. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. posture. security. Without the ability to understand emotions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. understand. and to respond to them effectively. 12 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .. or sad. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. SRI Consulting (http://www.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. privacy. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. 2005). then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. understand. keystroke patterns.sricbi.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. 2005).” (Anolli.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. and react to human emotions. in Italy. and react to human emotions. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. confused. facial recognition. emotions. too. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. In online therapy. emotional design. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. For example. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state.

Dr.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.ac.aisb. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states.arizona. 2005.cs.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. bibliographies. with many resources. China.informatik.bham. April 12-15.unitrier. UK.unige.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. October 22-24.bartneck. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe.co. and legality. Access it from: http://www. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Do Not Reproduce 13 .mit. University of Hertfordshire. listing many links to interesting resources. accuracy.org. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.edu/emotion. UK. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.media.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. 2005. are available online: http://www. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. including studies of emotions in computers.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. Affective Computing.de/link/affective_p ortal. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. Check it out at: http://www.nsma. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.” Meet Ditto at: http://www. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.convo.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. Hatfield.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. See the links at: http://emotion.myself-proj.html In Germany. See: http://www. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.

(2005). 2005 http://www.. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Agliati. Balestra. and Merisol. http://www. Nass.doc Hook. 2005. A. Portland. O. P. and Morishima. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. C. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. 2005.dis. Lee. April 2-7.pdf Goren-Bar.sics.sics.html Fallman.sics. M.. Oregon. David (2003). (2005). Brandon Hall Research . Bouraoui. M.sics. O.wired.. (2005). Portland. Isbister.. (2005).pdf Diamond. Oregon. Graziola. December.. CHI 2005 conference. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.. Portland. C.. Realdon.pdf Maldonado.. http://www. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. Issue 11/12. I Like It . Portland.sics. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Confalonieri (2005).pdf Cahour.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. Pianesi.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar. Salembier. Oregon. Rocchi.. Portland. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. D. Brassac. Vescovo. http://www.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. B. F. D.uniroma1.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. H.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye. Yamada. P. J. Vermersch. Nortillaro. http://www.. Joseph (2005). Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. Oregon. and Zancanaro. April 2-7. April 2-7. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. Pachoud. Z.. M. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour... In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah..pdf 14 © 2006. September 13. J. and Laaksolahti.. (2005). CHI 2005. N.. Oregon. J. NJ.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Brave. A. K. The Love Machine: building computers that care. http://www. J. I.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. K. B. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. CHI 2005. Zurloni. Portland.pdf Kaye.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado.com/wired/archive/11.1 2/love. April 2-7. K. L. April 2-7. Nakajima. Iwamura. and Zouinar. Y.it/~lhci/009. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Wired Magazine. CHI 2005 conference. Oregon.stanford.. S. April 2-7. L.. (2005).doc Chateau. http://www. Mantovani. R. and Waterworth. C.... CHI 2005 conference. V. 2005. H. F. M... Erlbaum. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Stock.

Cambridge.ruebenstrunk.pdf Norman. April 2-7.t. 2005.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. T. ACII 2005. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. http://www. M.utokyo. R. 2005. (2005).htm Tao. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Miami. Tan.amazon.elearningreviews. Paper for WEBIST 2005.sics. Helena (2005). J.HTM Steele. Donald A. Regan (2005). Portland. 2002. http://www. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. CHI 2005 conference. Oregon. Portland. http://www. CHI 2005. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. (2005). May 26. OR. Gerd (1998).com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . S. Dec. and Daily. Computing.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.ac. and Picard. 2005. http://www. Affective Springer.pdf Masum. Portland. Berlin: Picard. and Steele. MA: MIT. New York: Basic. April 2-7. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.de/emeocom p/content. (2002). J. http://www. M. CHI 2005. 35(2). and Ishizuka.miv. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Mentis.iste.com/gp/product/3 http://www. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. 22. Beijing. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. China.pdf Ruebenstrunk. E-book http://www. http://www. (2004). Journal of Research on Technology in Education..se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk.sics. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. (2005). Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. S. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis.sics. Rosalind (1997). R. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. October 22-24.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.

Portland. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Oregon. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Birmingham. Ian (1997).doc Wright. Brandon Hall Research . Emotional Agents. April 2-7.Affective Computing Wiberg. Charlotte (2005). CHI 2005 conference.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.sics.ac.bham.pdf 16 © 2006.cs. http://www. Affective Computing vs. 2005.thesis.

avatars. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. autonomous agents. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Second. 1999).. For example.gu. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. see the paper by Far et al. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Dick Stenmark. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears.informatik.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. veracity. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). and many of them can actually learn. benevolence. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. and both may be found in the same program (for example. In this context. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. learning/adaptation. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. First. rationality. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. Fourth. 1999). and. proactive (goal directed). has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Third. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Do Not Reproduce 17 . Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. 2004). personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment.

2005). (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Even though each agent acts independently. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Viswanath. 2004) and are. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Mentor. acting against other teams of agents. not only about environments. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Baldi. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. Massaro et al. Katzlberger. Brandon Hall Research . This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. In such situations. (1998) developed a conversational agent. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. therefore. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. but also about other agents. However. Agents have beliefs. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. 2000). and the students had to continue to teach her. useful in educational simulations. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. 2005. A second agent in the simulation. et al. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. 18 © 2006. Therefore. She made mistakes.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable.

csc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.extempo. (2004): http://www. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent.redwoodelearning. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). See: http://www.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. expert role-players. S. 459462.. go to: http://ldt.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. See the article by Williams et al. & Ebbers. but also about other agents.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.de/bibliography/Ai /agents. http://www.com/ CodeBaby Corp.uka. and expert guides.fsu.org/index. They are available as adaptive coaches.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. A.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.ac.liv. not only about environments. See: http://www.codebaby. Therefore.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. go to: http://ritl. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. For details see: www. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. See a demo at: http://www. Go to: http://www.editlib.org/index.netobjectdays. For details of this research: http://www. Hypermedia. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.isi. Do Not Reproduce 19 .ira. and Telecommunications 2003.editlib.old.stanford.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623. See: http://liinwww. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.

Erfurt.pdf Kao.cfm?fusea ction=Reader..editlib. A. and Palopoli.org/index.org/index. & Kim. (2005). Ali (2002). and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).editlib.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. (2000). Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). (1999).. (Ed.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. & Johnson. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. J. S. 11(3). G. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. G. G. Ng. 306-311).. G.. (2002). Large Complex Systems. W. Koono.pdf Jafari. Educause Quarterly.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. Educause Quarterly. (2005).. 5(7). Johnson. Inter-active Learning Res.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao.. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. C. Germany. J. (2002). L. Sun. Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. VA: AACE.. http://www. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. & Lin. S. 1503-1506. 28(2).pdf Clarebout.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://csdl. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. Norfolk. Elan.educause.. 1353-1356.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. http://www. Jrnl.editlib. No. July. http://www. E. 3.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.editlib. Z. http://www. M. (2002)..edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.educause.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.org/index. Zahia (2004). Y.. B.aace. In Proceedings.. & El-Khouly. 75-80.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.org/index. http://www.Agents Baylor. In Richards. and Shaw. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Hypermedia..pdf Guessoum. W.old. Proceedings. and Tsang. 2005. & Bengu.computer. A. 275-285. http://www. ELearning 2003. L. G.org/newdl/index. 10 (3). 267-286 http://www. (2003). http://www.). Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. Y. e-Learning 2005.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. http://www. S. Paper presented.netobjectdays.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Clarebout.editlib.

M. http://www. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Nashville.. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. ED-MEDIA.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay.pdf Luengo. E-Learning 2003.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation.amazon. P. J. Hershey.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.editlib. Learning by Teaching Agents. R.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). W.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 .org/16948 Leelawong. http://dl.aace. Toulouse. M. S.amazon. 1999. TN. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. 143-162. http://www. Fuhua Oscar (2005).cse.pdf Menczer. http://www. V.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius.K. August. A. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. 4(1). http://cslu.edu/fil/ Padgham. and Ho.pdf Lin. O.teachableagents.aifb.org/index..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. 17(2). 1632. http://www.. In Proceedings.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. Krittaya (2005). Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. New York: John Wiley & Sons.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. of California. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. L. and Stucky. Vanderbilt University. Doctoral Dissertation. and Ferneley. Nashville. www..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vanderbilt University. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. (2003). 16591666. www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research..indiana. http://www.unikarlsruhe. V. Y. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. Beskow.5 .org/index. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. and Winikoff. Sandel.org/index. Daniel.teachableagents..editlib. D. (2004). Doctoral dissertation. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. In Proceedings. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. (2005). Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.de/BIK/vpa/109. Doctoral Dissertation.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. www. IFIP WG12. Thomas (2005).informatics. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. Cohen.ogi. and Cole. Tennessee.editlib. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www. France.pdf Kim.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (2006). U. C. 21-38. E.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro. (1999).

http://scholar. and Higher Education 2004. R.ist. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. 30003002. PA. http://citeseer. Finland. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Peter (1998).pdf Williams. (2004). A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.Agents Perez. http://www. http://www.. J. June 1-4. and Núñeza.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. M. & Madsen.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. Wesley.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.). M. (Ed. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Healthcare.editlib. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. S. (2004).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Doctoral Dissertation. http://dl. & Booth. M. ED-MEDIA 2005.aace. B. K. J. D.org/index. (2005). & Leelawong.. Adebiyi. G. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). 61-65. In Proceedings.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno.org/papers/ 158bis.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Petersburg. G.editlib.). EDMedia 2005. ED-MEDIA 2004. 47-59. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. L. Proceedings. (1999). Atreya.editlib.org/index. In P. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.html Shim. 14(1). K. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. http://www.. Russia.teachableagents... 14151420.org/index. G. http://www. 10 (3). Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.aace. St.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. S. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Doctoral Dissertation.org/newdl/index. R. Ferat (2000). N. (2005).utexas. 1999..vt. (1999).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.. Proceedings.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone..cs.psu. and Solomon.edu/565321.editlib. Kommers & G. In Richards. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. L. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Government. Biswas.lib. Carnegie Mellon University. http://www. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. & Lim. Gilbert. Richards (Eds. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). 194-201.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. 321-333. (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006.org/16968 Sahin. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Pittsburgh. 3169-3176. (2005). http://www. H.

Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. Paper at CLAG2004. 2004. (2004).upc. Michael (2002). http://ca. New York: John Wiley & Sons.wiley. Chun.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 .html Yan.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. April 18-21. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. http://research.ac.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X. Chicago.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

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Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. etc) and how they are interrelated. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. concepts. rather than using a single type of knowledge. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. Do Not Reproduce 30 . While many systems purport to be personalized. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. 2002). They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. objects. Talking Head Tutor vs. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. (2003). and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. gestures. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al.e.

iit.uic.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. including student monitoring.di.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. see: http://lsa. http://lsa.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.cs. and multiagents.. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.” http://www.cs. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “.uregina.cs.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://www. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.colorado. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. (2005a.unito.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.colorado.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.” http://www. Do Not Reproduce 31 . ecommerce.

Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004. http://bach. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.infrature. http://www.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.enel.ucalgary.pdf Oguejiofor et al. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. http://www. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.sinica.unsw.ht ml To achieve their goals.leaonline.cs. Infrature.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. http://www.it. http://ariic.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready. http://quantumsimulations.com/doi/pdf/10.gast.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.” http://www.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.library.” http://ctat.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging. http://www.kicinger.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.cmu.uc3m.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. As a result.iis. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. question answering (QA) techniques.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .pact. 32 © 2006.edu.com/index. and INFOMAP.edu. Brandon Hall Research .

and learning style.com/s10. Stottler Henke Associates. see: http://www.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .edu.it. Do Not Reproduce 33 . taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. skill gaps.cs. and engaging.cmu. http://pact. Task Tutor Toolkit .Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.stottlerhenke. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.pact. challenging.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.cmu. Aurora . Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://www. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. so that these systems become more realistic.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.ke-corp. Inc. and an interactive intelligent tutor.” http://www. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988. preferred cadence.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.usyd. intelligent conflict resolution.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research.virtuelage.gemini.cs. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic . The reality is that.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. http://www. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. Find out more at: http://ctat. without programming.

enel. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. http://aied.teluq. go to: http://aied.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education. 34 © 2006.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. http://www.inf. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.ca/eng/in dex. Brandon Hall Research . For more information.org/2000/fe b2000/ong.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. For more info: http://www2.htm Marvin Minsky.inf.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.uquebec. http://www.org/cfp.ed. Read it at: http://www.licef.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.ed.technologyreview.its2006.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching.ac.autotutor.ac.learningcircuits. The AIED conferences are held every two years.uk/aiedsoc.aaai.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.ucalgary. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. Taiwan.org/AITopics/html/tutor.com/printer _friendly_article. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. See: http://www.masternewmedia.wpi.” Learn more at: http://www. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. Find it at: http://www.cs. China. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. with the next one in 2007.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).

82 Bhatt.pdf Baldoni.. M. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. M. C.. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . B. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Argamon. http://www. Vicari.).. K. & F. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. Artificial Intelligence Review.cmu.ht ml Aleven. and Evens. V. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. M.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read. ITS 2004. Reilly. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. (2005).edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. C.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. S. Eshaa (Ed. Hermann (2002).eurodl. Roll.. R.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04. P. (2002).edu/pubs/pub_4073. McLaren. V. Chicago. S. and Patti.doi.pdf Alkhalifa.di. http://www.pdf Barcena. G.. I. Mostow. http://www. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems.unito. Baroglio. (2004). V. (2004). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. and Penstein Rosé.ac.pdf Aleven.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit. In Proceedings.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.html Barker. In J.wpi. J. Paraguaçu (Eds..sbg. and Koedinger. K. http://lingcog. B.org/10. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. http://dx. Kort. and Douglas. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. 482-487. Brazil. http://www. PA: Idea. E.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . Maceió.Volume I.. T. (2004). http://www. C. R. (2004). http://www.ri. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. and Read. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. (2004).pitt. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. 6(1).amazon.iit.1109/ITCC.) (2006). Lester. Hershey. and Picard. 22: 3–39. http://nth.2005. R.

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pdf 44 © 2006.pdf Wiemer-Hastings. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www.edu/~circsim/document s/fydiss. Maomi (2000). Feng-Jen (2001).pdf Vasilakos. Worchester Polytechnic Institute.editlib.wpi. Cambridge. Jason (2005). (2004). http://www.pdf Ueno.Artificial Intelligence Thornton. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/ etd-011106070108/unrestricted/turnert.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1889 5 Walonoski. http://www.wpi. Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense.wpi.cs. Illinois Institute of Technology. 15 (4). and Pedrycz. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. Peter (2004). http://www.wpi. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.org/index. http://www. Chicago. a second-generation dialog-based tutor. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions..edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.iit. Brandon Hall Research . Doctoral Dissertation. Illinois Institute of Technology. T.pdf Yusko. V.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. MA: MIT Press. Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial. The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor.cs. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning.. Devedzic. http://nth.edu/~circsim/document s/yzdiss. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Chris (2000). Brazil. (2004). Terrence (2005).amazon.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. W. Doctoral Dissertation. VA: AACE. L. Masters Thesis. http://www.ieee.ppt Ureel. (2005). Yujian (2000).edu/Pubs/ETD/Available /etd-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski.cs. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. http://www. Chicago. http://nth.iit. http://lttf. Maceió.edu/~circsim/document s/jaydiss. Illinois Institute of Technology. 299-318. Maceió. Masters Thesis.pdf Yang.iit.pdf Zhou. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. NZ. pp.org/iwalt2000/slides/mao mi_uno. Brazil. Jay A. Palmerston North. Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Chicago. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000). Norfolk. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer. Kinshuk.com/gp/product/02 62700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner.

are already available. online assessment. self-evaluation. When combined into a “360° evaluation. and output. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). for example. We can expect that. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. or performance samples. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. the automated scoring of essays. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. samples. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. and documents for assessors to use. For example. and psychomotor. aptitudes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. computer mediated assessment (CMA). computer based assessment (CBA). Assessment software can generate templates. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. quizzes. quizzes. affective. More sophisticated forms of automated. computer-based assessment tools. or performance samples. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. making it hard to escape assess-ment. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. evaluation. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. eassessment. in the near future. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. rubrics. Do Not Reproduce 45 . once only done by a human assessor. In a business situation. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. quizzes. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. 1956). Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings.

com/news_ performance_analyzer2.redinq. a customizable look and feel. from Resources Management Services in the U. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. skills.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.brainbench. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.K.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Find them at: http://www. abilities. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.rmsuk.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment.info/lear ning/solo. See the site at: http://www. has recently won awards for its performance. and (4) computer marking. However.testcraft. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.xstreamsoftware. For details. and past work behaviors.com The Evaluator.learningandteaching.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. Review it at: http://www.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment.com/redinq/html/inde x. Brandon Hall Research .html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. a completely customizable report engine. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. Try it at: http://nt. and adaptive question branching. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. http://www. personality.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. See: http://www.horizonwimba. Diploma.questionmark. see: http://www.0. 46 © 2006.. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.com/evaluator Testcraft. multilingual support. preview pages for all question types. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools.

flaguide.org/english/index. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).pedagogue. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. http://www.org/ ETS. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 . http://www.” organized by academic discipline.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.respondus. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. See: http://www. See more at: http://www. and self-study.dialang. institutional evaluation. surveys. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. check out the Dialang web site. reporting. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. For information on latent semantic analysis.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays. and adminis-tration features. on its Web site. and services useful for outcomes assessment.vantagelearning.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.operitel.epistema.uc.fasfind.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry. Try it at: http://www. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. see: http://lsa. learning tools.” See their offerings at: http://www.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.com/wwwtools/magazin es. once only done by a human assessor.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. http://www.ets. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.colorado.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.

wlv. Brandon Hall Research . is available from: http://liinwww.au/assessi nglearning/03/online. Check them out at: http://school.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. http://www.” http://www. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.000 different tests from its database.ira.ac.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.cshe.umuc.health.nestafuturelab. http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA. http://www.oir.com/029. Explore the links at: http://www. Obtain a copy at: http://www.unimelb.htm 48 © 2006.uiuc.200 references.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.tasainstitute.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.uk/home.ac.org/research/ reviews/10_01. http://www.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.learnflex. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.heacademy.ac.scit.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.uka. with over 1. with a list of 34 strategies.rmcdenver.com/useguide/as sessme/online.edu.ac.ulster.com/tools/rubric s.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. http://cba.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.com/schrockguid e/assess.economicsnetwork. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. http://www. http://www.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.discovery.thinkinggear.

http://www.iltaonline.pdf Biggs. & Rodríguez. Educational Technology & Society. Online paper. Carro. Freire. (2004). and Hirschman. M.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. London: Paladin. (2005). McNamara. (2001). (1982).com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.info/journals/8_3/6..quintcareers.. B.. (2001). http://www.3 Bateson. D.htm#2. Pérez. 8 (3).. and Collis. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. R. http://www.html Bibliography Alfonseca.info/learn ing/solo.ifets. J. New York: Academic Press. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23..amazon. P.. G. http://www.tcet. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. A. http://www. T. T. Louis. James (2005).learningandteaching. S. http://www. http://www. http://www.htm Atkinson. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. A.pdf Atherton. Online paper.amazon.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www. J. K.iltaonline.amazon.ict4lt. Missouri.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Ortigosa. St. New York: McKay.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. M. and O'Hagan. 53-65. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. L.unt. Iwashita. N.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.com/career_asse ssment. (1956).. Gregory (1973).pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . S.org/en/en_mod41.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. and Davies. E. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.

Rethink testing for future success. Jill. IEEE Intelligent Systems. Inouye. Kaplan (Ed. June 22. Jill.htm 50 © 2006. Harabagiu and F.ht m.. J. and Chodorow. Mexico. Shermis and J. Kevin (2003). (1989). & Olsen. In R. 2005. and Knight. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.). Jill C. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. B.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. (2003). http://www. Burstein (Eds. D. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. Martin. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. www.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. How to Assess Authentic Learning.amazon. New York: Oxford. Hillsdale. & Leacock.computer. In M. Ciravegna (Eds. J. L. Educational Measurement. Acapulco. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. eSchool News.amazon. In the R. (2003). Shermis and J. C. Linn (Ed. (1997).) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Marcu.. (2003). http://www. K.. http://llt. Jill.assess. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.com/Books/b39739. Burstein.. C. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Assessment Tools Brown J. Burstein. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Arlington Heights. NY: Macmillan. August 2003.eschoolnews. and Marcu. Brandon Hall Research .assess.com/Books/b39739. V.msu. (2002).) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Hillsdale.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Robert (2005). New York.pdf. Daniel. 1. Burstein (Eds. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Chodorow. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.org/intelligent/archives. IL: Skylight. 3rd Edition. http://www. In S.ets. Kay (1999). CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. M.htm Burstein.amazon. http://www.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein.com/news/sho wStoryts. In M. Daniel.

org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610.htm Cebrian. St. C. Nathan. Board on Testing and Assessment. n. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. D. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.au/worldcall/str5. Millard. & Landauer.html Chalhoub-Deville. (2004). (1999). Chalhoub-Deville. http://llt. College Composition and Communication Online. 2: 77-93. W. (2001). (2001).msu.iltaonline. D. H. and Grellett. March 9. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.ecs. B. Foltz.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. http://wwwpsych. 5.) (1999). Writing assessment: a position statement.nmsu. M. The Student Assessment Handbook. C. P.html Do Not Reproduce 51 .pdf Dunkel P. S.. E.edu. M..soton. http://www. http://www. http://www. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Online newsletter. and Sclater..html Davies. L. In Proceedings.hlc. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". May. v. T. and Parry. http://eprints. (Ed. http://www. Language testing and technology: past and future.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. P.Proceedings from a Workshop. Laham. 2. http://www. Micheline.msu. W. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.ac.edu.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). (1998).edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. Language Learning & Technology 2. O’Reilly.doc.amazon. Louis. EdMedia '99. (2005). National Research Council. N. Y.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. Micheline.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002).unimelb. London: Falmer. Loughborough. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.. Language Learning and Technology.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Howard.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. (1999). www. K. University of Tasmania.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99.utas.nap.. http://llt.. Online newsletter.ncte. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Morgan. Davis. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. (2004).

International Journal on E-Learning. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. v.edu/papers/dp1. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Weller. Potenza. Compiegne.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. 4. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. Online paper. V. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 5. C.com/pdf/Pap erTests.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. May. http://www. H. PA: Information Science. Language Learning and Technology. (1999). 259284. (Eds. http://llt.medianet.. Hillsdale. Seven technologies for assessment.) (2002). M. M. D. Gardner. (Eds. http://www..pdf Landauer. http://www. J. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.amazon. T. W. W. http://mason. and Malabonga.htm. http://www.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones..colorado. http://www. Howell. (2002).msu.proexam. K.msu.pdf MacDonlad. Discourse Processes. & Laham. Robert.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.html Khan.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.LSAi ntro. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. No. M.kent. (2005). and Ward.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault.. Howard (1993). and Ma. http://www. May.) (2005). (1998). Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Y. R (2002). 25.amazon.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . N. Fremer. http://lsa.pd f Kenyon. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Foltz. http://llt.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. Hardas.. J. Language Learning and Technology. Patrick (2000). D.. S. France. (2001). and Watt. 5(2).pdf Hricko..edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.Hershey. & Mason.softwaresecure. n. (2001). Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Lawrence. New York: Basic Books.html. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies.amazon. J. and Howell. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. 2.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. M. P.gmu.

(2006). M. Journal of Technol.. Graham. (2000).com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. PA: Information Science. http://www. DC: U. and Assessment. R. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. G. Mahwah. Information Science Publishing. and Gifford.) (2000). McArthur. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. B. Reports from the Institute of Education. Handbook of writing research. Howard. http://nces. S. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. (1979). A.) (2005). Burstein. Fitzgerald. Government.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. New York. and Skinner. Washington. Operitel white paper. http://www.edu/cgi/viewconten t. & J. http://escholarship. (Eds. http://eric. pp. pdf Weiner. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hershey. 4(6).amazon. & Leacock. NY: Guilford Press. http://www. Problem Solving. University of Gothenburg.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. and Hricko.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. http://www. K. Howell. National Center for Education Statistics. D. (2005).bc... M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. Measurement and Evaluations. (2006). In C. http://www. C.amazon. and Writing. Self.ed. Learning. Online Assessment. M.com Do Not Reproduce 53 . J. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.S.amazon.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. S.amazon. Tim (2006).gov/pubs2000/2000195.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise.ed. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. 403-416. D.operitel. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. (Ed.

Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. One audio application of interest to educators. (i. is podcasting. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. or by “streaming. while it is playing. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.5 megabytes. which is gaining in popularity. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. According to Crofts et al. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings.. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . (2005). podcasting. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). depending on the file size). being the main form of communication in preliterate societies.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Brandon Hall Research . compared with even a few years ago.e. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. the rest of the file has time to arrive. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. For example. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences.

http://sourceforge.scientificcomputing. http://www.com/blogs/doug/index. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. You can’t add your own notes. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. in part. Provides another channel for material review. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file.apple. such as those for iPods.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. http://www.envision. http://www. Microsoft Windows.purdue. Assists non-native speakers.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. and other operating systems. Do Not Reproduce 55 . open source software for recording and editing sounds. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. http://www. Provides feedback to learners.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. http://www.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. to personalized media). helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners.thepodcastnetwork.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. (i. GNU/Linux.rds.e. This frag-mentation is being fueled..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. It is available to download for Mac OS X.

recording.48. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. sound editing.com/lipsync/in dex. Audio and video software. http://www.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.masternewmedia. http://epnweb.audiotoolsdirect. Brandon Hall Research .automaticsync. DJ mixing.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. http://64. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. http://www. enhancing. tools. including software to record and play podcasts. 56 © 2006.com/AudioTools/in dex. and utilities for conversion.avsmedia. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. freeware. playback. go to: http://www. CD audio extraction. http://recap. http://www. shareware. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. phrases. http://www. http://www.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. or sentences from audio Web sites.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. including podcasting.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.edupodder.htm RECAP Ltd.podcasting-tools.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. and broadcasting are all found on this site.71.com.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. is podcasting.ltd.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.co.ibritt. which is gaining in popularity. http://www. http://www.elearningcentre.htm For a list of podcasting tools.com/resources/dc_medi a.uk/podcasting/index.

com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Luigi (2005)..org/3455 Girvan.scientificcomputing. Dilley. 10(9). July 2005.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.unl.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.adobe. Dion Cory (1999).. http://www. Richards (Ed.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. September.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.com/home.htm Jobbings.bias-inc. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. J.html Bibliography Buhman.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. http://digitalcommons.aace.editlib. May 20.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.html Canali De Rossi.org/index. 2005. and Swenson. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. P. (2005). Healthcare.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.multitrackstudio. First Monday. April 2005. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. and Williams. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. University of Nebraska. S. Doctoral Dissertation. VA: AACE. http://www.com/products/audition/ main. Retsema. 417-419). http://recap. Government. A.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.. Sound Sense. L. http://dl. 45-50. Brenda (2001). Scientific Computing World.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts.masternewmedia. http://www. In G.audiolink. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.cakewalk.html Curtis. http://www. Fox.sonicfoundry. B. M. Dave (2005).ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 .ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). Ray (2005). http://firstmonday.uk/articles/podguide. Robin Good’s Blog. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. Chesapeake.ltd. (2003).

White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. http://edmarketing. Podcasts.learningcircuits. and Lomas. N. http://www.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Brandon Hall Research .Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. June 2005. Learning Circuits.apple.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng.pdf Noakes. C. Peter (2005). http://www.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Podcasting and Vodcasting.educause. Eva (2005). (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.

As well. Design. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.microsoft. Do Not Reproduce 59 .com/publications/emerging/emerging. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.brandonhall. and. 2005). Implementation. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. shtml). The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. rapid e-learning. either directly or with third party tools. content development. simulations.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. in the end. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. (For details. please see http://www. Development. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. Further. either directly or with third party tools. Further. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. In this vein. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. and Evaluation) processes. see: http://www. No authoring tool does everything. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content.

htm ActiveSlide.adobe. and images and turn them into 3-D training.Designer’s Edge.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia.Media – Import 3-D Models.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.accordent.articulateglobal.acroservices.com Agile . Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.thinkingcap. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint. http://www.info/ Allen Communications .com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain.com Anark . video. and marketing applications. http://www. http://www.activeslide. video.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. visualization.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. XML.Thinkcap Studio .anark.com/presenter. go to: http://www. http://www. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://www. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.allencomm.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.Capture Station 2. music. www. Do Not Reproduce 60 .com/products/ Articulate . http://www.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com/ Acroservices .

hotspots. rich text. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.com/power point-presentations-index.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. http://www. http://www.atlanticlink. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.dynamicpowertrainer. http://www. http://www.com/ Business Performance Technology .Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.com/ Counterpoint .Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . Do Not Reproduce 61 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link .copycatsoftware.co.turbodemo. CD Rom.Content Point .exe files.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.shtml Dynamic Media .php e2train . and PowerPoint slides. pop-up messages. http://presentation. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.bridge-pt.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. http://www. Flash. audio.com/inde x.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www.com/product s/Pro.co.e2train. DVD-video.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming. .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.uk/contentpoint. http://www.com/eng/index.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. video.lersus. http://www. Integrates various media. http://www.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. pointers.digitalworkshop. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.htm Composica . such as the following: Web. buttons.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.htm Bernard D&G .com/in dex_eng. Builds quizzes.Composica Enterprise . and animation. http://www. http://www.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.ht m Brainshark Inc.ilessons.composica.elearningpowertools.brainshark. video.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop . stand alone .

