Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. class periods.” Starting in the first century AD.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. material. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. But learning technologies have a much longer history. still used in many institutions of higher education. or “reader. to quote Donald Norman (1993). With these reforms. Do Not Reproduce 1 .Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. and recess. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. We tend to forget. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. the raising of hands. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. or device that extends human abilities. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. The modern classroom. the classroom became industrialized.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. Learning became standardized and linear. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. for example. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Technologies are any technique. They are. detentions. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. with rows. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. “things that make us smart. and language for communication. is a 2000 year old “technology. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. fire for warmth and cooking. Medieval universities followed the same practice. as books were scarce. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. that lecturing. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers.

This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Brandon Hall Research . stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. even if the originator of the words is not present. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others.” In 1970. and reciting. memorizing. chairman of IBM. Schools were started to teach accounting. changing the practice of teaching. A third way to learn is by seeing. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. Thomas Watson. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model.” Similarly. Eventually. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. linear teaching techniques online. moving pictures (films). For example. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. At the same time. 2 © 2006. When a new technology is introduced. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Sadly.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . There are. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. in fact. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar.just the ability to follow an example. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. When a new technology first comes into use. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Students in these schools learned by reading. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. in 1876 someone at Western Union. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. many different ways to learn. Like all new technologies. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn.

sometimes gathered from multiple sources. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . as this is a non-technical guide. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. 2006). AT&T was given what would become the Internet. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. sometimes referred to as a mashup. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. 2006). Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. Rather than pages. However. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Rather than pages. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. To realize these advantages. Do Not Reproduce 3 . Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. mashups can only be done using computer technology. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. it needs to adhere to architectures. frameworks. and standards.

The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.fr/publicatio n. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. Brandon Hall Research . a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. 4 © 2006. 2005. Number 3. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid.php).grid. There is authentication and authorization support at every level.free. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. January. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network.

enabling the search for content.adlnet. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://imsproject. and education administration. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. http://www. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. http://ltsc. In particular. http://sourceforge.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.aicc.oclc. http://purl.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. research. Major specifications for e-learning. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.ieee. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. In Europe. Do Not Reproduce 5 . the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.org) has a number of published documents that. At the same time.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).elframework.imsglobal.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.accessgrid. At the same time. http://www. presentation and interactive environments. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. and makes extensive use of XML. taken together. interactive learning components.

Instead. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. “[a] pull economy . John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. For example. 2004). Brandon Hall Research . In business.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. Moreover. 6 © 2006. Instead of just providing courses.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. They noted that “…in education. This is especially true for adult education. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.is based on open. Instead. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. 2006) has argued. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. While packaged courses still have a place. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Bollier says.” In late 2005.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Rather. As Anderson (2004. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. reinforces this theme.

Ahmad. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Thus.pdf Anderson. and Conte. online resources.. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. http://www. G. M.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. McClatchey. R. F. Z. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. Five years ago. Bibliography Abbas. Bertolazzi.idi. mobile devices. R. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). March/April 2006. along with selected examples. (2005). October. Bryan (2006). http://www. Italy. http://www. In the last chapter.ntnu. M. 12(10). often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Cardiff. Milan.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. I hope you will find it useful. UK..educause.. Odeh. http://www. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Umer. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Do Not Reproduce 7 . 10/tail.org/abs/cs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.DC/0502051 Alexander. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. 2005).com/wired/archive/12.. New York: Hyperion. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles.wired. Web 2.amazon. Wales. M.. Ali. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. June 2005. User-created content. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. those learners are now keeping their own records. (2005). Wired Magazine.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Chris (2004). I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. 41(2). and wearable computers. Chris (2006).html Anderson. ambient networks. the reader can approach any topic in any order.. F.. Zanichelli. http://arxiv. From this. M. Reggiani.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. The Long Tail.. A. and a bibliography. is becoming commonplace. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. often placed in repositories as open source content or software.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.

ca/protocols_en.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.athabascau. 6-8. K. 2002. Thomas (2004). K. Tsiatsos.ca/softeval/report s/R110203.aspeninstitute. T.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. Madison.. Montreal.. American Jrnl.pdf Bogonikolos. http://www. Nov.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. March 2002. 16. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . http://www.pdf Cerri.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. (1996). Porto. (2002). and Votis. http://cde.org/celda2005/index.Dev Shed.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Portugal. WI. Triantafillou. 13-16. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. http://www..bcs. Aug. David (2005).pdf Friesen.. T. http://ru6. Online. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Centre for Distance Ed. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Giotopoulos. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. 4-36. International E-Learning Specifications. M.cancore.. Athabasca University. http://www. M. N.gmu. Web Services .amazon. Oct. of Distance Education 10.a sp Chatarji. http://www. Sept. 19. 14-16. Lausanne. R. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology.devshed.htm Bollier.ICALT 2001. Brandon Hall Research .. 2. Upper Saddle River. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Likothanassis. (2001). S. 2004. C.. V. Norm (2006).org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. G..pdf Erl. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. and McGreal. http://ewic.edu/pdf/ajde.virtual.htm l 8 © 2006. 2004.cscsi. Jagadish (2004). Dec. Weiss. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Stefano (2005). 2001. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Switzerland. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.cti. (2002). N.iadis. 13. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. USA. and McGinnis (2004). Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. Hornig. C. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. http://www.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. Chrysostalis.. http://www.

and Albert. D.ascilite. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.1109/CIT. Perth.pdf Knorr.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. and Geys. V. MA: Perseus. 1026-1032. J.com. Switzerland. http://www.com/paper_pushpull .det. (2003). and Borck. and Vossen.unikarlsruhe. Gregor (2005).html Kong.html Hockemeyer.56 Marshall.johnhagel. Infoworld. C. (2004). Erlanger.pdf He. G. F.aifb.au Limited.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2.xml. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Education. January 2005..org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1. 2002 http://ewic.28 April 2004. T. SCORM and the Learning Grid. http://ewic.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa. Sept. Donald (1993).org/persagen/DLAb sToc.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.200 5.pdf Norman. Stephen (2004). http://www. http://csdl2. http://www.S. 2003.amazon. http://www.bcs. and Brown.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. http://www. R. Lausanne. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Germany. I. http://www. J. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. ThoughtWorks White paper. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid..org.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel. http://www. (2002). 2005.. L. (2005). A field guide to software as a service.bcs. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. (2005). and Zhang. of Education and Training. Working paper.pdf Millea.pdf Neumann. Sept.gov. G. 30. Australia..c om/docs/SOA_World. for the Australian Dept.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Luo. J.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1. J. Cambridge. (2005). 27 . W.infoworld.act. Stuttgart. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . J.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc. and Putland. http://www.xml.computer. Proceedings.htm Hohpe.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies.xml&DOI=10. E. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Green. April 18. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. (2005). Hao (2003). Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.

Berlin: Springer. http://www-i5. R. W. and Jarke... J. http://www. G. pp. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. (2000). T. Lee. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILT A_white_paper_2005.com/gp/product/18 46283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.alt. W. Rhonda (2006). SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. C. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.ac. Learning Solutions. 2006. Library+information Show. J. http://www.com/publications.sinica. (2005).astd.iis.. Hambrecht and Co.pdf Urdan. Research report. http://www.aspx Yang.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF 5659-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.): Proceedings.alt. G.net/uploads/images/4 31/experience_machines.pdf Spaniol. Klamma. http://www. H.acten. V.informatik.rwthaachen. (2003).edu. M. and Ho. Dublin. In W. (2005).uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.amazon.tw/JISE/2005/ 200509_06.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publicati ons/ATLAS.pdf 10 © 2006.pdf Roberts. April 26-27. Reflective learning. Mashups. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. C.R. C. e-portfolios. Brandon Hall Research . Birmingham. Trends in elearning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. 193– 205.ac. Aalderink. http://www. http://www. Zhou et al. Peter (2004). Journal of Information Science and Engineering.. ICWL 2003.operitel.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Pierre.pdf Woodill. 2006. April 1.. M. (2006).. Feijen. Cook. S. http://www. (Eds. and Wade. Trinity College. Harvey. 911-928. 9. and Oliveira.pdf Werkhoven. May 15. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. 2005. M. ACTeN E-Content Report No. Samuel (2006). and Weggen. UK. 21. future thinking: digital repositories.

allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. Included are related terms. selected elearning related examples. and a bibliography for each section. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. online resources to learn more about each technology. Do Not Reproduce 11 . There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.

or sad. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal..” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. emotions. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. gestures. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. 2005).com/Explorer/NGT-AC. security. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. privacy. and react to human emotions. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. in Italy. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. too. understand. understand. posture. Brandon Hall Research . SRI Consulting (http://www.” (Anolli. and to respond to them effectively. For example. keystroke patterns. facial recognition. and react to human emotions.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. et al.sricbi. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. 12 © 2006. 2005). confused. emotional design. Without the ability to understand emotions.. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. In online therapy.

org. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. accuracy.nsma.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.de/link/affective_p ortal. with many resources.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.html In Germany.convo. UK.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. and legality. bibliographies. Affective Computing.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic.bham. See the links at: http://emotion.unige.co. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Do Not Reproduce 13 . are available online: http://www.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.informatik. See: http://www. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.media. April 12-15. 2005.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states.aisb. Check it out at: http://www. University of Hertfordshire. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.ac.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. October 22-24. Dr.mit.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.edu/emotion.unitrier. 2005.myself-proj.cs.bartneck.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Access it from: http://www. Hatfield. UK. including studies of emotions in computers.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.arizona. listing many links to interesting resources. China. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe.

We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.. Vermersch. Oregon. and Confalonieri (2005).wired. April 2-7. http://www. and Zouinar. (2005). I Like It . and Zancanaro. Oregon.. Brassac. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour. Z. 2005. Erlbaum. CHI 2005 conference. Portland. Agliati.html Fallman. April 2-7.pdf Maldonado. P. Nortillaro.. C. L.com/wired/archive/11.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye. C. K. Iwamura. CHI 2005 conference.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. Stock. http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. http://www. Nass. Oregon.. Brave. Issue 11/12.doc Hook. CHI 2005 conference. NJ.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. April 2-7. H. http://www. O. V... Isbister.. D.stanford.. Vescovo. Nakajima. Balestra. O.pdf Diamond. Portland. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.doc Chateau. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Mantovani.sics.. Portland. N. F. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. 2005 http://www. Y. J. Joseph (2005). K.. Graziola.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2005).Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Rocchi. CHI 2005. P. Yamada.. 2005.. Portland. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Goren-Bar. C. H. Oregon.it/~lhci/009.dis. Portland. F. A. Zurloni. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. (2005). B. Pianesi. and Laaksolahti. (2005). M. D. April 2-7. 2005. and Merisol... Oregon.sics. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. A.sics. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. December. L.. Pachoud..pdf 14 © 2006. http://www.uniroma1. J. CHI 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar. M. http://www.. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. M.. Portland.. Brandon Hall Research . B. Wired Magazine.. and Waterworth.sics.. The Love Machine: building computers that care. K. and Morishima. April 2-7.pdf Cahour. (2005).sics. Realdon. September 13.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. J. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. David (2003).pdf Kaye.sics. Lee. April 2-7.. J. Salembier. R. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. S.. Oregon..1 2/love. I. http://www. (2005). Bouraoui.

jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. Rosalind (1997). and Picard. M. Gerd (1998). Regan (2005).pdf Norman.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. (2005). M.de/emeocom p/content. 2002. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. CHI 2005. 2005. ACII 2005.miv. http://www.HTM Steele.htm Tao.utokyo.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. Portland. Miami. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. http://www. May 26. CHI 2005. April 2-7. http://www. 22. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Computing. 2005.t.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Beijing. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Portland. J. Tan. OR. (2005).org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion. S. Helena (2005).se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. http://www. MA: MIT. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. http://www. New York: Basic. R.amazon. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.sics. Cambridge. T.elearningreviews.ac. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.com/gp/product/3 http://www. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. CHI 2005 conference. R. and Daily. 35(2). S.sics. Berlin: Picard.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. October 22-24. Oregon. http://www. (2005). Donald A. J. Oregon. and Ishizuka.pdf Masum. (2002). Paper for WEBIST 2005. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. (2004). E-book http://www. China.amazon. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. http://www. Dec. Affective Springer.pdf Ruebenstrunk.pdf Mentis. and Steele.ruebenstrunk.iste. April 2-7..sics.

sics.pdf 16 © 2006. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.thesis.doc Wright. Charlotte (2005).bham. April 2-7. University of Birmingham. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. CHI 2005 conference. 2005. http://www.ac.Affective Computing Wiberg.cs. Emotional Agents. Brandon Hall Research . Affective Computing vs. Ian (1997). Oregon. Portland. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.

veracity.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. 1999). Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. First. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. avatars. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. see the paper by Far et al. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Do Not Reproduce 17 . of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. For example.. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. and many of them can actually learn. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. rationality. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. benevolence. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. and both may be found in the same program (for example. Fourth. learning/adaptation. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Dick Stenmark. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). 1999). personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. In this context. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents).informatik. Third. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. proactive (goal directed). Second. autonomous agents. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. 2004).gu. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. and.

Even though each agent acts independently. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. However. et al. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Massaro et al. Katzlberger. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. A second agent in the simulation. Therefore. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. not only about environments. useful in educational simulations. 2005. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. 2000). Brandon Hall Research . Agents have beliefs. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. and the students had to continue to teach her. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. 2004) and are. Baldi. Viswanath. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. therefore. but also about other agents. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. acting against other teams of agents. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Mentor. She made mistakes. 2005). Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. In such situations. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. (1998) developed a conversational agent. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. 18 © 2006. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams.

com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.de/bibliography/Ai /agents. not only about environments.uka. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). but also about other agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. and expert guides.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623.com/ CodeBaby Corp.ac.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. See a demo at: http://www. See the article by Williams et al.old.isi.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Hypermedia.org/index. For details of this research: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. Do Not Reproduce 19 . & Ebbers. They are available as adaptive coaches. go to: http://ldt. (2004): http://www.csc. For details see: www.liv. S. See: http://liinwww. See: http://www.stanford.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California. See: http://www. and Telecommunications 2003.extempo. go to: http://ritl. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.ira.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs.netobjectdays..redwoodelearning.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. Therefore.fsu.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.org/index.editlib. expert role-players. Go to: http://www.codebaby. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. (2003). A.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 459462. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.