62 © 2006. http://www. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.com/ka. Import rich media and customize graphics.com/index.com No authoring tool does everything. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. http://www. http://www. without programming knowledge.gen21. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. and installation files.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . in the end. http://www. and.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. Brandon Hall Research .eclipsys.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools. graphics.elementk. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.eedo. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .com/Solutions/Elear ning. http://www.elicitus. HTML courses.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www. http://www.com/products/forceten.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.com/ Hunter Stone .horizonwimba.epistema. http://www. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation . Post the characters on any Web site. http://www.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. html E-Learning Consulting .sculptoris. http://www.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. http://www.com Element K .experiencebuilders.hunterstone.e-learningconsulting.com Imaira Digital Media .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.

Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media.com/home/home. Do Not Reproduce 63 .LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.ipsinc.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.com/ Information Transfer .com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.de/ Impatica . http://www.lecturnity.uk/ INTEC .com/ Integrated Performance Systems . http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.intecllc.knowledgequest.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. Built-in testing engine.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen.knowledgeplanet.js p Knowledge Planet . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.EasyProf .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG . http://www. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.Used to create presentations without programming skills.com/flashh ome.com/pro dserv.ie/software/publisher. http://www. http://www.pdf Intuition .asp Knowledge Quest . audio.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .easyprof. with no programming and no plugins. Word.impatica.seminar. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www. http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. combining multimedia content like video.WTDS-Web Training Development System . Has its own built-in learning management system.intuition. centralized knowledge base.elearninginabox.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.co. shtml Itaca .knowledgextensions.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.knowledgepresenter.

com .learn.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.mohive.com/tbt/dac/index.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.instant-demo. http://www.mckinnonmulherin. Brandon Hall Research .com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. course publisher.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.com/ Percepsys .asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .htm MediaMaker . http://www. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. http://www.co.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.mindonsite.customcourse. with a built-in learning management system. 64 © 2006.com MyKnowledgeMap .percepsys.com/ OPTX International .ch/eLearning/EN /index. Ready-made button and navigation aids. and course player all in one software package. http://www.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.com/ NetPlay Software .LEARNERLand – Text.maxit.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. and other online presentations for play back to students. Works with SAP Learning Solution.com/learncenter.learnerland.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.screenwatch.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. http://www. graphics. http://www.ph p MindOnSite .com/coursegen. http://www. PowerPoint slides. http://www. .Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. http://www.com/index.uk/ MindIQ . http://www.mindiq.Authoring Tools Learn.maxit. http://www.

and assessments. Courses can be posted. http://www. http://www. http://www.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. http://nuvvo. without knowing code. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.or SCORMcompliant. http://www.Publisher Professional .rapidintake. popups.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.net/ PointeCast . either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. and Flash.com/sensasol ution.sensalearning. customizable flashcards.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. http://www.net ReadyGo .readygo. image hotspot activities. matching games.E-Learning Objects .shtml Reusable Objects .cfm Serco (technical) .htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games. GIFs.respondus. JPEGs.softchalk. http://www.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. Audio.Nuvvo . Microsoft PowerPoint. http://www. http://www.htm Suddenly Smart . When content is developed. image labeling. http://www. crosswords.pointecast.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems.podia.teknical. a customizable.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.com/Products/elear ning_objects.com Respondus .scribestudio.podiaOnDemand .reusableobjects.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 65 .Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. http://www. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.qarbon.com/ Qarbon .com/products/stud ymate. http://www.com Rapid Intake .com/ Scribe Studio .com/ Savvica .suddenlysmart. interactive Flash presentations and online training.In minutes.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.

and wizards.php?from=menu SumTotal . Brandon Hall Research .php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. content conversion.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.westcliffdata. audio.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author .de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start. video.syberworks. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.com/learn_assistant . http://www.com/learn_assistant .A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.asp TrainVision . http://www.toolbook. http://www. and highly interactive e-learning content.trainvision. http://workforceconnections. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.lectora.Authoring Tools SumTotal .com/ US Government .gov/ Webex .com/services/webpresentation-svc. htm Techsmith .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. http://www.funeducation. http://www.teds.toolbook. templates. http://www. CD.dol. French. or Spanish.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.2conformant objects and assessments.com/Technology.com/product_sa. http://www. http://www. http://www.time4you.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. images. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.co. and rapid simulation.com/camtasia.uk/index.Presentation Studio . kiosks. 66 © 2006.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. or Network.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. and text.com/products/lc.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.techsmith.php?from=menu SyberWorks .webex. http://www.asp TEDS .html Westcliff – SCObuilder.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.htm time4you GmbH . http://www.

xplana.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.. (2005).nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.amazon. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. Melia.bloki. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA). C.pdf Murray. http://www. Montreal. Lin (2005). and host online discussions. http://www.cs. C. Do Not Reproduce 67 . The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. S. and Brusilovsky. Healthcare.pdf Ramp.org/index. (2005). June 2005. http://www.. Illinois. http://www.xstreamsoftware. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. P. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. interactive and intelligent educational software. http://www.editlib. S.. Doctoral Dissertation.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool.com/products/products _xwb. AACE. Evanston.tue.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. E. publish blogs.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. McMullen. www. See: http://www. and Pahl. October 24-28. www. M. E.win.com/downloa d_rb40eval.oswego. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.htm Zapatec . Berlin: Springer.. L. and Ainsworth. Canada. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. De Bra.oswego. (2003).com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. P. Government. right in their browser with no additional software required. T. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. Vancouver.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana .brandonhall. 2005. (2005). D. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. BC. http://www.cs. and Riesbeck. Northwestern University. Blessing.

http://www.htm Woodill. http://www. Learning Circuits. Reuben (2005). Nov. June 2005. Another new paradigm for instructional design.edu/~paws/publicatio ns. The myth about tools.brandonhall.. Reuben (2004).org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Masters Thesis. Eindhoven.com/publications/emerging/emerging. 2004. http://www. Gary (2005).htm Tozman. http://www2. E. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Brandon Hall Research . W. Learning Circuits.pitt. shtml 68 © 2006. A. Technical Univ.learningcircuits.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. Sunnyvale. (2005).learningcircuits.Authoring Tools Ramp. CA: Brandon Hall Research. NL.sis. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.htm Tozman.

games. In the context of elearning. and generally simulates human activity.” Maldonado et al. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. In the area of psychotherapy. the avatar may represent an actual human being. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. for example.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. Do Not Reproduce 69 . Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. in the broadest sense.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. but in e-learning. In some situations. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. especially in gamebased learning activities. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. Similarly. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.

See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.typepad. In the toolkit. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. http://www.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. in cooperation with a number of groups. See: http://www.co.html Online Resources In Europe.co.redwoodelearning. http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. http://www. See them in action at: http://www.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. http://blogoehlert.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.” which are avatars that teach. users are represent-ed as avatars.oddcast. offering a large number of supportive functions.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.codebaby.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. Try them at: http://www. modular application.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.sculptoris. Brandon Hall Research .exodus. http://www.daden.knowledgeenvironments.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. http://www.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.tmmy.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio. Inc.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.telsim. 70 © 2006.vcom3d.

ac.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 . Ahad. D. H.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255.W. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. J. In T. (2004).stanford.naccq. C. http://www.. M. H. A. Nexus Media. Lee. B. S. Iwamura. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. 2005.... K.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. Koschmann..com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. http://isnm.pdf Jung. R. S. 25.elearningguild. Y.. and Weber. New Zealand. Chan (Eds. www. Nass. Nakajima.. (2005). Suthers. Aug. Brave.pdf Maldonado. Yamada. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 ..Training Education & Education International Conference. and Nodder. Raj (2003). Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. eLearning Developers’ Journal. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. and T.. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. and Morishima.pdf Seth. www.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado. C. 2003.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. (2005).

blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. Blogs are used for communication. Few. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. if any. video blogging. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. who wrote. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. Brandon Hall Research .” As well. education. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Similarly. as the following examples show. However. For teachers. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. in a note of caution. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. 72 © 2006. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. or they can be open to the general public. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.” The Catalyst Group. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. Nevertheless. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. Clyde adds. screencasting. A form of online publishing. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing.

http://www. with a wide range of writing styles. if they have subscribed to the blog. an applications company. President of an instructional design firm.g.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.cramersweeney. It’s found at: http://www. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.html http://radio. http://www.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3. is a great resource. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). One attempt to change this is called structured blogging.2megapixel blogging phone. http://www. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.us/archives/026 753. When someone the user knows arrives. see: http://structuredblogging. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.ca/gems/matrix2 . These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. His blog.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Canada. Do Not Reproduce 73 . Most blog writing is unstructured.com/ Jenna Sweeny.elearnspace.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL. http://www.edtechpost.com/spg.com/wordpress/ http://informl.internettime. In this approach. Find it at: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.sonyericsson.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space.blogburst. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. elearnspace.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg. movie reviews look different than recipes. http://www.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.weblogs.weblogs.org/ http://carapace. For more information.wavemarket. other than simple word searching.

Teresa A.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. http://www. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.anecdote.71.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. http://www.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog. there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.google.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.org/socialstudies/ blogs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies. including educational blogging. In March 2006.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.48. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.blogcatalog.metaxucafe.elearningcentre.pdf 74 © 2006.com/index.essdack. Get the guide at: http://www. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www. View them at: http://video. check out this site: http://www3.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent. Find her work at: http://64.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.postgenomic. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. Brandon Hall Research . a librarian.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse. http://blogpulse.com.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.blogspot. “blogs are cool. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.co.pewinternet. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.

eweek.teachesme. Robin Good Blog. September/October. A. 14-26. Michael (2005).pewinternet.educause.masternewmedia.htm Catalyst Group (2005).pdf A form of online publishing. FreePint Newsletter. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes.com Bibliography Bergman.everyhuman. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. July 14.masternewmedia. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. http://www.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.asp Lenhart.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. July 19. S. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.mkbergman. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community.ca/cgibin/page.com/news/sho wStoryts. March 24. 1837604. Master’s Thesis. www. http://www. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/10171. Laurel (2005).com/work/theses8. Panelists: blogs are changing education. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. Enterprise blogging. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique.catalystgroupdesign. 39(5). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.lo w.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes.downes.waypath. Blogs: a global conversation.eschoolnews. Oct. September 2005. New York.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. Educational Blogging.com/article2/0.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. Sept.pdf Pierce.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2004). EduBlog Insights. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. and Fox.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report.com/issues/130105 .fasfind. http://www. 5. 2006. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. or they can be open to the general public. go to: http://m. David (2005). 2006. January 13. eSchool News Online. (2006). http://www. AI3 White Paper.asp Davis.174. Dennis (2006). Luigi (2005).pdf Clyde.12.1895. 29.htm#feature Coursey.freepint. Stephen (2004).com. July 11. Ways to use Weblogs in education. Do Not Reproduce 75 . No. Pew Internet and American Life Project. May 16. 2005.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge. http://www. http://anne2.pdf Canali De Rossi. Syracuse University. James (2005). eWeek. http://www. Syracuse. http://www. EDUCAUSE Review.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006. Anne (2004). http://www. http://www.00. Robin Good Blog.

a browser that has been around for a long time. Netscape.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). (http://www.mozilla. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out.mozilla. http://www. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. which owned the rights to Netscape.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. search engines. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. or at least their influence is decreasing. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser.flock. Webtops Description For many.mozilla.omnigroup. http://www. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). where many applications interact with each other automatically. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. (http://www. For example. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.opera. Like all technology innovation curves.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. Brandon Hall Research . America Online.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. bookmarking. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. and “themes. http://www. has a small following. the defeat of the Netscape browser. Flock was launched in October 2005. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. 2001). Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www. 76 © 2006. blogs. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. thin clients. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. Internet Explorer. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. while Opera. and photo sharing. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.activeworlds.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing.com/firefox/).

No.00. Boulder.zdnet.washingtonpost. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.cnn. Aug. Oct. (2002). http://www. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2. Malik.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.typepad. 742. 2005.com/desi gn/browsers_list. William Horton Consulting.php3 Bibliography Cox.wikipedia.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. W.networkworld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers.typepad. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.wikipedia. Opera Browser. across several articles.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.tidbits.bestdegree.com.0: The Powerful Web Browser. http://money. 21.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. Still Perfecting its Pitch.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert.evolt. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en. Jan.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser. ZDNet Australia. Renai (2005). http://db.html http://blogoehlert. O. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. http://www.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006.0. called “Webtops.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. Brandon Hall Research . TidBits. Michael (2006). E.com/getbits. 2002.webdevelopersnotes. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’.39218173. 29.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. and Horton. CO.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.pdf LeMay. Network World. 2004. May 16.com. 16.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o. M. 2006.2000061733. Adam (2004). July 30.html Engst. http://www. OmniWeb 5. WashingtonPost. CNN Money. K. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management.com. http://www.wikipedia. John (2001).. 2001. http://www.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0. and Copeland.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p.

management. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. Brandon Hall Research . classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. 2006. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. integrated with other types of learning technologies. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. or clickers. However. classroom communication systems. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. clickers. increasing their motivation to learn. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. costs can be an issue. display. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. giving almost instant feedback. 78 © 2006. Beatty. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. The use of clickers has several advantages. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. The devices keep students alert and involved. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer.

the costs and headaches multiply.” http://www. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. http://www.einstruction.smartroom.com/cps/index.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs.physics.gtcocalcomp.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www. http://umperg.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. http://www. corporate.h-itt. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. higher education. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.com/index. http://www.optiontechnologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.com/index. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.com/products_int erwrite.com/Default.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. http://www.” In spite of the costs.pearsoned. Do Not Reproduce 79 . and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. http://www.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.umass.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.learnstar. training the faculty member to use the software. http://www.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.qwizdom.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. and military settings. http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.pearsonncs.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.com.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.

cua.pdf Cassidy. (2003). including material on the use of classroom response systems.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002.itee. 3. Melbourne.utexas.uq. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. Australia. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://www. and Lederman.aclearn.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.educause. ELearning Dialogue.jmu.com/news_issue. Tom (2004). 2006. NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns. Volume 2004. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Brandon Hall Research .Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.edu/articleprinter1.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. No. http://www. 41(5). R.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. Upper Saddle River.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. The Physics Teacher.active-learning-site. http://www.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS.cisat.utexas. integrated with other types of learning technologies. http://www.pdf Mazur.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty.elearning.ubc. Ian (2004). http://www. 2004. https://sharepoint. Eric (1997).com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. 80 © 2006.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. http://www. Inside CUA. Feb. Research Bulletin. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Anne (2006). 272-275. Q.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. 3.pdf Burnstein.campustechnology.edu.net/display. March 3. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. http://www. July 7. http://inside. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference. Educause Learning Initiative.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. many respond.. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. organization. it requires skill and experience.g. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. Do Not Reproduce 81 .g. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository.. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. social bookmarking. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. e. evaluation. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. reduction. and collaborating.. The Institute for the Future. clarification.g. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. doing. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. and consensus building. through brainstorming).

and bookmarks. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. Presence (see who’s online). and information technology adoption. jot down notes.teamspace.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . contacts. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.com/services/faq_basi cs. http://www. and communication. 82 © 2006. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.bluetie.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. voice and data collaboration. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. calendar. with templates and workflows for product development.com/virtualoffice/index. intellectual property management.avecomm.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.w3. expert location. and upload photos. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.backpackit.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.html?ad-main Annotea .org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .inteam.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . collaborate. http://www. organize. http://www. http://www.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. http://www.bantu. collaborative file management. and instant messaging. http://www.brightidea.com/ Blenks – In-team .advancedreality.com There are many different ways to collaborate.zoho. share files. http://www.com/product s/index.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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25.webasyst.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . and e-mails.com/company/news/pres s/2005. set user permissions.brevient. stimulates idea generation.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . project.tomoye.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 .axista. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. documents. FTP server.Instant setup. affordable. files.opmcreator.projectdox. interact. calendars.com/project.tacit. and share.Intuitive project management software for work teams.webcrossing.writely.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. Works with Microsoft Project. Share multiple projects with multiple users.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and other business communications.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. http://www. http://groups. e-mail server. newsgroup server. feedback. connects peers. http://www.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . http://www.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . and share documents. discussions. http://www. http://www. assign tasks. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www.nexprise. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www.onproject. scaleable.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. http://www. and business relationships.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www.Processes email. XML-RPC server. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . simple. online management for projects of any size and scope. http://www. and data into a single storage area. Use it out of the box. and more.yahoo. or use it to build a Web application. expertise.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/ onProject – myonProject .04.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. chat server. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. http://www.

http://www. data. content button. shared desktop.hp. identify and resolve potential problems. http://education. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.elluminate. form to submit questions.Web event calendaring. annotation tools.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/index.peoplecube.photoninfotech.nagarro.Projistics . http://www. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. scheduling solutions.HP Virtual Classroom . print icon. Brandon Hall Research . custom stamps.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. navigation. integrated content management system. applaud and meter. http://www.0 .Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products. and collaboration to timesheet management. private whiteboards for each participant. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006. invoicing. and human performance management applications. http://www. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.caucus. project planning. and text chat. http://www.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . visual. private/group chat. whiteboard pages. and Web pages. and save to disk icon. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .teamdynamix. and communicate with their project teams.project-open. project tracking. shared whiteboard and presentation.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. breakout rooms.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. attendee list. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work." virtual collaboration.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . content.Features include Hands up. URL sharing. video.com Nagarro . Access to the tool is also given to clients. review button.In-house tool developed to assist in project management.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. exit and help.com/ HP .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. and payments. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. http://www.saba.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.

and meetings.intralinks. http://www. Features include shared documents.batipi. and collaboration features. e-mail invites. and Webconferencing specialists.communiqueconferencing.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. office hours. and phone use. and content display. synchronous online lectures. meeting management. session reports.Delivers unlimited voice. http://www.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . Webcasts. and by whom.com /internet_conferencing. and more. http://www. For example.glance.interwise. virtual office hours. http://www. http://www.0 . virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. sales presentations.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .mixmeeting.genesys. application sharing. http://www. Allows holding live.adobe.elluminate. instant messaging.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities.horizonwimba. video.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. online classes. http://www. video.net/site/getglance/ex amples. and videoconferencing. Record classes or Webcasts. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. learning. how often.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . http://www. http://www. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. and Web conferencing with WebEx. and collaborative content-building sessions.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . Web.com/ Intralinks . http://www. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.Synchronous Webconferencing software.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 . http://www.convenos.A secure. guest lectures.

Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. Multilingual. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . http://www. attendee lists. and a change presenter ability. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.com/ Linktivity Division. http://www.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . http://www. keyboard and voice chat.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. hand raising. record and playback. pre-recorded broadcasts. teleconferencing.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. remote control. desktop sharing.asp Meeting One – Click&Share. and desktop videoconferencing services. the Internet.com/website2/even ts_imc.Web and audio conferencing services. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.liveoffice. toll-free conference calling. http://www.netspoke. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. instant messaging. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. online seminars.linktivity. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. annotations. audio.com/action.telnetz. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. Brandon Hall Research .raindance.com/rndc/services /services. transparency tools. notes. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. polling and quizzes.Collaboration Tools iVocalize . or an entire desktop. including Web conferencing. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .ivocalize.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .radvision. http://www.asp 92 © 2006. and real-time videoconferencing.meetingone. broadcasts files. http://www. any application.LiveOffice provides Web-based. http://www.To support large deployments. e-learning classrooms.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .com/bridgepoint. live demos. and into the enterprise.

teleconferencing.edufolio. show rich multimedia content and documents. surveys. http://www. http://www. Requires only a browser and a phone.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. share other applications. http://www. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. e-learning. http://www. Japan on July 13-14. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities. text messaging.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. http://carbon. http://www. Webinars.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. remote support. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. tour Web sites.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . publishing. Solutions include Web meetings. discussion forums. Web conferencing. present PowerPoint slideshows.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.webtrain.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. and document collaboration. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. http://www.collabtech. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.com/home/s_vmps.vodium.Powers online meetings.cudenver. 2006.ctcevents. and moderation of Webcasts. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.webex.voxwire.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .wave3software. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. set up labs and conduct quizzes. and system management.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 .com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . send text messages. The suite manages the creation. or meeting. course. editing. conference calling.

41(2). Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.htm Mitre Corporation. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. also has a great list of collaboration tools. http://www.globalschoolnet.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. March/April 2006.usabilityfirst. Sign up for free at: http://www.educause. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.athabascau.com/View.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.com/webconf/works paces.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006.1 Bibliography Alexander. Brandon Hall Research .org/collab/in dex. http://www.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.kolabora.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. http://www.org/index.com/groupware/ index.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults. http://www. http://www.1:100250.thinkofit. communities. Bryan (2006). Web 2. scientific. http://cde.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.” http://www.collaborationloop.org/tools.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.mitre.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. http://www.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. http://collaboration. http://www. also known as “groupware.springerlink.criticalmethods.writely.

Nov. Shadbolt. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Models of collaboration. http://www.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration. Buckingham Shum. K. S. (2004). Nov. Fred (2002).. http://eprints.html Canali De Rossi.. M. Robin Good Blog. May 2. 4.ac. (2004). J. Creating an eCommunity.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. J. 3. http://www.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies. Luigi (2004a). Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. Luigi (2005). June 22. De Roure.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. J..htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. and Coleman. M.pdf Bonk. Bill (2004)..masternewmedia. A.com/writings. Robin Good Blog. http://www. Robin Good Blog. CMS Watch.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. Page.htm Canali De Rossi. January 21.. S. Luigi (2003b). Findlay. Proceedings.N.masternewmedia.cfm/files/pa per_12386. http://www. and Tate. June 30.. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Matthew (2004). June 5. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Collaborative Strategies. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Robin Good Blog. Eisenstadt.htm Canali De Rossi..cmswatch. 2003. D. Collaboration First. T. A.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts.diglib. R.soton. 2565-2569. Chief Learning Officer.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03.masternewmedia. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. http://www.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . http://www. Maceió.masternewmedia.htm Butler. Michaelides. Brazil.com/Feature/109 Elliot.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Curtis (2002). Potter.uk/12081/ Beshears. Luigi (2003a).ecs. and Forster. Komzak. http://www. http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. D. 2003. Luigi (2004b).editlib. 2002.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Q2Learning White Paper.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. Live ELearning.htm Canali De Rossi... Dalton. http://www.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. September. (2003). D. ChenBurger. 2004. http://www.masternewmedia. Then Knowledge Management.clomedia.org/index.htm# Clapp. N. A. J. Fitzgerald. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.collaborate. Robin Good Blog.bruck. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). 2002. Sept..

C. Soren (2002).cqu. A. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://ifets.html Institute for the Future (2005). and Miller. D.. 1(2). A. I.html Kreijns.. D. M..ieee.pdf Strijbos.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. (2002). D. and Jochems. http://cde.Collaboration Tools Elliott. 827-829).com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. Willis. (Eds. J. http://wscg. R. and Thomas.amazon. Nov. Norwell.) (2003).au/include/getdoc... K.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. J. Gibson.ieee. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. August 2002.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (2005).org/2002/au g2002/kaplan. http://www. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. and Martens.) (2004). January 2005. W. Price. CA. http://www.html Hurst. & Purnell. 5(1). Evaluation.. Chesapeake. J.. (2004). Callan. University of Athabasca. and Sharifi. Educational Technology & Society. http://sleid. London: Springer-Verlag. Brandon Hall Research . Technologies of Cooperation..cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.athabascau. Aavani.editlib... Educational Technology & Society. P.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Carlsen. Bjorn (Ed. K.amazon.pdf Kaplan. Innovation and Development. (2004)..org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.). J.org/index. 5(1). http://www. Kirschner. & Weber. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.zcu. (2002). http://www. Learning Circuits.. VA: AACE. http://ifets. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. J. P. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.edu.html Munkvold. In Crawford. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. K. Palo Alto.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. R.. http://www. (Eds. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. R. (2002). Kirschner.ca/online_book/c h8. J.rheingold. e-Book. G.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. McFerrin. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. 24. Studies in Learning. Institute for the Future White Paper.learningcircuits.

Do Not Reproduce 97 .asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. For Laurillard. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.” http://goldenswamp. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. discussion forums. UK. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.uk/deletacademictalk. whiteboards. labs.com.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. a process referred to as “text mentoring.ac. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. chat.janison.au/eq/default.jisc.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. discussion groups. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. telepresence. For example. Hegarty et al. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. re-usable. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. http://www. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. html The Learning Place in Queensland. instant messaging. blogs. and yet tailored and flexible. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. VoIP. It is being developed into a transportable. messaging. telephony.

M.bcs. http://www.elearningcentre. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. and Bortolozzi. http://safety. http://m. http://www.ac.ngfl. S. developed in Brazil.co.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.editlib.htm 98 © 2006. University of Warwick. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.48. J. 13-20. CAP e-Guide.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.com/webconf/hostsi tes. 2004.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. (2004).uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.gov. International Journal on E-Learning.editlib. Brandon Hall Research .php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. http://ewic.fasfind.uk/schools/docum ent.71. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. and Cerri. http://www2. Mark (2004).co. chat.org/index. F.org/ Online Resources Teresa A.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.conversate.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. http://www.. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.warwick. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.pdf Eleuterio. JulySept. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.com/wwwtools/m/2645.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.thinkofit.elearningcentre. M.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. Find her work at: http://64. and telephony tools.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. including communications tools.htm http://www. http://www.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.co. http://www. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.elearningcentre.google. Komzak. Computer Mediated Communication. (2005).org/index.

June.ac. S. whiteboards. June.. and Elliott. and Wales. 2002. 2005 http://www. VoIP. 19. (2002). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. University of Birmingham. J.ca/online_book/c h5. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. (2004).jisc. J.athabascau. chat. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.. UK. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. http://www. Bostock.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. http://dircweb. London: Routledge. Learning Circuits. http://hbswk.pdf LaCroix.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool.king. (Mlearn 2002).doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. September 23. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. CharityVillage. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. 20-21.charityvillage. 199-212. e-Book.html Morgan. 31 (3). 20-21. M. Francis. Aug. British Journal of Educational Technology.” Do Not Reproduce 99 . A.html Laurillard. 2002. discussion forums. http://www.edu/item. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. Technologies of Online Learning.html Laurik. Nick (2002). J. E-Learning 1.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Pattie (2005). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. http://cde.formatex.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. R. D. Working Knowledge Newsletter.hbs.pdf Kadirire.com Library. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. (2002). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). 31.com/cv/research /rmed35.uk/papers/Stone_ A. Sven (2002). J. and Briggs. Diana (1993). An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. Hegarty. and Collins.org/micte2005/4. James (2005). University of Athabasca.learningcircuits. 2002. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. distance-learning course at Keele University.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone. (2000). I. Jan. http://www.

see below) and performance or talent management systems. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. David McClelland. organizational and personal goals are tied together. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. 100 © 2006. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). competency-based training.” it started in 1950 with Dr.imsproject. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. entering defined competencies into a matrix. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. a Harvard psychologist. In 1973. Edwards Deming.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. skills. 2000).html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.org/competencies /index. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. performance appraisal. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. W. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. skills inventory. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. skills verification. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. 2005). and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Brandon Hall Research .

For example. go to: www. Do Not Reproduce 101 .html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.itsc.wmich. For a large list of competencies for physicians. measurement. https://launchpad.ibm. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. http://www. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp.. activities. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. objectives.S. See the list of competencies at: http://www. Read their white paper at: http://www.htm Many companies have their own competency models. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.learningcircuits. and carry out proper procedures.edu/paprog/clin_events . the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. diagnose symptoms.org.learnflex.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.cpgvision. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.html The U.com/article16.ncrel.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. and development interventions.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. http://www.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.desire2learn.

Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.hrsg.amazon.28. a Canadian company. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.com/skillsman. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/ 20050425/technologylife01. http://www.E.expresscomputeronline.shtml Hogg. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.ca/index.oracle.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Clare (2005). R. 102 © 2006. American Psychologist.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Building a skills inventory. and Neathy. http://www.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. http://www..uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. Miller. N. 2005. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.co. http://www. (2001). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Ken (2000). Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. 1-14.cipd.syberworks.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. (2001). Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. pp.amazon. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.amazon. April 25. New York: AMACOM.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. Express Computer. regardless of industry or sector. New York: David McKay. Rankin.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.clomedia. http://www. April. F. Sudipta (2005).com/content/templ ates/clo_article. (1982). L. Benjamin (1956).html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. London: IDS. Study 706. Josh (2006). v.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. London: Wiley. http://www. Competency and competency frameworks. Competency Frameworks. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.cipd.amazon.” http://www. David.ht m Online Resources HRSG.co. (1973).com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.

and Cahorn. (2005). Sanders. P.1/features/e wette. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. Learning Circuits. S. Parkin’s Lot. http://www. N.html Radsma. and Epstein. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. and Hollyforde.com Woodill. Michael.p df Rankin. http://parkinslot. http://www. Competencies. Operitel Corporation. and Expertise. London: IRS.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.collectionscanada.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. (2004). Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. 2nd ed. Rankin.) (2003).operitel.blogspot. and Grigorenko. Competency based learning management. White paper. http://www. G.com/2. April 30. Cambridge. (2001). New York: John Wiley.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . University of Toronto. P. Ellen (2000). Ethan (2001).com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.learningcircuits. Johanna.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Gary (2004). Creating a Culture of Competence.amazon.amazon.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. White paper from Operitel Corporation. Godfrey (2005). London: IRS. R. http://www. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. 2005. The Psychology of Abilities. March 2001. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.operitel. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. http://www. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. (Eds. S. N.htm Whiddett. (1999). E-Learning Competencies. http://www.amazon. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. E.linezine. Master's thesis. (2000). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. UK: Cambridge University Press.html Sternberg. (2003). http://www. Fall 2000.

not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. manage. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. the standardized railway system still works while private. Do Not Reproduce 104 . Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. displaying a course catalogue. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. manage. If you could afford it. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. With the advent of learning objects. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. launching courses. and “topic maps. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. in fact. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. Repositories. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. and reporting. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Learning objects. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. you could hire a company to build a private. I feel that closed. First.” As well. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. LCMS. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. 2006). But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Today. such as registering users.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately. http://www.topicmaps.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. Ed. March 2005.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. and publish to multiple outputs.cmsmatrix. http://www. TravelinEdMan blog. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. http://www. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. (2005). http://www. http://travelinedman.co.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. http://plone. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. 2005. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. rather than complementary.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. Dec.topicmap. http://www.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. San Jose. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper. (2004).atutor.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. Strategies for managing scalable content. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.com http://www.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. According to its official Web site. http://www.clomedia. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.uk Bibliography Bonk.” http://drupal.e-learningcentre.html Cisco Corp. http://sakaiproject. reuse in many places.” Web services and “topic maps. http://www.cisco.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. to date.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . functionality to an ECM. They have designed competitive. Curtis (2005). Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. 18. Cisco Corporation White Paper.pdf Cohen.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.author-it.blogspot.

and Brantner. http://www. elearnspace blog. C. PA: Idea Group.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. 2005. and Oliveira. George (2003). A. 2003. S. EdTechPost blog. Gerry (2003).htm Siemens.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms. May/June. G. March 3. 2006.edtechpost. January 23. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. and Carmean.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. Hershey. May 15.elearnspace. Educause Review.com/publications. C. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. 2003. Learning Solutions.gerrymcgovern.. Retalis.) (2005). New Thinking Blog. (2006). June 9. http://www. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. McGovern.htm Simon.ntua.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . 40(3). “Monoliths. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.operitel. Budapest. 2005.. Scott (2005).” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.softlab. Van (2005). http://www.pdf Weigel. P. Jafari. Mashups. http://www. Content Management: our organized future. Why content management software hasn’t worked. B. 2003. http://www. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. (Eds.asp Woodill.html McGee. (2003). http://www.educause. S.ca/mt/archive/00 0689.

2001). Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. knowledge discovery. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Do Not Reproduce 107 . it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. delivery models and infrastructure investment. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. 2000. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. Luan and Willett. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.

rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve.uwaterloo. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.icosystem.wfu.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.hkuspace.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. by applying fuzzy logic.soul. http://www. http://www.com/index. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. Do Not Reproduce 108 . One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://imej. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.reeltwo. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. http://www.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. http://pami. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).

. (2006). Lange.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.is. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. and Web mining. and Cheung. Piatetsky. 1--34. 1996. B. and R.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.cs. In Pierre. 68(8). edited U..usyd. California.edu. P.. New York: Springer. 2001) http://www.kdnuggets. Innsbruck. P. knowledge discovery.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc. K. http://www. Both products are from Convera. Learning by doing and learning when doing . Grigoriev.actapress. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. K.pdf Jantke. http://www. Robert (2002). http://pami. K. http://www. R. U. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). Uthurusamy. G. School Business Affairs. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. G.. G. M. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.kdnuggets.html Hammouda.2004. Long Beach. P.convera. (1996). 1316. and Kamel.unikiel. Australia. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.pdf Iskander.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. Data Mining: What’s New. text mining.ac. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. New York: Springer. Grieser. Austria. 2006.pdf Freitas. Alex (2002).asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . http://www.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. and Tschiedel. M Fayyad.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. B.pdf Loo..uwaterloo. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.com/PaperInfo.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.. 238-241. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Samuel (Ed. Thalheim. Data Mining in e-Learning. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. (cited in Luan and Willett. http://www. Smyth. B.kent. pp.amstatonline. In Proceedings. What’s Not. 13-16 http://asbointl.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. Porto. and Smyth. http://www.html Bibliography De Veaux. (2000).dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Portugal. S.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.pdf Fayyad. Feb.informatik. (2004).) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. (2006). Feb.cs. AAAI Press/MIT Press.

http://www. 7(1). 39-40. http://dl.org/index. (2006). T.pdf Merceron.html Ueno. store. 52-59. A.aace.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. Billerica. (2001). Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. http://csdl2. RP Conference Presentation. 41-54. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.ags.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. and Ullrich. Advances in Management Information. C. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. 319-346. 15(4). A. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.Data Mining Luan.cnrs. and K. and Ventura. A. Claus (2004).ejel. (2004). 3(1). Yacef (2004). Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).pdf 110 © 2006. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www. (2004). http://www. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.asp Merceron.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Oliveira. May 17-22.editlib. Vol 4. and K.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. J.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. analyze for more adaptive teaching. and Minguillon. Japan.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). TADAEd for Educational Data Mining.ac. (2004). Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. David (2005). Electronic Journal of e-Learning.cabrillo.compmech. Gord (2004). 47-55. C. http://www. Maomi (2004). Oct.pdf McCalla. 3(4). http://www2004.open.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Brandon Hall Research .. and Yacef. J. http://archiveedutice. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. M. S.pdf Monk. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. MA: WIT Press. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. A. Scholl. 2004 (7)..computer. Yacef (2005). C.com/acatalog/18 45641523. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). E. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.org/16915 Romero. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.-Dec.pdf Mor.wfu.ccsd.. and Willett.pdf Pahl. K. Train.unisb.pdf Merceron. Hiroshima.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. NYC. http://wwwjime. http://imej.

and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). in their case study of medical education. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.bnhexpertsoft. and 6) document results. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. 5) carry out a survey.facilitate. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. 4) develop an action plan. For example. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.decisionarium. 3) vote/prioritize.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.edu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. Do Not Reproduce 111 . which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. http://www. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.com/ Facilitate.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. 2) categorize.une.tkk. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time.

html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. R. http://science. (2000). see: http://www.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. V. http://www.com/index. Kankana (2005).pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.hut. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Raimo (2003). http://www. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.dssresources.meetingworks.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.bnhexpertsoft.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. 101-110. http://www.sal. and information on this area. Brandon Hall Research .au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.hut.html Hamalainen.net/index. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.hut.edu. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://www.p df Chakrabarty. C. M.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. 12(2-3). http://www. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. Jay (2004). 112 © 2006. White paper from BNH Expert Software. http://www.sal. 23(4).pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. and Frasson. August.pdf Frize. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.uottawa.whichbook. http://www. H. For newsletters. (2004). The software then recommends books that you might like to read. books..utoronto.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. and Koskinen. Online manuscript.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.site.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Hamalainen.pdf Ehtamo.sal. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.” http://dmoz.uniserve. http://www.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.

. Hershey. USA. Gerhard (2003).is..org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.actapress. Grieser.edu. 238-241. B.com/PaperInfo. Porto. Rostanin. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. de Carvaho. CAL-laborate. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Aachen. http://www. and Tschiedel.pdf Ounapuu.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. In Proceedings. SIGGRAPH publication.siggraph. http://www. Memmel.. M. B. Manchester. M. (2006).pdf Knolmayer..dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 2002. Thalheim. Lange. G. Dan (2003). and Laurindo. http://dssresources. 317-328. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). P. Enn (2005). Theresa (1998). Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. T.com/books/details.hawaii. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings..html Rhyne. S. PA: Idea Publishing. Vol. Learning by doing and learning when doing . http://www.dfki. Thalheim.informatik.pdf Power. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Oct.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. http://www.2004. K. http://science.ideagroup.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. August 16-18.uniserve. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. (2003).aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. B.unikiel. Kauai.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects.hicss. Grigoriev. B. June 20-24. Jan.manchester.. Hawaii. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. 9.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . F.pdf Jantke. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. O.html Scott. K. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. 2005. http://www. and Tschiedel. 2004. (2004). Jim (2002). Portugal.ac.html Shimizu.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Enn (2004). 6-9. Hawaii.mc.. http://damit. Germany.com/history/dsshist ory..

resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. big enough to be projected on large walls. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. digital paper. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.” Selected Examples Samsung. Do Not Reproduce 114 .theregister. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. This can be a holographic image.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. in cooperation with Sony. In regards to digital paper. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). lighting up theater size screens. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. http://www. Finally. In the near future.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.co. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.theregister. projectors. By stacking a second projector. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. head mounted displays. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.co. electronic paper. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. For air displays. Electronic paper could change that some day. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. monitors.

For a list of his publications.cmu.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.siliconlight. see: http://ad. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.ntera.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.edu/design/Camera. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.provisionentertainment.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://thejournal. See a demo at: http://www. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Inc. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.unifreiburg. see: http://www.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.com/about.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. intelligent interfaces.com/technology /overview NTERA.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.E. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.fogscreen.firstmonday.io2technology. Do Not Reproduce 115 . To access the articles.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. http://www. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.ices.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.informatik. http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. http://killer.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.technorati. still/video camera. http://www. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. In 2005.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies.html Promera is a hand-held computer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.H. Projector.

uk/index. http://ad. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. http://www.. M. Whitton. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005).acm. Pisano. and Pizer.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. W.).com/timwang/index. (2005).pdf Wang.. K.jisc.. Garrett.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. G. Oct. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.informatik. Canada. Hamburg.ac.. S. Tim (2005).loaz. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. 2005. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Largest LCD and video projection. http://blog. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Richards (Ed. Livingston. A. http://portal. 3. London: Springer. 2005. Germany.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Brandon Hall Research .. E. Government.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. pages 3053-3068. Vancouver. M. H. T. Hirota.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. (1996). Healthcare.org/citation. State. Dec. In G. and Ottmann..unifreiburg.

entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.angellearning.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. open source electronic portfolio.com/products/e portfolio/default.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.uk/default.foliotek.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. My first report in this series. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.com/eportfolio/i ndex.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.iwebfolio.chalkandwire.co.livetext. http://isle.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. http://www. 2005). Do Not Reproduce 117 .html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. evaluation. http://www.htm Educause. http://www. http://www.paisley.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.ac.com/college/portfoli os.elearningcentre. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.pebblelearning.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.osportfolio.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.pupilpages. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. http://www.educause.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www. http://www. http://www. and simple usability. maximum flexibility.co.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.

http://www.org/collab/v.becta.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. Online Paper. with many links.ac. (2004). http://www. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download. FD Learning White Paper. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. thus.educause. Frederick (2005).com/magazine/va ult/A5260. University of Iowa.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. March. College of Education http://www.pdf Conway. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. http://elgg. THE Journal Online. http://www. (2002). http://www2.asp?id=6984 Cohn.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. helping to transform education and training. http://www.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. Graham (2005). J. an online resource on collaboration. http://www. http://www.amazon. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.criticalmethods.cfm 118 © 2006. Dec. Trent (2002). has a section on eportfolios.org/Articles/epor tfolios..pdf Batson.campustechnology. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. 2004 http://www.org. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.nottingham.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper.imsglobal. and Hibbitts.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. http://connect.elearnspace.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. B.doc Banks.educause. Vol 27 No 4.ch/dyn/9.htm IMS. Bob (2004). E.educa. http://ferl. Brandon Hall Research .thejournal. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. Educause Quarterly.com/article.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0.

edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. elearnspace. 144-169.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal.. 31(3). http://www. html Young. Love. e-portfolios. An Overview of e-Portfolios. 2(2)..elearnspace. J. 2005.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224.A. http://www. http://www. Gary (2004).. (2002).educause. B. and Werdmuller. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.3/tosh. Fall. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. future thinking: digital repositories.A. P. K. J. C. (2003). G. Light. Feijen. D. Business Communication Quarterly. Online. J.ac. G.eradc. July/ August 2004. B. M. vol. and McKean. D..ca/content/vol31. Reflective learning. Educause Review. April 1.. http://www. and portfolios. J. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.alt. M.educause. Harvey. & Figgins. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.org/papers/Learning_l andscape..Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. ePortfolios.pdf Greenberg. http://www. research. http://www. no. Bryde. http://www.. Trinity College. (Focus on Teaching). George (2004).. Lee.org/Articles/epo rtfolios.. http://www. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.educause.htm Tosh. T. Cook. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. 28–37. D. Dec. and Wade.. Fleming..amazon. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 . Educause Quarterly. (2005). 39. 16.. 37(2). Online paper.cjlt. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. (2005).citejournal. http://www. Dublin. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. and Ittelson.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. V. 4. and Haywood. J. W. (2002). (2005).pdf Lorenzo. Aalderink. G. (2004).. S.

com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms.myspace. games. and Second Life. 120 © 2006. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com/ http://www. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. and learning (Amory.com. 2003). ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Cyworld. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. as such. Facebook. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. Constance Steinkuehler.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning.com/ http://www. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. complex problem solving. Examples include Hive7.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. Try them out at: http://www.secondlife.freescale. see: http://news. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam.” says that “in the mod world. For a brief review of these tools. simulations. play. identity work.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Marc Prensky (2003). Brandon Hall Research .hive7. 2005). Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. Dr. from the University of Wisconsin.com http://us. MySpace. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. serious games. http://www. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.facebook. writing about “first person shooter games. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.com/ http://www.cyworld.

siggraph.com/ In 2005.clickteam. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. has game development tools for the Xbox. allows members of a game development team to work together.com/ Thiagi.com/solutions/gam es/default.softimage.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver. Inc.pluginz. dubbed XNA Studio. Many of their learning games resources are free.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.com/news/548 http://www. http://www. http://www.magnetargames.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.nasaga.mpjgaB KQdAe. This game allows users to play.ucalgary.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. For example. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. Started in North America.com/xna/ Softimage. http://www.thinkingworlds. http://www. There is a free 30-day trial version. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.org/?14@33. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. implementation.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. along with their Web sites. http://www. The toolset. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. Do Not Reproduce 121 .” http://www. Canada.muzzylane. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. See the selection of games at: http://www. create.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. You can read about them at Pluginz. helping speed up the game creation process. produces educational games for training.microsoft. Review them at: http://esub. edit.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. http://www.

Hawaii.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.org.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. http://www.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.htm Dr. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. Honolulu. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.futureplay.seriousgames. http://www. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.com/zo ne8/index.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. http://www.wisc.gdconf. Sign up at: http://www. http://it.htm Dr.uk/index2.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.org/index2. http://www.” Read her research at: http://website. 2003. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.digiplay.uga.ukzn.seriousgamessummit. Brandon Hall Research . and speakers on all aspects of gaming.coe. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://www.itc.pdf 122 © 2006. Alan (2003). June 25-28. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.ac.programmersheaven.dk/people/sen/public.education. researchers.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.

June. http://www. Rob (2006b).php Rieber. and Chen. http://www. 17-22. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. In Richard E.xplanazine. Developing Serious Games. Chapter 33.itc. SRI-BI. Learning on Demand Bulletin.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 .com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. D.pdf Guetl. 2005. http://www. Dreher. see: http://www. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Language Learning and Technology. H.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Xplanazine.msu. Clifton Park. Montreal. http://www.pdf Michael. Bryan (2006). 9(1). Marc (2003). NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. simulations and microworlds. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. S. 2003.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue. H. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Oct. Jan. Games and Education = Oil and Water.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. Bob (2005). http://llt.xplanazine. 549-567. Train. 2005. Williams. and Michael.. January 2. Technology Trends for the Year. and Maurer.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. D.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. C. New York: Cambridge University Press. Simon (2005). http://www. S.uwf. (2005).) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Xplanazine. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.iicm.php Reynolds.amazon. Lloyd (2005).amazon. and Inform. http://www. Gamasutra.marcprensky. Mayer (Ed.pdf Godwin-Jones. Gaming. Rob (2006a). http://www. March 10. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. R. (2005). (2005)..edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. IT-University Copenhagen. Multimedia learning in games. 2006.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. http://www.uwf. 2006. Serious Games: Games That Educate.cambridge. 19.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. http://www.pdf Reynolds.pd f Prensky. Fourth Quarter.

com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.msu.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. http://jason.wisc. N. (2006).teachableagents. G. Masters Thesis. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. http://woz. Jason (2004). 2004.p df Tye.pdf Swamy. http://website.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler. N.Madison. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Constance (2005). Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Clifton Park. Gupta. Beers. and Biswas. and Swamy. R.commtechlab. J. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. (2005). 2005. University of Wisconsin . Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure.education.amazon. Michigan State University.. Brandon Hall Research .pdf 124 © 2006. http://www.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. C. Doctoral dissertation.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis..

nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.” http://mplab. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. http://www. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. haptics.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. affective computing.com/~ccohen/gest ure. was held in Southampton. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.html Research by Dr. FG2008. April 10-12 2006.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. looking for particular sequences.ucsd. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. FG2006.ecs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. London.tudelft. and robotics in elearning.ac. including identifying commercial products. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. such as Markov models.fg2008. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. For a list of papers: http://www. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. artificial intelligence.soton. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. 2008.cybernet. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. at the University of California. Artificial intelligence techniques. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. UK. Do Not Reproduce 125 . will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. http://www.fg2006.

March.org/10.2000. Ludwig-Maximilians University. T. (2005).. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. (2002). M. 191-196. M.pdf Ebert.... Wesson.. Nevada.884693 Chen. A. http://www. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman. http://www.org/reports/Report -NR-03.pdf Beringer. P. Las Vegas. G.. J. In Proceedings.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. IEEE Transactions. 19(7).pdf 126 © 2006. Visualization.stat. http://doi. and Ma. July 1997..html Chang. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. W. L.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES. R. Gao. Korea. http://www. F. J. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. and Cohen. Aug. http://www. Pittsburg.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.iscslp2006. (1997). Report No.ogi. A. http://cbcl.smartkom. 675 676 http://lcv. October 14-16. T.cse. Porta. and Poggio. 18.ieeecomputersociety. Michael (2003). Deller.pdf Daugman.fsu. Munich. http://www. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).actapress.mit. Y.11 09/CMPSAC. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces.pdf Borghi. Geiger. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. http://www.pdf Corradini. M. and Bender. 57-64. 3.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02.elearningguild.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.com/PaperInfo. Face and gesture recognition: overview. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. 2000. Lombardi. (2000). Nicole (2001). Brandon Hall Research . PA. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.ercim. (2005). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. 2003.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. (2004). July 2227. Shi-Kuo (2000). eLearning Developers’ Journal.

C. and Kim... In Proceedings. (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. IEEE Transactions. and Wong. Chen. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.pdf Wilson. Sept. (2004).mit. Vancouver. and Carreira. J. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.D.20 05.acm. L. and Yang.. (2005). Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).. A.com/PaperInfo. http://portal. L.150 Nakanishi. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Computer vision in the interface.xml&DOI=10. September 2002.rutgers. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.hindawi. Michael (2004).pdf Peixoto.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. Fussell. S. Canada http://cims. 2004. C.clayton. British Columbia.computer. and Chang.. Lai. Wong.. X. H. 2004:16. http://interact. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. D. Lee. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. http://csdl2. J. Y.pdf Ou. 884 – 900. S. 442-446. (2002). J.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.edu/mas963/en hencedwall. and Koike. Communications of the ACM.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. 47(1).pdf Loi. 1999. 27-30.. 21(9). M.F (1999).edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. http://www.org/citation.research. http://www. P.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Setlock. 2533–2543. http://www. Y. Sato. C. A.. (1997).edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Park. J.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk. and Bobick.ucsb. January. 242-245. (2003).media. Robust face image matching under illumination variations.1109/ICALT. Y. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc. C. http://www. Proceedings.actapress.recveb.com/GetPDF.

com/software/soft_t/gsh arp. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . and in his recent 2006 book.com/TechIllustrator.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.techillustrator. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.adobe.autodesk. In acquiring Macromedia. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Designing WebBased Training. e-Learning By Design.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.avs.

http://esub.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.com SmartDraw http://www.blender3d.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.uk/index.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. and playback.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://www.broderbund. In acquiring Macromedia.corel. interactive creation.elearningcentre.2. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks. http://virtuality3d. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.co.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.org/cms/Home. The most listings are for 3-D software.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.acdamerica.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.com/index.com/E/1335.ibm. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Nevertheless. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.xaraxtreme. Do Not Reproduce 129 .itedo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . http://www. rendering.smartdraw.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. post-production.0.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. animation. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.uk/index.microsoft.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.google.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.com.3dlinks.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.co. Download a copy: http://www.co. http://www.siggraph.

Edward (1997). William (1991). A. CT: Graphics. Pheonix.amazon. Cheshire. Japan · Sept 7-10. CT: Graphics Press. http://www. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. Potsdam. http://grids.pdf McConnell.amazon. http://www. Proceedings. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. Cheshire. http://www. http://www.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.stcphoenix. Designing WebBased Training. 2nd Ed. ED-Media Conference. Envisioning Information.indiana. Tokyo. X. http://www.amazon.ucs. Edward (1990).carto. http://www. William (2006). The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Tools Usage Survey Results. e-Learning by Design.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton.). NY: John Wiley. New York: John Wiley. Pallickara. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Frances (2004). http://www. A. June 1-3. CT: Graphics Press.stc. Richards (Eds. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. In P.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton.com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. Tools and Techniques for ELearning..pdf Tufte.org/index. William (2000).com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.amazon.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Gloria (2004).edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Carolina Chapter. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. http://www. STC. (2004). http://www.amazon. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Fu-Kwan (2004). Kommers & G.pdf Qiu.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. Germany. Brandon Hall Research . (2005). S. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). Cheshire. Evidence and Narrative .amazon.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. http://www. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Edward (2001).editlib. and Uyar.

Read the press release at: http://www. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. http://haptex. Finally.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.html http://www.handshakeinteractive. gloves. and force-feedback mice. http://wwwpercro.sssup.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching. When used appropriately. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. Do Not Reproduce 131 .mpbtechnologies. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.forcedimension.miralab. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.it/projects/pureform.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.” http://www.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. Haptic devices come in many forms. joysticks/ joypads.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. including pens.pureform.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.unige.

(2002). http://csdl2. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.unitrier.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. Y.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue. http://www.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. N. Nakamura. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Hespanha. July 31. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). professional. Italy in March. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Matsubara. M.sensegraphics. M. Report delivered January 15.smh.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.306 Kushner. Deliverable D4. M.unige.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. New York Times (Online). http://www. Proceedings.informatik.miralab.isfh. 132 © 2006. 2005. http://haptex. G.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.com.unipi..” http://www.. Iwane.phptr.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. http://www.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://www.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4.1_release-public.1. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Reality bytes.se/index.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS. 2003. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.. McLaughlin. David (2003).sensable.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc.piaggio.ccii. http://www.immersion.haptics-e. Upper Saddle River. http://www.computer.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. 2005.asp Body-based devices include gloves.roblesdelatorre.2005. suits.” http://www. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). http://www. and Sukhatume. 917-921.xml&DOI=10. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface..org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. M. J. and Ichitsubo.1109/ICAL T. (2005).

.S. A.com/articles/printerf riendly. M.cim.ra. The Haptic Museum.pd f O’Modhrain.. Haptics Laboratory. (2004). (2005). http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. 2003. Medioni.pdf Ó hAnluain. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. 3-5 June 2004. Dobreva. Y.. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.informit. Sukhatme. S. Centre for Intelligent Machines.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. and Gillespie. D. K. M. 2004. Santa Clara.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239.pdf O’Modhrain.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 . Technology and Haptics.ethz. Shahabi.journalofvision. McGill University. http://www.digicult.usc.. Daithí (2003). J.pdf Rowell..media. 250a. G. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Donnelly. July 3. and Hughes. Laurie (2004).pdf McLaughlin. http://csdl. (2001). (1997).html Ross. http://www.net/article-7304. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.B. Blindness.. CA. M. Research report.mit..matr. Wired News. G.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. G. Reaching through the net to touch. Proceedings.html O’Malley.. C. April. http://www. McHugh.mcgill. Chapter on Haptics.. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. 22. (2000). M.computer. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. M. Japan. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. H. L. and Jaskowiak. & Uchikawa. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it.asp?p=345621 Sakano. http://www. 1(3). Kaneko. Abbott. M. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. http://web. A. Prentice Hall online article. and Essl. S.. (2003). Vincent (2005). http://www. R.S. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Oct.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. and Rusbridge. Journal of Vision.

and some. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. human-computer interaction.dottocomu. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. they must interact with it through an interface device. projectors. haptics. tangible computing. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. gesture recognition. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). For humans to use a computer.buffalo. http://www. handwriting recognition. like digital ink and paper. Writing will require special digital pens. experience computing. whiteboards Description devices. see: http://www. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. Called Librié. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.com/b/archives/ 002571. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. they must interact with it through an interface device. However. For a review. monitors. Now in the research and development phase. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . Philips. digital paper.html Sony. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. display technologies. wearable computing.html For humans to use a computer. head mounted displays. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. electronic paper. input devices.

sony. textures.media. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible." http://web.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.html http://killer. Although this technology has been around for a few years. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.com/index.logitech. These methods are 1) touch.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.eink.edfacilities.” http://www.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. http://www. http://killer. http://www.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. http://www.wacom. see: http://www.smarttech.edu/design/Digitalin k. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.html In 2005. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. 3) throw. 2) roll.swan. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.ices. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916. http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. http://www.mit. http://www. Writing will require special digital pens.cmu. it is constantly being improved and updated.channelnewsasia. 4) bend. and 5) build.com/technology/howitwor ks. consisting of a pen and a charger. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 135 .net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.cmu.edu/design/Foldable Display.ices.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. http://www.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.lifehacker.fujitsu. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.cfm Now in the research and development phase.cs.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards.

0 4/anoto. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.org.co.0 8/epapers.aclearn.elearningcentre. http://www.wired.edu. http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.wired. human computer interaction. http://www. and graphic.html http://www.org.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.html http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.anoto. http://www.au/edna/page458 8.thewirelessdirectory. Following are three such articles: http://www.becta. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://www.usask.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.com/wired/archive/5.thegrid.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.net/display. http://whiteboards.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.edna. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. with its use of digital ink. is described in a 2002 press release.microsoft.wired.mspx 136 © 2006.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.devx.com/wired/archive/9.com/wired/archive/8.cs.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards. http://www.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. See their advice and resources at: http://www.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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2005. http://www.mq. Molinari.. http://www.zcu. (Online edition). Czech Republic. Pierre (2000)..PDF Farmer. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos.ac.org/eun. University of Birmingham.anadolu. April. ICALT2002 Conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins.pdf Dillenbourg..ucisa. http://www. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . M. http://www.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). (2002). March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. 21.edu. Derek (2004). 5(2). (2002). 31-Feb.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.pdf Tsinakos. T.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 .learningcircuits. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.ac. L.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. Chief Learning Officer. and Sharifi. C. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).htm Bouras. http://www.building new education strategies for schools.melcoe. Avgoustos (2004). Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Proceedings. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Jan. Jan. October.eun. 2006. Plzen. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Proceedings of ALT-C.unitn. August. James (2005). Virtual Learning Environments. Ronchetti. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. http://www. Sam (2005). Aavani. 4. UK. Workshop on virtual learning environments. http://wscg. (2005).nxtbook.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. http://tojde. Report published by UCISA. June 20-21. James (2003).pdf Cohen. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . and Tsiatsos.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.A possible future for online learning.. J. T. Proceedings. A.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE).ieee. Exeter.pdf Dalziel. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . (2006). M.edu. A. and Walker. Building educational virtual environments.bath. November 2004. WSCG Conference 2005. http://incsub. M (2005).org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. http://www.pdf Morrison.pdf Sadeghi. R. http://lttf. Incorporated Subversion.science. Learning Circuits.. 2005. A. Ed.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. and Trifonova.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo. Browne.

40(3). Brandon Hall Research .pdf 144 © 2006. Educause Review.unimelb.edu. LMS Governance Project Report.pdf Wise. and Higher Education 2005. and Quealy. Report for the Melbourne. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. May 2006 http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. http://www. J.Learning Management Systems Ueno. Healthcare.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel. Maomi (2005).org/newdl/index. October 2005. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. (2006). L.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. Government. May-June. 2005.infodiv.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.aace. Van (2005). Vancouver.

does not mean the intended learning has taken place. However. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. 2006). The acronym SCORM. a well-known standard for learning objects. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. SCORM. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. reusable learning objects (RLOs). As online educational materials are produced. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments.” This use has been more successful. rapid learning.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Learning objects have several uses. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. They are emulations of “software objects. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. learning object model (LOM). Wiley. Do Not Reproduce 145 . they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. Beyond that. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. 2004. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. Rather. learning object repository (LOR). sharable content objects (SCOs). This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” such as a graph. intelligent tutoring. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. At the simplest level.