& Bengu. e-Learning 2005. http://www. ELearning 2003. 5(7). 10 (3).ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. S. http://www. G. http://www. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning...educause. S. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). In Richards.. http://www. http://www. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro.org/index. B.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. No. Large Complex Systems. and Shaw.org/index. 306-311). & Johnson..ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao. 75-80.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. W.editlib. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.org/newdl/index. (2003). G. & El-Khouly. http://www. Y. Educause Quarterly.. Hypermedia.org/index. Zahia (2004).aace. VA: AACE... Elan. and Palopoli. Ali (2002).cfm?fusea ction=Reader.editlib. S..pdf Guessoum.. Inter-active Learning Res. Johnson. E. In Proceedings. Clarebout.computer. Norfolk. & Kim. 3.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. http://www. (2002).org/index. 1503-1506. A. http://csdl. (2002). L. (2000).editlib. M. C. J.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Sun. 1353-1356. Educause Quarterly. 11(3). Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.pdf Kao. & Lin. Y.). Ng. (2005). In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.pdf Jafari.org/index. Paper presented. Germany.. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. July.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. and Tsang. (2005). Proceedings. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. Jrnl.pdf Clarebout. 275-285. G. 267-286 http://www. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. 2005... A.Agents Baylor. J. (Ed.editlib. G. (1999). The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Brandon Hall Research . Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.educause.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. Z. Koono.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.netobjectdays. 28(2). G. Erfurt.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. W. (2002).ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen.old. http://www.

Thomas (2005). http://dl. Toulouse. A. R. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. http://cslu. E. U. 21-38. S. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://www. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.editlib. Doctoral Dissertation. W. Cohen.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . http://www.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. 16591666. and Stucky.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (2006). In Proceedings. Learning by Teaching Agents. http://www. P. http://www. Vanderbilt University. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.pdf Lin. 143-162.indiana. Daniel. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. ED-MEDIA. 1632. www.cse. http://www. of California.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. (1999). and Ferneley. TN. www. and Winikoff. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.. International Journal on E-Learning.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98.. Y. Sandel. (2004). (2005). Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. V.ogi.de/BIK/vpa/109.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. D..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Ho.informatics.unikarlsruhe. and Cole..org/index.teachableagents. Doctoral Dissertation.edu/fil/ Padgham.org/16948 Leelawong. E-Learning 2003. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Krittaya (2005). IFIP WG12.pdf Luengo. L. (2003).amazon.teachableagents.org/index. Nashville. Beskow.amazon. V. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. 4(1). France. Vanderbilt University.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. J. 17(2). www. Doctoral dissertation. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Hershey. M.aace..K. O. Nashville. C.aifb. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems.5 .com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro.editlib.. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. Tennessee. In Proceedings. 1999.editlib.pdf Menczer.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. M. August. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.pdf Kim.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.org/index.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.

http://www. (1999). http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. & Leelawong.org/16968 Sahin. Finland. Brandon Hall Research . Carnegie Mellon University.). 1999.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. & Booth.editlib. J. S. 14151420. 321-333. (2004).pdf Williams.. G. ED-MEDIA 2005. http://www.edu/565321.editlib. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. http://www. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. L.. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia..ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. and Solomon. Pittsburgh. Russia. G. 47-59. and Higher Education 2004. Proceedings.html Shim.org/index. & Lim. M. D. In P.. http://www. Petersburg. 61-65.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning..teachableagents.org/newdl/index. G.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno. Doctoral Dissertation.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. (2004). 3169-3176. http://www. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. (Ed.ist.psu. & Madsen. L. 10 (3). Government. Biswas. 30003002.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. and Núñeza. Richards (Eds.org/index. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.. Peter (1998). In Richards. Ferat (2000). http://citeseer. M. Wesley.vt. K. Adebiyi.org/index. In Proceedings. Proceedings. Doctoral Dissertation. Healthcare. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.aace. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.org/index. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). N..Agents Perez. Atreya. June 1-4. (2004). R. S. (2005).utexas. (1999). (2005). (2005). http://www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://scholar. EDMedia 2005. http://dl. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 14(1). PA. H.editlib.aace..ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. ED-MEDIA 2004.org/papers/ 158bis. Gilbert. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. B. 194-201. M. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. R. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. K.).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. J.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Kommers & G.cs.editlib.lib. St.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.

Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. April 18-21.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 . (2004).upc. Michael (2002). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Chicago.html Yan. 2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. http://ca. http://research.wiley. Paper at CLAG2004.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X.ac. Chun.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce

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There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. (2003).” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. concepts. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. gestures.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. 2002). and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. While many systems purport to be personalized.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Talking Head Tutor vs. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.e.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. objects. etc) and how they are interrelated. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. rather than using a single type of knowledge. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Do Not Reproduce 30 . “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.

” http://www. Do Not Reproduce 31 . and multiagents.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.unito.uic.colorado. including student monitoring.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.” http://www. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.cs.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.cs.colorado.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. see: http://lsa. (2005a..pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. ecommerce.cs.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. http://www.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. http://lsa.. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.” http://www.iit. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.uregina.di.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.

pact.kicinger.edu. http://www.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.unsw.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.iis.ht ml To achieve their goals. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. question answering (QA) techniques.com/doi/pdf/10. http://www. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.com/index.it. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.infrature. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.cs. As a result.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. http://quantumsimulations. http://ariic.” http://www.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.” http://ctat.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.leaonline. and INFOMAP. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.library.edu.enel. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. 32 © 2006. http://www.ucalgary.uc3m.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready. http://www.pdf Oguejiofor et al. http://bach.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.gast.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b. Infrature. Brandon Hall Research .sinica.cmu.

and engaging.pact. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic .A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. challenging.gemini.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.stottlerhenke. see: http://www. skill gaps. http://www.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. so that these systems become more realistic.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.edu.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.it.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.cmu.com/s10. Inc. The reality is that. intelligent conflict resolution.cs.” http://www.ke-corp. Find out more at: http://ctat.usyd.cs.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. and learning style. Stottler Henke Associates. http://pact.cmu.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. Aurora . preferred cadence. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. Task Tutor Toolkit .edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. and an interactive intelligent tutor.virtuelage. http://www. an adaptive testing algorithm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. without programming. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Do Not Reproduce 33 .

ac. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. Brandon Hall Research .htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.org/AITopics/html/tutor.ac. China.inf.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.learningcircuits.aaai.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. 34 © 2006. See: http://www. http://www.licef.ed.masternewmedia. http://www.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.technologyreview.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching.enel. go to: http://aied. Find it at: http://www.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.com/printer _friendly_article.ca/eng/in dex.its2006.uk/aiedsoc.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.org/cfp. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Taiwan.htm Marvin Minsky.autotutor. with the next one in 2007. The AIED conferences are held every two years.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education. For more info: http://www2. http://aied.org/2000/fe b2000/ong.wpi. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.inf. Read it at: http://www.” Learn more at: http://www. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. For more information.teluq.ed.cs.ucalgary.uquebec.

(2004). (2004). and Picard. and Penstein Rosé.org/10.eurodl. PA: Idea.pdf Baldoni. B.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. http://www. R.. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.html Barker.. Baroglio. (2004). Vicari.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner... V. and Read. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . Brazil. Reilly. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems.cmu. Paraguaçu (Eds.amazon. http://www.82 Bhatt.iit. Mostow. (2002).edu/pubs/pub_4073. 22: 3–39. S.) (2006). McLaren. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. (2004).wpi. Artificial Intelligence Review. In J. http://lingcog. M. In Proceedings. P. & F. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . E.ri. K.ac.). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.di. http://www. V. 482-487. http://nth. C.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.. and Douglas. (2004). http://dx. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Roll.. I. http://www. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Hermann (2002). R.sbg. http://www.unito. Kort. ITS 2004.pdf Alkhalifa.ht ml Aleven.. and Koedinger. K. M. G. V. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. S.pdf Aleven.2005. M. Chicago.Volume I. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. C. Lester.1109/ITCC. and Patti. Hershey.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. (2005). Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). 6(1). Eshaa (Ed. T. and Evens. http://www. Argamon.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read.pdf Barcena.doi.pitt. C. Maceió. R.. B. J.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit.

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and output. for example. We can expect that. in the near future. computer based assessment (CBA). it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. evaluation. Do Not Reproduce 45 . eassessment. 1956). More sophisticated forms of automated. or performance samples. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. aptitudes. are already available. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. the automated scoring of essays. In a business situation. rubrics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. When combined into a “360° evaluation. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. making it hard to escape assess-ment. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. quizzes. or performance samples. self-evaluation. computer-based assessment tools. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. quizzes. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. and documents for assessors to use. once only done by a human assessor. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. quizzes. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. computer mediated assessment (CMA). For example. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. online assessment. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. samples. Assessment software can generate templates. and psychomotor. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. affective.

and (4) computer marking.0. http://www.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.brainbench.questionmark. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. from Resources Management Services in the U. abilities. and adaptive question branching.learningandteaching. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. see: http://www.K.. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. Diploma. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.xstreamsoftware. has recently won awards for its performance. Find them at: http://www. Try it at: http://nt.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.testcraft. See: http://www.com/redinq/html/inde x.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.info/lear ning/solo. However. preview pages for all question types. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.com The Evaluator. For details. personality.com/evaluator Testcraft. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. and past work behaviors. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. Brandon Hall Research .redinq.horizonwimba. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. 46 © 2006. multilingual support. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. a completely customizable report engine.rmsuk. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. skills. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. Review it at: http://www. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. a customizable look and feel.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. See the site at: http://www.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment.

http://www. For information on latent semantic analysis. on its Web site.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. Try it at: http://www.uc. once only done by a human assessor. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.com/wwwtools/magazin es. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.flaguide. See more at: http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. http://www. and adminis-tration features. http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).ets. and self-study.fasfind.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.vantagelearning.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.dialang.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry. See: http://www.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.” See their offerings at: http://www. learning tools. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 . and services useful for outcomes assessment.org/english/index.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.colorado.” organized by academic discipline.org/ ETS.pedagogue.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.epistema. check out the Dialang web site. see: http://lsa.respondus.operitel. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. surveys. institutional evaluation. http://www. reporting.

http://www.com/schrockguid e/assess.ira.au/assessi nglearning/03/online.uk/home. Brandon Hall Research .htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. Explore the links at: http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.thinkinggear.scit. http://www. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.discovery. http://www. http://www.wlv.” http://www.com/useguide/as sessme/online.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.200 references.unimelb.learnflex.com/029.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.umuc.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba.uiuc.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.ac. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.economicsnetwork. with over 1.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.health.oir. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.nestafuturelab.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.com/tools/rubric s.heacademy. is available from: http://liinwww. Obtain a copy at: http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA.edu. with a list of 34 strategies.org/research/ reviews/10_01.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.ulster.uka.ac. http://cba.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.rmcdenver.ac. http://www. Check them out at: http://school.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.cshe. http://www.ac.000 different tests from its database.tasainstitute.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.htm 48 © 2006.

8 (3).ict4lt. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. P.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. A.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom.html Bibliography Alfonseca. S. M. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. Pérez. Iwashita. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. James (2005). (2005). http://www. (1982). T. Educational Technology & Society. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. K. D. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.com/career_asse ssment. and Hirschman. Carro. T.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. N. Ortigosa. J. http://www. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment.org/en/en_mod41.iltaonline. B..3 Bateson. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. A. M. London: Paladin. E. and Collis.ifets. Freire. http://www. St.. Missouri. New York: McKay. R..htm#2.pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. (2001). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.quintcareers. http://www. and Davies. (1956). J. 53-65. & Rodríguez. http://www. (2004). Louis.amazon. Gregory (1973). Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. L.unt..info/journals/8_3/6. http://www. New York: Academic Press.amazon. S.tcet. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. Online paper.amazon.info/learn ing/solo. http://www. McNamara. G..learningandteaching.pdf Biggs.htm Atkinson.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. (2001). and O'Hagan. http://www..iltaonline. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Online paper.pdf Atherton..

.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. In M. Mexico. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Linn (Ed. http://www. http://www. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. (2003). M.computer. In M. Jill.htm Burstein. http://www.amazon. Burstein.amazon.com/news/sho wStoryts. Daniel. K.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. & Leacock. Hillsdale. http://www. Shermis and J. V. L. J. Harabagiu and F.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Burstein. New York. Robert (2005). C.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. http://www. Educational Measurement.). (1989).assess. Inouye.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.com/Books/b39739. Martin. June 22.pdf. (2003). Kaplan (Ed. and Chodorow.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. (2002). C. Hillsdale.Assessment Tools Brown J. Jill. J.ht m. Acapulco. New York: Oxford. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. D. and Marcu. Kay (1999). (1997). Marcu. Jill C. Burstein (Eds.eschoolnews. Rethink testing for future success. (2003). August 2003. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective.. In the R. Ciravegna (Eds. Shermis and J. Jill. 3rd Edition. Chodorow. In S. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.com/Books/b39739. http://llt. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. & Olsen.msu. Daniel.. IL: Skylight. Burstein (Eds. Kevin (2003).) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.. Arlington Heights. Langu-age Learning and Technology. http://www.amazon. 1. and Knight.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. B. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". In R.assess. NY: Macmillan. IEEE Intelligent Systems. How to Assess Authentic Learning.htm 50 © 2006.org/intelligent/archives. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2005.ets. www. eSchool News.

(1999). St. Writing assessment: a position statement. Laham. www.htm Cebrian. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.nap. N. W. London: Falmer. Language Learning & Technology 2. Y. P. EdMedia '99. n. (2004). Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. http://www.Proceedings from a Workshop. D. http://llt. P. Millard. and Parry. 2: 77-93.msu.html Chalhoub-Deville. http://www. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. National Research Council. Language Learning and Technology. C. v. http://eprints. and Sclater. Loughborough. http://llt. Micheline. & Landauer. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Online newsletter.ecs.au/worldcall/str5.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.nmsu.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. May. (1999). C.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn.unimelb..edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. B. Nathan.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). University of Tasmania. 2. M..edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. O’Reilly.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. (2001).. http://www. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. Morgan. Davis. E. Micheline.hlc. The Student Assessment Handbook.iltaonline.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. (Ed.. D.msu. (2004). (2005)..utas. Howard. M. Online newsletter. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. H. and Grellett. S.edu. 5. Foltz. Chalhoub-Deville.html Do Not Reproduce 51 . Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. K. Board on Testing and Assessment. College Composition and Communication Online.. T. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. http://wwwpsych. March 9. In Proceedings.pdf Dunkel P. L.ac. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. W. Louis.edu. (1998). (2001). Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.ncte.doc. Language testing and technology: past and future.amazon.) (1999).html Davies. http://www. http://www.soton.