This idea is based on older. http://learnware.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. indexes. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.downes. Brandon Hall Research . As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. http://www.educanext. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.arizona.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. culture. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://dlist. http://www.uwaterloo. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. stores. and distributes digital research material. http://web. computer-use practices. http://www.uvic. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings.org/index.fedora. preserves.cdlib. http://dspace.sir.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. and they can be general or subject specific.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). curriculum. http://www.

net/project.org/ci/en/ev.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.oise. http://www. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://www. http://www.lolaexchange.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201. with almost 15. http://lester.lrc3.koha.org/Home.utoronto.unesco.profetic.mcli. with a focus on information literacy.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://www.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.edu/DesktopDefault.dist.rice. http://www. http://www.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://nsdl.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.maricopa.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.wisconsin.unsw.goenc.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.thegateway.edu.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://ideas.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://portal. http://www.000 items.cisco. http://mlor.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 . http://www.llearn.merlot.publiclibraryofscience. http://www.

International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. And Longo. CANCORE. (2004). is available at: http://www.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt. 1(3).elearnspace.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. F.uis..html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.ca/mt/archive/000 681. Celentano.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.nmc.edtechpost. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. (2004). Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.lornet. M.dicole. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. A. J.doc Christiansen. http://www. and Alderman. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. Online paper. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.cancore.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.it/~lhci/002.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.uwm. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 .itdl.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.dis. authored by Rachel Smith.ca/implementing_proje cts.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.amazon.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.org/guidelines/index. EdTechPost.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.L. M. http://www. http://www. and Anderson. C. http://www.uniroma1.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. March. http://www.org/eng/scientifiques. T.uwm.org/blog/archives/ 002089.jcdl. http://www.

1 (3). M. 14. 5-16.org/mar2000/ primer. Harrigan. http://www.htm Friesen.ca/protocols_en. G. S.cancore. http://www.html Friesen.eduserv. Rory (Ed. T.org/index. March. 2(4). Richards.html McGreal.amazon.. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. and Morales.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. http://www. G. Fredinand (2004). R..edusource. http://www.html Heery. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. Jan.9%2015-11-03. B. html Edusource (2003)..com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability. & Strijker.irrodl.pdf Krauss.doc Fiaidhi.. International Journal on E-Learning. Babin.9.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. and Schafer.itdl. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.. S. Rachel (2006).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. http://www. http://www.editlib. http://www. March. A. Mattson. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://dl. D. G. T. London: Falmer. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. Warren (2000).org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. Version . Norm (2005). Online document. (2000). Hatala. M. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Friesen. R.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. March. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. Roberts.. S. (2004).learningcircuits.org. Norm (2006).htm Do Not Reproduce 149 . Online Education Using Learning Objects.. http://www. (2003).. MacLeod. J.) (2004). (2004). 2004. and Mohammed. Learning Circuits. Online paper.ca/implementing_projec ts. Paquette.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. 2(1).itdl. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. K. Stephen. http://www. (2004). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.. http://www..pdf?fuseaction=Reader.1/downes. 1(3).html Leeder.blogs. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.. Research Report. Software Architecture Document. Online.. A Primer on Learning Objects. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. N.org/14190 Downes.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire..cancore.cfm/files/pap er_11841.aace. Anderson. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. http://ideas. D. Downes.org/content/v2.

Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.htm Nejdl.bath. Jan.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. Elizabeth (2004).php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. http://www. (2002).fastrakconsulting. Learning Circuits. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore..org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. Learning Material Repositories .Rafts or Battleships? .Rafts or Battleships? .).pdf Santally. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. A. Online.org/read/ Wiley.Part 2. (2004). 9. Final Project Report. INTERACT 2005. David A. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. http://www. Wolfgang (2004). Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. March. David A. Learning Material Repositories .dis.learninglab.htm Wiley. http://www. (2002). M. Aug. April 2002.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. InSITE conference. Paper presented. (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Govinda. July 14.pdf Richards.bath. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. (2000). and Senteni... : http://reusability. http://www.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. N.uniroma1. Rossano. http://proceedings.usq.kth. 7(1). M.edu.itdl. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://opencontent.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Brigham Young University. http://www. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. (2000).uniroma1.co.htm Shepherd. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. 2004. Brandon Hall Research . White paper for Fastrak Consulting. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Clive.p df Wiley. (2006).au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Lori (2002). Derek (2004b).html Murphy. 12. and Freisen. V.dis. http://www.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Objects of Interest. and Pragnell. 1(7).ac.learningcircuits. Doctoral dissertation.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. pdf Roselli. June. M. http://www.pdf http://www.it/~lhci/rossanopres. G. R.. Iterating Toward Openness. http://www. (Ed. http://opencontent. McGreal. 2004. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. David A.org/docs/dissertation.it/~lhci/rossanopaper.Part 1.ac. T. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).informingscience.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Derek (2004a).

personal media players. including privacy concerns. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. more demands for a person’s attention. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. and security issues. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. geocaching. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. Do Not Reproduce 151 . However. as with any new technology. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. and wearable computers. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. gaming consoles. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. PDAs. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. findability. proximity tools. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. navigation.S. location-based systems are found in museums.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. laptops. galleries. users will be able to use a variety of devices. including cell phones. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. galleries. Department of Defense.

live. laptops.greatestplaces. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.google. information.com/ location and biodiversity around the world.com/ mapping service.esri.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.il. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.clarklabs.org/ educational of Mars.google.intergraph.org/ http://www.com/ Geographic Information System. http://www.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work. http://local. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www. http://earth. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. See how this direction. experiences that people. Clark Labs . PDAs.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery.000 archaeological sites in the state.com/ Intergraph . and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.http://www. Brandon Hall Research . and to learn about them using a phones. to what a GIS system uses.http://www.us/research/G ESRI. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.google.frappr.http://www.com able to use a http://www.museum.http://www.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp .pangonetworks.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.org/ consoles.mapinfo. http://www.edu/ the globe. gaming http://www. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players.berkeley.cadcorp.http://www. earth.google. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.state. to model the climate in any place in the world. it is a great tool for teaching science.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www.smm.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .biogeomancer.

and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.gees. http://www.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.ordnancesurvey.wisc.asp?path=5 00. as well as papers on trends in GIS. at: http://www.ac.esri.edu/sco/gis/hi story.bham.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. See their complete range of products. http://platial.cetadl. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.co. http://portal. create.5372. http://pngis.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. http://www.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.geography.fi/english/page.opensourcegis. http://www.bc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.com/index.ac.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. Earth.geog.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. http://www.ac.chimer.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.edu.” http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.org/index. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.leeds.com/gis4mt/index.eoscenter.confluence.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. see: http://www. http://www.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 .

15. DigiCULT Newsletter. Information in places. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. 38(4).learningcircuits. 2005.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 . A.00.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. D. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags.. We learning: social software and e-learning.pdf Cardinali.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031.1642288. Donnelly.intergraph. http://www.digicult. http://elearningeuropa. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Pavlidis. http://www. McHugh.C.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. F.. CAD. C. IEEE Report. http://www. Future LocationBased Experiences. Steve (2005). Guardian Unlimited. Abbott.com http://geotags.. and visualize spatial information.. Chapter on Location Based Devices.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. G. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.info/index. Part II.directionsmag. http://www.pdf Tsirliganis. M. M.digicult. http://www. Koutsoudis. G.com/ Bibliography Benford.intelresearch..research.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.html Ross. and Location-Based industry professionals.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Learning Circuits. Arnaoutoglou. and students. J. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.ibm. (2001). and Rusbridge. manipulate. Mapping. and Chamzas. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A.jisc. http://geotags. Issue 6. Dec. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. Jan 2004. (2005).com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. January. 2003.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. enthusiasts...geocomm. J.pdf Spohrer.htm McLean.. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work..co. http://www. Online article. Heather (2005). http://www. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. 1999.uk/elearning/ story/0. S.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Nov. Fabrizio (2005). N.ac. IBM Systems Journal.guardian. http://education. and Borriello. (1999). http://www. Dobreva. 2005. A.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Eva (2004).

integration. hybrid applications. personalized. of how to communicate with each other. E-learning in the workplace and. provides access to the API of another Web site. all expressed in binary code. A “mashup. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. For two or more programs to talk to each other. to a lesser extent. in schools and universities. or protocol. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. Using SOAP. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The programs that do this are call “Web Services. the rules for sending files across the Internet. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. Similarly. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. tag clouds. to a lesser extent. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. Many of these objects are software programs. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX.” that is. or through “Web services. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. API clouds.” instructors. composite applications. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. in schools and universities. For example. Programs can be “stand alone. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . run all by themselves. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and.” then. also called “object learners and interoperability. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them.

programmableweb. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl.icio. etc.wikipedia. Brandon Hall Research .deitel..” It has many examples of mashups.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.businessweek.htmlhttp://www. http://en. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.emilychang. Many have educational value. http://www.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.Mashups. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. providing an informal collaborative environment. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. http://www. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. http://blogs.deitel. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. at the same time.mashupfeed.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic.us. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.icio. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. such as those for collaboration.programmableweb. a writer for Business Week. As Warlick (2006) has noted. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service.com/ http://www.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. http://www.html Rob Hof. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. 2004). communications. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. http://del.0 APIs. document management.

techlearning.. and Padron. C. 2005. Issue 1. and mutate. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. May 15. 6.com/products/print_fri endly. Web Services. http://ww6. Douglas (2004). (2006). Paul (2002).aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Dec. J. George (undated).html Hof. Elearnspace. http://www. http://www. (2004). Learning Technology newsletter. 2006. C.pdf Seimens. http://www.com/publications. http://www. Vol. Robert (2005). Mix.org/resources/webs ervices.operitel. 6. G.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. http://www.elearnspace. Mashups. Dodero.htm Torres. David (2006). Curriculum as Mashup.htm Siviter.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. Issue 1.html Warlick. Vol. techLEARNING.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Business Week Online.businessweek.bctechnology. J.ieee. March 6. SOAP. July 25. 6. Galen (2006). Learning Solutions. Infoworld. match.infoworld. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. 2006. January 2004 http://lttf.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. and Oliveira. 2002. Do Not Reproduce 157 . January 2004 http://lttf. July 28. 2006. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.html Woodill.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups.pdf Stacey.ieee.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Learning Technology newsletter. Enterprise mashups.

community. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.ac.mit. http://metadata.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index. in the context of information technology. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. An ontology.do?tm= O4E.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.edu/content.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. and services. http://www. http://libraries. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program.wssu.cetis. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.mit. repositories. and artificial intelligence are being developed. and institutional stores. metadata.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. Ohio.cancore. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.educause. to develop metadata standards.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. http://www. pervasive computing.edu/o4e/viewhome. search engines.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning.imsglobal. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. http://dublincore.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. http://iiscs. Do Not Reproduce 158 . http://simile. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects. http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. Delphi Group report.pdf Henze. A. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Norm (2005). Boston.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 .info/issues. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel.pdf Delphi Group (2004). 98-111. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras. tags into a BoxesAndArrows. April 18. 2005.org/. M. B.. Perich. Green Chameleon.pdf Friesen. B. H.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema.adammathes. http://www. Pouloudi. and Mosoiu. Moulin.. http://www. (2004). 7(4).info/issues.umbc.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP.. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.aace. 7.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. D. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. M. http://tomgruber. April 21. and Chaput.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. F. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). June 2004. (2004). (2004).ifets. A.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. November.ifets. 2002.php?id=25 Kroski. Lenne.blogsome.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider. http://www. Finin. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. University of Illinois graduate paper. Defining “taxonomy”. Patrick (2006). Dec. Thomas (2005b).htm Gruber. Dolog. http://www.greenchameleon. (2002). http://www. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. Online article. sometimes A..tagcamp. http://www.. Presentation to Tag Camp.edu/get/a/publication/ 105.php?id=25 Chen. In Proceedings. P. Benayache.html Gruber. Ellyssa (2005). Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. MA. Barry. C. and Poulymenakou.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. http://infotangle.cancore. Infotangle. 2003...com/view/buil database as they enter data. Adam (2004). 2006.delphigroup.. 7(4). Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. 82-97.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Nejdl. Thomas (2005a).ca/editors. http://tomgruber. (2003).boxesandarrows. W. http://www. A. http://dl. TagOntology . C.org/10614 Mathes. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. http://ebiquity. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.. and Joshi.. October 29. October-December. T. International Journal on E-Learning. A. http://www. N.

Christian (2004). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.html Wodtke. http://www.dlib. BoxesAndArrows. Christina (2002). Nov.php?id=25 Tozman. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. and Shao. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Norway. (2003).boxesandarrows. (2004).. http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.info/issues.htm Weibel. N. J.php?id=25 160 © 2006.ifets. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Understanding Metadata. Another new paradigm for instructional design. May 22. 2004.ecdl2003. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. M. and Godby. 7(4). Reuben (2004). Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). (2004).com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Learning Circuits. 2002. Chen. J. Brandon Hall Research . NISO Press. S. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community..org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.ifets.Metadata.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. http://www. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.niso. http://www. April 9. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). 7(4).boxesandarrows.. and Diaz. 11(7/8). http://www.pdf Oin.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. D-Lib Magazine. http://www. Stuart (2005). 70-81. Trondheim. BoxesAndArrows.learningcircuits.ppt Ricci. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Wagner. G.info/issues. P. I. 2005. D. 2004. July/August. Lytras. 26-28.

In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. learning architecture [that] will support creation. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . 2003). cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. video) and distributed databases. personalization. tablets. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. strong search capabilities.” Two years ago. there were estimated to be 1. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. multimedia. time and space. cell phones. personalization. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. location-dependence. it is predicted that there will be 2. podcasting. conversational learning. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. such telephones. personal digital assistants (PDA). such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). learning. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. Essentially. laptops. you are. improved identity creation. rich players. 2004). delivery and tracking of learning and information content. and mentoring. MP3 players. instant messaging (text. and building. wearable computing. location based technologies. pervasive computing. cellular telephones.” The Mobilearn However.6 billion units in operation by that year. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. in mobile computing (McLean. mLearning. brokerage. powerful support for effective tablet PCs.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. tablet PCs. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. times the number of personal computers (PCs). laptops. communicative skills and community interaction. using ambient intelligence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs).

5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.cs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture. 2004).cs.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. Australia.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. Cited in Prensky. compared to only 50 percent of computer users.pdf http://www.” They have a “firefly watching system.cs. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.harvard.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final. http://csdl2.ccu. in Japan. and pre-service teachers.” and a “bird watching learning system.” http://www.Mobile Devices Two years ago. (2004). http://news.net/ 162 © 2006. there were estimated to be 1. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). or a combination of media.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005. audio. US.co. http://gseacademic.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. movies.se/projectd ata. http://www.stockholmchallenge. Brandon Hall Research . adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.ccu. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.computer.” a “butterfly-watching learning system.bbc. http://www.edu. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. Users can access and create location-specific text.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.pdf http://www.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird. http://urbantapestries.ccu.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.edu.mobilearn. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.edu. pictures.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. Israel.

” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. For example.elearningcentre.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.com/home_en.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. of the University of Oulu in Finland.com/wwwtools/m/8907.com/wwwtools/m/2717. including issues.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.fasfind.94.” http://m. http://www. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.uk/handler/publi cations.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. and a glossary.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.eee. http://urbantapestries. resources.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.htm Jari Laru.ac.com/wwwtools/m/2737. http://www. http://spotlight-mobile.fasfind.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 . Ireland. http://213. http://www3. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.beta80group.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index. http://www.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. 2006 in Dublin.iadis.fasfind.bham.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.telus. links.knowledgepulse.mobilelearning. applications.232. activities. http://www. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. Gaming.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.msu.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. http://llt.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.co.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. http://www.135/ipodined/news.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. Learn more at: http://www. technologies. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.

Univ. Report. 9(1).. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Kao.6. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. http://www. 2(9). 5. http://knowledgetree.pdf Jasola.htm JISC (2005). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. L. Bob (2005).no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.ac. and Pagani. (2005).it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.jisc. James (2005).pdf Attewell.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. http://www.flexiblelearning. http://www.science.uk/eli_practice.J. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. No. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.jisc. JISC Guide. E.org/micte2005/4. 17-22 http://llt. 39. Language Learning and Technology.a u/edition06/download/geddes. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. http://mobile.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. (2005). JISC Technology and Standards Watch.kaywa. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. and Sharma. A.. P.html Grew. September 2005. Jill (2005). Paul (2005). Sept.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. (2003).msu. January 2005. Vol..ntnu. B.ac. (2002). Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. 19.idi.m-learning. Learning and Skills Development Agency.pdf Colazzo. Ronchetti.net. Emerging technologies: Messaging.formatex. and Trifonova. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.itdl. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. of Birmingham http://www.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. 347-359. http://www. Gaming.edu. T. Molinari.cs. http://www. http://www.ccu. Bryan (2004).pdf Anderson. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. R.html Bibliography Alexander.pdf Chen.pdf Godwin-Jones. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Y.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.unitn. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. (2004). Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. S.html Kadirire. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.educause.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.pdf Geddes. J. http://www. No. A. M.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. and Sheu.

Wang.. M.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . Kristóf (2002). M.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.2002.org/10. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. L. (2001). Neil (2003). and Sforza.oucs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light.2. and Cultural Heritage. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. T. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. D. and Yang. http://www. http://21st. A. J. Växjö. Brisbane.ox. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.pdf Mellow. Galasso.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.1039222 McLean. http://www. Chan.ac. Marc (2004).uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. S.asp Liu. M.century.. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. MA: HRD Press... and Dobreva.innovateonline. http://portal. ASCILITE2005 Conference.htm#Implications Prensky. A. Cinotti. E. Pigozzi.acm. Presented at WMTE 2002.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. 2004. Donnelly...info/index. T... Proceedings. http://doi. UsabilityNews. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). S. Glyfada. Coralini.1109 /WMTE.com/news/article2 490.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.digicult.pdf Scagliarini. (2002).. Malavasi. Vecchietti.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. http://www. F.org. multimedia-based learning application. Feb. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Växjö University. computer-aided.. Conference on Virtual reality. J. http://www. E. (2005). and Nischelwitzer.ascilite. August 29-30.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Greece. Archeology. http://www. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Ann (2005). Amherst..amazon. M.pdf Metcalf.org/citation. 2005. H. Peter (2005). http://drei. June 27. June/July 2005.doc Meisenberger. Liang. Sweden. 2002.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. David (2006). 1(5). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.ieeecomputersociety. T. Romagnoli. Roffia. http://www.phil-inst. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.fhjoanneum. Teleborg Campus. Proceedings. (2004). Australia. M.usabilitynews.

Guardian Unlimited. http://www. http://www.clomedia. http://education.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . and. M. and Vavoula.. E-Learning on the move.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples.ac.00. 2005. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.open.eee. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. (2005).educause.pdf Sharples.1490476.pdf Thomas. Ellen (2005). Enabling Mobile Learning. http://www.co. Hungary. 40(3).bham. Mike (2005). Draft paper submitted for publication.fil. May 23.guardian. Feb. Taylor. Chief Learning Officer.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298. Understanding. Michael (2005).uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.uk/public/getfile. http://www. 2005.ac. 40-53..asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. April 2005. http://kn.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Budapest. Learning in the Mobile Age. EDUCAUSE Review. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. May/June 2005.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Christopher (2005).uk/elearning/ comment/0.html von Koschembahr. G. J.

translating one natural language into another.. Kim (2000). (2004). speech recognition.cs. (2004). speech synthesis. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. natural language understanding. http://dmoz. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). et al.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.it/index. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.ac. http://www.. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. i. http://tcc.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. (2005a.itc. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. rather than just returning Web pages. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.” See also Jordan et al.lexxe. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .e. http://wwwusers.uk/~silvia/litReview. Do Not Reproduce 167 . 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. natural language generation. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies. machine translation. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento.york. Di Eugenio. Lee et al. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.

http://www..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. University of Edinburgh. Christian (2001). Language Learning and Technology. Fossati.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.aaai. MA: MIT Press.cs. http://www.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon.cs.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. 62-76. B.amazon.ac.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and Glass. J. (2004). Haller. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. http://www. Fossati. http://www.upenn.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. M. http://eduforge. Paper presented at ACL2005.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool.bham. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. S...cs. http://www. November 2004 http://imm. A. (2005a).pdf Eskenazi. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. M. pdf Jacquemin.html#fn1 Di Eugenio. B. 2(2).org/aitopics/html/natlang. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . Yu.msu. K.w3. Paul (1994). http://www. and Glass.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.. research.pdf Coxhead. D.org/Voice/Activity.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. Haller. Online. P. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.. Makatchev. D. Maxine (1999). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). January. and standards.ed.html Bibliography Bagshaw.pdf Di Eugenio. D.demokritos.uic. http://www. http://www. and Vrettaros. Doctoral Dissertation..elsnet.pdf Drigas.ldc.cstr. http://www. Cambridge. http://llt. D. (2004). Issue 5. (2005b). S.org/softwaremap/trove_list .uic. Volume 1. M. and VanLehn..uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. tools. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Yu. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Peter (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.ac.

pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 . M. and Rusbridge.pdf Lee. J. (2004). A. http://www. A.amazon.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Illinois Institute of Technology. In J. http://lsa. http://www.pdf Zhou.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram. D.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. (2005). MA: MIT Press.. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.amazon. Abbott. C. August 31.). Jung Hee (2000). D. NJ: Prentice Hall. K. Chicago. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. R. A.) (1999).) (1999). Evens. Univ. S. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Doctoral Dissertation. Dobreva.pitt. Doctoral Dissertation. and Glass.colorado. and F. http://www. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss. http://www. M. Doctoral Dissertation. Brazil. (2004). 435-439..pdf Yang.amazon. of Colorado. computational linguistics and speech recognition.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Maceió.pdf Ram.pdf Jurafsky. C. and Martin. and Meinel. and Moorman. Chicago. http://www.. (2000).pdf Steinhart. Donnelly.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. Illinois Institute of Technology.. Lester. (Eds. Chicago. and Moorman. MA: MIT Press. Illinois Institute of Technology. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems.iit. K.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04.H. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool.iit.iit. Yujian (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. A. Upper Saddle River. McHugh. M. Doctoral dissertation. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.pdf Linckels. http://www. (Eds. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. M. http://www.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. David (2001).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. http://www.iit.cs.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.cs.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. http://www.cs. Paraguaçu (Eds. Cambridge. Feng-Jen (2001). C.linckels.digicult. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. M.cs.. S. http://www. Cambridge. Vicari.

combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. Brandon Hall Research . whose research is based on activity theory. Jokela (2003). The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. In the future.org/science/setiathome. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. thus bypassing a central server. http://www. As personal computers become more powerful.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. 170 © 2006.seti. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. thus bypassing a central server. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. or e-learning environments. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. and storage.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. chat rooms. Collaborative Peer Relationships . and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. memory. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. movies. and games. instant messaging.

robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.cs.weblogger.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity.stanford.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.berkeley. http://wwws.washington.cdt.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple. and translation servers throughout the Web.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://www.ucsb. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary. each with its own data schema. where students meet to share and exchange their productions.cs. Any computer can join the infrastructure. http://picto.com/ eduCommons .edu/piazza. http://www. http://edutella. encyclopedia. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.md3. http://data. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA. sharing.jxta. http://www. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. Do Not Reproduce 171 .mit. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. http://oceanstore.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival. http://cosl.cs.usu.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.edu/info/ove rview.pdos.sun. http://publius.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.lcs.The eduCommons is an open system for creating. http://lockss.groove. http://p2p.campusmoviefest. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

no Trojan horse” bundled with this program.movedigital.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.llearn.net/index.com/products/in dex. and videomakers. http://p2p. http://www. cross platform application (Win. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.bdaweb.se/proje ctdata. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists.html MoveDigital. http://www.com/english/content/ho me.co.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.elearningcentre.edu/apps_list.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes. http://www.co.stockholmchallenge.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.” It also says that there is “no spyware.internet2.overnet.bdaweb. http://lionshare.its. headquartered at Penn State University.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning. http://www.psu. allows anyone. no adware. data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p. http://www. http://www. musicians. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.fastrakconsulting.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www. http://www.com/ Overnet is an open source. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide.limewire.advancedreality. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. for a small fee.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities. Mac.

campustechnology.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross.html Fletcher.pdf Vassileva. University of Texas. Tektonidis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://www. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Online paper. and Higher Education 2003.edb.htm Cross.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. 2005. January 17.learningcircuits. Jennifer (2002). Luigi (2005). Healthcare. http://www. significance and impact. http://www. Austin.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. N.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise. Applications. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. Intranet Journal. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Jay (2001).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Judith (2006). and Guergachi. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto.. Case Studies. D. 2006. July 2001. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Martin (2004).de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. K.kbs. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. How P2P will change collaborative learning. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . H.masternewmedia. http://www. Government.editlib. (2002). 1624-1631. http://www.pdf Ratti. Robin Good Blog. Learning Circuits. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview.. Bokma. Online article.htm Farago-Walker. and Koumpis. AACE Journal 12(3).ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. http://www. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues.. Wolfgang (2002). Susan (2003). R.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann.org/index.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.). http://julita. Julita (2004).learningcircuits. (2004).edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing.editlib.org/index. 301-313. A.com/article. In Cunningham.utexas. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Miriam (Eds. January 2002. Paul & Cunningham.html Jokela. http://www.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. Paivi (2003). http://www.sunderland. http://voyager. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Campus Technology.unihannover. pp 1051-1058. Ginty. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. pp.ac. June 1.intranetjournal.pdf Farges.usask. eLearning and future trends. A.

A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. libraries. 174 © 2006. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Brandon Hall Research . such as search engines. whiteboard).Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. chat. Secondly. (Cortlett et al. learners need to be in real-world situations. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. This requires support over time. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. but these are only available to members of the course. and through a variety of technologies. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. and social bookmarking sites. without an offline client to the LMS. learning management systems. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. In many cases. A PLE is structured by the learner. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). e-portfolios. blogs. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. Individualization in an LMS is weak. there can be no electronic interaction. and. amongst institutions. etc. social environments. A PLE must support lifelong learning. discussion forums. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. work places. Technology needs to be situated. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems.. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. wikis. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. as learners move between institutions. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. often only for the purposes of the course. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. To practice real-world situations. for the learner. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories.). This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design.

T.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan. 22-27 July 2005. Terry (2006).ac.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett.edublogs. Sharples.elearning. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. J.ac. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.ac.pdf Farmer. Incorporated Subversion. Online case study paper.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. PLE Reference Model.ac. http://www. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. http://incsub.jisc. Las Vegas.uk/index. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.uk/ilogbook/de fault.org.. Chan. manage.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. (2005). Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Colin (2005). A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. M.bham. Jan. http://www.jisc. http://www.. and Westmancott. http://www. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. 2006.ac. Ting.cetis. Do Not Reproduce 175 . http://www.bath. January 9.ac. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. track.cetadl.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.cetis. James (2006). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.mlearn. Edinburgh. http://www..za/CD/papers/Corl ett.ac. http://portal. O. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. 2006. 11. D. Running on the learner's PC. and review his or her learning activity. UK. http://elgg. Nevada. http://terrya. it helps the user plan.

and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. or it can be an implicit model. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. through a questionnaire). Often. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation.). (Filippini-Fantoni. learning environments.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.g. 2005). yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. etc. colour. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. Furthermore. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. rule-based filtering. artificial intelligence. etc. However. Do Not Reproduce 176 .g. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. picture.. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. Keenoy et al. However. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. These techniques include content-based filtering. collaborative filtering.. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.

dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.ecdc.nl/publications/papers/M traits.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content..org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. http://www. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. The trails can useomarmo. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. navigation.virtualmuseum. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. and/or presentation of materials. chc021 http://www. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.html (handheld PCs.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.directa.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. http://www.calimera.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. objects leave “trails” .org/default.net/home. PDAs).firstmonday. dynamic user profiling techniques.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.emarcon.ac.time-ordered http://www.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. the personalization can be applied to content.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.hcrc.pdf kaleidoscope.g. http://www. A demo is available at: http://www.ed.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.uk/ilex/final.beta80group. Do Not Reproduce 177 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. http://www. wireless networks.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.elenaproject. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user.org/en/index. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites.ca/English/Per sonal/index. http://www.noech.

Online paper. May 25.pdf Ceccaroni.gla. A. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.di. http://tmtfactory.. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.pdf Calimera Project (2005).org/ Bibliography Abbott. 2004. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.pdf 178 © 2006.metmuseum. and Nuguid. J. Ler. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.unibo. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.ac. B. Daisy (2002). Cozzolongo. S.pdf Callaway. Gallipoli.. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. De Carolis. http://arxiv. Italy. (2004). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Melbourne. http://www.. S. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. Gallipoli. http://adiret.ascilite. Ngo. K. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. Bowen..org/pdf/cs. University of Glasgow. 2004.arts. http://smart.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. with a particular focus on the museum sector. (2005).calimera. J. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.umuai. Online paper. William Niu.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. (2005).pdf Bright. http://www. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.cs. G. http://www.org. Kay. Pizzutilo. L. http://www.. (AVI 2004). D. and FilippiniFantoni..unimagdeburg. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.pd f Cavalluzzi. A. A. May 25. Borda.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. Magical Mirror: multimedia.uniba.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. Brandon Hall Research ... The Future of Access (or. (2004).pdf Beler. http://www.. C.hatii. W. Italy.arces.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.CY/0409055 Boyle T. and Cook J. A.(2001). (AVI 2004). PowerPoint presentation. T. HATII. X. https://www. (2004). and Verdaguer.org/mymetmuse um/index. and Kuflik. A. interactive services in home automation. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.

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and real-time training and documents in a supportive. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. vendors.Portals Related terms Collaboration. collaborative environment. learning management systems. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. Brandon Hall Research . Knowledge Management. content management. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. which form a dynamic user profile.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. instructorled. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. 2001). and other roles outside an organization (Collins. In the business world.

saba.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. collaborative environment.300 online courses http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. students.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. Do Not Reproduce 185 .www2.microsoft. and shared lists for tasks.executrain. As of early 2006.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. document management information.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. instructor-led.teach-nology. go to: http://www. and schedules.000 online courses http://www.700 online courses http://www. online meetings with text. school administrators.microsoft. e-mail distribution lists.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.asp Element K – Access to over 2.000 lesson plans http://www. interactive discussion groups.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. audio and/or video.proquest.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo. administrators.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.fathom. instructors.elementk. museums.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. instant messaging.000 publishers worldwide http://www.trainingregistry. news and announce-ments. and universities. http://www.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.worldwidelearn.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.elearningeuropa. calendars.com/home.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. http://h20219. the portal offered information on more than 20.cyberu.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.hp. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.

Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. 2004.htm Brockbank.campustechnology.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. and Gordon.amazon.amazon.amazon. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. and Aucoin. A. C. Campus Technology Magazine. including educational uses.asp Katz.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Richard & Associates (2002). K. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. M. Hershey. http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron.tamtam. (Eds. http://www. Hershey. Learning Circuits. Reviewed at: http://www. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. http://www.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Campbell. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. A. New York: AMACOM. R.nl/mart/CategoryView. http://knowledgemanagement. PA: Information Science Publishing.) (2003).org/2000/may 2000/Barron. September 2000. (Eds.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. Tom (2000).aspx Bibliography Ateshian. http://blogs. Heidi (2001).educause. Cornelia (2000).educause.amazon.asp Terra. Heidi (2003). http://www. New York: AMACOM.Education.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. J.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 .. In Jafari.. baby! E-learning portals.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. http://www. M. and Sheehan. http://www. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. A Portrait of Learning Portals. category. Bray (2001). http://www.learningcircuits.ittoolbox. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. and Sheehan. May 2000. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. http://www.com/article. You’ve come a long way. PA: Information Science Publishing.learningcircuits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Ron (2004). March 1. (2003). (2003).

com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. Do Not Reproduce 187 . a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.lsc. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. Online presentations can be very boring. http://www.” In the Middle Ages.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. virtual classrooms. web conferencing.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. In fact. the word “lecturing” means “to read. when experts are not readily available. Consequently. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge.replayhq. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Experience them at: http://www. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.macromedia. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. Skypecasting. webcasting. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. However. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.com/site/index. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. In fact. http://www.” In the Middle Ages.

com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.kolabora.edu/TEAL). It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. http://ajax. videoconferencing. independent listing of Webinars.html#a1185 http://weblog.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.adelaide. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.masternewmedia. a columnist at InfoWorld. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.htm http://www.380000 5416.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://www.infoworld. although many are trying to change this practice.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. groupware.htm http://www.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.acue.ccimeet. http://cde.humanresourceWebinars. http://www. http://www.edu.mit.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.brandonhall.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.elluminate.hp. http://weblog. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. See the TEAL Project at MIT. online communities. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. virtual teams.athabascau.com Hewlett-Packard. Webcasts. http://www. intranets.silicon.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.com/udell/2005/0 1/22. http://www.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.39155030. online meetings. social software for online collaboration. and Web presentations.thinkofit. and e-learning.com/cxoextra/0. videoconferencing.kolabora. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. http://icampus. instant messaging. forums and message boards. in partnership with Dreamworks. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.com/publications/lel/lel.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. While it is expensive.00. http://www.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.com/webconf/index.infoworld. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.

com/eweek/webc onferencing. and Flash.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.elearningcentre. presentation and streaming presentation tools. http://www. virtual classrooms.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.programjunction. http://www. http://www.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. although it does not have to be.elearningcentre.presentations.com/downloads/sea rch. Captivate.com/presentatio ns/index. and whiteboarding. http://www.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.co. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.html Using Apreso software.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. http://www.lsc.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.co.elearningcentre.e-learningcentre.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.eweek. Web conferencing.co.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.timelyweb. http://www. htm http://www.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.filesland. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/live.apreso.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. http://buyersguide. virtual meetings.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.html Do Not Reproduce 189 .com/software/presen tation.” http://www.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. Breeze.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations. and kidneys. http://www. Web seminars. brain.co. Authorware.elearningcentre. Dreamweaver.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Coursebuilder.

2005.pdf http://www. http://labnol. Sept. July 26.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. May 15.com/BreezePart 1.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth.htm Canali De Rossi. July 8. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze.aln.russellmcnally. (in two parts) http://www.pdf McFerrin. Robin Good Blog.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.com/wwwtools/m/21593.html Canali De Rossi.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003c). Live and Online!: tips.masternewmedia.htm Hofman. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Learning Circuits. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. http://www. 2003. Luigi (2003b)..asp McNally. Sept.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.01. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. 2004. April 30. Robin Good Blog. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. P. 2003. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . http://www. (2002). Christine (2001). http://www.com/product /software/795/index.amazon. Jennifer (2004).com/BreezePart 2.htm Duckworth. Russ (2004).html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.fasfind. 2003. and Furr. http://www.. Belinda (2003). Armit (2005). Luigi (2003a).downloadjunction. 3.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. 7(3). Live ELearning. http://www.learningcircuits. Digital Inspiration. K.russellmcnally. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://m. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.masternewmedia. http://www. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. July.aace.masterviews.blogspot. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.

html Zielinski. InfoWorld. (2004).com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. Start Saving Time and Money Today.amazon.open. L. S. Dave (2002). Choose the Right Vendors. (2003). http://www. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. Choices are great. 2005.presentations. P. http://kmi.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.ac.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . http://www. and Winfield. and Quick. and Equipment. K.pdf Spielman.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1. but… Presentations Magazine. Feb. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Dec. http://www.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1.infoworld. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. 11.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. AMACOM. Software.

very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. For example. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Tools for rapid e-learning are. graphics. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. glossary. In the second sense of the term. Deploys easily . or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. easy to use. including tools and templates. According to Ready Go!. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. Do Not Reproduce 192 .” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. by necessity. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. It is best suited to textbased materials. FAQ. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Advanced features. are built in. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Instructional design built in. and drill down pages.does not require any plug-ins. Standardize approaches. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. a demand to produce online content very quickly. or where the online information frequently changes. 2003). Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. just-intime e-learning. It can refer to learning something quickly. tests. Navigation built in . extreme e-learning. but not always good for you. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. such as creating links. In the first case. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. or HTML knowledge. programming. It can refer to learning something quickly. Does not require any advanced skills. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. learning objects. simple.automatically assures that all navigation works. and clip art is straight forward and supported .

computer games. http://www.masie.elearningguild.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. http://www. version control protocols. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. which contains information on resources.raptivity. Do Not Reproduce 193 .scate.” Find out more: http://www.. manage the content and the users. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. Kendrick (2006). Clark (2005). software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.readygo. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. and communicate deliverable expectations.org Web site. To be effective. http://www. conferences. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.versus high-interaction). virtual classroom. 2006.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.microlearning. a demand to produce online content very quickly. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. Templates.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. 2003). 2004). Edit. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. and other good stuff. Future-Proofing. or where the online information frequently changes. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.elearningcentre. January 23.amazon. schedule and due dates. See a demo at: http://www. See sample templates at: http://www.e. http://www. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. low.com/studio.htm Bibliography Abell. Learning Solutions. Reduce the number of development vendors. centrally located files.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Enhance. and Publish.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.articulate. Assign SMEs who are committed. Reusability.co. San Francisco: Pfieffer.pdf Aldrich. http://www. http://www.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.

J.elearningguild. June 30. http://www. Joe (2005). April. Jennifer (2004).com/content/templat es/clo_article. E-Learning for short attention spans. July 2004.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Bill (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp Bersin.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.clomedia.ltimagazine.htm Bersin. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks.elearningguru. Larstan Business Reports.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.ltimagazine.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. Josh (2005).jsp?id=102399 DeVries.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning. 2002. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. J. July 2. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Learning Solutions. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Jay (2005).pdf Crosman. Vignettes for Training White Paper. 9.pdf Brodsky. Chief Learning Officer.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Dianne (2005). Bersin and Associates White Paper. 2004. Garin (2004).learningcircuits. http://www. tools.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Transform Magazine. http://www. August 2004.pdf Jimenez. http://www.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. http://www. 2006. Tips and Techniques. Penny (2004). http://www. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Mar.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.meetingone. Lane (2002). http://www.bersin. http://www. Josh (2004). Brandon Hall Research . (2004). June. http://www. LTI Newsline. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.clomedia. Paper. http://vftraining. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.elearningguild.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Chief Learning Officer. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. Ray (2006).transformmag. 2006. http://www.com/showArticle.elearningmag. Making rapid elearning work. January. Learning Circuits. http://www. Nov.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. 10.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.com/articles/ab stracts/index. LTI Newsline.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.adobe. Jan. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Rapid Intake White Paper. LTI Newsline.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. Kevin (2002). http://www. and Bersin. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work.clomedia. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Ray (2005). Mark (2003).pdf Jimenez. Chief Learning Officer. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. e-Learning Crop Circles.pdf Gustafson.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald. http://www.

A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Press release. http://download. http://www. February 2005.com/content/templat es/clo_article.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc.pdf Shepherd. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.pdf Macromedia Inc. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. http://www.htm Masie Center (2005).com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.clomedia. http://www.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Macromedia White Paper. Learning Circuits. Macromedia White Paper. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.com/articles/ default. April 20. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. http://www. http://download. 2006. Clive (2006).asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Learning Solutions.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.elearningguild. Nick (2005). (2004a).asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. Stephanie (2006). Rapid e-learning gets the job done.pdf Mayberry.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Eric (2003). (2004b). Mobile and Device Based Learning.learningcircuits. January 2003. 2005. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 . Simulation.macromedia. January 16. Ed (2004).com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.trainingpressreleases.trainingfoundation. The Training Foundation online article.macromedia. http://www.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. June 2004.com/news story.clomedia.

Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.com/ http://www. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://robotics. engineering. and mathematics. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. technology.org/aboutbotball/overview. for underwater exploration.botball. Inc.gov. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.aad. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. engineering. http://mindstorms. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. http://www. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.active-robots.whmsi. and math. http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. technology. http://www.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.lego.nasa. Do Not Reproduce 196 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.ife. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.

gov/rcc/index. Mr. and other information on robotics. lip movements. http://www. Find out more about this group at: http://www.kipr. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. particularly robotics. Do Not Reproduce 197 . Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.ams. http://www. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.com/r_home.net/ Run by NASA.atr.osaka-u.sci. http://robotics. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence.ed. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.nasa.evolution.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics. technology.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. By donning motion sensors. one child at a time. links. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.ri.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. and vocal tics.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.org/article. http://robothaven.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. It features news.irc.jp/ See also: http://www. go to: http://www.edurobot.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.euron. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.rec.microworlds. http://www.edu/index.eng.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. and mathematics.profetic.cmu.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.brooklyn. http://www.ac.cuny. engineering. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. http://www.

Ottawa. http://dangermouse. (1999). and Yanco. and Meeden. Kumar. 28-30. (2004). M. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. Sept. and Wagner. http://rob..pdf Ferrari.pdf Stewart. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector..de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er. A. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.fhbrandenburg.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. I. (2004). and Loose. D.. http://www. H.ccmlab. D..tools for accessible education. and Powerful Ideas. (2005). Mindstorms: Children.wtec. W. http://www..l3s.. H.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. U. M.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. M. Dobreva. (2001). Germany. November. Abbott. New York. http://zeus. Harwin. http://www.pdf Nourbakhsh. and Dautenhahn. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. S. H. D. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.uml. June. and Mataric. D. C.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. (1980).. M.pdf Cooper. G. Keating. L. Proceedings. Kumar. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics.. Computers.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Yanco. T. L.pdf Blank. I. Lathan. S.cmu.andrew. McHugh.amazon. Düsseldorf. and Hempel. B. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . Germany. P. D..ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. http://www. Miller. K. AAATE Conference 1999. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education.l3s.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Ferrari.. (2001). (2005). Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. New York: Syngress Publishing. Paper at the American Assoc.pdf Papert.. Heinsohn. Donnelly. Basic Books.pdf Boersch. Ontario..amazon. R. http://www.cs. J. A. Artificial Intelligence Conf.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. (2004).. D. http://www. Sept. R. Hohmann.. (2004). Meeden.brynmawr. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. and Rusbridge. M.digicult. Robots in the classroom . D.pdf http://www.. http://www. and West.

collaboration. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. meta-search engines. which submit queries. collective intelligence. Do Not Reproduce 199 . a rich user experience. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Ezzy (2006a. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. While search engines have improved over the past several years. dependable information. such as Google and Altavista. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. Meta–search engines. such as Yahoo. in parallel. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Web directories. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. search engine optimization. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . federated search. each with their own defining feature sets. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. as this section of the report shows. Examples are Google and Overture.examples are early yahoo. resource discovery. One is the problem of finding relevant. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. They bring into the equation user preferences. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. But. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. data mining.so they take the structure of the Web into account. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices.com and Alta Vista. information retrieval. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive.

com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.faganfinder.convera. http://www. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.alexa. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).com’s search service http://a9.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.about. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.com/ 200 © 2006. 2004).com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.ask.alltheweb. http://www.aol.aeiwi. http://www. then fill in the search box. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.gada.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com Gada. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.com/ Answers.answers. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. get answers http://www.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . and text. video. http://www.altavista. http://search. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.com About.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://www.gigablast. http://www. http://www. for a variety of reasons. http://www.

google.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://search.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.icerocket.umich.squidoo.gravee. http://channels.qelix. http://www. http://www. http://dmoz. http://qube.otavo.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.com/search/def ault.netscape. http://www. http://search.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://www. http://rollyo.msn. http://www.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. blogs.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.gnod.pubsub.grokker. http://www.com/ Gravee .com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://getoutfoxed.mooter.umdl. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://www.hotbot. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. and the Web. http://oaister.looksmart.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.com/ 201 © 2006.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.jookster. http://www. http://www.com/v2/index.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears. Brandon Hall Research .lexxe. http://www.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. rather than just returning Web pages.

com/%7Eappelt/fastus.com/ 202 © 2006.govmine.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.ist.eurekster. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. Wink then diplays the results.ujiko. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://citeseer.ai.Clusters results.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . books.wink.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://www.google.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. http://www.healthfinder. http://swicki.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. users tag their favorite results and block spam.acronymfinder.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://icerocket.gov/ http://www.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. Much of this information is hidden from view.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. cast lists and theatre schedules.google.com/v2a/flash. http://www.blinkx. http://tagjag. reviews. http://firstgov. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://www.sri. http://froogle. http://www. http://scholar. http://vivisimo. http://books.ucr. http://www.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://infomine.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.google.yahoo. http://www. and movies. http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. Brandon Hall Research .gnoosic.imdb.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.stumbleupon.psu.gpoaccess.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.

http://www. AolKIDS.almaden.fm/ LawCrawler . reviews.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.nlm. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.findlaw.com/ LitLinker .f cgi QBIC .com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.krugle.merl.koders. http://wwwqbic. http://www. http://www.cfm?doid=105 6808.rrzn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www.last. http://www.liveplasma.ncbi. http://www.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.imdb. & KidsClick!. http://www.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006.org/ Omgili .omgili.A legal search engine.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.gov/entrez/query.com/ Last. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://www.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. http://lawcrawler.convera.uni-hannover.acm.com/ MediaFinder . http://portal.ithaki. http://kids.ibm.nih.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. FactMonster. Yahooligans.scirus. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. AwesomeLibrary.pandora.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www. http://www.org/citation.rawsugar. ArtKIDSRule.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. Brandon Hall Research .fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.

net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.seekport.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.ee. http://www. http://nlp.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.searchking. http://www. companies.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. or federated searching.xcavator.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://www. http://techsearch. http://smealsearch1.ee. and notes.” Content-based search engines for pictures.soundspotter.psu.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://www.columbia.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.columbia.ee.technorati.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.cs. as of this writing.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://wang16.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. and tracks a user's search history. http://www.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.ist.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. bookmarks.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www.nyu. and their relationships. Known as “meta-search” engines.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.searchedu.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.cmp. http://www.psu.com 204 © 2006.zoominfo. http://www. http://www. http://www.4 billion links.truveo. http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. Brandon Hall Research .cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://a9.

fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.search.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.intute. is a valuable resource for researchers. eBay. http://www. movies. weather.searchtools. greeting cards. http://www.net/indexu.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. jobs.ac. video. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.info. http://www. http://www. produces a visual display of the clusters. and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www-rocq. yellow pages. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. flights. tickets. http://www.uk/ SearchTools.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.com/ Info – Searches reference works. white pages. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. apartment rentals.ixquick.trovando. http://www. health information sources.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. classifieds. shopping sites. Brandon Hall Research .com/ 205 © 2006. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.dogpile. news sources. lottery results. http://www.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.zapmeta. pictures.ithaki. therefore.kartoo.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.inria.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://vivisimo. audio. http://clusty. http://www. hotels.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. including a set of international telephone directories.researchbuzz. games. city guides. maps/directions. and links the clusters. dating and personals. http://www. http://www. http://www.copernic.

http://firstgov. the user's community has total control over the results. focused searches on topics they care about.co. For example. http://www. http://www. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.gov/ http://www.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. Y. Brandon Hall Research .elearning. http://www.just as a search engine is used for text.ac.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. 10(12).gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.html 206 © 2006.tveyes.eurekster. http://infomine.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. This search engine. Frank.. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. phrase.com/ Stephen Downes.gpoaccess.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.bolton. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.ac. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. First Monday.downes. http://searchenginewatch. is against the idea of federated searches.searchenginecolossus. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. http://www. or swicki. http://swicki. and Shoham. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. can be published on the user's site. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.ucr.netmasters. or topic . Users can also browse by subject category. December.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. Unlike other search engines.firstmonday. S. (2005). A.citysearch.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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InfoWorld.info/journals/7_4/5.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. 7. and Gouarderes. D.asp Udell. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.unikarlsruhe. Millard. G..Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. (2004). http://ewic.ecs. 2004.pdf Tane. A. L. http://www. (2001). http://www.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. May 17–22.pdf Sampson. and Christodoulou. August 2. H. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle.. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.. 2005. E. F. G. G. L. The Semantic Web. Karenos. Woukeu. CT: Manning.pdf Samaras. (2003). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. Nov. (2005). Marketing Profs. Greenwich. C. F. http://wwwsop.ac.. http://www2004. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Economics and Culture. and Stumme. http://www. Wagner.pdf Tao.. 2003.ac. and Worldview.pdf Updegrove.bbk.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. and Studer. Schmitz. (2004). G. Davis. 2004.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. http://www. eLearning based on the Semantic Web.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. D. Staab.amazon. P. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Paper presented at the GLS conference.. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. K.html Stojanovic.. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. A. (2005). December 3.. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks.shirky.html Do Not Reproduce 213 . Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. USA.bcs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. Networks. http://www. and Diaz.uk/selene/reports/D el3. 26-28. New York.soton. and Davis. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Andy (2005). http://eprints. Syllogism. M. New York.ifets.. http://www.infoworld.pdf Tao. and Woukeu.com/login/sign up. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. John (2004).marketingprofs.dcs. D. Thomas (2004).pdf Shirky.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 7 (4).aifb.inria. Clay (2003). R. H. Millard. J. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. S. http://www. (2004). Lytras.

and the Semantic Web. http://www. Darwin.w3.10577. Peter (2003). January 17.cetis. David (2002). The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.co. 2005. June 14.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.981948.com/read/swiftkick /column. (2003). http://www. http://poorbuthappy.html Wilson.guardian. Semantic Web.ac. http://education.ac. and Miller. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). 2002. Scott’s Workblog. trust.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . 2003. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. B. CETIS Online article.cetis. Online article.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. http://www. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Who said that? Metadata. June 21. Scott (2005). Scott (2002).00.darwinmag.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. Online article. L.

edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. 2005).noaa. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. reviewed simulations as an online content format.e. http://www. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.gov/ Winters et al. role-playing.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. http://cave. participants will be motivated to evaluate.uiuc. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.” My first report in this series.icherubini.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.ncsa.insead.calt. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. especially ones set by themselves. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. http://sos. i. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. It was decommissioned in 2005. games. Do Not Reproduce 215 .edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. http://www. but information about it remains on the Web. learn.insead. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. According to High (2004).calt. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. microworlds. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.

html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning. http://thinkertools.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.umich.insead.lsa.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www.edcenter. Do Not Reproduce 216 .net/celestia/index." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.making-history. http://www. http://www. http://www.edu/harvey_about.insead.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. they are only available for Macintosh computers. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.insead.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. and Mac OS X.noaa. http://geowall.edcenter.geo.fsl. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.edu/ http://um3d. It runs on Windows.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. However. http://www.shatters.soe.sdsu.umich.calt. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. http://crme.edu/geowall/ind ex.calt. Linux.dc. pulse rate. and murmurs.calt.insead..med.berkeley.calt.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. heart sounds." http://www. Mass. http://www.miami. breathing. with many examples to try.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://www.sdsu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.

Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.stt-global. http://www.maxit.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .com/ Forio . http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .virtualfishtank.com/broadcastoverview.knowledgeplanet.ht m Intermezzon . Integrates with many media types.adobe. http://www.experiencebuilders. http://www.com/ MaxIT .KnowledgePresenter Simulator .knowledge-director.atghome.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. go to: http://www.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. http://www.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.ISLE .com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.com/ MaxIT . http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .com/ Kookaburra Studios .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software. http://www.intermezzon.biographix.forio. http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www. For example.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .com/ Knowledge Planet .knowledgepresenter. to play in a virtual fishtank.adobe. http://www. http://www. http://www.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/product s/firefly.knowledgequest.net/ Biographix . http://www. http://www.assima. without programming knowledge.maxit.

reusableobjects.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/3dTraining. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.xstreamsoftware.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.qarbon. http://www.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www.sdsu. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.icherubini. http://www.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 . including simulations. http://www. http://www. http://coe.co.percepsys.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.stottlerhenke.teds.com/products/sim.nexlearn.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.com/portal/index.outstart.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.virtualcontrolroom. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.stagecast.” http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation. which can then be used to build simulations.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.learning2005.com/product_r pe. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.com/ Reusable Objects .elearningcentre. http://www.

October 2004. http://www. computer games. A. http://www. Paper presented at Robocup conference.uva. September. Mazloumian.pdf Cherubini.amazon. http://www. Shannon (2004). San Francisco: Pfieffer.. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). 12. Bjorn (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 219 . June. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. T.ft... Taghiyareh. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Feb. Gash.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. H. Learning Circuits. p. A. Learning Circuits. (2004).PDF Blikstein.eschoolnews. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Kamau (2004). Sept.jibc. Jennifer (2004).asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Aug. In Interaction Design and Children. http://www.com/content/template s/clo_feature.medialabeurope.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. U. 4.htm High. http://www.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training. html Bibliography Aldrich.htm eSchool News (2004).blikstein. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits.science. http://www. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.bc. P. 2004. http://www. B. Clark (2005).. Financial Times. 2002. http://www.pdf DeVries.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. http://www. Rasmussen. and McCloughlin. 8. Making the most of software simulations.clomedia. http://www. J. How playing power drives lessons home. Clark (2004).uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Utrecht.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. 2004. 2004. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science.learningcircuits. F. Simjour.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.. (2002). eSchool News.learningcircuits. Holland. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8.com/news/showS tory. and Wilensky. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. A. The promise of online simulations.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. M. and Bostan. Six criteria of an educational simulation. (2005). International Workshop. http://www.bbk.htm Aldrich.ac.

Simulation levels in software training. USA.bham. (2001). Florida. (2002).simplay. Mar.ht m Sloman. http://www.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. April. A.net/papers/ELearning. Viswanathan. http://www. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04.learningcircuits..case studies.html Sobeih.dei. Online paper at: http://lsm. Montréal. Department of Computer Science. A. September. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.. M. 17. AACE conference.. Gary (2003).projects.. 1(10). Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. October 15-19. In Association for Computing Machinery. http://www. R.ncassr. http://www. July. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge.icherubini. http://www.pdf Turkle. Online report. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. Computer simulations in distance education.-Apr.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . A..it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. M.uc.ac. J. Sherry (1997). and Hou. J. October. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.for Philosophers and Engineers. Learning Circuits.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.pdf Swaak. (2001). http://www. T. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. L.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer. Implementation and Evaluation. Aaron (2005).protonmedia.html Winters.cs.prospect. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Les (2004).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. http://itdl. Cherubini. (2003). and Strohecker. Fort Lauderdale. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. and Ip.pdf Tjaden. & de Jong. Laser. C.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. http://www.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper. A. (2004). 8(31).html Linser. 284-294. 1997. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. N. The American Prospect. and Sund Martin.html Lunce.

symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.ala. http://www. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. easily changed. especially in museums and for outdoor education. optical tags. While controversial.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. 2005). especially for tagging retail items in stores. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. infrared (IR) tags. or water. They are programmable and. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Do Not Reproduce 221 . Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. therefore.org/Template. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. which transmits over short distances. grease. For a full discussion of this issue. RFID technology is developing rapidly.

James (2006).com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn. Noda..html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x. http://www. C. A. K. http://www.cfm?fus http://www.rfidnews. 2005.. http://www.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y..pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. and Case.ac. Osawa.com/monthly/articl e.. http://www.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. G. 5.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly. in a 2005 online article. (2004).infoworld. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.iu. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. http://uitspress. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. especially for tagging retail items in stores. & Richards. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. Noma.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.).info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. In Kommers.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. Ando..shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton.digicult. (Eds.open. A.msu. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices..iu. (2005).com/default .aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. & Kondo. K. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. S.. http://www.html (Online). http://cnm. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 . Oct. 2004.toydirectory.aace. Infoworld.org/newdl/index. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. P. April 13. http://www. June 27.edu/102605_meal. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning..checkpointsystems.aace. T.edu/index. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.csmonitor. http://www.” http://vis.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. Tsukagoshi. N. symbology tags. Shibuya.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.org/ Bibliography Borck.

4(3). http://www. http://www.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602. TD Monthly.org/news/showstor y. Corey (2004).pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 . 261-263.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). S. http://www. http://www. van Kranenburg. and Backhouse. M. M.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc.. Aparna (2004).jisc. Technology Watch Report 1.xml&DOI=10. http://csdl2. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.asp?id=1222 Ross. R. Ogata. (2005).com/monthly/article .1109/WMTE.msu. RFID: frequency.toydirectory. H. (2006). R.66 Ward.2005. Andrew (2005).. http://www. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Masters Thesis. G. adoption and innovation.pdf Robinton.ac..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.pdf Salcedo. Y.digicult.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. (2003). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. eSchool News Online. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. March.. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Donnelly. and Dobreva. Michigan State University. January 1. Proceedings. M. 2004.computer.eschoolnews. and Yano.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. standards. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.