Discourse Processes. J. and Howell. (Eds. 4. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges.pd f Kenyon. W.com/pdf/Pap erTests. M.msu. M. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. http://llt.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones.msu.pdf Hricko. No. K.. S. http://www. New York: Basic Books. (1998). (Eds.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.gmu. Potenza. http://www. Weller.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. T. J. France.amazon. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . (2005). Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. & Mason. International Journal on E-Learning. Compiegne.html Khan. N. M.proexam. May. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.) (2002). 25.htm. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.amazon.edu/papers/dp1. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.softwaresecure.pdf MacDonlad. C. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. M. Online paper.html.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault.kent.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. (2001). Seven technologies for assessment. Language Learning and Technology. 259284. and Ward. Gardner. (2002). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (2001).. (1999). and Watt. D. and Malabonga. http://www. J. and Ma. http://llt.Hershey.amazon. May.. 5.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Robert.colorado. Patrick (2000). V. Hardas. Y. Foltz. http://mason.) (2005).medianet.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones. D. http://www.pdf Landauer. 2. Lawrence.. Language Learning and Technology.. Howard (1993). P.. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. n.LSAi ntro. 5(2).amazon. Hillsdale. Fremer. W. http://www. H.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase. http://www. Howell. PA: Information Science. http://www.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. & Laham. R (2002). http://lsa. v.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.

The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. and Skinner. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Learning.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Hershey. G. Journal of Technol. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. McArthur. Operitel white paper.amazon. M.. (1979). pdf Weiner. In C. (2000). NY: Guilford Press.. R.ed.. & Leacock. Online Assessment. Measurement and Evaluations. National Center for Education Statistics. S.. and Gifford. PA: Information Science. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Handbook of writing research. (Ed. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. D. Self. C. New York.amazon.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Burstein. DC: U. K. http://www. http://escholarship.) (2005).com Do Not Reproduce 53 . D. Fitzgerald. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. Graham.ed. B. pp. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.amazon. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Reports from the Institute of Education.operitel. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. 4(6).edu/cgi/viewconten t. Washington. Information Science Publishing. (2005). http://www. 403-416. http://www.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. Tim (2006). M.S. and Writing. (2006). M. Howell. and Assessment. http://nces. http://eric.) (2000). A. Government. University of Gothenburg. and Hricko. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. http://www.gov/pubs2000/2000195.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Howard.bc. Problem Solving. S. (2006). Mahwah. J. (Eds.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. & J.

including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. According to Crofts et al. (2005). One audio application of interest to educators. or by “streaming. Brandon Hall Research . which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. which is gaining in popularity. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. podcasting. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. (i. the rest of the file has time to arrive.5 megabytes. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices.. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. depending on the file size). With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. For example. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences.e. compared with even a few years ago. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. is podcasting. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while it is playing. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod.

scientificcomputing. http://www. GNU/Linux. (i. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.purdue. in part.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. It is available to download for Mac OS X. such as those for iPods. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. and other operating systems.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://sourceforge.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. open source software for recording and editing sounds. Assists non-native speakers. Provides feedback to learners. to personalized media)..apple. Provides another channel for material review.e.thepodcastnetwork. http://www.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. Microsoft Windows. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 55 . Enables instructors to review training or lectures. http://www.envision. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. http://www.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. You can’t add your own notes. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners.com/blogs/doug/index.rds.

audiotoolsdirect. DJ mixing. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. CD audio extraction. http://epnweb. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. tools. which is gaining in popularity. http://recap. enhancing. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. including software to record and play podcasts. Audio and video software.elearningcentre.com. Brandon Hall Research . D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.71. go to: http://www.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. http://www.avsmedia.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.htm For a list of podcasting tools. including podcasting.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.uk/podcasting/index. or sentences from audio Web sites. http://www.podcasting-tools. http://www. sound editing.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.48.ibritt.masternewmedia.htm RECAP Ltd. phrases. is podcasting.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web. freeware.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. http://www. 56 © 2006.com/AudioTools/in dex.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.edupodder.co. http://64.com/resources/dc_medi a.automaticsync. playback. http://www.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. shareware. and utilities for conversion.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.com/lipsync/in dex. and broadcasting are all found on this site.ltd.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. recording. http://www. http://www.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.

Sound Sense. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).bias-inc. Dilley. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). 45-50. VA: AACE.multitrackstudio. and Williams. 2005.unl. P.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. B.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.org/3455 Girvan.com/home. 417-419). http://firstmonday.audiolink.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.editlib. Retsema.uk/articles/podguide.sonicfoundry..cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Scientific Computing World. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. University of Nebraska.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. and Swenson.htm Jobbings. September.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.cakewalk. A.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts.adobe. Luigi (2005). April 2005. (2003). In G. http://recap. May 20. Ray (2005). Fox. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. S. http://dl. M. http://www. Dion Cory (1999).ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 . July 2005. Dave (2005). Robin Good’s Blog.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. http://www. First Monday. Richards (Ed. 10(9). and Higher Education 2003 (pp.com/products/audition/ main. Government.html Bibliography Buhman. http://digitalcommons. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. (2005).masternewmedia. J. Chesapeake.html Curtis. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.scientificcomputing.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index. L. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. http://www.aace.ltd. Healthcare. Doctoral Dissertation. Brenda (2001)...html Canali De Rossi.

Podcasts.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Brandon Hall Research .edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. June 2005. C.learningcircuits. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides).apple. http://edmarketing. Eva (2005). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. http://www. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning.pdf Noakes. N. Peter (2005). http://www.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng.educause. Learning Circuits. and Lomas. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.

Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Implementation. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. (For details. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. and. please see http://www. see: http://www. Further. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. As well. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications.microsoft. In this vein.brandonhall. No authoring tool does everything. content development. 2005). simulations. Development. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments.com/publications/emerging/emerging. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Further. in the end. Do Not Reproduce 59 . shtml). There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. either directly or with third party tools. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Design. rapid e-learning. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. either directly or with third party tools. and Evaluation) processes. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.

visualization.com/presenter. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.com Agile .com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. Do Not Reproduce 60 . http://www.Media – Import 3-D Models. XML. www.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain.com/products/ Articulate .Thinkcap Studio . http://www. music.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint. http://www.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.articulateglobal.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.acroservices. video.accordent. video.info/ Allen Communications .com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.adobe. and marketing applications.thinkingcap. http://www.com Anark .Capture Station 2. and images and turn them into 3-D training. go to: http://www. http://www.activeslide. http://www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .Designer’s Edge.anark. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.allencomm.htm ActiveSlide.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.com/ Acroservices .

video.com/product s/Pro. http://www. rich text. and PowerPoint slides.atlanticlink. . pop-up messages.shtml Dynamic Media .htm Bernard D&G .exe files.lersus.elearningpowertools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link .htm Composica .Composica Enterprise .dynamicpowertrainer.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.co.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming.com/eng/index.php e2train . Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.ilessons. buttons.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.copycatsoftware. http://presentation. audio.co.turbodemo. http://www.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop . http://www.composica. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. CD Rom.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. http://www.com/power point-presentations-index. http://www.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www. http://www.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. Integrates various media. http://www. http://www.Content Point . such as the following: Web. DVD-video.ht m Brainshark Inc. stand alone . pointers. http://www.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. Builds quizzes.digitalworkshop.bridge-pt.com/ Business Performance Technology .com/inde x. and animation. hotspots.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.brainshark.com/in dex_eng.e2train.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. Do Not Reproduce 61 . video. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. Flash. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.uk/contentpoint.com/ Counterpoint .

Post the characters on any Web site. http://www. 62 © 2006.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . Import rich media and customize graphics.eedo.com/ Hunter Stone .eclipsys.com Imaira Digital Media .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.com Element K . http://www.elementk.e-learningconsulting.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. http://www.com No authoring tool does everything.epistema. http://www. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. HTML courses.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation .com/index. and. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.elicitus. http://www. http://www. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. http://www. and installation files.sculptoris. graphics.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.com/Solutions/Elear ning. without programming knowledge. http://www.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.hunterstone. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.horizonwimba. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.com/ka.com/products/forceten. html E-Learning Consulting .asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema . http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. http://www.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools.experiencebuilders. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. Brandon Hall Research . in the end. http://www.gen21.

uk/ INTEC . http://www. http://www.seminar.WTDS-Web Training Development System . centralized knowledge base. http://www. Word. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.intecllc.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates.elearninginabox. Built-in testing engine.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. combining multimedia content like video.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure. http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.com/ Information Transfer .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG .knowledgepresenter. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.knowledgeplanet.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.easyprof.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.Used to create presentations without programming skills.lecturnity. http://www. Has its own built-in learning management system.knowledgequest.EasyProf . http://www. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. audio.co. http://www.pdf Intuition . http://www.knowledgextensions.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/home/home.com/flashh ome. http://www.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .impatica.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media.com/pro dserv. shtml Itaca .asp Knowledge Quest . Do Not Reproduce 63 .js p Knowledge Planet .de/ Impatica .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.ie/software/publisher.ipsinc. with no programming and no plugins.intuition.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.

html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.mohive.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. .mckinnonmulherin. with a built-in learning management system.customcourse.com MyKnowledgeMap .learnerland.mindiq. PowerPoint slides.learn.com/ OPTX International . course publisher. http://www. http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.instant-demo. http://www.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. graphics. Works with SAP Learning Solution.ch/eLearning/EN /index.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www. and other online presentations for play back to students.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.mindonsite.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.maxit.com/coursegen. 64 © 2006.ph p MindOnSite . http://www.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.LEARNERLand – Text.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www. and course player all in one software package. Ready-made button and navigation aids.com/ NetPlay Software . http://www.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.com/index.Authoring Tools Learn. Brandon Hall Research .com/tbt/dac/index.maxit.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.screenwatch.percepsys.com/ Percepsys .com/learncenter. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.co. http://www. http://www.com . http://www.htm MediaMaker . http://www.uk/ MindIQ .

Microsoft PowerPoint. customizable flashcards. a customizable.readygo.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. http://www.com/products/stud ymate.softchalk.Nuvvo .com/ Savvica . http://www. http://www.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://www. and assessments. http://www. http://www.com Rapid Intake .suddenlysmart.Publisher Professional .com/Products/elear ning_objects.com/ Scribe Studio .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.shtml Reusable Objects . without knowing code.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.qarbon. crosswords. http://www.net ReadyGo .In minutes.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. and Flash. http://www. interactive Flash presentations and online training.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.teknical. http://nuvvo.sensalearning.htm Suddenly Smart . image labeling.net/ PointeCast . GIFs. popups.or SCORMcompliant. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com Respondus .podiaOnDemand . http://www. matching games.com/ Qarbon . http://www.com/sensasol ution.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.pointecast. http://www.respondus. http://www. When content is developed. Audio. Courses can be posted.scribestudio.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.rapidintake. JPEGs.reusableobjects. image hotspot activities.cfm Serco (technical) .E-Learning Objects .podia. Do Not Reproduce 65 .Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.

techsmith.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start. images.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.webex. http://www. htm Techsmith .asp TEDS . content conversion.com/learn_assistant .php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.2conformant objects and assessments.toolbook.com/learn_assistant . http://www.Presentation Studio .time4you.php?from=menu SyberWorks . http://www. and highly interactive e-learning content. and wizards.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. French.com/products/lc.com/camtasia. video.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. CD. http://www.uk/index. http://www.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.php?from=menu SumTotal . or Spanish.funeducation. templates.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.com/Technology. http://www.syberworks.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.toolbook.westcliffdata.teds.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.com/product_sa. http://workforceconnections.com/services/webpresentation-svc.lectora. and rapid simulation. 66 © 2006. http://www.trainvision.Authoring Tools SumTotal .A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. http://www.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. Brandon Hall Research .AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author . or Network. kiosks.gov/ Webex . http://www. and text.htm time4you GmbH . audio.dol.co. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. http://www.com/ US Government .asp TrainVision .

BC.. (2005). E. October 24-28. www.oswego. De Bra. http://www.. (2003). Government.htm Zapatec . E. Evanston. Berlin: Springer. C. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. and Brusilovsky. Montreal. Canada.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. T.cs.pdf Ramp.brandonhall. See: http://www.com/downloa d_rb40eval. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.pdf Murray. S. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.bloki. http://www. McMullen. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. L.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Lin (2005). Vancouver..com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. D. (2005). right in their browser with no additional software required.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. Melia.cs. Doctoral Dissertation.amazon. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. (2005). Illinois. S. M. and Ainsworth.xplana.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.tue. interactive and intelligent educational software. and host online discussions.oswego. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA). C. and Pahl.com/products/products _xwb.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. and Riesbeck. 2005. June 2005.xstreamsoftware.win.editlib.org/index.. publish blogs. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Northwestern University. http://www. AACE. Do Not Reproduce 67 . Blessing. P.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana .nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. http://www. Healthcare. P.

edu/~paws/publicatio ns.learningcircuits.. Reuben (2004). 2004. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Reuben (2005).com/publications/emerging/emerging.htm Tozman.htm Tozman. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Nov. http://www.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.Authoring Tools Ramp. A. E. shtml 68 © 2006. Masters Thesis. Gary (2005). Learning Circuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. (2005).htm Woodill. Learning Circuits.sis. Technical Univ. Eindhoven. http://www. http://www2. W. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Sunnyvale. Brandon Hall Research . The myth about tools.learningcircuits. NL.brandonhall. June 2005.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. http://www.pitt.

An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Similarly. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. In some situations. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.” Maldonado et al. for example. In the context of elearning. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. Do Not Reproduce 69 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. games. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. especially in gamebased learning activities. In the area of psychotherapy. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. and generally simulates human activity. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. the avatar may represent an actual human being. in the broadest sense. but in e-learning.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners.

NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.” which are avatars that teach. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.sculptoris.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. offering a large number of supportive functions. modular application.co. http://www. Try them at: http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars. http://blogoehlert. http://www.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.tmmy. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.html Online Resources In Europe.redwoodelearning.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio.codebaby.vcom3d. http://www.telsim. Inc.oddcast. 70 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . Pick a character at: http://secondlife.co.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.daden.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.typepad. See: http://www. http://www.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. In the toolkit. http://www. in cooperation with a number of groups. See them in action at: http://www. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.knowledgeenvironments.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. http://www.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.exodus.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.

and T. (2005). Nakajima.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. www.. www. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. K.W.... C. 2003. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. New Zealand..) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . Nass.elearningguild. http://isnm. S.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.naccq.pdf Maldonado.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI.pdf Jung.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.stanford. S. Ahad. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Koschmann. C.. R. Raj (2003). and Nodder.pdf Seth. D..ac. H. (2004). (2005). http://www. Iwamura. Lee. 2005.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 . H. A.. B. Brave. Nexus Media. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Chan (Eds. J.Training Education & Education International Conference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar.. 25. Aug. In T. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. eLearning Developers’ Journal. and Morishima. and Weber. Y. Suthers. Yamada. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.

thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. 72 © 2006.” The Catalyst Group. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. if any. who wrote. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Clyde adds. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. screencasting. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs are used for communication. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. as the following examples show. video blogging. For teachers. Brandon Hall Research . blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. in a note of caution. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. Few. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. Nevertheless. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. A form of online publishing. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. education. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. Similarly. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.” As well. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. However. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. Blogs are used for marketing. or they can be open to the general public.

com/spg. Canada. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. http://www. elearnspace. other than simple word searching.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.ca/gems/matrix2 . both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). His blog.com/ Jenna Sweeny. an applications company. movie reviews look different than recipes. Find it at: http://www. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals. see: http://structuredblogging. http://www. http://www. When someone the user knows arrives.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.weblogs. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy. Do Not Reproduce 73 . has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning.blogburst. President of an instructional design firm. In this approach.com/wordpress/ http://informl.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. is a great resource. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application.internettime. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.weblogs.html http://radio.sonyericsson. For more information. Most blog writing is unstructured.g.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location.elearnspace. http://www. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg. with a wide range of writing styles. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space.cramersweeney.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.us/archives/026 753.wavemarket.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs. It’s found at: http://www.org/ http://carapace.2megapixel blogging phone.edtechpost. if they have subscribed to the blog.

Find her work at: http://64.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. View them at: http://video.pewinternet.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www. http://www.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. “blogs are cool. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.org/socialstudies/ blogs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Teresa A.elearningcentre.anecdote.71.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog.metaxucafe. including educational blogging.com. http://www.blogspot. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent. Brandon Hall Research . has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. http://blogpulse.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog. Get the guide at: http://www. check out this site: http://www3.pdf 74 © 2006.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.google.postgenomic. a librarian. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.co. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/index.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.blogcatalog. there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies.48.mkbergman. In March 2006.essdack.

5. James (2005).com/issues/130105 .waypath. No. 2006. New York. EDUCAUSE Review. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.com. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. Blogs: a global conversation.pdf Canali De Rossi. July 14. 39(5).freepint.com/wwwtools/m/10171.asp Lenhart. Luigi (2005).downes. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. S. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique.catalystgroupdesign.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes. David (2005). a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community.htm Canali De Rossi. and Fox. July 11.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. 14-26. EduBlog Insights. www.174.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. FreePint Newsletter. http://www. July 19.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.educause.teachesme. 29.htm#feature Coursey.mkbergman. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. http://anne2. Master’s Thesis. eSchool News Online. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. March 24. Ways to use Weblogs in education.pdf A form of online publishing. Robin Good Blog. (2006).com/work/theses8. Syracuse. http://www.eweek. http://www. http://www.com Bibliography Bergman. AI3 White Paper. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.pdf Pierce.1895. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. Luigi (2004). or they can be open to the general public.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006. go to: http://m. Oct. Sept. May 16. http://www.lo w. Anne (2004).masternewmedia. 2006. Laurel (2005). Robin Good Blog. Enterprise blogging. Educational Blogging.eschoolnews.pewinternet. http://www. 2005. Do Not Reproduce 75 . http://www.12. September 2005. http://www. http://www. January 13. September/October.com/article2/0.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. eWeek. Michael (2005).org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.everyhuman. Panelists: blogs are changing education. http://www. http://www.asp Davis. Stephen (2004). 1837604.pdf Clyde.ca/cgibin/page.masternewmedia. Syracuse University.com/news/sho wStoryts.00. A.htm Catalyst Group (2005).fasfind. Dennis (2006).edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.

allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. America Online. http://www.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. http://www. search engines. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. and “themes.omnigroup. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. (http://www.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. Flock was launched in October 2005. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. has a small following. thin clients. 2001). http://www. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. Internet Explorer.flock.com/firefox/). 76 © 2006.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. For example. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. Brandon Hall Research .com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. Webtops Description For many.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. Like all technology innovation curves.mozilla. Netscape. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce.opera.activeworlds. or at least their influence is decreasing. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. which owned the rights to Netscape. (http://www. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. a browser that has been around for a long time. the defeat of the Netscape browser.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. blogs. and photo sharing. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. bookmarking. while Opera. http://www.mozilla.mozilla. where many applications interact with each other automatically.

h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. CO.. CNN Money.html Engst. Renai (2005). Boulder.evolt.pdf LeMay. 2002.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. http://www. Adam (2004).com.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. and Horton. Malik. http://www. and Copeland. Jan. K. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.com. OmniWeb 5. 742.0: The Powerful Web Browser. called “Webtops.com.html http://blogoehlert.bestdegree.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site.php3 Bibliography Cox.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser. May 16. Aug. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop.39218173. TidBits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. July 30. Brandon Hall Research . William Horton Consulting. 2006.networkworld. Oct.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers. 21. across several articles.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.zdnet.com/desi gn/browsers_list. Opera Browser.0. 16.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.00.wikipedia. (2002). Michael (2006). 29. 2001.typepad.tidbits.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en. W. O.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0. http://db. No. http://www. M. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’.typepad. http://www. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2. E.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.wikipedia. John (2001). WashingtonPost. 2005. Still Perfecting its Pitch. ZDNet Australia.washingtonpost. http://www. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. 2004.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.cnn.2000061733.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert.webdevelopersnotes. http://money. Network World.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.

Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. 78 © 2006. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. giving almost instant feedback. or clickers. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. 2006. However. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. The devices keep students alert and involved. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. display. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. management. Beatty. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. Brandon Hall Research . voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. clickers.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. The use of clickers has several advantages. costs can be an issue. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. integrated with other types of learning technologies. increasing their motivation to learn. classroom communication systems.

com/index.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.com/index.pearsonncs.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.com. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.” http://www. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. http://www.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. http://www. http://www.qwizdom.” In spite of the costs.h-itt. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus.einstruction.physics. Do Not Reproduce 79 .optiontechnologies. http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. http://www.com/audi ence-response-systems/index. http://www.com/products_int erwrite.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.pearsoned. higher education. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.umass.gtcocalcomp. and military settings. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. corporate.com/Default. training the faculty member to use the software. the costs and headaches multiply.com/cps/index.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. http://umperg.smartroom.learnstar. http://www. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.

http://inside.utexas. Eric (1997). http://www. integrated with other types of learning technologies.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.ubc.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. 2004. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. including material on the use of classroom response systems.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.amazon.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. March 3.active-learning-site.com/news_issue. http://www. Q. Ian (2004). Tom (2004).cua.jmu.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.itee. Volume 2004. http://www. (2003).net/display. Inside CUA. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. 80 © 2006. 3. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.pdf Mazur. http://www. ELearning Dialogue. Australia. and Lederman. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. 272-275. 2006.aclearn.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). https://sharepoint. Melbourne. 41(5). Feb. Brandon Hall Research .campustechnology. July 7.uq.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. The Physics Teacher.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Research Bulletin. Anne (2006).utexas. http://www. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. R.pdf Burnstein. 3.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.edu/articleprinter1.cisat. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. http://www. No. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.elearning.educause. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.pdf Cassidy. http://www. Educause Learning Initiative. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.edu. NJ: Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River.

social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task.g. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. Do Not Reproduce 81 . evaluation.g. organization. and consensus building. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. e. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. doing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. The Institute for the Future.. social bookmarking. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. clarification. it requires skill and experience. through brainstorming). These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.. and collaborating.g. many respond. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. reduction.

with templates and workflows for product development.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .advancedreality. and communication. http://www. expert location. 82 © 2006.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. organize. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. http://www.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.com/services/faq_basi cs. and upload photos.teamspace.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .zoho. jot down notes. and information technology adoption. Brandon Hall Research .inteam. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. http://www. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. http://www. collaborative file management. http://www. collaborate. and instant messaging.brightidea.com/virtualoffice/index.bluetie. calendar. and bookmarks.html?ad-main Annotea . http://www.bantu.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. contacts. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. Presence (see who’s online).Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).w3. http://www.com/ Blenks – In-team .com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. voice and data collaboration. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). share files.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. http://www.backpackit.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.com There are many different ways to collaborate. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.com/product s/index.avecomm. intellectual property management. http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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calendars.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 .webcrossing. files.com/company/news/pres s/2005. or use it to build a Web application. e-mail server. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. simple. http://www. and e-mails. scaleable.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . feedback. discussions.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. newsgroup server.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. affordable. online management for projects of any size and scope. chat server. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .Processes email. http://www.onproject. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.25.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. http://www. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. stimulates idea generation.04.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . http://www. FTP server. http://www.webasyst.writely. set user permissions. expertise.yahoo. and business relationships. assign tasks. Works with Microsoft Project.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .Intuitive project management software for work teams. http://www. project.Instant setup.nexprise.com/ onProject – myonProject . Use it out of the box. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.opmcreator.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 .brevient. http://www.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. and other business communications.axista. http://www.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. and data into a single storage area. and more. Share multiple projects with multiple users. documents.tacit. http://www.tomoye.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . http://www.projectdox. interact. and share. XML-RPC server. http://groups.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www. and share documents.com/project. connects peers.

teamdynamix. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. and text chat. http://www.peoplecube. and save to disk icon.com/index.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .com/Collaborati onProducts/Products. http://www. project planning.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. and Web pages. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop.com/ HP . scheduling solutions. integrated content management system. whiteboard pages.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . content button.Web event calendaring.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. Brandon Hall Research . private whiteboards for each participant.photoninfotech. content. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. and human performance management applications. review button. annotation tools." virtual collaboration.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. http://www.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting . http://www. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.saba.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006. and payments. and communicate with their project teams. http://www. project tracking. attendee list. URL sharing. shared whiteboard and presentation.elluminate. Access to the tool is also given to clients.0 .caucus.Projistics .0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com Nagarro . video. http://www. breakout rooms.HP Virtual Classroom .In-house tool developed to assist in project management.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.nagarro. custom stamps. form to submit questions. and collaboration to timesheet management. shared desktop. private/group chat.project-open. print icon. navigation.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . visual. identify and resolve potential problems.hp.Features include Hands up. http://education. http://www. exit and help. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. data. applaud and meter. invoicing.

A secure. online classes. and phone use.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .batipi. and Webconferencing specialists. and collaborative content-building sessions. http://www. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . For example.0 . Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. e-mail invites.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. http://www.interwise. instant messaging.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. how often.adobe. and by whom. synchronous online lectures. http://www.net/site/getglance/ex amples.glance.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. application sharing.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . Allows holding live.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www.com/ Intralinks .Delivers unlimited voice. http://www.communiqueconferencing.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.genesys. http://www. Features include shared documents. and videoconferencing. meeting management.mixmeeting. http://www.horizonwimba.convenos. and collaboration features.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. virtual office hours. and meetings.com /internet_conferencing. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. learning. office hours.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. session reports. guest lectures. and content display.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . http://www. http://www. sales presentations.Synchronous Webconferencing software. and Web conferencing with WebEx.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.elluminate. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. http://www. Record classes or Webcasts. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. video.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. and more. video. http://www. Webcasts. Web.intralinks.

jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . http://www. Brandon Hall Research .iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. http://www. http://www. remote control.Web and audio conferencing services. http://www. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. the Internet. live demos.com/ Linktivity Division. and real-time videoconferencing. pre-recorded broadcasts.asp Meeting One – Click&Share.LiveOffice provides Web-based.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .meetingone.ivocalize.com/rndc/services /services.com/website2/even ts_imc. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. hand raising. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. instant messaging. polling and quizzes. http://www. or an entire desktop. e-learning classrooms. keyboard and voice chat. attendee lists. teleconferencing.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. Multilingual. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.Collaboration Tools iVocalize .cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .telnetz.radvision. online seminars.liveoffice.com/bridgepoint. record and playback.To support large deployments. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services. http://www.com/action. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. annotations.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . broadcasts files. notes.raindance. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. and a change presenter ability. any application.netspoke. transparency tools. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.asp 92 © 2006. and into the enterprise. including Web conferencing. audio.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. toll-free conference calling. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. http://www.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . desktop sharing.linktivity. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.

remote support. Webinars. or meeting. discussion forums. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www. and document collaboration.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. The suite manages the creation.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. set up labs and conduct quizzes.ctcevents. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities. conference calling. publishing.webtrain.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room .wave3software.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . Requires only a browser and a phone. Web conferencing. course.Powers online meetings. send text messages.collabtech.com/home/s_vmps. http://www. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. 2006.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . teleconferencing. text messaging.webex. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. editing.edufolio. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. tour Web sites. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. present PowerPoint slideshows. share other applications.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.vodium. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. http://www. http://www. and moderation of Webcasts.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). http://www. http://www. and system management. surveys.voxwire. e-learning.cudenver. Solutions include Web meetings. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. http://carbon. Japan on July 13-14.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.

http://www.educause.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.globalschoolnet.collaborationloop. http://www.writely.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.springerlink.kolabora. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://www.mitre.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. communities. Brandon Hall Research .thinkofit.com/groupware/ index.org/index. http://www. 41(2).com/webconf/works paces. Sign up for free at: http://www. Bryan (2006).htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.1 Bibliography Alexander.com/View.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006. also has a great list of collaboration tools. http://www.usabilityfirst. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. http://collaboration. http://www.1:100250.” http://www. Web 2.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning. http://cde.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.org/collab/in dex.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.athabascau.criticalmethods. http://www.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). March/April 2006. also known as “groupware. scientific.htm Mitre Corporation.org/tools.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.

org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. Shadbolt.masternewmedia. Page.htm Butler.. Luigi (2004a).uk/12081/ Beshears. A. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. 4.bruck. M. Findlay. Collaborative Strategies. Creating an eCommunity.cmswatch. K. Fred (2002). Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Luigi (2004b). M.masternewmedia... T.masternewmedia. Luigi (2003b)..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler... Robin Good Blog. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. Then Knowledge Management. Robin Good Blog.ac. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Models of collaboration. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. September. D.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Luigi (2005). (2004).editlib. Buckingham Shum.ecs.soton. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. 2003. Eisenstadt. 2002. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. De Roure. D.diglib. Matthew (2004). Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. A.masternewmedia. Komzak. http://www. 2565-2569. Maceió. 2004..org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies. Nov. J. ChenBurger.htm Canali De Rossi. Collaboration First. (2003). http://www. Dalton.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. Robin Good Blog. Curtis (2002). In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). http://eprints. S. January 21. CMS Watch. and Coleman. R. N. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.htm# Clapp.com/writings. http://www. http://www. 3. Q2Learning White Paper. Sept. Brazil. and Forster. Live ELearning. June 30. S. Bill (2004). Luigi (2003a).clomedia. J. http://www. J. May 2.collaborate. D.com/Feature/109 Elliot. Michaelides.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. June 22. and Tate. (2004).pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Fitzgerald. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Robin Good Blog. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. http://www.cfm/files/pa per_12386. A. http://www.pdf Bonk.masternewmedia. The State Of Collaboration Technologies..org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.org/index. 2002.. June 5. Robin Good Blog..org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration..com/content/templa tes/clo_feature.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . Proceedings. Nov.. http://www.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts.html Canali De Rossi.N.htm Canali De Rossi. J. Chief Learning Officer. 2003. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Potter.