” a location to store links that might be lost to time.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.icio. as each member can upload resources discovered. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. no matter their location or timing. and books. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. Do Not Reproduce 224 . There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. in turn. search. Second. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. printouts. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. and Web links. metadata. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. For instance. or distributed in emails. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. ontologies. Fourth. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. tagging. music.icio. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. faculty.us Web site (http://del. while users of the del. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. The result is something called a tag cloud. researchers at all levels (students.us) post their favorite Web sites. Fifth. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.First. As of April 2006. Students. Flickr held over 100 million images. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. Third. they act as an “outboard memory. For example.” However. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries….

blogging. but. With digg.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. http://www. connect with others.blinklist.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. users can see what others are Blinking.connotea. They can save references. users submit stories for review.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. and non-hierarchical editorial control. describe. and to share them.metafilter.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. http://ask.com/ Blinklist . They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.org/ Consumating .digg. http://flickr. share their stories.furl. sort. search.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. and organize the academic papers they are reading. http://blogmarks. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.43things.icio. http://www. Also retrieve it easily. http://www.com/ Del.citeulike.us/ Digg .A free service to help academics share.eventful. store. music. http://www.clipmarks. Do Not Reproduce 225 .com/archives/beta_up date/index.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.com/ Flickr – Store. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. share references with colleagues.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. or check out what everyone wants to do.com Clipmarks . RSS.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. http://www.icio. search others’ references. and search for a specific user's Blinks.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.net/ CiteULike . get inspired.com/ Furl . Also. http://www. and/or books and find them again.us . http://www. Blink also provides tools to sort. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.feedmarker. and share photos with others.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. the users decide.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://del. http://consumating. http://blog. http://www.

http://projectpad. http://jots.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. based on what is happening in the news media. http://www. Tags can be shared or kept private.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs. http://www.simpy. and discover relevant links.com/ Jots . http://www.northwestern. http://www.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . http://www. http://www. similar to Digg.kaboodle.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.smugmug.linkroll.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com/ Project Pad .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .netvouz.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://www.pageflakes.edu/ppad2 /index.gnolia.shadows.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. http://www.org/news.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.eu/products/networ k_menus.html Linkroll .html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. or enter new items and tag them.A free. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.rojo.yahoo.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://www.netscape. updated in near real time.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.search.com/ Simpy – Search tags.networkltd.com/ Kaboodle .spurl.jookster.com/ Magnolia . http://www.memeorandum. http://ma. http://www. share.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://myweb2. http://www.

has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.icio.A.us. http://www.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.wists.educause.icio.zvents. http://tabblo.veotag.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story. Flickr.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001. http://www.quickonlinetips.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.html http://atomiq.peterme. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.html http://tagsonomy.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.” http://www.com/archives/00055 8. http://upcoming.quickonlinetips. and share it with others. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . http://www.tagzania.wink.quickonlinetips. http://www.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 . http://www. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.com/ SWiK .com/udell/gems/d elicious. http://swik.html http://www.suprglu.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.infoworld.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. tags.com/writings/ontology_overra ted. If a city is not there. with contributions from users. http://www.yelp.com Wists – A social shopping site.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. http://www.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. http://unalog. and social bookmarking. http://weblog. and Digg.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.S.us. http://www. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.com/index.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.

http://many.. Tom.pdf 228 © 2006.289142. 41(2)..” http://magazines. 2. http://www. 2005. and Hannay. 20. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. (2005). T. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Plasticbag. Social consequences of social tagging.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Sept.pbs.com/originalCo ntent/0. http://www. 2006. Many2Many..fasfind. http://dlib. Brandon Hall Research . SearchCIO. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). http://searchcio.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Liz (2005). http://www. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. Adam (2004). S.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. (2005). 11(4). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.html Coates. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. Bryan (2006).plasticbag.dlib.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.corante. 11(4). http://www.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. J.pdf Gurber. Web 2.hpl.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.. 2006.html Lawley.fasfind. (2005).ht ml Mejias.html Mathes.techtarget.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. M. D-Lib Magazine. Andy (2006).00. Ulises (2004).ascc. Shamus (2006). Online paper.adammathes. Keynote address.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. May 5.ejournal.typepad. B. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.org. March/April 2006. Tom (2005). http://ideant. Hammond. B. D-Lib Magazine. T.com.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. April 2005. Flack.sid19_gci1195182.html McGillicuddy. and Huberman.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.. and Scott.hp. Hannay.php Lund. T. Jan. http://www. (2005). Lund.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. B.shtml Golder. http://www. 2005.org/teachersource/learning . T.com/wwwtools/m /6350. April 2005.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. June 21.. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.com/wwwtools/m /7172. http://tomgruber.educause.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.htm Hammond. HP Labs Report.

com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. http://www.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. InfoWorld. May 20.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias. Jon (2005). 2005. Online Paper. Webblogg-ed.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . 2005.infoworld. http://www. The New School of Ontologies. Jon (2004). Tag mania sweeps the Web. Trusted Sources. Nicholas (2004). InfoWorld. http://ideant.pdf Richardson. August 20. http://www. Ideant.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Ulises (2005). 2004.infoworld.isi.html Mote.weblogged. 2005. Aug.html Udell. http://www.typepad.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. Will (2005). Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Tags vs. July 20. 2.

social software. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. SMS.) Relationship Management (Orkut. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. family.al.) Experience Sharing (blogs.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. shared link libraries such as del. reviewed social networking as an online content format. social networking sites such as Friendster. etc.com. Do Not Reproduce 230 . e-mail. photo albums. shared links. My first report in this series.com. dating sites. 2005). genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et. etc.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging.” that is. e-mail. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM.icio. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. photo sharing sites. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. communities of practice. Friendster. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. tagging. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. etc. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs.us. etc. online personals such as Match.

my-diary.html Last. which is then open to other readers. and geographic regions.com/signin/index. https://www. documents. http://www.facebook.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. http://www. workplaces.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.classmates. http://www.livejournal.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. http://www. http://www. work.last.friendster. http://www.freeopendiary. List who a person knows and find out who others know.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.” http://www. and the military.intronetworks. and within “communities of interest.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.linkedin.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. in associations.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www.faceparty.diaryland. high schools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. http://www. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.codeville. Do Not Reproduce 231 .orkut. and files and then make them available to others. as a blog. http://www.myspace.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. audio.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.com/ Orkut . video. or as a social network. Facebook has networks for colleges. http://www.com/introNetwor ks. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.esnips. photos. Share it with others if desired. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. The sites are places to meet people with common interests.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.com/ Live Journal .com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. https://www.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. http://www.

html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.S.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.orgnet. coupled with NetDraw.orgnet.html Org. http://www.pbwiki.spartasocialnetworks.html 232 © 2006.orgnet.netminer. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. Users share their writings and meet each other. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.com/index. http://platial. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. It costs several thousand dollars.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that.pbs.com/hijackers. upload photos. http://www.stumbleupon. Brandon Hall Research .com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. see the JNthWeb Wiki.com/index.com/reg/sample. http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.com/ucinet. http://www.yahoo. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://jnthweb. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. http://www.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. http://www.analytictech. http://www. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College. Columbia University. http://360. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.xanga. http://www. This software produces great graphs of social networks.analytictech.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/inflow3.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. check out the map at org. http://ideant. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.typepad. http://www.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.

Verna (2004). http://www1. Terry (2005). 2005.ucr. Nov. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. http://www.co.org. Knowledge Management Magazine.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu.html Allen.lifewithalacrity. 32(4). 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. 28. http://www. Virtual Canuck.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam. http://en. Oct. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Christopher (2004).org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab..theworkfoundation.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. Educational Social Overlay Networks. http://www. see the list in Wikipedia. 2004.net/ssa/index.com/xq/asp/sid.uva.com/cgibin/mb.elsevier.fmg. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. KM and the Social Network.kmmagazine.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 .futurelab.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction. OD Practitioner. http://www.insna.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle.odnetwork.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www. Life with Alacrity.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display. http://www.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets. Patti (2003).wikipedia.pdf Bibliography Allee. http://www.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. http://terrya.elearningcentre. May 2003.html Anderson.analytictech.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites.socialtext.jsp SocioSite: Networks.usemod. 13. but. http://faculty. http://www.. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. Groups.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www2.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites. http://www.edublogs. http://www.

14. http://harvardbusinessonline.htm Davies. MA. Winter 2002.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. You Don't Know Me.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. John (2004). Stephen (2004).00.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd. 44. Liedtka. Stowe (2004). Social Capital & Social Software. Business Networking Systems. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. January 2004. Distance and E-Learning. (2005). http://harvardbusinessonline. R.html Cross.com/read/050103/ social. September 2003. The Work Foundation.darwinmag. R. Feb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. http://www. Harvard Business Review.hbsp.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main. Cracking the social code.com/read/010104/ context.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. July 12. (2002).harvard .downes. Harvard Business Review. Stephen (2005).jsp Downes. Stowe (2003b). Dead Already? PC World. L. May 2003.com/read/090103/ social. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.pdf Cross. and Prusak. J. California Management Review.html Dvorak. OLDaily.eurodl. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open.ca/files/osn.amazon. Cambridge. September 20. (2004).asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . http://www.com/mr/hbsp. 2005.darwinmag.com/article2/0. http://www.darwinmag.contentdirections.hbsp. Research Report. Linked: The New Science of Networks. A. R. but..pcmag..j sp?doi=10.ca/cgibin/page. and Parker. Cambridge.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. and Parker. R.analytictech. Christian (2006). http://www. (2002). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web. The Barriers of Content and Context. A. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. March 2005.. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.html Boyd. A.1225/R0503H Cross.html Boyd. William (2003).1759.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.. http://www. (2002). Borgatti. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Vol. Stowe (2003a).1 648185. L.harvard . Feb. No. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. http://doi. http://www. 2. June 2002. Perseus Publishing. Darwin.. http://www. Darwin. A Practical Guide to Social Networks.downes.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes.theworkfoundation.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. http://www. and Weiss. L. 11. S. http://www. 2004 http://www.

futurelab. Bristol. How to Save the World Blog. and Brewer (1994). David (2005a). and Facer. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.ac. http://www. K. 8(8).learningcircuits.org/cgi/viewconte nt. http://www. http://lrs. http://cogdogblog. Art (2003).com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind.h tml (Review) Gladwell. Grant.amazon. (2001).net/AugmentedSocial Network. (2006). http://asn. R. http://www.htm http://www.. Social Software and Learning. J.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. Social Networks. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. K.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. Malcolm. (2000). http://repositories. Feb..pdf Pollard.netform.ucr.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . Riverside.. Hauser. (Online book).pdf Jordan.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. http://www. A. L. 29. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business.pdf Levine.com/html/s+b%20arti cle.learningcircuits. and Riddle. Oliver.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. Dec. 15.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. L.ed.uiuc. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. J. April 15. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. CA: University of California. A. D. (2003). http://blogs.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. Allan (2006). and Foster.. Seven Principles of Social Networking. Social software in action (No real software required). Brown. M. Zucker. Lanham.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. M.). Eva (2003).org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan.cdlib. August.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel. Sayers. First Monday. Southhampton. Research Report. 2006. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. CogDogBlog. Caroline (2005).htm Kleiner. 2005. Learning Circuits.planetwork. Research Report. http://faculty. July 14. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. S. (2004). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Online paper.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. S.org. 21. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. & Barney. 2005. No. UK: Futurelab. (Eds. Ulrike.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.wun. New York: Little.net/ir/reviews/revs163.. Institute for Social Science Research. (2005).salon. (in 2 parts) http://www.

ht ml Sessums. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online).html Pollard. http://www. D.net/csessums/weblog/6238.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. Social Software presentation.net/csessums/weblog/13748. 8. and Werdmuller. Clay (2003). http://www.html Pollard. http://blogs. Connectivism: learning as network creation.learningcircuits. G. http://eradc. March 9.00. 2006.1 842806. Social Network Analysis. 2005. Social network analysis: what to map. and M.shirky. Lance (2005).com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. Jan.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. http://blogs. (2004).indiana. 341-358. Aug. Nov. 11.com/writings/group_poli tics.edu/rocha/ises. Van de Vijver.html Siemens. B.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. Delpos (eds. 2003.com/booksProdDesc. 2005. 2006. Elgg: Community Learning Space. John (2000). Christopher (2006b).sagepub.1895.).html Do Not Reproduce 236 .pcmag.htm Tosh.h tml. Rescuing social networking. Salthe. and Raefali S.salon.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. 2.com/4520-6033_16240543-1. Teaching. Christopher (2006a). http://www.salon. How to Save the World Blog. G. Luis M. David (2005b). Kluwer Academic Publishers. How to Save the World Blog. 2005. June 2. June 16. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. George (2005).org/2005/nov2 005/seimens. September. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. 23. May 5. 9(9). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Molly (2005). Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet. Nov. http://blogs. The social networking landscape. Draft paper online. Learning and Computing.firstmonday. http://www. (2005). First Monday.cnet. Aug.h tml Shirky.pdf Ulanoff.asp Wood.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. Social software and the politics of groups. In: S.html Ravid. 2005. pp. http://informatics.salon. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. Learning Circuits. http://elgg.com/article2/0. David (2005d). Scott. http://www.Organization. http://www. Thousand Oaks. How to Save the World Blog. (1998). CNET. David (2005c). http://elgg. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. 2005. CA: Sage Publications.

Do Not Reproduce 237 . In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. and the sense of contact with.g.. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. cameras. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings.hp. presence. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. as if they were in the same room. 11. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. another person while communicating via the Web. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. http://www. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. presentation tools.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. "online" or "offline") of other users. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV). transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. share files and documents. In 2000. When it is fully successful. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person.hp. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. are also available. and shout over each other to try to be heard.com/halo/index. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. 2001. just like during a real meeting.html http://www. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them.” but other more elaborate technologies.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. 2001). retrieving. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.

php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.dmem. secure.uk/ind ex.com/index. http://www. http://get.' http://cnm.net/ Jabber – An open. http://www. http://laimuz. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.ac.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. in every sense. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.org/teleimmersion.sourceforge. http://www.ibm. MacOS X. and Windows.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. http://telepresence. the CAVE.open. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.aim. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. The driver sits in a box.fakespace.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.percro. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .jabber. BSD. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user.ac.org/teleimmersion2.live.ebuddy.yahoo.unizar.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. at a physically remote real world site. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there. http://www-142. http://www.advanced. a communication link between the home site and a remote site." http://www.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.ht ml http://www. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://messenger.advanced.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://gaim.strath.

txt Knudsen. Wired News.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.se/pdf/CID-206. (2001).65 064-0. Being There: Concepts. Hubert (2001).. and Naeve.pdf Lynn. Donnelly. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. 2002. Calgary.org Bibliography Dreyfus. http://www. http://kmr. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Alberta.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. Dobreva. September 24.ieor.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. and Handberg.amazon. W. and Pejas. January 2005.berkeley.. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. Network World.hig. 44-49. L. Ken (Ed. Naeve..pdf When it is fully successful. http://www. http://www. Ins and outs of teledildonics. as well as news. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. John (2004).kth. 6. J. M.. (Eds. S.kth.. (2002). Presence applications poised for takeoff. C. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. (Eds. http://www. http://cid. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). C. http://www2. Banff. On the Internet.) (2000).ietf.digicult.wired. MA: MIT Press. A. In Soldek. F. Cambridge. June 1.html Goldberg. Davide. A.acs.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. London: Routledge. 2004.pdf Fontana.html Riva.nada. Do Not Reproduce 239 .com/news/culture/0. Amsterdam: IOS Press. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. Online memo. McHugh. Abbott. D.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.) (2003). http://www.org/rfc/rfc2779.no/at/nmm/enlund. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. http://www. http://www. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. A.amazon. M. Network Working Group (2000). and IJsselsteijn. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Sept. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Regina (2004). history.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.virtual-presence. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.pdf Knudsen.. and Rusbridge.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. Nils (2000).networkworld.nada. A.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. http://www. J. (2005). G.

(2001)..infoworld. and Handberg.html Do Not Reproduce 240 .com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. In Hoyer. (Eds. InfoWorld. Germany: Hagen.pdf Udell. Knudsen.modes. Jon (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. C. http://www.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.org/docum ents/Sponberg. H. L. H. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. Jan. http://www. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. 28. et al.swedishlearninglab.Learning.

in all its formats. reviewed video as an online content format. television. tlearning. telepresence. 2005). educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. video blogging. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. streaming video. My first report in this series. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. 2002). the largest Internet telephone service. bandwidth becomes an issue. PDAs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. However. amateur and professional video cameras. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Video blogging has become common. Do Not Reproduce 241 . screencasting. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. A new version of television. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. cell phones. in all its formats. IPTV. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Video. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. videocasting. even a video plug-in for Skype. Once video goes on the Internet. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). vodcasting. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. vlog Description Video. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting.

http://www. http://www. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.dfilm. cell phones.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. see Rocketboom.com/index_about.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.dmeurope. PDAs. Britain's largest telecom firm. It is still going strong at: http://www. http://www.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. employees. http://participatoryculture. low bandwidth video stream.brightcove. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.apple. See samples at: http://www. BT. improves the satisfaction of the client.ar/iptv_en. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.com For an example of a video blog. http://www. http://www. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. amateur and professional video cameras. partners.medialogic.google.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.on2.rocketboom. according to Foroohar (2006).org/ In 1999.com/default.rocketboom. http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further. and maintains loyalty. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines.html Dialcom Networks. the “triple play” of video. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. a three-minute videoblog. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. with IPTV. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. or students through a high quality. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. As the following examples show.co. http://www.uk/index. voice.com.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. the Internet telephone service. In spite of the limitations. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. the largest Internet telephone service.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. even a video plug-in for Skype.axor. video.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. and multimedia content to customers. http://video. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem.

dvguru. cellular. See the current selection at: http://video.org/ At YouTube.google. PDA.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. http://eduscapes. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. For example.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.concord.spider. http://www.bittorrent.veoh.com/pressreleas es.com/ BitTorrent.com Do Not Reproduce 243 .com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. or set-top box.veotag. http://vpb.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www. https://www.bittorrent.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.com/seeds/index.elearningcentre.navy. http://www.co. http://www. http://www.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.hpc. http://www.youtube. http://www.com/nara.” Users can upload video clips for free. desktop.mil/index. read “Ten video sharing services compared.” http://www.xstreamengine. tag them. and divide them into chapters or segments. video.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.addictingclips.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. See examples at: http://www.ourmedia. and visual resources. whether dial-up.

uk/files/pdf/1443.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.pjb.upenn.lsda. P. and by tags. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. www.edu/articl e.” http://www.500 vlogs organized by popularity.org/doing/media. termed “mobile television. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. (2003).iptv-industry.pdf Bardia. Pradeep (2004). The site already contains nearly 6. and Bates.masternewmedia. D. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.thinkofit.masternewmedia. t-learning Study .org.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.com/webconf/video. http://www. but business models are fuzzy.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.masternewmedia.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. Online article at: http://www.wharton. http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.com/article.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Peter (2003).htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. http://www.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.streamingmedia. http://www. http://www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. by alphabet. which users can submit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.educause.” http://www.” http://knowledge. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.uk/tlearning/contents.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 . London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.elearnspace.” http://www.mefeedia.co.

C. June 6. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. 417-419). implications. Robin Good Blog. Mon. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. L.apple. Brian (2005). Tom (2005).).com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Nov. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. http://www. 2005. 2005. The IPTV Revolution. Matthew (2005). http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. G. Robin Good Blog. S.com/article.. Dec. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. Networking Pipeline. discussions and Curtis.msnbc.ac.pdf tough road deploying IPTV. http://edmarketing.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .com/showArt Thornhill. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. April 26.htm IBM (2006). Changing Channels. Luigi (2005a). Wi-Max. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. Jonathan.) (2002).pdf ction=Reader. 2. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Campus Technology.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. In Richards.aace. (Eds.org/newdl/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi.pdf Klass. Manchester. M.campustechnology.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle. 2005.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.masternewmedia. NC: Duke University.usc.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. and Young.ibm. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Luigi (2005b).msn.networkingpipeline. Durham. Friedman.bcr. Newsweek (International Ed.pdf http://www. Brian (2002). 8-9. Asensio. Foroohar. Peter (2005). (2005). Beyond Wireless Broadband.asp?id=7769 Meng.cfm?fusea . Dec. (Ed. (2003).com/id/8018601/si 8. IBM Institute for Business Value study. 2005. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. P. Wi-Fi. 2005.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development.masternewmedia.amazon. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Online paper.umist. 2005. 1. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. and Swenson. University of Missouri. Feb. Telcos face http://www-rcf. http://www. Goldfarb. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. http://www.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. 7. http://www. Rana (2005). Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. http://www1.

inventors. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. Videoconferencing is not required. http://ancient. skin color. and the aim of the virtual experience. mixed reality. http://www. distributed virtual environments.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah.arts.cs. http://solipsis. Depending on the level of realism achieved.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.ca/index.columbia. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Do Not Reproduce 246 . desktop virtual reality. simulation. Exploration and discovery are enabled.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. interaction. http://www. Creed. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. To do this. Near Eastern. designers. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. and storytellers.org. exchange enabling.net/wiki2/index.ubc. The space is persistent.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.futurelab. By using aspects of game play.kahootz. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time.netofpeers. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. and Religious Studies department. augmented virtuality. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. http://www1. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.

de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.epfl.shapedc.activeworlds.ahds. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://www.mil/index. http://vads.org/index.com http://www. Do Not Reproduce 247 .com/edu/index. and the aim of the virtual experience. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. http://www.org/highlights/augur.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.ch/About/about_index.ac.html The U. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.spider.html http://vads.S. http://www.hpc.healthdatamanagement. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).informationinplace. including education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.navy. For example.ahds. http://www.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.equator. https://www.ac.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. http://vrlab.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34. Shape has developed the augurscope.secondlife. http://www.ac.ergonetz.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory. http://www.opencroquet.

Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.intuition-eunetwork. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.pdf Hoare. August 9. http://courseweb.oln. and Tsiatsos. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. http://ru6.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.campustechnology.cti. 2004.htm Dickey.pdf Bouras.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). East Carolina University. and Hicks. http://www. 2006. G.00.edu/vrel.10577. C. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. (2004). Robin Good Blog. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Luigi (2004). 27. A. http://ru6. Sept.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.masternewmedia.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. (2001). The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. 28. Technology Area .learningcircuits. Trend: augmented reality check..gr/ru6/publications/616810 77.ecu. J.coe. http://www.htm Bibliography Bouras. Research report. Eva (2004). e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. and Tsiatsos. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Triantafillou.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.com/article. http://www. http://www. Sept. and Tsiatsos.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. Hornig.uk/elearning/ story/0. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.co. Philopoulos. (2006). Michelle (2003).unt.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . 175-199. Campus Technology. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Guardian Unlimited.pdf Bouras.cti.. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.. 2004.cti. http://education. T. http://vr.1314022. http://www.guardian. 2004. G. T. C.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4. 24.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. Stephen (2004). T. Dec. C. Learning Circuits. (2001).html Jones.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. http://ru6. V.

C. Conlan.. M. M...pdf Ross.ikg.pdf McArdle. 2004.p df Prasolova-Førland. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. and Mangina.digicult. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen. S. http://www. P.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. F. and White.org/htmleng/english. (2005). and Sester. http://www. http://www. Donnelly. M.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. http://www. http://www.monash. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Proceedings.edu.actapress.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Proceedings. F.icc2005. ISPRS. 2005.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. 1.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . July 9-16. Vol. Abbott. (2004).com/PaperInfo.com/PaperInfo. http://www.. Istanbul.pdf Katterfeld.. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. M.html Liarokapis.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. La Coruna/Spain. Petridis. P. Gerard (2002). No. and Rusbridge. 1(2). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. A. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Ekaterina (2005). http://www. (2005).ie/Owen. G. (2005). T. and Seyedarabi.tcd. M. (2002).unihannover. January 2005. Bertolotto.eng. R. Dobreva. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. (2005)... Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10. Monahan. O. (Section on Virtual Reality).. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.actapress. & Sester. A. Lister.cs.unibo. Web-based Education 2005 conference. https://www. D. C.com/Reference. E. McHugh.actapress.elearning. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. 35.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. International Archives of Photogrammetry.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. M.

geographical information systems. data mapping. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. My first report in this series. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. graphics. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. data filtering. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. The educational advantages of visualization are many. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.ucar. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. visualization can represent alternative points of view. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. and data rendering. GIS.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. On the other hand. cybercartography.dpc. et al. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. 2005). The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. allowing for innovation or new understandings. dynamic displays. location based systems. pattern recognition.inxight. Do Not Reproduce 250 . Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. cognitive collage. images. reviewed visualization as an online content format.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. See some amazing demos at: http://www. Flash. mapping. Finally. 2003).

com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://www.idc. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.esa.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.html http://www.ddd. allowing 2-D image stitcher. and display (without glasses!).it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography. which showcases their potential.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.semagix.zoomclouds. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.pdf tracking.ontopia.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. and will require visualization applications.esrin.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.nih. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. Free demo at: ew_68. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www. http://www.vista.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. http://www.” http://richie.ac. http://www. http://www.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode. such as a blog.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.typorganism.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.utexas. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub. http://www. delivery. See: to education.ubc.alice.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.0 as an approach authoring system.nlm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. http://www.cs. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. see ZoomClouds. whatsoever.ul. VR. For an example.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.edu/index.unifiedfield.com/solutions.vrco.tmm.bham. http://www. Museum Edition.

http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.bbc.”’ BBC News.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.lecielestbleu.medibolt.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.com/solutions.edu/ Paul Nixon. http://www.com Web site in Tokyo. http://www.vrvis.medtropolis. http://chatcircles.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.in English or Spanish.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.html 252 © 2006.cs.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . See his list of resources at: http://www. http://www.gov/index. http://news. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. April 7th.owu.media. http://www.mit.ontopia.marumushi. http://makingmaps. http://www.com/index. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.edu/postcartoaag06. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. a young graphic designer.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.html For a practical application of visualization.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.gsfc.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.nixlog.skyscraper.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.feedtank. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .nasa. Sample the collection at: http://svs.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. Be sure to explore the “zoo.org/timeformations/ intro.net/omnigator/models /index. 2004. See their tool set and examples of their work.semagix.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.at/home. It has images of space and the earth from space.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.” http://www.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.indiana. http://www.com/VBody.co. Sample their efforts at: http://www.

http://www.amnh. http://clustrmaps.http://www.com/applicatio n.unifiedfield. See this technology in action. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.html Top Tier http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.microsoft. retrieval.spotfire. at the University of Maryland.http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.htm Using time as an added dimension.xcelsius.com CenterView . http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.ambientdevices.nlm. anatomically detailed.com/index.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .cs. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.org/about. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.com/omni.corda.S. http://research. http://www. http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.gfdl. one million items.com/cat/dashb oard/index.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.com http://www.html How do users visualize very large data sets.com WorkPlace . and information presentation.idashboards.mccrackendesign. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. in the U.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.http://www.ibm.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. for example. http://www.vicodi.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.umd.arcscience. http://www.html XCelsius .org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.nih.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.noaa.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.

associations. MapViewer. http://tangible.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. and anomalies in data.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. for 2D and 3-D graphing.S. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.oziexplorer. http://www. Didger.com/mam/mam.visualanalytics. http://www.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. http://www. http://www. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. including the following: Voxler.media.topozone. http://www.mit.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.microsoft.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .softill.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://www. http://www.intergraph.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.advizorsolutions.mapinfo. http://www. Strater.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. http://www. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.musanim. trends. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images.timemap. and.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.esri. for 3-D data visualization. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. http://research. networks.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. They have worked with the U.golden. Grapher. for thematic and analytical mapping. http://www.

okino.masternewmedia. is available online. http://www.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.topicmap.5-D modeling and rendering software. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. and rendering software. http://www.agocg.” http://vis.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. Following are two: http://graphics.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.cs.stanford. for 3-D modeling. including the following: Bryce.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.edu/eet/ Ell.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.accurender.iu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 ..edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.sdsu. P.ac.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. many of which are unique.com/vc/index.ubc.visualcomplexity. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. and rendering.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. together with their estimated depth of influence.visualthesaurus.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. http://www. modeling. Clicking a related term extends the process. http://www. Try a demo at: http://www. http://www. http://www.pixologic. http://www. Carrara. http://www.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.edu/index.” http://www.liveplasma. http://coe. for 3-D landscaping and animation. animation. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.formz.daz3d.com Pixologic is 2.

ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. (2003). to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Luca (2003).gatech.com/ http://www. http://www. A. J. 1-34.infovis.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www. http://www. Paris: La Haye.org/index.media. B.complexityandeducation. les réseaux. 14(1).mit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. Paier.topicmaps. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. and Shneiderman.amazon. Proceedings.ualber ta. http://www.edwardtufte. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. http://acg.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Mackinlay. J. Lugano. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. He finished his PhD. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.editlib.edu/research/resea rch.pdf Bergmann. pp. both visualization companies. K.gvu.. http://www. Sherman (2003). G.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. http://www.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. http://www. les cartes.usilu. EXYSTENCE network.gvu.istituti. M. Jacques (1983). The Semiology of Graphics. 3149 http://www..gatech.pdf Bertin. Working Paper. (Eds. Jacques (1967). http://www.htm http://www. and Woodill. J.vrco.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.media.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . http://acg.complexityscience. Switzerland: University of Lugano. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.net/printRec.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language.mit.) (1999).php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. and Resetarits.com/ Bibliography Alpert.fakespace.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.

http://www. May/June.org/dl/index. International Journal on E-Learning. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Siggraph. available online at http://www. 42.. http://www. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. eLearning Developers’ Journal.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 46: 461-488.amazon. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. (1992). http://www.editlib.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Luca (2005). S. 69-82.. August 11.com/articles/abst racts/index.cfm/files/paper _5994.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. (2005). http://www. K. Theresa (1998).html Rhyne. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. January 2005. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. K.org/index. (2005). Arns.elearningguild.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. 2005. http://www. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. C. M.univparis5. K.fr/CanJ/CanJ. http://www.pdf Goldfarb. June 1. 3.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. S.asp?id=11222 Metros. Durham.ac.aace.digicult.html Madhavan. Canadian Journal of Psychology. EDUCAUSE Review.ht m O'Regan. A.asp Mittal. 4(1). (2005). http://www. No.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.com/article. Ruth (2003). and Rusbridge. September.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 .edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. Dobreva.. A.K. http://itdl. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.siggraph. 3(1). and Pagalthivarthi. Campus Technology.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. 16(4). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A. Brian (2002). 41(3). and Knezek. http://www. Abbott. (Section on Visualization). http://nivea. P.psycho. McHugh.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. and Bertoline.campustechnology.agocg. Vol.. (2006). NC: Duke University. Morales. J. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. L. Donnelly. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.educause. G. D. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. and Woolsey.html Ross. J. Brent (2006). More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. M. http://createdrealities. (2005).. 17-30. G. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 329-351.. (1998).com/publications. Educational Media International.

Visualization. Vol.ciconline.edwardtufte. Digital Information Graphics. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. http://www. Envisioning Information. http://www.com/tufte/index Tufte. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. http://www. Robert.com/tufte/index Tufte. http://www. Fall. (2004). Spence.amazon. 185–213 http://www.E. Reading.edwardtufte.com/tufte/index Ware. Cheshire. David (2005). Edward (1997). Sharpe. Colin. England: AddisonWesley. August. 4th Edition. Cheshire. From multimedia to multisensory education. Information Visualization: perception for design. Computers. B. David (2002).com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley.edwardtufte. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. 2nd Edition. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006.org/threshold Tufte. http://www.amazon. Yvonne (1996). CT: Graphics Press. Edward (2001).Visualization Technologies Scaife.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman.indiana. No. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2. http://www.amazon.pdf Shneiderman. pp. http://www. Information Visualization.amazon. Mike and Rogers. Threshold. Harlow. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed. M. Matt (2002). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. (2001). Brandon Hall Research .slis. http://www. 45. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Edward (1990). evidence and narrative.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. (2004).com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley.

htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.skype.jajah. http://www. and a microphone. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. http://www.infoworld.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. http://www. headphones or speakers. communications tools.elearningcentre. but it is rapidly improving. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. http://www. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. http://www. in remote communities.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. In the near future. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. 1996).com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service.avaya. Do Not Reproduce 259 . Internet telephony.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.envisioninc. http://www. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. Internet telephony is relatively simple.co. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. Using VoIP. requiring an Internet hookup.

Language Learning and Technology.pdf Ganchev.susx.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx.weblogsinc. (2005).pdf Ottoson. M.org Bibliography Cherry. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. and O’Droma. IEEE Spectrum Online. Geraldine (2005).com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.ieee. I.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Brandon Hall Research . Seven Myths about Voice over IP.nald. http://www. Join the discussion at: http://voip. but it is rapidly improving.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.ac. March 2005. Steven (2005).voipreview. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. 260 © 2006. September. 9(3). Mobile distributed e-learning center. http://www. http://ieeexplore. http://llt. S.cogs. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Meredith (1996). Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. http://www.ieee. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.. Robert (2005).spectrum. Stojanov.org/xpl/freeabs_all.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://www.msu.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . 9-12.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.

http://www. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. http://www. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.ppt In January 2006. anytime. The entire system. http://news. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.cs. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. weighs less than three pounds.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. managing. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.edu/design/Ion.learnexact.hubuska.bbc. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. including batteries.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.bris.ices. http://killer.cmu. Selected Examples In Europe. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.p df http://www.ac. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.co.checkpointelearning. like a wristband or jewelry. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. including wearable computing. training to do their jobs. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. http://wearables.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. For example.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. Do Not Reproduce 261 .

com/news/culture/0. the automotive industry.com/read_art icle. http://www.technologyreview. http://isd. especially for comercial airlines.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.sportbrain.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.70 481-0.eecg. training.org/index.” including computers built into underwear. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). (2004).shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. http://www.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. Simson (2004). 2004. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.wired. and Lupisella. http://www. Wired News. See: http://genesis.gsfc.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006.cmu. What you’ll wear in 10 years.edu/research/wear ables/index.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. and other organizations involved in inspecting. Technology Review (Online). http://www.edu/design/VuMan. http://about. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.html http://www. 2006. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.html Garfinkel.ac.com/news/culture/0. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.edu/ http://wearcam.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.org is a rich source of references. Brandon Hall Research .cs.nasa. Mmoma (2006).ices. http://www.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.ac.bham. and Levene.eecg.html The design of “smart clothing.com/Home/Home. especially in the area of wearable cameras.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.uoregon. March 24. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.wearable.eee. http://killer. (2003).gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.media.mit. or repairing complex machines.ethz.704 81-0. M. Wearable Computing for the Commons. S.eyetap. C. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. M. http://www.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. http://www. Dec. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. like a wristband or jewelry. http://www.toronto.uk/index.jisc.toronto.org/index_graphical. 1.wired.

Wearable computers that you can slip into.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. Business Week Online. (2002). Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. May 12-13.amazon. March 8. 2005. Fairfax. http://www.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Toronto: Anchor Books.org/icwckeynote. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. htm Mann. S. http://wearcam. VA. and Niedzviecki. Steve (1998).html Do Not Reproduce 263 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. ICWC98. H.businessweek. http://www. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Olga (2005).

and laptops. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. podcasts. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. feeds.” as its content is changed by the author. with all the potential for viruses and spam. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. To read content from a Web feed. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. photo collections. Do Not Reproduce 264 . CDs. Instead of having items emailed to you. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. PDAs. TV guides. with all the potential for viruses and spam. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. social bookmarking. including cell phones. When changes are made to a Web site. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. basic text format for quick review. and electronics. and Atom is the second.0 format). Really Simple Syndication (RSS). Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. blogs. and course offerings. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. job searches. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. listings of the latest books. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.

net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.htm http://www.com/rss2exchange/ . Edu_RSS 0.http://www.com/amphetadesk http://www.newsgator.com/myrsstoolbar.com/ 3.feedjavascript.shtml .net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.ht with its own features.html http://www.http://sage. FeedReader 1.com/ http://www.com 9. 6. Reader http://usablelabs.feedster. Feedster . Project D.http://www.http://www.http://feedbeep.protopage.somee.co.ca/edurss02.com/ Brightcove .h http://www.rss-to.com 4.com 2.com/productBlogExpress.learningfeeds.rsscalendar.brightcove.com Amphetadesk 8.disobey.bloglet.com/ 9.com/ http://www.rojo.com/ 8.http://www. FeedScout 4.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .org/ .com directory. FeedBurner http://www.pubsub.com/produ http://neosmart.com/v2 BlogLines .awasu. Videora .net/dl.http://www.com/ Awasu . RSS Software . Protopage Bloglet .projectdu.pluck.com/ 6.feedburner. Syndirella . NewsIsFree http://www.feedforall. RSS Orbit . StepNewz . SharpReader http://bytescout. RSS Bandit http://www.sharpreader.http://www. Feed-Directory .http://www.http://www. Sage . RSS-to-Javascript .attensa.org/ shtml .mozilla.com/ 5. FeedPublish http://www. Feedtier . each http://www.http://www.net/ http://www.feedroll.feedzilla.feedreader.mozdev.downes.hexamail.U. Newsgator Aggie .http://www. EaZy RSS reader 5.com/thunderbird/ .newsisfree.org/Aggie.net/ .com/ http://www.2 7. PubSub .http://www.com/today/ http://www. Thunderbird .http://www.http://www.bytescout. RSS2Exchange http://www.uk/rssreader/ 7.html http://www.com tml 2. RSSReader http://www.http://www.com/ http://www. Pluck .bloglines.com/ http://www. LearningFeeds 8. Fuzzy Duck http://yole.com/rss/ http://www.rssreader.http://gregarius.feedpublish. OnFolio . The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).com/ . Do Not Reproduce 265 . and Atom is the second.http://www.videora.rssreader.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .puremis.com/ Selected Examples 5.com/ 3.com/ BlogExpress 1. Feedroll . FeedForAll .com/feedscout.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.fuzzyd.net/index.com/ Attensa .com/ 0. Rojo .blogplanet.http://feedtier.topix. Gregarius .onfolio.com/ .http://www.6. Here is a list of 48: ml 7.http://www.rssbandit. feedbeep . PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. RSSCalendar .com/ 0.http://bitworking.

htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. http://www.dist.contentious. Robin Good Blog. 2003. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. and D’Arcy Norman. http://www. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. To have a blog aggregated. http://www. 31. a blog by Alan Levine.com/wiki/doku.mcli.elearning. Brian Lamb. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. http://www.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 . eSchool News. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. http://timyang. http://www.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.masternewmedia. Bill (2003). http://www.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. Oct. Brian Lamb. Dan (2004).teachinghacks. http://www. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .pdf Canali De Rossi.ca/edu_rss. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.ca/cgibin/wiki. maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://careo. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.maricopa.wcc.downes.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Aug. Luigi (2004).Possible Future Evolution.eschoolnews.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://www. including listings for various electronic devices.php. May 19.ubc. 2004.ca/files/RSS_Educ.com/news/showS tory. Read his article written specifically for educators.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.elearningguild.redjupiter. see: http://www. 3.htm David.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.vccs.downes.hebig. RSS could transform online communications.lo. 2004.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.php Online Resources Stephen Downes.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. eLearning Developers’ Journal.

RSS: the next killer app for education.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.infoworld.downes. March 23. and Norman. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.alexandrasamuel. Aug.html Do Not Reproduce 267 . (2003).pdf Parparita. 1. Otherwise Engaged. The Shifted Librarian. University of North Carolina. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. B. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.Web Feeds Downes. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.org/2004/jun20 04/downes. Jon (2005).com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x. 2005. http://www. http://www.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. May 2004.oreilly. RSS Ideas for Educators. Version 1. http://googlereader.html?page=1 Udell. BC.oreillynet. InfoWorld.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. and Webb. Sept. 2005. Learning Circuits. 2006.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. A. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. Vancouver.pdf Gannett.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. 2005. O’Reilly Network. Online paper. RSS: a learning technology. 2003. Alexandra (2005). Learning Circuits.htm D’Sousa. Mary (2003).html Samuel.html Powers. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. http://www. 3. Google Reader Blog.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. T. Aug. http://www. Mihai (2006). M. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.1. http://www. Using RSS for data integration.htm Harrsch.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine. D.mcli. USA Today (online). What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Shelly (2005).teachinghacks. RSS: the next big thing online. MediaThink White Paper. http://www.learningcircuits. Stephen (2002). July 7. July/August 2003. Stephen (2004). http://www.theshiftedlibrarian. Aug. Quentin (2006).learningcircuits. http://www. Online paper. Anh (2005).org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends. http://www. http://technologysource. Eva (2004).html MediaThink (2004).maricopa. Jenny (2005).mediathink. 2006. June 2004. The Technology Source Archives. June 18.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big.ca/files/RSS_Educ.blogspot. Namespaced extensions in feeds.dist. 5-8..com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. Lamb. http://www. (2006).xml.usatoday.htm Levine.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. 2005. 13.htm Downes.

tikiwiki. http://www. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. and email notification. and never finished.300. http://wikipedia. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. approaches. There are now over 1. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. and projects. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Content is ego-less.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. http://www.org/index.sourcewatch.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.schtuff. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. 4. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. custom permissions. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 268 .pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. RSS. 2. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. http://www. 2005). Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. See the progress at: http://edu.com/ For wikis to work.sourceforge. features. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. My first report in this series. Anyone can add to it.com/cgibin/wiki. it is important to have several contributors. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. 3. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Wikis are fully editable Web sites.usemod. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.wikipedia. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.org/tiki-index. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. can be used by a team for joint writing. the software used to run Wikipedia. an image gallery. time-less.net/features.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. is available for other applications. With some basic instructions. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.

com/cgibin/mb.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. Swiki. “Quickiwiki. of the University of British Columbia. Twiki. an archivist with the British systems.gilbane.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. features.10. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. http://flosse.seedwiki. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work. Columbia Archives. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. a rich source of information on wikis.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16. A free trial is available.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.Weblogs.jot.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://careo. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.shtml Brian Lamb. http://www. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.com/artpdf/GR12. See why it is different.learningwiki. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.ubc.” is projects. http://en. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.socialtext. http://www.infotoday.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.wikibooks. http://radio.infoworld. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison. http://www. http://weblog. http://www.dicole. http://www. His article.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.elearning.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.” Essentially. http://www.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.com/ Jon Udell.html Do Not Reproduce 269 .usemod. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. http://www. http://kairosnews.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.

uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis . 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. Renée (2005).com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. First Monday. Wiki pedagogy. and Zhou.” http://tlc. 5-8. Nov.fasfind.ucalgary. http://whiplash.html Ciffolilli. http://firstmonday. W. that she updates regularly. Dec.co. Dec. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. (2002).48. Teaching and learning online with wikis.profetic.. July.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. 2.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. R. including wikis.nu’s first nine months in service.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis.” http://writingwiki.zkm.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Operation of a Large Scale. L.html Augar. http://aronsson.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 . cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. Andrea (2003).educause. http://container. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Anja (2004).org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. N. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki.org.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.pbwiki. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. 8(12).ascilite. (2004).org has lots of resources on wikis.71. Australia. http://64. http://www. Perth. Raitman. International Journal of Information Ethics. Online paper.se/wikipaper.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.com/wwwtools/m/25242.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments. http://www.ikiw. http://www.elearningcentre.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. http://www. http://m.pdf Fountain.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. including a section on wiki tools. Phantom authority.

com. T. Searcher.Oct. 2006. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. (2001). The wiki way.shtml Rubenking. Cossarin. W. 36-48. 2005. (2006). S. David (2003).irrodl.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki..ariadne. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. Brian (2004). M.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Jon (2004).uk/issue42/ Udell. http://www. InfoWorld. L. 12(10).1/technote _xxvii.4149. January.asp Schmitt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. 2004.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.com/cgibin/mb. Online article. Educause Review. Clark. Neil (2003)..pcmag. Issue 42. Quickiwiki. Ariadne. Online article at: http://www.. http://www.ac.14 02872.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.html Wood. David (2004). Richard (2003).usemod. (2004). and Rudolph. http://gilbane. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Twiki. Sept.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. and Webb. Why Wikis Work Not. http://www.infoworld. April 2004.infotoday. July 7. Lauren (2005).com/artpdf/GR12. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . http://www..html Stafford.com/udell/2004/ 10/19.org/content/v5. Emma (2005). Swiki.amazon. Online article at PCMag.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Oct.pdf Leuf. http://c2. http://www.00. Bo & Cunnin. Online article.com/article2/0. 19. M. http://www. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.oreillynet. Wiki Tools.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. April 2003. UniversityWiki. Making the case for a wiki. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).educause. O’Reilly Network.10.html Tomkin. http://Weblog. J.

I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. After a product has been successfully launched. CD-ROMS. However. floppy disks. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which. in turn. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. which can then lead to inventions. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. Do Not Reproduce 272 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products.

Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. Do Not Reproduce 273 . This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. and decline. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. change itself seems to be inevitable. This is due. Ontologies. ascend the curve. to the complex. in both formal and informal settings. in part. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. For a variety of reasons. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. However. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. both in classrooms and online. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. or may never become commercially viable. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. this approach is now rapidly changing. This is due. peak. Further. while others will last for decades. some will never leave the development stage. in part. change itself seems to be inevitable. to the complex. However. But not all technologies will travel this road. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. mature. Some will die quickly. In any field. In any field. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions.

because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. global warming. television. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. 1994). generally went to work earlier. electronic media tends to be on the surface. born in the 1970s. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. Once we master the art of reading. The speed of change increases with each passing year. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. video games. ecological disasters. In North America. video games. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. Brandon Hall Research . mind-altering drugs. terrorism. In contrast. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. 2002. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. The experience of younger learners with television. mobile phones. 274 © 2006. the civil rights movement. the baby boomers. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. p. libraries.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. The children of the baby boomers. and computers. For the older generation. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. and personal digital assistants. Because of this. gaming consoles. means that they actually think differently. Their children. The technology of e-learning. movie theaters. the space race. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. 2003). The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. 28). The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s.

interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. Do Not Reproduce 275 . surprise. In approaching electronic educational media. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. technologies. that is all about to change. Within the next five years. touch and taste. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. In approaching electronic educational media. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. and digital ink and electronic paper. or violence is needed to keep our attention. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. commercials. wearable computers. creative products. huge data wall displays. whereby the action of one participant. It works for a time. But they are usually disappointed. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. With feedback. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Then even more movement. Generally.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. Guides are optional.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. until we become habituated. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). the learner. portfolios. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. and the mapping of everything. digitization of smell.are usually ing paths. designers of Sesame Street. shortly. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. Two hundred years ago. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. In the next wave. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. Likewise. However. sex. in a back-and-forth exchange. we will see the restructuring of education and training. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. results in an action by the other participant. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. the computer. For example. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body.

Digital Game-based Learning. New York: Collins. http://www. http://www.operitel. Dallas. May 2006. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. New York: McGraw-Hill. technologies and services for the next 5 years.amazon.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. (2001). Marc. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. Douglas (2005). FutureHype: the myths of technology change.amazon. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. James (1994).amazon. http://www. http://www. Texas.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.amazon. Brandon Hall Research .com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.com 276 © 2006. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. http://www. Gary (2006). Clayton (1997). Bob (2006).amazon. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. http://www.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

bham.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 .51. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Marc Schröder.unige.umu.mit.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.nngroup. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.O. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.de/link/affective_portal . Den Dolech 2 P.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.se/~muse/ho me.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. 1515 Broadway.media.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.myself-proj.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. 17th Floor.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.informatik. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.ac. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Box 513.bartneck. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. New York.cs. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.

27A 2º esq. CA 94304 USA http://www. 3400 Hillview Avenue.rit. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Palo Alto. L69 7ZF. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.agentlink. 2910-595 Setúbal .edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Inc.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.auburn.indiana.Portugal Tel.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.informatics.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .W. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. P. Manuel I.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. 1900 East Tenth St.liv. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.educause.webist.edu Extempo Systems.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. #1910.ailive.codebaby.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.net/ Auburn University Auburn.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. Edmonton.csc. 10004-104 Avenue. Building 5.com Do Not Reproduce 278 . UK http://www.extempo. N. Box 2124 Menlo Park.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. D. Bloomington.ac.computer. Washington. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. L69 7ZF. O.isi.org/ AiLive Inc. Suite 206 Boulder. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.

Box 527. PO Box 24478. Huntsville.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. One Park West Tewksbury.animationfactory.animats.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.O.catoolkit. Secretariat.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Burlington.org. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.avid. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.com/home. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.mindworkshop.adobe.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Inc. Box 5200.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Avid Technology Park. Inc. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.redwoodelearning. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.au/index.com Alchemy Mindworks P. Wellington.ascilite. W Toronto.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.php/Main _Page Autodesk. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.apple.O.org/ Apple Computer.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.com/ Avid Technology. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.autodesk.ascension-tech.

com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/pub/index.viewpoint. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .massivesoftware.htm Macromedia.siggraph. 190th Street. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.autotutor.818.org/ SWiSHzone. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Suite #480 Torrance. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. TN 38152 USA http://www.S.macromedia.ucsb.eitechnologygroup.aaai. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. Suite 100 Menlo Park.swishzone. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.com/ NewTek. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.460.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.6450 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Santa Barbara.org Do Not Reproduce 280 .com/index.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.newtek.html Ulead Systems 970 W.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. Inc. Tel: +1.psych. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. San Antonio. Inc.A.aclweb.org/home.

htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. Calgary. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.ca/eng/ind ex.edu. Egry J.W. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.edu Quantum Simulations.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.cs. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.com/index. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.cmu.10th Street S. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.cmu.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. 100 Sherbrooke St.org/eden.it.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.licef. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.eden-online. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.gemini.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. West Montreal.usyd. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.cs.pact. Inc.cs. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.teluq. 1. u.iit.uquebec.ke-corp.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. H-1111 Budapest.com Do Not Reproduce 281 .

wlv. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Suite 1500 Montreal.edu.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.brainbench. East Adelphi. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.wpi. Newtownabbey.virtuelage. Antrim BT37 OQB N.unisa.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.enel.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.uk/cticomp/CAA.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.ac.cshe. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.unimelb.stottlerhenke.ucalgary.scit. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.cs. Suite 360 San Mateo. Alberta. Suite K. Co.umuc.W. Chantilly. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.uk/home.. Calgary. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.ulster.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. CA .ac.edu.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.cis.

edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .O.questionmark. FL 32720 USA http://www. Suite 2300 New York.colorado.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.O.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P. Suite 100. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.quintcareers. Norwalk. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.horizonwimba.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.S. Box 317 New Hartford. Suite 201 Peterborough. Suite 753 Madison.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W. Johnson Street. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.com/redinq/html/index.rmsuk.unt.tcet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.ingeniousgroup.flaguide. Suite 105 Princeton. Boulder. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.pedagogue.redinq. Box 305280 Denton. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.ets.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.operitel. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.

K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. Laurent Blvd.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive. 2280 St. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.com/lipsync/ind ex. Ontario. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. Watertown.com AudioLink.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.adobe.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.com XStream Software.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston. 50 Hunt St.automaticsync.avsmedia. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.oir.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.cakewalk.. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.multitrackstudio. Inc.com/home.. Suite 200 Ottawa.audiolink. Suite 100 Newtown. Inc. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.aspx BIAS.vantagelearning. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.uiuc. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.epnweb.bias-inc.com/AudioTools/ind ex.

Inc.edu iTunes Apple Computer. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.apple.accordent. Inc.. San Jose.adobe.A.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall.anark. Waltham.com/index. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.envision. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation. Grime and Associates. Suite 200 Boulder.brainshark. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.sonicfoundry.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.e-learningcentre.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www. 136 South Main Street. West Perrysburg.com AcroServices c/o L. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www.com Brainshark.co.purdue. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.acroservices.mckinnonmulherin.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. Sheffield. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. Suite 200 El Segundo. Cooper Buildings.trainvision. Sheffield Technology Parks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. S1 2NS UK http://www. Continental Blvd. Arundel Street.O. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www.com/power point-presentations-index. 860 Sandalwood Road.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. Suite A300 Salt Lake City.bloki.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.

NG8 6PE. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Austria http://www.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury. Ste.lifeboatdistribution. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise. Nottingham. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.horizonwimba.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.com. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.com/Index.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. Suite 2300 New York.co.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax.dynamicpowertrainer.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. Italy http://www.atlanticlink. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.ciscolearning.bridge-pt.customcourse. 20100 Milan. 200 South. Brandon Hall Research .uk/contentpoint. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www.maxit.copycatsoftware.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.com 286 © 2006. Inc.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. UK Tel. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.allencomm.learn.

com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd . Spain Tel: +34 93 490.e-learningconsulting.edufolio.68 http://www.64. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.10 Fax: +34 93 490. P.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. Inc. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P.eedo. Suite B Lehi. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www.com/products/forceten. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.experiencebuilders. O. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.knowledgeplanet.elicitus.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc. Suite 29A Nashua.com Do Not Reproduce 287 .easyprof.64.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. Box 2827 Redmond. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.elearninginabox. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www.eclipsys.mohive. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. 441 W Main St.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.knowledgequest.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil.com ExpertAuthor. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.rapidintake.. 38-40.O.

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Draper.saba. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.com Do Not Reproduce 295 . CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.centraldesktop. San Jose. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Centra c/o Saba. Suite 950 Portland.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.html Citrix Systems.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.communiqueconferencing. 1192 East Draper Parkway. 100 North Lake Avenue. Inc.comotivsystems. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.brightidea.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Inc.telnetz.com 404 Fifth Avenue. #205 Pasadena. 232 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.citrix.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.caucus. 170 West Tasman Dr.com Cisco Systems. 795 Folsom Street. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.convenos. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Suite 522. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.cisco.courseforum. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.com Brightidea. 6th Floor New York.communityzero.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.collaborationloop. 6th Floor San Francisco. Suite 630 McLean. Suite 600 Ottawa.

digi-net. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 1034 N. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.engineering.com Engineering. 82 Pioneer Way.W. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.elluminate.com Digité. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. Ontario.com LLP PO Box 325.emc..com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.edufolio. 57th Street Gainesville.exactamerica. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Inc.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.forumone. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.flypaper. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.com 296 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Lauderdale.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.ezmeeting. Inc. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.digite.epam-pmc.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies. Sanibel FL.same-page. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.facilitate.

Inc. Suite 2300 New York. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. Inc. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.glance. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.4517 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.globalschoolnet.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.com Glance Networks.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. ON.com B. Suite 500 Markham. Ste. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. El Camino Real. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.net GroupSupport. 395 Encinitas.novell. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.groupsupport.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.groove. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.hotcomm.com c/o Citrix Systems.grapevinesoftware. Clevedon.V. Inc.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.com Groupwise c/o Novell.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.com Do Not Reproduce 297 . Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.net Global School Net 132 N.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.horizonwimba. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.net Groove Networks.genesys.gordano. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.gotomeeting.com GoToMeeting.hp.

ilinc. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.interwise. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. 25 First Street.com Interwise. #115 Rockville. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.jdhtech.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Inc.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Phoenix.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.interwoven.iceweb.intralinks.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. 44th St.hyperoffice. 11th floor New York.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.linktivity.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 .ibm.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.ivocalize. Suite 412 Cambridge.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. Sunnyvale. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon.microsoft.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03.inquesttechnologies.

meetingone.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.. Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.near-time. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.oracle. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.mayeticvillage.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com Near-Time. Suite 300 Torrance.h tml Parlano 10 S.opentext.liveoffice. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.netspoke.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. Suite 1401 Denver.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. 3 Wing Drive.opmcreator.mitre. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . 1289 N.peoplecube. Harbor.com/collabsuite/index. Fordham Blvd.onproject. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Inc.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice. Riverside Plaza.org/tools.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Suite 6500 Woburn. Suite 1450 Chicago. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com onProject.performancesolutionstech.parlano.

O.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.photoninfotech.sitescape. 35.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.nagarro. Inc.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.q2learning.cyber-grad. Suite 200 Greeley.projectdox.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.radvision.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.stalker.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .raindance. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. 1175 58th Avenue. Inc.seldensystems.com SpiderWeb Communications.com Selden Integrated Systems. Inc.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.sharemethods.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.project-open. Suite 210 Maynard. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Box 3325 York. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley.com/content/default.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Suite B. Suite 440 San Jose.microsoft. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. P. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. 3679 Concord Road.Adyar Chennai.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.com RADVISION Inc. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. 51. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. New No.com Raindance Communications. Cactus Rd. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. 17-17 State Highway 208.

viack.sumtotalsystems. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. Canada http://www. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. Kierland Blvd. Suite 100 Austin. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto..com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.tomoye.trichys. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Suite 950 Washington. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .tacit.txl Viack 14811 N.O. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.teamdynamix.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com/groupware/in dex.com Teamware P.teamspace.vodium. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.usabilityfirst. Suite 810 Toronto.teamware. Ontario M2N 6H8.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.vignette.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.wave3software.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.webofficepoint.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.

backpackit.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.O.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. 130 St. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.webcrossing.author-it.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.atutor.cpgvision.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.webtrain.P. Inc.zoho.axista.gov. 5200 Franklin Dr.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education. Inc. First Floor University of Toronto. Suite 1050 Vancouver.net WebEx Communications. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. Inc. Robarts Library. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. P. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.webasyst. CA 94588.Box 2900 Alameda. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.qld. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Inc. Ontario. Suite 115 Pleasanton.santacruznetworks.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752. George St. Toronto.webex.

.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa. Laurent.hrsg. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.syberworks. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.co. Sheffield Technology Parks. Prof.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.learnflex. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.facilitate.edu.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. TX. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Suite 201 Peterborough.kdnuggets. Suite C215 Houston.oracle. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.html Do Not Reproduce 303 . S1 2NS UK http://www. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401.au/dss/grassgro/inde x. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.desire2learn. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Arundel Street.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd.une. Sheffield.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.convera. Cooper Buildings.e-learningcentre. QC.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.

ntera.pebblepad. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. West Conshohocken.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc..com Do Not Reproduce 304 .com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park.provisionentertainment. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext. Inc.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting.meetingworks. Second Floor La Grange. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.io2technology. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth. Suite 100 Indianapolis. WA.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way.nuventive.co. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.foliotek. Suite 606. Catherines. San Francisco.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Telford. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. La Grange Road.chalkandwire. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road.com/ LiveText 1 S.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.fogscreen. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.siliconlight.

San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive.freescale.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .adobe. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb.C.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. Puebla Lucia local 7. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. SR6 0AN UK http://www.clickteam.thinkingworlds. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.. 0445 La Jolla. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.seriousgames.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.magnetargames. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.softimage.microsoft. NW Washington.avs.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.ucsd.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.programmersheaven. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street. Inc Avid Technology Park. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Dept.com/solutions/game s/default.

ibm.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.unige. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.blender3d. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex. 100 Pine Street.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.microsoft.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.smartdraw. Inc.broderbund.tech-illustrator. Suite 300 Burlingame.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North. Suite 300 San Diego. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www..org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep. Washington Street Denver. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. Suite 1900 San Francisco. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.immersion. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa. Unit 9 Waterloo.forcedimension. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.mpb-technologies.corel.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.miralab.handshakeinteractive.autodesk.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose.ch MPB Technologies Inc.com SmartDraw.

2-56126 Pisa.se SensAble Technologies.anotogroup. 12th Floor Oakland.fujitsu.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont..logitech.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. Inc. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.C.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.eink. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW. 200 South.com Do Not Reproduce 307 .edfacilities. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.sensegraphics.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. Suite 300 Calgary. Ste. 15 Constitution Way Woburn.unipi. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.allencomm. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.com Logitech Inc. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi.smarttech. D. NW Suite 700.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. Washington.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.sensable.piaggio.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. 7677 Oakport Street.ccii.wacom.

com Do Not Reproduce 308 . 6947 University Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica.com DOTS .com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd.redbooks. East Dundee.strategia.intellinex.webraven.gen21.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. Huntington Building.html?Ope n InfoSource.elementk.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. Suite 660 Longueuil. Inc. Suite 225 Golden. Suite 301 West Des Moines. Inc.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. Inc.. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www. Inc. 111 Water St.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC. Quebec.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.netdimensions.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.com/redbooks. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai. Suite 200 Cincinnati.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.howtomaster.cornerstoneondemand.trivantis. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.ips-inc. Colfax Avenue Building 200. 4600 Westown Parkway. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.geolearning. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.ibm.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www. Winter Park.