. Callan. Soren (2002).).rheingold.ieee. R. http://www. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. Brandon Hall Research .html Munkvold. & Purnell. Studies in Learning.editlib.athabascau.edu.. (2004).org/index. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.ieee... and Martens. Chesapeake. http://sleid.. (2002). Norwell. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.) (2003). 5(1). J.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. http://wscg. Educational Technology & Society. Gibson. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. R.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. K.html Kreijns. J. Nov. and Sharifi. I. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.. D.pdf Strijbos. J. K. 5(1). Carlsen. London: Springer-Verlag.html Institute for the Future (2005). D.) (2004).cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.pdf Kaplan. J.zcu. G. http://www. University of Athabasca. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. e-Book.. 827-829).. McFerrin. Technologies of Cooperation.. (Eds.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.learningcircuits. R. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. http://ifets. http://cde. 24.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. (2002). Evaluation. Willis. W.ca/online_book/c h8.. Price.Collaboration Tools Elliott. A. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. http://www. CA.cqu. VA: AACE. In Crawford. (2005). J. 1(2). In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Institute for the Future White Paper. Palo Alto.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan.au/include/getdoc. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.html Hurst. (2004).org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns. http://www. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. P.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. http://www. (Eds.amazon. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Bjorn (Ed. Kirschner.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.. and Miller.. J. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. http://ifets. Aavani. K. P. Learning Circuits.. and Thomas. Innovation and Development.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. January 2005. C. and Jochems. Educational Technology & Society. August 2002. A. (2002).php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. & Weber. D. Kirschner. M.amazon.

pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. telephony. a process referred to as “text mentoring. discussion groups. re-usable. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. http://www. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.janison. Hegarty et al. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. For Laurillard. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.com. Do Not Reproduce 97 . labs. and yet tailored and flexible. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.au/eq/default. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.” http://goldenswamp. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. It is being developed into a transportable. html The Learning Place in Queensland. UK.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. messaging. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.jisc.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. VoIP. chat. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. blogs. discussion forums.ac. telepresence. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. whiteboards.uk/deletacademictalk. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. For example. instant messaging.

bcs.org/ Online Resources Teresa A.htm http://www. http://safety. http://ewic.co. including communications tools.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at. J. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.pdf Eleuterio.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.editlib.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.gov. Computer Mediated Communication. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. CAP e-Guide.com/wwwtools/m/2645.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.71.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.com/webconf/hostsi tes.editlib. http://www.elearningcentre.thinkofit. Find her work at: http://64. M.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. University of Warwick. International Journal on E-Learning. http://m. (2005).37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education..htm 98 © 2006. and Bortolozzi. 2004.conversate. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.48. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. 13-20. Komzak. http://www. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.co.uk/schools/docum ent.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. chat. and Cerri. S.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. http://www. (2004).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Brandon Hall Research . cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.elearningcentre.fasfind.elearningcentre.org/index. and telephony tools. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. F.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. M. http://www2. developed in Brazil.co. http://www.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. JulySept.google.ngfl. Mark (2004).org/index.ac.warwick.

Diana (1993). distance-learning course at Keele University. http://dircweb. and Briggs. discussion forums. http://www. 20-21. 20-21. 2005 http://www. 31 (3). 2002. Sven (2002).com Library.amazon.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. (Mlearn 2002). and Wales. September 23. R. James (2005). Pattie (2005). J. Nick (2002).html Laurillard. 2002. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.uk/papers/Stone_ A.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.pdf LaCroix.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. http://cde.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 31. Aug.hbs..learningcircuits. (2004). and Elliott. (2002). M.jisc. (2000). and Collins. Francis. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. J.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. UK. J. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. University of Athabasca. E-Learning 1.athabascau.ac.” Do Not Reproduce 99 .. CharityVillage.pdf Kadirire. A. 199-212. e-Book. D. British Journal of Educational Technology.ca/online_book/c h5. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool. I. http://www. J. Hegarty. (2002). Bostock. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. June. whiteboards. VoIP.org/micte2005/4. June. Working Knowledge Newsletter. 19. S.com/cv/research /rmed35. chat.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. University of Birmingham. Technologies of Online Learning.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone.html Laurik. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.charityvillage.edu/item.king.ac. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. http://hbswk.formatex. http://www. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. Jan. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. 2002.html Morgan. Learning Circuits. London: Routledge.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.

David McClelland. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. skills. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. organizational and personal goals are tied together. performance appraisal. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. skills verification.imsproject. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.org/competencies /index. 100 © 2006. competency-based training. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. see below) and performance or talent management systems. a Harvard psychologist. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. 2000). skills inventory. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. 2005).” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Edwards Deming. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. Brandon Hall Research . which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. W. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. In 1973. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). entering defined competencies into a matrix.” it started in 1950 with Dr.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies.

org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. diagnose symptoms. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.edu/paprog/clin_events . http://www. activities. For a large list of competencies for physicians. https://launchpad.itsc. and development interventions.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended.com/article16. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. Do Not Reproduce 101 . objectives. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.htm Many companies have their own competency models.wmich.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. http://www.ibm.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.desire2learn.cpgvision. measurement.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.org.S.learnflex. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform..com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.html The U. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. go to: www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. and carry out proper procedures. See the list of competencies at: http://www. Read their white paper at: http://www.ncrel.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.learningcircuits. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. For example.

com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Competency and competency frameworks. Rankin. David. (2001).com/ 20050425/technologylife01.. regardless of industry or sector.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.co.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. L. (2001). Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. London: IDS.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services.” http://www. http://www. American Psychologist. a Canadian company. pp. Express Computer. London: Wiley. New York: David McKay. (1973). Competency Frameworks. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.28.ca/index.clomedia.com/skillsman.amazon. 1-14.shtml Hogg.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. R.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. http://www.hrsg. Clare (2005). Building a skills inventory. http://www.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. April.expresscomputeronline. Brandon Hall Research .oracle.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. (1982). Josh (2006). http://www. v. http://www. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.amazon. New York: AMACOM. Sudipta (2005).com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.ht m Online Resources HRSG.cipd.amazon. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. 2005. N.E.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.syberworks. 102 © 2006. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Ken (2000). Benjamin (1956).Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. http://www. Study 706. April 25.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. F.co. http://www.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.cipd.amazon. Chief Learning Officer. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. and Neathy. http://www. Miller.

The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.amazon. White paper. http://parkinslot. April 30. R. (2000). The Psychology of Abilities. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.) (2003).ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Johanna. S. http://www. 2nd ed. N.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. S.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. G. Michael. http://www. P.amazon.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. (2004). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin.learningcircuits. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.amazon.collectionscanada. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. (2003). London: IRS. Sanders. http://www. Ellen (2000). and Grigorenko. (2005). and Cahorn. Competencies. http://www. E-Learning Competencies. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. http://www.linezine.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.p df Rankin. and Expertise. Operitel Corporation.html Radsma. Cambridge. (Eds. N. Competency based learning management. Rankin. Creating a Culture of Competence. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. Parkin’s Lot. London: IRS. Ethan (2001).com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . March 2001.blogspot.html Sternberg. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. http://www.com/2.1/features/e wette. Learning Circuits. E. (2001). Godfrey (2005). Master's thesis. http://www. http://www.com Woodill. University of Toronto. 2005.operitel. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. (1999).htm Whiddett. Gary (2004). Fall 2000. New York: John Wiley. and Hollyforde.operitel. White paper from Operitel Corporation.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. UK: Cambridge University Press. P. and Epstein.

Learning objects. Repositories. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. displaying a course catalogue.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. manage. and reporting. I feel that closed. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. in fact. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). manage.” As well. Today. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. 2006). simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. With the advent of learning objects. LCMS. such as registering users. If you could afford it. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. you could hire a company to build a private. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Do Not Reproduce 104 . and “topic maps. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. the standardized railway system still works while private. launching courses.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. First.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network.

They have designed competitive. Cisco Corporation White Paper.e-learningcentre.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately. March 2005. San Jose.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. Dec.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. http://sakaiproject. http://travelinedman. (2005).asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. http://plone. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.topicmap. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.html Cisco Corp. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. Strategies for managing scalable content. http://www. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.blogspot.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.cmsmatrix.” http://drupal. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.clomedia.” Web services and “topic maps.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper. reuse in many places.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.atutor. 18. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.uk Bibliography Bonk. TravelinEdMan blog. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. Ed. http://www. (2004). rather than complementary. Curtis (2005).org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. http://www. functionality to an ECM.co.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.pdf Cohen.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . http://www. http://www.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.author-it. to date. According to its official Web site. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.com http://www. 2005.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. http://www. and publish to multiple outputs.cisco.topicmaps. http://www.

http://www. (2003). March 3.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms.) (2005)..org/Articles/cont entmanagement. New Thinking Blog. P. Van (2005). C. Retalis. C. January 23.elearnspace. 2003. Jafari. Mashups.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. 2003.pdf Weigel.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. 2005.htm Siemens. (Eds.edtechpost. http://www. http://www.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster. Educause Review. McGovern. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.asp Woodill.softlab. http://www.. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. S.operitel.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Budapest.ntua. A. George (2003). SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. EdTechPost blog. 2003.educause. B. and Brantner. Learning Solutions. (2006). G. Hershey. May/June.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . Why content management software hasn’t worked.ca/mt/archive/00 0689.html McGee. Scott (2005). elearnspace blog.htm Simon. 2006. http://www.gerrymcgovern. and Oliveira. Gerry (2003). and Carmean. http://www. PA: Idea Group. S.com/publications. Content Management: our organized future. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 2005. 40(3). May 15. June 9. “Monoliths.

Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. 2000. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Do Not Reproduce 107 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. Luan and Willett. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. 2001). This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. knowledge discovery. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. delivery models and infrastructure investment.

icosystem.reeltwo. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. http://imej. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. http://www.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. Do Not Reproduce 108 . SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.hkuspace. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.wfu. http://www.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.soul. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.uwaterloo.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. by applying fuzzy logic. http://www. http://pami.com/index. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.

Long Beach.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.pdf Loo. 68(8).edu. 2001) http://www. S. pp. http://www. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. and Web mining.pdf Iskander.html Bibliography De Veaux. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. http://www. G. text mining. Alex (2002). (2006). 13-16 http://asbointl. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. K. edited U. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Portugal. Data Mining: What’s New. Thalheim.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. Feb. B. knowledge discovery.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. and Tschiedel. and Kamel. California. (1996). 1--34.. 1316. Learning by doing and learning when doing . What’s Not. P. G.kdnuggets. School Business Affairs. B.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux. New York: Springer.cs. http://www. P. Samuel (Ed.pdf Jantke. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.actapress.kent. M.uwaterloo. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. http://pami. 2006. Uthurusamy.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Austria. U. (2006). P.. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.is. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). and Cheung.kdnuggets. and Smyth. (cited in Luan and Willett.. In Proceedings. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Data Mining in e-Learning. K. Lange. http://www. http://www.usyd. http://www. 1996.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc.amstatonline. and R. M Fayyad.ac. Innsbruck.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages.. Both products are from Convera. (2004). K. Robert (2002). Grieser.convera. G. Piatetsky. 238-241.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.cs.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. B. Australia.2004.com/PaperInfo.. In Pierre. (2000). Smyth..informatik. R.pdf Freitas. Feb. New York: Springer. Porto.unikiel.pdf Fayyad. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Grigoriev.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 .html Hammouda.

C. Gord (2004). J. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). 47-55. analyze for more adaptive teaching. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.asp Merceron.ejel. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. and K. (2001). Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning..cabrillo. Yacef (2004). and Minguillon. A.editlib. (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. http://dl. David (2005).org/16915 Romero. http://www. store. and Yacef. (2004).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. http://archiveedutice. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining.unisb. http://www2004. NYC. A. http://www.ags.Data Mining Luan.pdf Merceron.compmech.pdf Mor. Brandon Hall Research . E.pdf Pahl. International Journal on E-Learning. Claus (2004). Electronic Journal of e-Learning.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. A. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. http://www. Scholl. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.com/acatalog/18 45641523. 3(1). Vol 4. and K.ac. 3(4).wfu. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Hiroshima. S.-Dec. Yacef (2005). A. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. M. Billerica.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. 15(4). Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Japan.computer.ccsd. C. http://wwwjime. J. RP Conference Presentation. http://imej.open. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.pdf 110 © 2006. http://csdl2.cnrs. 319-346. and Ventura. and Willett. Train.pdf McCalla. (2004). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. Maomi (2004).org/index.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. http://www. Advances in Management Information. MA: WIT Press. Oct.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. http://www.pdf Monk. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. C. May 17-22.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. Data Mining in e-Learning. 41-54.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. (2006).. T.html Ueno. Oliveira. 52-59. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.pdf Merceron. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. 7(1).aace. and Ullrich. K.. 39-40. 2004 (7).

http://www. http://www. http://www. in their case study of medical education.com/ Facilitate.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.decisionarium.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time. 3) vote/prioritize.edu.tkk. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). 5) carry out a survey. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. 2) categorize. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. and 6) document results.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.facilitate. Do Not Reproduce 111 .au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. 4) develop an action plan. For example. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.une.bnhexpertsoft. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. http://www.

http://www. 12(2-3).pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. R. http://www.hut.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. For newsletters. White paper from BNH Expert Software. and Koskinen. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.p df Chakrabarty. C.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. Raimo (2003). The software then recommends books that you might like to read. books. Hamalainen.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. 23(4).whichbook.pdf Frize. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://www. and information on this area. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. http://www.bnhexpertsoft. 101-110. Brandon Hall Research . V.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.com/index.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.hut.sal.sal.edu. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.net/index. Kankana (2005)..fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Jay (2004). H. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. http://www.uottawa. August.hut.dssresources.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.utoronto. and Frasson. http://www. http://www.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.pdf Ehtamo. Online manuscript.meetingworks.uniserve.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. M. (2004). http://science. http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.site.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. (2000).” http://dmoz.sal.html Hamalainen. 112 © 2006. see: http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.

actapress. de Carvaho.html Rhyne. M.html Scott.edu. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Rostanin.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Porto. Aachen. Thalheim. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Oct. 9.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. 238-241.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118..pdf Power. Enn (2004).uniserve. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.hicss. B.ideagroup. Gerhard (2003). B.. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.is. Kauai.. Jan.com/books/details. K. Grieser. http://www.. June 20-24. G. CAL-laborate. (2004). In Vladimir Uskov (Ed.com/history/dsshist ory. August 16-18.siggraph.. Hawaii. Hawaii.unikiel. M.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. B. Theresa (1998). Manchester. http://science. Germany. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. In Proceedings. Grigoriev. http://www. Hershey.com/PaperInfo. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.dfki. 2004. and Tschiedel.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. T. and Tschiedel. http://damit. Portugal. (2003).html Shimizu.2004. http://dssresources.. P. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. S.pdf Knolmayer.manchester.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 .de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. and Laurindo.mc. http://www. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. Enn (2005). Vol. F. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum..dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.pdf Jantke.ac. 317-328. http://www.hawaii. http://www. 2002.. (2006).pdf Ounapuu. USA. Memmel. K. http://www. Dan (2003). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. 2005. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Jim (2002). Thalheim. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. SIGGRAPH publication. Lange. Learning by doing and learning when doing . B. O.informatik. 6-9. PA: Idea Publishing. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings.

uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. For air displays. Do Not Reproduce 114 . including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. Electronic paper could change that some day. Finally. monitors.theregister. In regards to digital paper. digital paper. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. in cooperation with Sony. projectors. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. This can be a holographic image. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.co. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). head mounted displays.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. lighting up theater size screens. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.theregister. In the near future.co. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. http://www. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.” Selected Examples Samsung. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. By stacking a second projector. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. big enough to be projected on large walls. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. electronic paper.

http://thejournal.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.firstmonday. still/video camera. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.siliconlight.html Promera is a hand-held computer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. see: http://www. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.com/about. intelligent interfaces.unifreiburg.technorati. Do Not Reproduce 115 . For a list of his publications. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.fogscreen.H.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://www.edu/design/Camera. See a demo at: http://www.cmu.ntera. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. To access the articles.ices. http://killer. see: http://ad. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. In 2005.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. Inc.io2technology. Projector.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.informatik. http://www.com/technology /overview NTERA.E. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.provisionentertainment.

Tim (2005). Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.org/citation. 2005. Government.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. In G.loaz.. Oct.jisc. Germany..cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Canada. http://ad.ac. London: Springer..com/timwang/index. 2005.. pages 3053-3068. Pisano. E. H.acm.uk/index.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. Hirota. Livingston. (1996). and Pizer. W. http://www. State.informatik. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. and Ottmann. K. Brandon Hall Research . Whitton. Healthcare.pdf Wang. Largest LCD and video projection.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. Dec. http://blog. A. Hamburg.). http://portal. Richards (Ed. M. M. S.. G. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). 3. T.unifreiburg. Garrett. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. Vancouver.. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.

pupilpages.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://isle.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. maximum flexibility. http://www. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. http://www. open source electronic portfolio. My first report in this series.co.chalkandwire.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.livetext. evaluation. http://www.uk/default.htm Educause.iwebfolio.osportfolio.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.educause. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.pebblelearning. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.paisley.com/college/portfoli os. Do Not Reproduce 117 . http://www.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. 2005). This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.com/products/e portfolio/default. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.angellearning.elearningcentre.co. and simple usability.com/eportfolio/i ndex.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.ac. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www.foliotek.

http://ferl.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. http://www.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. Bob (2004). thus. Trent (2002). (2002).amazon.org/collab/v.criticalmethods. http://connect.ac. http://www. E.pdf Conway.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. Frederick (2005).asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. an online resource on collaboration. Graham (2005).pdf Batson.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. http://www. http://www.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. March.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. University of Iowa. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.elearnspace.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Brandon Hall Research . B.com/article. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. and Hibbitts.org. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou.ch/dyn/9. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.htm IMS.becta. Dec. (2004). has a section on eportfolios.educause.cfm 118 © 2006. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. FD Learning White Paper. http://www2.educause.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.educa.thejournal. with many links. J. Vol 27 No 4. http://www. THE Journal Online. 2004 http://www.org/Articles/epor tfolios. http://elgg.imsglobal. Online Paper.nottingham.campustechnology.doc Banks. Educause Quarterly.com/magazine/va ult/A5260. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. College of Education http://www.. helping to transform education and training.

edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. C.cjlt. (2004).. G. http://www.. http://www.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1. J. Dublin. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal.org/papers/Learning_l andscape. S.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 . Educause Quarterly.pdf Greenberg. http://www. V.. 144-169. 4. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. Online paper. and Werdmuller.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. George (2004).A. Love. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. and portfolios. 2005. Light. J.educause. K.ca/content/vol31. Business Communication Quarterly.org/Articles/epo rtfolios.. (2005). and Wade. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. http://www. & Figgins. D..citejournal. future thinking: digital repositories..A. ePortfolios. Feijen. no. and Ittelson. Lee. July/ August 2004.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky.. April 1. http://www. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.. G. http://www. 39. e-portfolios. M. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. 2(2). Gary (2004). Trinity College. research. Reflective learning. html Young. 28–37. (2003). J.pdf Lorenzo. http://www. Harvey.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. (2005). (Focus on Teaching). 31(3).pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. Fall. W.3/tosh. (2002). M. J.amazon.htm Tosh. An Overview of e-Portfolios. G. http://www. Fleming. elearnspace. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.. B.eradc. (2002). J. Educause Review... (2005). B. vol.ac. and McKean. D.educause. P.educause.. Bryde.alt.elearnspace. T. D. 37(2). http://www. Cook. Aalderink. Dec. 16. Online. and Haywood..

Marc Prensky (2003).com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.com/ http://www. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. 2003). virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.com http://us.hive7. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.freescale.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.” says that “in the mod world.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. identity work.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. simulations. serious games.com/ http://www.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.com. writing about “first person shooter games. Dr. Try them out at: http://www. http://www.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning.com/ http://www. 120 © 2006. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. 2005). For a brief review of these tools. and learning (Amory. MySpace. Cyworld. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. play. and Second Life.myspace. Brandon Hall Research . Examples include Hive7. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.facebook. from the University of Wisconsin.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. Facebook. games. as such.cyworld. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. Constance Steinkuehler.secondlife. see: http://news. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). complex problem solving.

microsoft. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.thinkingworlds. has game development tools for the Xbox.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. along with their Web sites.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools.magnetargames. dubbed XNA Studio.com/ Thiagi. Do Not Reproduce 121 . a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. http://www.siggraph.pluginz. This game allows users to play. For example. helping speed up the game creation process.com/news/548 http://www. http://www. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. Many of their learning games resources are free.softimage.clickteam. There is a free 30-day trial version.com/xna/ Softimage.org/?14@33. http://www. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. edit. http://www.ucalgary. See the selection of games at: http://www. Review them at: http://esub. implementation. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. create. http://www.” http://www. Canada. produces educational games for training.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. allows members of a game development team to work together.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. Started in North America.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. You can read about them at Pluginz.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver.mpjgaB KQdAe. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. Inc. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.com/ In 2005. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.muzzylane. The toolset.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.com/solutions/gam es/default.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.nasaga.

futureplay. 2003. researchers. Brandon Hall Research .edu/itforum/Games_Res ources. Honolulu.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.” Read her research at: http://website.seriousgamessummit.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.gdconf.programmersheaven.uk/index2. http://it.education.dk/people/sen/public. http://www.ukzn. Sign up at: http://www. http://www.org/index2. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://www. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.org.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.com/zo ne8/index.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.pdf 122 © 2006.htm Dr.coe.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. http://www. June 25-28.wisc.digiplay. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.htm Dr.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. http://www.itc.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.ac. Alan (2003). Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.seriousgames.uga. http://www. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. Hawaii.

pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. http://www.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.pdf Guetl. Bryan (2006). 2006.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 . Train. March 10. http://llt.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Gamasutra. and Maurer. D. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. H.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Bob (2005). Jan.uwf.pd f Prensky. http://www. and Michael. 2003.xplanazine.itc. 2005. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. H. 2005. Oct.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. http://www. http://www. Clifton Park.amazon. 17-22.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. http://www.marcprensky. S. Xplanazine. IT-University Copenhagen. Mayer (Ed.xplanazine.pdf Reynolds. Dreher.pdf Michael. Gaming.uwf. Fourth Quarter. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. Williams. Serious Games: Games That Educate..amazon. Lloyd (2005). January 2. Chapter 33. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Multimedia learning in games. D. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Rob (2006b). (2005). Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. 19. Rob (2006a). Xplanazine.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_..pdf Godwin-Jones.php Rieber. S. simulations and microworlds.cambridge. (2005). 2006. 549-567.php Reynolds.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. (2005). Developing Serious Games.msu.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Simon (2005). Technology Trends for the Year. June. and Chen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. http://www. http://www. 9(1).edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. Montreal.iicm. Language Learning and Technology. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. and Inform. SRI-BI. http://www. Games and Education = Oil and Water. R. http://www. see: http://www. Marc (2003). Learning on Demand Bulletin. In Richard E. C.

pdf 124 © 2006. (2006)..edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. and Biswas. N. Masters Thesis. J. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.. Brandon Hall Research . Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. http://woz.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis.commtechlab. Jason (2004). Doctoral dissertation.wisc. Beers. G. http://jason. Constance (2005). (2005). 2004. Clifton Park. N. 2005. C. Gupta. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://website. Michigan State University.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler. http://www.p df Tye. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.msu. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. University of Wisconsin .org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.teachableagents.pdf Swamy. R. and Swamy. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure.Madison.education.amazon.

Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video.html Research by Dr. http://www.fg2008. Artificial intelligence techniques. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. FG2006.cybernet.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. looking for particular sequences. including identifying commercial products. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. Do Not Reproduce 125 . 2008.” http://mplab. April 10-12 2006.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.fg2006. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.com/~ccohen/gest ure.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. artificial intelligence. http://www. UK. such as Markov models. FG2008. For a list of papers: http://www. affective computing.soton.ecs. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. haptics. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. was held in Southampton. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.ucsd. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.ac. and robotics in elearning. at the University of California.tudelft. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. London. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.

iscslp2006.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini. http://cbcl.smartkom.org/reports/Report -NR-03. G. March. 3. October 14-16.. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. T.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. http://www. M. http://www. PA. Y. T.. 57-64. eLearning Developers’ Journal. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Report No. 2000. (2002).. Michael (2003). J.pdf Daugman. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication.stat.ercim. Nicole (2001). July 2227.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference.2000. L. M. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Gao. Aug. (2005).pdf Corradini. http://www. 191-196. A. Geiger. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. (2004). In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Munich. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.pdf Ebert.884693 Chen. Porta. Deller.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen.pdf Beringer. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.actapress. Las Vegas. http://www. M.com/PaperInfo. 18. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures..11 09/CMPSAC.ieeecomputersociety. and Cohen.mit. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. (1997). Pittsburg. Shi-Kuo (2000).com/pdf/2/08 1803DES. In Proceedings. and Poggio. Ludwig-Maximilians University. http://www.html Chang. A.org/10.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. Wesson.pdf 126 © 2006.. and Ma. (2000).asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman.fsu.elearningguild. P. 2003... Lombardi. Nevada. IEEE Transactions. R.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02.pdf Borghi. J. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. http://doi. W. Visualization. Brandon Hall Research . Korea.ogi. 19(7). and Bender. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.cse. 675 676 http://lcv. (2005). http://www. F. July 1997.

C. 47(1).20 05. J. Lee. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. P. In Proceedings. Fussell.. Y. A.clayton. http://portal. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee.. Computer vision in the interface.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.com/PaperInfo. Communications of the ACM. H. L. 442-446. 1999.computer. 242-245.mit. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.actapress. C. S. Sato. C.com/GetPDF. http://www.ucsb. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.rutgers.recveb. Michael (2004). and Kim. http://www. and Wong. Sept. and Carreira.pdf Peixoto.pdf Wilson. Canada http://cims. M. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. British Columbia. Setlock.pdf Loi. (1997). J. Robust face image matching under illumination variations.acm. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). (2003).hindawi.D. 884 – 900. L. Park. S. J.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.pdf Ou. C. http://interact. X.1109/ICALT.F (1999). Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. IEEE Transactions. Chen. Y. Y.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc. Wong.xml&DOI=10.150 Nakanishi. Lai. 2004:16. and Bobick. http://www. and Chang..edu/mas963/en hencedwall.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . 2533–2543. and Koike. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. Vancouver. and Yang. (2005).research. January.. September 2002.. D.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. 2004.org/citation. (2005). Proceedings.. J.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk.media. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. 27-30. 21(9). A. (2002). http://www. http://csdl2.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). (2004).

Designing WebBased Training. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com/TechIllustrator. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.autodesk.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. e-Learning By Design.adobe.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.techillustrator.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.avs. and in his recent 2006 book. In acquiring Macromedia.

acdamerica.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.com/index. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . http://www.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.blender3d.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. The most listings are for 3-D software. http://www. http://esub.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.broderbund.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. animation. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. and playback.uk/index. rendering.3dlinks. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www. Nevertheless.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. interactive creation. http://www.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market. Do Not Reproduce 129 . http://virtuality3d.ibm.microsoft.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.corel.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.com.smartdraw.xaraxtreme.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. Download a copy: http://www. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.0.itedo.google.elearningcentre.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.siggraph.org/cms/Home. post-production.co.co.com/E/1335.com SmartDraw http://www. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.co. In acquiring Macromedia.uk/index.

com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. http://www. http://www.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. http://www. June 1-3.stc. Pheonix. Gloria (2004). NY: John Wiley. Edward (1990). Brandon Hall Research . and Uyar. http://www.editlib. CT: Graphics. Proceedings. e-Learning by Design.pdf McConnell. Carolina Chapter.pdf Tufte. Evidence and Narrative . Japan · Sept 7-10. Cheshire. William (1991).com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Richards (Eds. A. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. Envisioning Information. http://www.stcphoenix.com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.). CT: Graphics Press.amazon. S.amazon. Fu-Kwan (2004). Cheshire. Edward (1997). Germany. William (2000). Edward (2001). http://www.pdf Qiu. Designing WebBased Training. Pallickara. ED-Media Conference.ucs. STC. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. http://www.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006.indiana. (2005). Tools Usage Survey Results.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. http://www. New York: John Wiley.amazon.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. http://grids.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Frances (2004). Kommers & G. http://www.amazon. Tokyo. CT: Graphics Press.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. http://www. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. A. (2004). Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG)..cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. 2nd Ed.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. X. In P. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.carto.amazon. William (2006). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.org/index. Cheshire.amazon. Potsdam.