14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.learnflex.meridianksi.knowledgeplanet. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. 550 Queen St.com Do Not Reproduce 309 . VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.learnsomething. Suite 260 Foxborough. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. Inc. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough.mgen. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.isnewmedia. 1 West Front Street Red Bank.maxit. Inc.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. Chantilly.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.compendiumcorp.intralearn. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 100 Foxborough Blvd. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www. Inc. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.websoft. East .com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc.com. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.learn.com mGen Enterprise mGen. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.wizdom. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.

Glebe Road.outstart.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com TEDS Inc.oracle. Inc. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.technomedia.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.oracle. Louis.sumtotalsystems.teralearn.com.saba. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.teds. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.sselearn.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.com/products/saba/learn ing/index. 500 West Madison.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. LTD 671 N.com Do Not Reproduce 310 . St.ssaglobal.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 1280 San Francisco.sap.syntrio. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.plateau.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal. Suite 2200 Chicago. Suite 700 Arlington.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. West.

Suite 101 Houston.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Victoria.info/index.wbtsystems.xstreamsoftware.fldata.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. 4 Expressway Plaza. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. 240 Bay Street. Ontario.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Inc.vbtrain.risc-inc. Laurent Blvd. Inc. 2280 St.avilar. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Inc.com Tracker.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.vuepoint. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.ttg-inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Box 9752 Boulder. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.trainingpartner. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.O. Suite 200 Ottawa. 122 West Way.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. 17041 El Camino Real. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.xtention. Inc. NY.edutools..com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.gyrus. Suite # 105 Columbia.

Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.sir.arizona. 4th Floor Oakland.netera. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.ca ENC Learning Inc.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .cdlib.uwm.com Do Not Reproduce 312 .goenc. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.

edu/DesktopDefault.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. Suite 3100 San Francisco.4464 Markham Street Victoria.thegateway.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .dist. Hertfordshire. 5151 East Broadway.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. Rice University.cadcorp.clarklabs.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. MS 44.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. Suite 1600 Tucson. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.rice. AZ 85250 USA http://www.merlot.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.lornet. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.lolaexchange. Stevenage. Norton Road. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.lrc3.unsw.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.plos.edu. Houston. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CT 06459 USA http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. Fondren Library. Box 1892. Sterling Court. SG1 2JY.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .maricopa.O. Box 3000 Boulder.llearn.org/eng/scientifiques.O.mcli. ETRAC. AZ. P.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.

Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.5372. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.cancore. P. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.smm.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .com/gis4mt/index.org Metadata.ac. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.asp?path= 500.pangonetworks.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.eoscenter. Suite 100 Framingham.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.geocomm. 959 Concord Street.cetis. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.berkeley. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.mapinfo.edu PanGo Networks. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.esri.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.intergraph. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Dept. of Geography.edu. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .com MapInfo One Global View Troy. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.O. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.O. Inc.cf m ESRI Suite 300.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.fi/english/page. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.

mobilearn.stockholmchallenge.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.knowledgepulse. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. 19104-2653. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.org/ Spotlight Mobile.eee. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.upenn. Inc. Austria http://www.elsnet.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.bham.org/aitopics/html/natlang . Electrical and Computer Engineering.imsglobal.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.advancedreality. PA.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.ldc. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.ac. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. Italy http://tcc.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. Suite 100 Menlo Park.itc.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .lexxe.aaai.html ELSNET Trans 10.uk/handler/default . Suite 501 Portland. PMB #112 Lake Mary.

MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.overnet.llearn. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.asianart.movedigital. Inc.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.groove. 10010 USA http://www.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. Inc.ac.com MoveDigital. Inc.lockss. Deane Rd.cetis. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Brandon Hall Research .sun. NY. Whisman Road Mountain View.org 316 © 2006.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .org/site/pp.net internet2.stockholmchallenge.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Suite 300. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.internet2.seti.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .Project Coordinator CSI . Eisenhower Parkway P. 15-4-A Gatineau.proquest. 3333 http://www.saba.executrain.cyberu.com Teachnology. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.rmv. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.trainingregistry.O.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. 3º 08021 Barcelona.17th Avenue SW Calgary. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 317 . Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.virtualmuseum. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. New York 10973 USA http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.com ProQuest 789 E.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Portals CyberU. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Alberta.worldwidelearn. Box 172 1039 . Suite 600 Alpharetta.microsoft.teach-nology. Inc.elena-project. 1st Floor A .com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.elementk. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Suite 225 Santa Monica. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.elearningeuropa.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.

T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.macromedia. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. O.scate. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. 3016 5th Ave. Michigan.com/halo/index. Inc.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. CA 94040.6526 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.com Presentations.apreso. Suite B Orion.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.com/presentatio ns/index.com Raptivity P.com 50 S.hp.readygo.articulate.com Do Not Reproduce 318 . 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.mit. Box 2827.lsc.elluminate.org Macromedia. Ninth St. NE Calgary.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Alberta.raptivity.presentations.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Redmond.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto..com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.333.com ReadyGo Inc. Minneapolis.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.genesys.saba. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.

com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. 100 Norman. Radstock Somerset.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.nasa. Centre for Autonmous Systems.ac. Ste.atr.ife. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Lindsey Bldg.botball.org Euron c/o Prof.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.ri.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Pasadena.cmu.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.rec. Henrik I Christensen. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Union St. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. SWEDEN.generalrobotics.active-robots.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.ed.euron. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . Inc.whmsi. SE-100 44 Stockholm.org Evolution Robotics. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.evolution.eng.aad. 130 W.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.ams.gov. Inc.osaka-u. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Chilcompton.irc. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. D.

Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.com Ask. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.ask. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.dogpile. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.com Google (including Froogle.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.google. Brandon Hall Research . Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.gigablast.O.com excite.excite. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Inc.about. Box 29141 San Francisco.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.net/ 320 © 2006. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. Google. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.com Gada. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.gnod.com Headquarters 555 12th Street. Suite 500 Oakland. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Suite 60 Quebec. 42nd Floor New York.com Gnod.convera.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.6100 http://www.alexa.findlaw.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.copernic.

lexxe. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.koders. DC 20013-1133 http://www.net Koders Inc.healthfinder.icerocket. 17th Floor New York.metacrawler.1057022 LookSmart. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.ac.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.looksmart.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.acm.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.cfm?doid=1 056808.msn. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.O.lalisio.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Info.kartoo.info. Chicago.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. Box 1133 Washington.intute.mooter. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.org/citation.com LitLinker c/o ACM. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. Ltd. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. Inc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 . West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.ixquick.krugle. 601 108th Avenue NE.

64 Fulton Street. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.searchking. Mary Apts. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.netscape. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.com/v2/index. INDIA.qelix. Inc.convera.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.edu/ PubSub Concepts. Inc.columbia.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .almaden. 360 22nd Street. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Mumbai 10. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.rawsugar. Inc. Seventh Floor New York.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC.truveo. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. Nesbit Rd.pubsub.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.pandora.. Inc.com SearchKing. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.ee.W.seekport. 7th floor. New York.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 . NY 10003.82152 Martinsried http://www. 23rd Oklahoma City. Suite 211 Palo Alto .W.com Pandora Media.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Suite 207 San Francisco. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. 23rd Floor San Francisco. 6th Flr. 2400 N.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway..technorati. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.biz Truveo. Mazgaon.nyu.ibm.cs. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.

601 Townsend Street San Francisco.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 .zoominfo.macromedia. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. Ontario.com Zoom Information Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.tkk.macromedia. Yahoo http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.personal-reader. Inc. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. 1st Floor A . CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.com Captivate c/o Macromedia. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.alphaworks.seco. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. EC4M 7NG London.atghome. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.O. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.Project Coordinator CSI .assima.com Flash c/o Macromedia.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 10 Old Bailey.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .experiencebuilders.yahoo. Box 1558 New Canaan.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.ibm. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.elena-project.biographix.com Assima Ltd.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. Inc.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.

com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 .ac. GreenPark Reading. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. LLC 100 South Main Street.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. Ontario.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. B15 2TT.learning2005.com MASIE Center. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.muzzylane.cs. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.knowledgeplanet. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www..noaa. Suite 300 Wichita. Inc.knowledgepresenter.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.stottlerhenke.stt-global.com NexLearn. Laurent Blvd.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.knowledgequest. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.knowledge-director. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. Suite 360 San Mateo. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.intermezzon. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software..com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.xstreamsoftware.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.forio.nexlearn.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. Suite 200 Ottawa. Newburyport. CA . K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.bham. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. England http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.fsl. 2280 St. Inc.

com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com/English/t6 essai. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.qarbon. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.com Do Not Reproduce 325 . J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.eduperformance. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. 55 South Market St. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del. Suite 400.virtualcontrolroom. Suite 1550 San Jose. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.checkpointsystems. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Suite 240 Atlanta. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm..com Stagecast Software.stt-global. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive.us Eventful c/o EVDB.com Softsim Outstart Studio.outstart.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Morton Street. CA 94089 USA http://del. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Thorofare.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.maxit.stagecast. Inc. Suite A-207 Brossard. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Suite 224 Bloomington.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Schaumburg.icio. Inc. 101 Wolf Drive.iu. Taschereau Ouest.teds. Québec. Suite 125 San Diego.icio.assima. Light & Acoustics.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. 1821 Walden Office Square.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.edu/index.

WA 98055 USA http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.zvents. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. First Floor San Francisco.furl.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.shadows.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. Menlo Park.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. Suite 500 Renton.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.networkltd. CA 94105 USA http://www.com/ mag.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.analytictech. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Inc..net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.spurl..com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. 795 Folsom St. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. Inc.rojo. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.O. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.com Spurl ehf.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Inc.friendster. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Ltd.com Friendster.netscape.gnolia. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.eu Rojo Networks. Brandon Hall Research . VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 2001 Lind Ave.com 326 © 2006. CA.com Classmates Online.tagzania.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. SW.. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. Suite 900 Austin.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Box 920089 Needham.classmates. Inc.

percro. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Cupertino.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.jabber.bittorrent. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com Brightcove. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .net Sparta Social Networks.com Jabber Software Foundation P.brightcove. Box 1641 Denver. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.com/halo/index. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Inc.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.fakespace. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.O.org Fakespace 11 E.html Do Not Reproduce 327 . California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. 655 High Street Palo Alto.socialtext. 4th Floor Marshalltown.jabber. CA 94105 USA http://www.sociosite. New York.apple. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.advanced. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. Box 1641 Denver.spartasocialnetworks.dfilm. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.hp. CA 90028 USA http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P.O.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. Church Street. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.

Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. CA 92121 USA http://www.ergonetz. Suite 115 San Diego. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.futurelab.informationinplace. Inc. IC ISIM VRLAB.percro.ecu.org Veoh Networks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Suite 206 Bloomington. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.com Intuition 9. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. 7220 Trade Street.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 .epfl.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.navy.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.spider.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.veoh.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.edu/vrel.intuition-eunetwork.xstreamengine.accurender.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.coe.activeworlds.hpc.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. VA 23461-1924 https://www.org.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.

MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Williams Building College Park.esri.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Danvers. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Suite 110 Troy.feedtank.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.idashboards. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. Inc.com Golden Software.O. Cambridge.advizorsolutions.xcelsius.corda.formz.golden. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Columbus.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Inc. Suite 100 Lindon.vista.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300..com/ MapInfo One Global View.ac.ambientdevices. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Troy.umd. 1333 Butterfield Rd. 809 14th Street. Inc.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.V. 350 South 400 West.com Do Not Reproduce 329 . Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.daz3d. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.cs.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.mapinfo.com ESRI Suite 300.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.intergraph. Golden. Draper. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.bham.

com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.ontopia.topozone. Riga. 73 Princeton Street. 2nd Floor Poolesville. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.spotfire. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Inc.S. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.mccrackendesign. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.com Unified Field.softill. Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.nih.com Spotfire. 155 Spring Street. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. 9th floor New York.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.okino.visualthesaurus.unifiedfield. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. U.vicodi.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.org Visual Analytics Inc.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.visualanalytics. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 20010 Fisher Avenue.net Pixologic. Unit # 1 Mississauga. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. Inc. Ontario L4V 1T8. MA 01863 USA http://www. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Do Not Reproduce 330 .musanim. Inc.nlm. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.pixologic. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. Tracy.O. Box 884.microsoft. 3 East 28th St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. CA 94712 USA http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. Suite 3A New York.

com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.wearable. 869 97th Ave N.bloglines. Hanover. Suite 2260 Portland. 2513 Charleston Road. Tallinn. Inc.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Ltd. A-1220 Vienna.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Estonia http://www. FL 34108 USA http://www. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.feedforall. Suite 102 Mountain View. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 11211. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.skype.jajah.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. CA 95008 USA http://www.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. Unit A2 Naples.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 . Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.com Brightcove.vrvis. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Donau-City-Strasse 1. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.sportbrain.com JAJAH Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.feedreader.brightcove.feedburner. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. Inc. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.attensa. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.ethz.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. California.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. Valdeku 100.inxight. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. Inc. 94043 USA http://www.com Web Feeds Attensa. Suite 100 Campbell.

First Floor. Nederland Tel: +31. Broadway.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Suite 900 Austin. 116 New Montgomery Street.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.pubsub.com Rojo Networks.org JotSpot.com 332 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. 795 Folsom St.1001 W.onfolio. Inc. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond..socialtext.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. Switzerland http://www. Coldbrook Business Corp. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. 167 Hamilton Ave. Suite 381 Vancouver.V.jot.rssreader. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.feedzilla. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Building K Mountain View.com Feedster... 3rd Floor Cambridge. Seventh Floor New York. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. South #358 St. Inc.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Pacific Business Centre #101 .mozilla. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.feedster. P. Suite 605 San Francisco.pluck. Inc.microsoft.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. San Francisco. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Inc. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. 200 2nd Ave. 64 Fulton Street.com PubSub Concepts.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.715135858 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.rojo. Petersburg.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

209. 162. 21. 83. 31. 284. 266. 100. 93. 26. 96. 201. 9. 57. 90. 69. 92. 108. 255. 221. 250. 176. 5. 33. 85. educational. 247. 109. 98. 29. 202. 269. 91. 266 Augmented reality. 215. 74. 250. 62. 4. 93. 186. 97. 33. 120. 2. 156. 230. 48. 103 Complexity theory. 247. 64. 204. 142. 80 Clickers. 218. 82. 33. 111. 70. 231. 269. 221. 118. Brandon Hall Research . 26. 43. 18. 250 Dashboards. 241. 217. 252. 199. 76. 13. 228. 250 collaboration. 248 Authoring tools. 84. 184. 277 Agents. 102. 257 Adaptive systems. 60. 93. 236. 205. 187. 28. 86. 52. 230 Competency Tracking. 125. 225. 75. 230. 3. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 217. 94. 138. 46. 91. 121. 217. 96. 183. 67. 25. 54. 62. 154. 28. 69. 242. 200. 40. 261 Animation. 31. 110. 27. 45. 216. 80 Cognition. 218. 156. 90. 51. 243. 4. 48. 165. 226. 143. 87. 106. 87. 14. 12. 266. 255. 78. 194. 64. 95. 190. 268 Broadband. 17. 177. 179. 95. 3. 129. 77. 60. 184 Conversational learning. 59. 88. 264 Classroom response systems. 225. 77. 28. 254. 86. 29. 117. 34. 61. 114 cybercartography. 76. 51. 76. 67. 108. 154. 3. 296. 235. 105. 68. 63. 259. 92. 155 Ambient computing. 161. 118. 217. 226. 83. 116. 15. 96. 35. 260. 151. 176 assessment. 67. 224 Cell phones. 105. 201. 78. 159. 138. 82. 113. 250 cognitive maps. 25. 160. 94. 86. 22. 97. 202. 33. 275 Affective computing. 91. 88. 266. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 259. 242. 28. 105. 35. 61. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 157. 259. 97. 73. 275 Computer based assessment. 201. 56. 156. 120. 66. 57. 149. 64. 258 cognitive collage. 246. 289 Authorware. 120. 18. 220 Audio. 230. 53. 198. 63. 19. 140. 218. 32. 17. 89. 7. 37. 65. 69. 285. 72. 247. 36. 139. 150. 251. 248. 60 Avatars. 85. 125. 67. 16. 250. 26. 47. 89. 148. 30. 101. 138. 161 Cooperation. 46. 45 Content management. 55. 245 Browsers. 89. 244. 25. 70 barcodes. 37. 227. 88. 97. 87. 123. 274 Communities of practice. 101. 111 Blogs. 184. 175. 61. 221 Bayesian probability.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 251. 32. 155. 244. 17. 34. 39. 46. 279. 19. 142. 115. 241. 66. 110 Adobe. 173. 29. 268. 59. 174. 61. 60. 253 Data mining. 91. 270 Boolean searches. 143. 172. 188. 29. 18. 64. 174. 60. 83. 107. 177. 244. 32. 87. 231. 209 Air display. 120. 164. 79. 25. 82. 235. 25. 184. 156. 241. 246. 161. 26. 47. 87. 55. 78. 24. 67. 242. 168. 3. 118. 226. 46. 21. 268 Communications Tools. 185. 24. 161. 128. 129. 45. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 232. 162. 81. 104. 117 Assessment. 65. 61. 84. 34. 250. 28. 255 Architectures. 54. 20. 106. 251. 264. 199 334 © 2006. 98. 209. 51. 111. 246. 148. 47. 104. 161. 122. 209. 111. 246. 146. 44. 161. 49. 188. 174. 97. 177. 268. 275 Collaboration. 230. 31. 45. 85. 163. 22. 131. 56. 66 AJAX. 185. 162. 224.

128. 45. 273. 211. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 76. 104. 159. 217. 33. 168. 134. 199. 35. 128. 250 Immersive environments. 222. 29. 54. 114. 158. 159. 250 e-Commerce. 111. 138. 19. 83. 21. 108. 80. 87. 177. 155. 24. 31 Emotional design. 12. 255. 114. 25. 91. 62. 65. 33. 262 Hybrid systems. 93. 135. 27. 161. 132. 273 Interoperability. 152. 306 Individualization.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 126 GIF graphic format. 250. 153. 18. 257. 217. 189. 220. 114. 132. 12. 17. 78. 134 Head mounted displays. 128. 145. 267. 83. 237. 186. 135. 92. 99. 203. 92. 153. 104. 257 Grid computing. 3. 152. 61. 224. 276 Instant messaging. 115. 241. 215. 90. 160. 114. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 169. 26. 37. 206 Findability. 199. 61. 131. 205 History. 111 Extreme learning. 120. 34. 66. 193. 205. 268 Knowledge management. 91. 250. 251. 208. 120. 31. 242. 62. 205. 224. 21. 73. 92. 194. 39. 43. 92. 201. 209 Handwriting recognition. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 156. 78. 9. 132. 82. 127. 65. 60 Displays. 113 Deep Web. 119. 5. 198. 139. 119. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 244 Games. 46. 155. 31. 88. 32. 15. 179. 199 Informatics. 248. 25. 102. 252. 62. 5. 4. 19. 184. 253. e-learning. 10. 72. 273 Human-centered computing. 170. 139. 69. 54. 84. 151 FireFox. 256. 123. 12. 218. 246. 64. 34. 104. 276 images. 320 graphics. 82. 275. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 136. 228. 171. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 70. 117 Experiential learning. 204. 203. 158. 238. 115. 267 formative assessment. 151. 84. 251. 106. 275 Director. 171. 77. 231. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 202. 28. 261. 68. 28. 196. 135. 26. 241. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 154. 233. 6. 250. 60 dynamic displays. 86. 278 Infrared tags. 128. 129. 32. 44. 167. 9. 174. 274. 28. 118. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 56. 3. 193 Facial recognition. 55. 250. 236 e-Science. 252. 96. 10. 5. 117. 239. 323 Folksonomies. 223. 65 Google. 152. 23. 76 Flash. 43. 2. 158 iPod. 219. 17. 98. 97. 242. 111. 120. 121. 10. 247. 145. 71. 12. 3. 30. 112. 245. 48. 134 Healthcare applications. 98. 250 Graphics. 40. 255. 199. 94. 244. 215 Expert systems. 31. 145. 134. 86. 76. 24. 259. 247. 243. 113. 194. 104. 60. 151. 221. 222. 134 Haptics. 217 Federated searches. 151. 110. 250. 126. 254. 8. 192. 87. 6. 5. 260 Dreamweaver. 30. 243. 257 FrontPage. 192. 230. 62. 48. 7. 4. 32. 161. 138. 97. 167. 30. 30. 246. 63. 129. 157 Hype in e-learning. 118. 251. 112. 216. 1. 136. 192. 45 Frameworks. 18. 215. 77. 215. 12. 115. 275 Distributed systems. 125. 39. 13. 254. 135. 236. 115. 15. 170. 258. 148. 156. 7. 134. 59. 70. 228. 125. 5. 170. 3. 122. 176 Interface devices. 155. 121. 210. 273 Informal learning. 207. 246. 305 Geocaching. 246. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 191. 134. 122. 254 Gesture recogntion. 34. 227. 18. 73. 28. 211 evaluation. 109. 33. 170. 72. 200 Design. 29 e-Portfolios. 15. 155. 192. 80. 24. 174. 185. 133. 114. 139. 188. 287. 45. 125.

274. 45. 62. 289. 142. 177. 210 PowerPoint. 175. 271. 88. 158. 119. 204. 83. 284 Portals. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 179. 115. 59. 171. 270. 191. 171. 135. 79. 33. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 162. 57. 13. 228 Optical tags. 177. 3. 78. 65. 300. 147. 201. 321. 138. 175. 138. 183. 188. 186. 221. 65. 154. 95. 193 Microsoft. 196. 120. 176 Personalization. 186. 227. 268 latent semantic analysis. 187. 174. 175. 174. 5. 200. 4. 123. 66. 210 Pervasive computing. 185. 170. 179. 254. 298. 221 Project management. 80. 203. 152. 145. 206 Microformats. 177. 60. 171. 184. 201. 65. 47. 247. 238. 221. 178. 273. 121. 190. 112. 195. 89. 173. 5. 17. 27. 105. 106. 60. 166. 72. 148. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 171. 188. 273. 306. 159. 135. 5. 110. 103. 158. 118. 20. 189. 166. 151. 158. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 260. 182. 221. 64. 66. 209. 223. 114. 18. 104. 241. 192. 223 Rapid e-learning. 227. 189. 181. 140. 162. 101. 184. 308. 163. 47. 274. 115. 192. 330. 162. 24. 186. 40. 250 Pedagogy. 179. 177. 233. 237. 61. 161. 309. 111. 195. 61. 198. 245. 217. 222. 230. 42. 205. 159. 32. 162. 197. 171. 100. 7. 218 Metacognition. 157 Medical applications. 63. 246. 2. 202. 32. 89. 63. 111. 210. 209 Microlearning. 287. 43. 31. 120. 189. 92. 244. 155. 211. 102. 305. 159. 241. 63. 187. 84. 332 Microworlds. 5. 163. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 59 Presentation tools. 73. 255 Neural networks. 128. 232. 24 Museums. 3. 91. 85. 161. 192 Libraries. 93 Radio. 146. 192 Networks. 86. 260. 83. 12. 151. 85. 183 Navigation. 45. 161 Podcasting. 99. 147. 59. 30. 311. 182. 129. 54. 154. 60. 62. 234. 158. 62. 59. 221. 151. 100. 209. 20. 65. 55. 90. 318 Privacy. 312 learning object model. 218 M-learning. 164. 163. 78. 105. 161. 86. 82. 66. 267. 5. 5. 55. 22. 172. 151. 315 Motion Graphics. 177. 144. 19. 32. 209 pattern recognition. 6. 242. 151 Quizzes. 185. 261. 190. 235. 7. 142. 32. 244. 311 Learning Management Systems. 108. 230. 52. 45. 82. 109. 91. 3. 170. 64. 12. 134 Proximity tools. 145. 190. 47. 156. 54. 144. 161. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 314 Meta-search engines. 145 learning object repository. 178. 176. 139. 230. 145. 61. 33. 8. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 159.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 155. 318 Location based tools. 187. 31. 104. 224. 146. 107. 227. 125 Ontologies. 193 Projectors. 55. 189. 262. 156. 187. 52. 105. 104. 55. 28. 87. 178. 17. 193. 164. 317. 179. 294. 3. 231. 192 Lecturing. 27. 136. 139. 250 Mashups. 104. 151. 141. 165. 117. 138. 54. 147. 97. 273. 36. 250. 259. 241. 318. 85. 64. 32 Metadata. 160. 141. 193. 145. 58. 28. 145 Learning Objects. 234. 151. 261 Macromedia. 6. 84. 172. 44. 254. 224. 222. 131. 177. 82. 165 Mobile computing. 174. 31. 224. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 79. 184. 290. 59. 244. 6. 159. 174. 161. 194. 56. 146. 73. 152. 6. 215. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 10. 76. 209. 230. 7. 197 Legacy materials. 64. 323 mapping. 219. 38. 152. 25. 101. 143. 221. 139. 222. 72. 280. 90. 148. 160. 254. 158. 164. 219. 199. 243.

147. 180. 244 summative assessment. 217. 155. 251. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 75. 217. 147. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 222. 164. 244 Tangible computing. 226. 81. 67. 157 Simulations. 146. 226. 319 Role-playing. 238. 233. 261 Shockwave. 100. 219. 212. 150. 33. 32. 232. 255 Single-user wiki. 260. 221. 210. 223. 221. 281 SCORM. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 12. 158. 145 Screencasting. 16. 215. 246. 128. 62. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 222. 206. 218 Scenarios. 120. 255 Turing Test. 187 Smart labels and tags. 160. 332 Webcasting. 228. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 119. 273. 138. 12. 5. 76 T-Learning. 151. 52. 113. 243. 33. 250. 219. 69. 331 Web conferencing. 227. 273. 242 Security. 216. 268 Skypecasting. 139. 224. 193. 158. 134. 274 Tests. 121. 230. 6. 255. 194. 221 Social bookmarking. 187. 10. 57. 145. 204. 47. 202. 55. 187. 244 Tours (online). 236. 211. 232 Speech recognition. 254 Taxonomies. 218. 242. 134. 69. 256. 143. 241. 198. 171. 145. 47. 302. 199. 230. 123. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 261 Usability. 170. 9. 76. 45. 145. 275 Vlogs. 327 Videocasting. 137. 59. 221. 158. 98. 19. 216. 85. 145 Robotics. 214 résumés. 196. 224 Team management. 48. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 215. 247. 152. 206. 86. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 66. 120. 8. 242. 195 Virtual learning environments. 52. 225. 241 Vodcasting. 2. 66. 221 self-evaluation. 266. 205. 151. 155. 169 Streaming video. 24. 33. 331 Wearable computing. 238. 251 Serious games. 218 Science. 196. 246 Visualization. 275 Translation. 241. 247 Video. 244. 165. 45 Symbology tags. 179. 176. 212 reusable learning objects. 197. 188. 201. 208. 26. 3. 225. 192 Thin clients. 228. 106. 222 Tag clouds. 4. 241 virtual classroom. 125. 245. 239. 209. 9. 7. 98. 5. 63. 167. 259. 51. 97. 161. 46. 160. 174 Virtual reality. 264. 237. 196. 49. 220. 72. 114. 203. 84 Telephony. 241. 63. 169. 264 Social networking. 187. 62. 148. 43. 143. 201. 45. 97. 7. 109. 88. 73. 115. 142. 62. 5. 6. 62. 209. 81. 127. 167. 214. 190. 158. 122. 159. 262. 243. 226. 216. 215. 224. 209. 241. 12. 10. 155 Tagging. 33. 268. 259. 275. 50. 263. 151. 244. 268 Tags. 152. 174. 261. 138. 119. 97. 76. 202. 120. 97. 231. 45 Semantic Web. 156. 213. 203. 60. 225. 119. 201. 171. 224. 167. 60. 228. 252. 139. 15. 148. 146. 227. 117. 187. 104. 61. 4. 226. 154. 156 sharable content objects. 190. 183. 51. 231. 226. 267. 18. 5. 5. 202. 253. 27. 174. 31. 199. 240. 10. 200.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 38. 45. 2. 159. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 46. 76. 45. 159. 224. 112. 254. 158. 265. 60. 241 Television. 3. 134. 242. 65. 46. 226. 241 Search engines. 189. 145 Repositories. 117 Reusability. 227. 65. 149. 63. 252. 156. 260 Telepresence. 187 Virtual classrooms.

307 Wikipedia. 6.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 87. 136. 106. 157. 184. 104. 174. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 134. 3. 68. 233. 232. 10. 269. 5. 276 Word. 97. 114. 59. 135. 82. 1. 270 Wikis. 168. 209. 103. 233. 256. 90. 270. 268. 53. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Gary. 137. 271. 86. 272. 77. 187 Whiteboards. 156. 332 Woodill. 269. 80. 84. 115. 266. 267. 116. 268.