Do Not Reproduce 131 .it/projects/pureform. and force-feedback mice. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. gloves.” http://www. Read the press release at: http://www. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. joysticks/ joypads.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.forcedimension. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.miralab.pureform. http://haptex. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner.handshakeinteractive.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . http://www. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. http://wwwpercro. When used appropriately.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. including pens. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.unige. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. Haptic devices come in many forms. Finally.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).html http://www.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .sssup.mpbtechnologies.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .

Reality bytes. G.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. (2005). Italy in March. NJ: Prentice-Hall.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.1.” http://www.immersion.isfh.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. M. and Ichitsubo. New York Times (Online). Matsubara. 2005. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. (2002).se/index.sensegraphics. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. July 31.phptr. http://www.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.pdf Hespanha.1_release-public. http://www. Y.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research..asp Body-based devices include gloves. professional.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. http://www.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. M. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. http://www.haptics-e.miralab.sensable.smh. and Sukhatume.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://haptex.xml&DOI=10. Nakamura.unige. 917-921. 2005.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. Report delivered January 15.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue.computer. Iwane.piaggio. Deliverable D4. M.” http://www. Upper Saddle River. suits. http://www. Proceedings.com.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). David (2003). International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).unipi. N.unitrier. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. http://www.306 Kushner. M. McLaughlin.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. 2003.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://csdl2.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.informatik.1109/ICAL T.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc. J.. 132 © 2006.ccii.2005.roblesdelatorre.

Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.digicult.pdf McLaughlin. M. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. M. Santa Clara..org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. http://www. Chapter on Haptics.usc. 250a. H. D.. Wired News.S. Proceedings. Y.html Ross.cim. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). (2003). Dobreva. (1997). Daithí (2003).B..org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 .ethz. July 3. S. and Jaskowiak. Japan. Journal of Vision. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Technology and Haptics.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres.media.computer. G.. K. http://www.asp?p=345621 Sakano.. Sukhatme.mit.mcgill. Haptics Laboratory. http://web. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. C. & Uchikawa.. http://www. (2004). M. 2004..pdf O’Modhrain.journalofvision.. L. and Rusbridge. http://csdl. S. A. http://www. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. Blindness. Medioni. and Essl. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. 1(3). Prentice Hall online article. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it.net/article-7304. and Hughes. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Shahabi. A.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Laurie (2004). 3-5 June 2004..html O’Malley. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Vincent (2005). The Haptic Museum. Kaneko.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. G. http://www. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. Abbott. April. http://www.com/articles/printerf riendly.. and Gillespie. Donnelly.matr. M. (2001). Research report.pd f O’Modhrain.informit.pdf Rowell. McGill University. R. 2003. M. 22. (2005). McHugh. Reaching through the net to touch.ra.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque.pdf Ó hAnluain. G. Oct. (2000). Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. J. CA.S. M.

they must interact with it through an interface device. Now in the research and development phase. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. monitors. whiteboards Description devices.html For humans to use a computer. digital paper. haptics. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory.buffalo.com/b/archives/ 002571. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. and some. For humans to use a computer. wearable computing. handwriting recognition. http://www.html Sony. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. However. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. Philips. tangible computing. Writing will require special digital pens. they must interact with it through an interface device. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.dottocomu. head mounted displays. Called Librié. experience computing. see: http://www. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. For a review. input devices. human-computer interaction. electronic paper. gesture recognition. display technologies. like digital ink and paper. projectors. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).

html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. http://www.cmu. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. textures.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.swan.cmu.edu/design/Digitalin k." http://web.edfacilities.ices.cfm Now in the research and development phase.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.edu/design/Foldable Display.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.lifehacker.sony. http://www. 4) bend. Writing will require special digital pens. http://www. and 5) build.” http://www. http://www.html http://killer. http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. Although this technology has been around for a few years. These methods are 1) touch. consisting of a pen and a charger. Do Not Reproduce 135 .com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.media.com/index. http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home. http://www.com/technology/howitwor ks.cs.ices. see: http://www.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. http://www.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.eink. http://killer.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.fujitsu.smarttech.ac.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. 2) roll.channelnewsasia.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.html In 2005. it is constantly being improved and updated. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. 3) throw.wacom.mit.logitech.

0 4/anoto.edu. http://whiteboards.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. human computer interaction.thegrid.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.cs. http://www. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.co.usask. http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.wired.mspx 136 © 2006.html http://www.aclearn.com/wired/archive/5.0 8/epapers.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.edna.wired. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.net/display.org. and graphic. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.becta.au/edna/page458 8.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.wired.devx.com/wired/archive/9. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.org. Following are three such articles: http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards. is described in a 2002 press release.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.elearningcentre.com/wired/archive/8.anoto.thewirelessdirectory.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. Brandon Hall Research .html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.html http://www. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. See their advice and resources at: http://www.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. with its use of digital ink.microsoft.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. M. ICALT2002 Conference. and Tsiatsos. Sam (2005). 4. Proceedings.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 . Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Czech Republic.ac. A. Workshop on virtual learning environments. T.pdf Dalziel.PDF Farmer.zcu. Building educational virtual environments. T. Pierre (2000). November 2004.pdf Tsinakos.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final..uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. R. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies.bath.A possible future for online learning.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. April.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). The puzzle: virtual learning environments . Proceedings of ALT-C. A. Ed. C. UK. http://www. Browne. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS.ieee. A. 21. Plzen. http://www.. James (2003). August. James (2005). Virtual Learning Environments.ac.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. Molinari. http://www.science. Derek (2004). http://wscg. http://www. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). 5(2). (Online edition). http://www. http://tojde. Chief Learning Officer. (2002). June 20-21.melcoe. Learning Circuits. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Jan. 2005. http://www.building new education strategies for schools.mq. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Incorporated Subversion. http://incsub.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. 2006. L..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins.edu.nxtbook. (2005). University of Birmingham. M (2005).pdf Sadeghi.learningcircuits. and Walker.unitn.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).anadolu.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909..org/eun. (2006). Jan. Proceedings.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . http://www. (2002). Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.pdf Morrison.edu. 2005.pdf Cohen.htm Bouras. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. and Trifonova. and Sharifi. http://lttf. Aavani. J. October. Report published by UCISA. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . Avgoustos (2004).pdf Dillenbourg.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.eun. Exeter. M..ucisa. Ronchetti. 31-Feb. WSCG Conference 2005.

October 2005.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.Learning Management Systems Ueno. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. 2005. Van (2005). Vancouver. 40(3). Brandon Hall Research . May-June. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. LMS Governance Project Report. Educause Review.educause.infodiv. Government.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel. L.org/newdl/index. and Quealy. http://www.pdf Wise.edu.pdf 144 © 2006. (2006). J.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. Maomi (2005). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. http://www.aace. and Higher Education 2005.unimelb. May 2006 http://www. Healthcare. Report for the Melbourne.

in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. 2006). Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Beyond that. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. a well-known standard for learning objects. SCORM. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. Rather. The acronym SCORM. However. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). sharable content objects (SCOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Wiley. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. Learning objects have several uses. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. As online educational materials are produced. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. Do Not Reproduce 145 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. learning object model (LOM). rapid learning. learning object repository (LOR). At the simplest level. 2004.” This use has been more successful. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. reusable learning objects (RLOs). intelligent tutoring.” such as a graph. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. They are emulations of “software objects.

” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange. culture.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. curriculum.cdlib. http://www. http://dspace. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://www. http://learnware. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors.downes.fedora. and distributes digital research material. http://dlist.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.arizona. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.org/index. computer-use practices.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. indexes.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://www. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note.educanext. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.uvic. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. preserves. http://www. http://web. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. Brandon Hall Research .Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. stores.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. This idea is based on older. and they can be general or subject specific.sir. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.uwaterloo.

org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://www.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.mcli. http://www.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://www. http://lester. with almost 15. http://nsdl. http://www. http://portal.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.thegateway.lolaexchange.000 items.unsw.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.maricopa.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://ideas.utoronto.goenc.koha.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. http://www.llearn.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://www.edu. with a focus on information literacy.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.org/Home.cisco.publiclibraryofscience.net/project. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://mlor.rice.lrc3.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.merlot.oise.unesco.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.dist. http://www.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://www. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 .profetic.wisconsin.edu/DesktopDefault.org/ci/en/ev.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.

San Francisco: Pfeiffer.amazon. Celentano.ca/implementing_proje cts. F.lornet..uwm.L.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 .uwm.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. Online paper. http://www.cancore. http://www.doc Christiansen.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. And Longo. http://www.dicole. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. C.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.elearnspace. http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. March. 1(3).org/eng/scientifiques.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt. and Anderson. http://www.edtechpost.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. M. http://www. T. CANCORE.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. and Alderman. (2004).uis. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.org/guidelines/index. A. http://www. J.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. http://www. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.uniroma1.dis. http://www.nmc. authored by Rachel Smith. (2004). EdTechPost.ca/mt/archive/000 681.org/blog/archives/ 002089.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.it/~lhci/002.itdl.jcdl.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. M. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. (2004). see Teemu Leinonen’s article. is available at: http://www.

Online paper. http://dl. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. MacLeod. D. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Stephen.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.html Leeder. http://www.. Anderson.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. http://www. Rory (Ed. 2(1). A.. S. T. http://www. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.pdf Krauss.. M. http://www.9%2015-11-03. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. K.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.doc Fiaidhi..html Friesen. Version . http://www.edusource. March. 2(4).org/mar2000/ primer.learningcircuits. S.cancore. http://www. 14. Downes. & Strijker. G. Friesen.. Paquette. International Journal on E-Learning. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Learning Circuits. Harrigan. J. (2004). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www.. R. March. http://ideas.. Rachel (2006).eduserv. 1 (3). IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. http://www.htm Friesen. Roberts. http://www.org/14190 Downes. Norm (2006). Richards. (2004). N.org/index. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. 5-16. B.itdl. Fredinand (2004).. (2003). T. Babin. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. London: Falmer. 2004.cancore. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. html Edusource (2003). Mattson.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. D. Hatala. M.blogs. Online. G. Research Report. G.org.) (2004). Online Education Using Learning Objects. S. Online document. Software Architecture Document.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire..editlib. R. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.. 1(3). Jan.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3.html Heery.9. and Mohammed. http://www. (2000)..irrodl.1/downes. and Morales. A Primer on Learning Objects. Warren (2000).aace.amazon. and Schafer.org/content/v2. March.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 .ca/implementing_projec ts.ca/protocols_en. Norm (2005)..itdl. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches..cfm/files/pap er_11841. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. (2004). The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.html McGreal.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.

org/read/ Wiley. http://www.bath.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. Learning Material Repositories . : http://reusability.learninglab. R. 2004.p df Wiley.html Murphy.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.co. (2002).php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. INTERACT 2005. Online. McGreal. http://www. Iterating Toward Openness.dis.htm Nejdl. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. http://www.usq. Rossano. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.it/~lhci/rossanopres.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.edu. http://opencontent. (2005). http://www. (2000).org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.ac. June. Govinda. David A.itdl..kth. http://www.Rafts or Battleships? .).bath.pdf Richards. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. T. 7(1). The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.htm Wiley. Doctoral dissertation. http://www. July 14. David A. M. Paper presented.informingscience.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. David A. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.. Wolfgang (2004). 12. 2004. M. Clive. Derek (2004b).php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. Learning Material Repositories .org/docs/dissertation.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects.learningcircuits. V. Learning Circuits. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.. Objects of Interest. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). (Ed. 9. Elizabeth (2004).uniroma1.. N. Brandon Hall Research . G.pdf Santally. March. and Pragnell.htm Shepherd. http://opencontent.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.fastrakconsulting. Brigham Young University. http://proceedings. April 2002.dis. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. and Senteni. Lori (2002). InSITE conference. (2006). Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.Part 1. Final Project Report.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. Derek (2004a). M. (2000).Rafts or Battleships? . (2004). Jan. http://www.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. and Freisen. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.uniroma1. http://www. 1(7). Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.ac.Part 2. (2002). RIP-ing on Learning Objects. A. Aug. pdf Roselli.pdf http://www.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.

geocaching. navigation. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. and security issues. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. proximity tools. galleries. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. and wearable computers.S. as with any new technology. personal media players. However. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. including cell phones.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. Do Not Reproduce 151 . including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Department of Defense. galleries. more demands for a person’s attention. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. users will be able to use a variety of devices. including privacy concerns. findability. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. gaming consoles. location-based systems are found in museums. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. laptops. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. PDAs.

org/ http://www. to model the climate in any place in the world. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.google.google.mapinfo.google. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.museum.com/ location and biodiversity around the world.greatestplaces. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. http://local. earth.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.com able to use a http://www.com/ mapping service. experiences that people.google.000 archaeological sites in the state.clarklabs.biogeomancer.smm. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www. The map is wearable readable geographic locations.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices. http://www.state.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz. it is a great tool for teaching science.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40. information. http://www.http://www.http://www. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details. to what a GIS system uses.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.http://www.esri. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp . personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players.berkeley. Clark Labs . and to learn about them using a phones.live. PDAs.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .pangonetworks.frappr. http://earth.cadcorp.intergraph.com/ Intergraph . gaming http://www.org/ educational of Mars.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.com/ Geographic Information System. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. Brandon Hall Research . the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.http://www. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database.org/ consoles.il. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.http://www.edu/ the globe. laptops. See how this direction. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.us/research/G ESRI.

com/index. See their complete range of products.” http://www.gees. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.leeds.edu.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.5372. http://www. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.esri.opensourcegis. as well as papers on trends in GIS. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.geography. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.co.wisc.fi/english/page.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. http://portal. Earth.edu/sco/gis/hi story. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. http://www. http://pngis.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.bc.ac.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.asp?path=5 00.chimer.confluence. http://www.bham. http://platial.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.geog.org/index.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. create.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. see: http://www.cetadl. http://www. at: http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.eoscenter.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.ac.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. http://www.ordnancesurvey.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 .org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.com/gis4mt/index.ac.

. http://www.C. Jan 2004. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. Dec. IEEE Report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags.ac. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. http://education. Eva (2004). A. McHugh. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.pdf Spohrer.intelresearch. http://www.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. 1999. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Dobreva. 2005. G.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Arnaoutoglou. J.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031.pdf Tsirliganis. DigiCULT Newsletter. Nov. and Rusbridge.learningcircuits.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. Issue 6. M.digicult. Online article. Pavlidis.. Information in places.info/index. http://geotags.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. January. A. 2005. C.research. Guardian Unlimited. A.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. http://www. Mapping.com http://geotags.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. (1999). F.guardian. and visualize spatial information.html Ross. N.com/ Bibliography Benford. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.. D.ibm.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.. http://www. http://elearningeuropa. http://www.directionsmag.geocomm.. Koutsoudis.pdf Cardinali. Heather (2005).00. http://www.jisc.digicult. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. IBM Systems Journal.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. Future LocationBased Experiences.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. S. Learning Circuits. Abbott. Part II. Chapter on Location Based Devices. http://www.. (2005). 15. http://www. (2001). G.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 38(4).. and Chamzas. and Location-Based industry professionals. CAD. manipulate.co.intergraph.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. M.1642288. Donnelly. (2003).htm McLean. and students. J. Steve (2005).org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. We learning: social software and e-learning.. enthusiasts.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 . Fabrizio (2005). and Borriello. 2003.

Programs can be “stand alone. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Many of these objects are software programs. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . run all by themselves. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. personalized. to a lesser extent. Using SOAP. or protocol. in schools and universities.” that is. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. to a lesser extent.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. also called “object learners and interoperability. Similarly.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. provides access to the API of another Web site. in schools and universities. E-learning in the workplace and. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). the rules for sending files across the Internet. tag clouds. integration. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. of how to communicate with each other. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. all expressed in binary code. API clouds. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. For example. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. hybrid applications. or through “Web services. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions.” instructors. A “mashup. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules.” then. composite applications.

such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. providing an informal collaborative environment.htmlhttp://www. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. such as those for collaboration. http://blogs.deitel. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.0 APIs.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.businessweek.. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. http://en. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.deitel. etc. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. http://www.emilychang.mashupfeed. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006.Mashups.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. document management.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.programmableweb. http://del. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.us.html Rob Hof.icio. 2004). Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.com/ http://www.wikipedia. As Warlick (2006) has noted. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. a writer for Business Week.” It has many examples of mashups. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.icio. Many have educational value.programmableweb.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. at the same time.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. http://www. communications.

Douglas (2004). Web Services. July 28. Elearnspace. Issue 1.ieee. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. January 2004 http://lttf.operitel. http://ww6. Vol.. SOAP.html Woodill. Infoworld.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1. J. 2006.html Warlick. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.pdf Seimens. Galen (2006). http://www. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.org/resources/webs ervices. 2002. 6.html Hof.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. match. 6. J. David (2006). Issue 1.pdf Stacey.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. Paul (2002). (2004).org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Business Week Online. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.com/products/print_fri endly.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. techLEARNING. George (undated).businessweek. http://www.bctechnology.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Vol. Dodero. C. 2006. Curriculum as Mashup. Mix. Robert (2005). http://www. http://www. and Padron. Dec.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.htm Siviter. Learning Technology newsletter.infoworld. May 15. C. Do Not Reproduce 157 . January 2004 http://lttf. and mutate. and Oliveira. 6. (2006). G.elearnspace.techlearning. 2006. Learning Technology newsletter.com/publications. http://www. July 25. Mashups. 2005.htm Torres. Enterprise mashups. March 6. Learning Solutions.

imsglobal.edu/content.ac. http://iiscs.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies.mit.mit.do?tm= O4E. http://dublincore. repositories. http://www. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. and institutional stores. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. Ohio.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning. community. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. http://www. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. and services.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.educause. metadata. http://libraries.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. in the context of information technology. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. to develop metadata standards.cetis.cancore. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. An ontology.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. and artificial intelligence are being developed.edu/o4e/viewhome.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.wssu. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). pervasive computing. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Do Not Reproduce 158 . A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. search engines.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index. http://metadata. http://www. http://simile. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.

delphigroup. A. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. University of Illinois graduate paper. D.. Green Chameleon.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. 2003.boxesandarrows.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider. Dolog.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. P. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. http://www. tags into a BoxesAndArrows. International Journal on E-Learning. and Nejdl. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy..org/. 7(4). International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. Lenne.tagcamp. Perich.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . October-December.cancore. MA. 7. April 21. Adam (2004). http://www. 2005. 2006.pdf Henze. Patrick (2006). 82-97. sometimes A. June 2004. http://www. October 29.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. A. http://tomgruber.pdf Friesen.php?id=25 Kroski. T. http://ebiquity.pdf Delphi Group (2004). http://www. November. (2004). and Joshi. M. Benayache. Presentation to Tag Camp. 98-111.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. N. and Poulymenakou. http://dl. Defining “taxonomy”. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. TagOntology . Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. 2002. Norm (2005). C. B. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.ifets. (2002). http://www.php?id=25 Chen...info/issues. In Proceedings. and Chaput. Thomas (2005b). F. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.. Dec. Online article.edu/get/a/publication/ 105. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).org/10614 Mathes. Moulin. http://infotangle. and Mosoiu. Infotangle. C. Barry.ca/editors.blogsome. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. Finin. B.. M. A.greenchameleon. http://www.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP..ifets.. A.info/issues. W. Boston. http://tomgruber.. Pouloudi.htm Gruber. (2004). (2003). The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.umbc. Ellyssa (2005).com/view/buil database as they enter data.aace. Delphi Group report. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. (2004). Thomas (2005a). H. http://www. April 18.. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. 7(4).adammathes.html Gruber.

Trondheim.niso.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.html Wodtke. Wagner..ppt Ricci. http://www. 7(4). D-Lib Magazine.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. D.php?id=25 160 © 2006. http://www.info/issues. 11(7/8). Reuben (2004). (2004). Nov. 70-81.boxesandarrows. Lytras. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. G. J.ifets.. 2005. M. (2004).ifets. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). I. April 9. Another new paradigm for instructional design. N. http://www. P. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www. 2004. July/August. Learning Circuits. (2003). and Godby.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.htm Weibel. and Shao. BoxesAndArrows. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. NISO Press. S. 2004.Metadata.info/issues.pdf Oin.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Christian (2004). Norway. Understanding Metadata. http://www.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Brandon Hall Research .learningcircuits. http://www. 26-28. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. 7(4). Chen. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. and Diaz.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.boxesandarrows. BoxesAndArrows. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www.php?id=25 Tozman.. Christina (2002). May 22. http://www. Stuart (2005).ecdl2003. 2002. J.dlib.

tablets. wearable computing. and building. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. 2004). and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. personalization. podcasting. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . 2003). cellular telephones. laptops. pervasive computing. time and space. multimedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. video) and distributed databases. learning. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. location based technologies. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. learning architecture [that] will support creation. instant messaging (text. strong search capabilities. in mobile computing (McLean. laptops. mLearning. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.” Two years ago. you are. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). improved identity creation.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.6 billion units in operation by that year. rich players. tablet PCs. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. using ambient intelligence. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. communicative skills and community interaction. brokerage. it is predicted that there will be 2. personal digital assistants (PDA). personalization. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. such telephones. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. conversational learning.” The Mobilearn However. Essentially. location-dependence. there were estimated to be 1. times the number of personal computers (PCs). MP3 players. and mentoring. cell phones. powerful support for effective tablet PCs.

Users can access and create location-specific text.pdf http://www. in Japan.ccu. Israel.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.” They have a “firefly watching system. Cited in Prensky. or a combination of media.cs. http://www.bbc. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.” and a “bird watching learning system.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.mobilearn. US.se/projectd ata. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). http://gseacademic.computer. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. Brandon Hall Research . and pre-service teachers.stockholmchallenge. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.cs. pictures. (2004).edu.Mobile Devices Two years ago. audio.net/ 162 © 2006.” http://www. http://urbantapestries.pdf http://www.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Australia.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.cs.edu.” a “butterfly-watching learning system. movies.co.harvard. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.ccu.edu.ccu. there were estimated to be 1.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. 2004). compared to only 50 percent of computer users.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://news. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. http://www. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. http://csdl2.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.

including issues. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www.eee.” http://m. applications.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.135/ipodined/news. resources. 2006 in Dublin. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. http://www.knowledgepulse. http://213.beta80group.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. technologies. and a glossary. activities.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.uk/handler/publi cations.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.94.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.msu. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. Gaming. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.co.com/wwwtools/m/2737. http://llt. links.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.htm Jari Laru.bham.iadis.telus.elearningcentre.ac. http://spotlight-mobile. http://www3. For example.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.fasfind. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://www. Learn more at: http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. of the University of Oulu in Finland. Ireland.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/8907.fasfind.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://www.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 .fasfind.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.mobilelearning.com/home_en.232.com/wwwtools/m/2717. http://urbantapestries.

Bob (2005). Gaming. Ronchetti.flexiblelearning. Bryan (2004). 17-22 http://llt. http://www. and Sheu. 39.htm JISC (2005). Report.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). JISC Technology and Standards Watch. (2004). September 2005.pdf Geddes. (2005). A. and Sharma. 5. http://www. http://knowledgetree.cs. No. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. EDUCAUSE Review. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.kaywa.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.m-learning.pdf Jasola..uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.edu. January 2005. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. http://www.pdf Colazzo. http://www.ntnu. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.uk/eli_practice.formatex. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.unitn.6. 2(9). Vol. L. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.idi.jisc.jisc. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Anderson. 9(1). A.html Grew. JISC Guide.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. 19.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. James (2005). http://www. Paul (2005). J. http://www. Y.html Bibliography Alexander. No.J. Emerging technologies: Messaging. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. (2005).pdf Chen.. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Language Learning and Technology.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. S. Sept. http://mobile. T.pdf Attewell.. 347-359. Univ.net. (2002). (2003). Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.ccu. M.msu.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . and Trifonova. E. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. and Pagani.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. R. Jill (2005).ac. B.educause. P. Molinari. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. http://www.itdl.org/micte2005/4. of Birmingham http://www.a u/edition06/download/geddes. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. http://www.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.ac. Learning and Skills Development Agency.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.science.html Kadirire.pdf Godwin-Jones. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. Kao.

cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . August 29-30..oucs.pdf Mellow.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. Peter (2005). Brisbane..ieeecomputersociety. Proceedings. http://www. (2002).org/10. S. T. H. UsabilityNews. http://www. Feb. (2001). 2005. Amherst. Australia. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.. Marc (2004)..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light. M. http://doi. Roffia. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. S. M.2. computer-aided.century.1039222 McLean. J.com/news/article2 490.pdf Metcalf. Neil (2003). and Nischelwitzer.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. MA: HRD Press. http://21st.usabilitynews. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.pdf Scagliarini.2002. (2005).innovateonline.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Coralini. Liang. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. http://www.ascilite. Presented at WMTE 2002..at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. http://www. David (2006). Växjö University. Galasso. Conference on Virtual reality.acm.digicult. J.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. Romagnoli. E. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.. Malavasi. Kristóf (2002). multimedia-based learning application. Donnelly.. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.doc Meisenberger. and Cultural Heritage. Ann (2005). June/July 2005.info/index. Cinotti. E. M. Teleborg Campus. 2004. Glyfada.amazon.. L. T. (2004). 2002.. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. and Yang.org. A.htm#Implications Prensky. Wang.phil-inst.fhjoanneum.. http://www. and Dobreva. Pigozzi.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. T..org/citation. M. A. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. http://www. M. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.1109 /WMTE. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.ox. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Greece.asp Liu. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. F. Sweden. and Sforza. Archeology. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. June 27. http://portal. http://drei..ac. Chan. Växjö. D. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Proceedings. Vecchietti. 1(5).

asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner.uk/public/getfile. Hungary.fil.00. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.ac. Enabling Mobile Learning.educause. 2005. http://education. Budapest. 40-53. Guardian Unlimited. http://kn.. Taylor.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.com/content/templat es/clo_article. May 23.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298. http://www. J.eee. and Vavoula.pdf Sharples. http://www. G. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. Chief Learning Officer. Mike (2005). 2005.pdf Thomas.html von Koschembahr. Ellen (2005).uk/elearning/ comment/0.bham.1490476. M.. (2005). Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.ac.guardian. and.open.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples.clomedia.co. Feb. May/June 2005. http://www. Michael (2005).uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. 40(3). Christopher (2005). A theory of learning for the mobile age.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . Learning in the Mobile Age. Understanding. EDUCAUSE Review. E-Learning on the move. Draft paper submitted for publication. http://www. April 2005.

http://tcc. i. et al. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies. http://dmoz. (2004). ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. Do Not Reproduce 167 . natural language understanding. http://wwwusers. speech recognition.cs. Lee et al.york.translating one natural language into another. http://www.” See also Jordan et al.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . speech synthesis. (2004).org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. Kim (2000). machine translation.ac. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. natural language generation..it/index.e. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.itc.. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. (2005a. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. Di Eugenio.lexxe. rather than just returning Web pages. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001).uk/~silvia/litReview. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.

Fossati. Cambridge. http://www.aaai.msu. M..cs. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Maxine (1999). Fossati.html Bibliography Bagshaw.w3. S.ed.uic. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. research. MA: MIT Press. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. D. http://www.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. January. M. http://www. and VanLehn. 2(2).uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. (2005a). A. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. K.pdf Coxhead. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). http://www. Doctoral Dissertation.. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.. Peter (2001). http://www.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.ac.uic.. (2004). (2005b). Haller.amazon. D.demokritos. Issue 5.ldc. http://www.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. Language Learning and Technology..html#fn1 Di Eugenio. P.cs. http://www. Paul (1994).org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. Online. and Glass. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. November 2004 http://imm. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Haller. B. J. 62-76.org/aitopics/html/natlang.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.cs. Volume 1. http://www.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon. S.bham. M.org/Voice/Activity. Yu.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. pdf Jacquemin. (2004).. tools. Makatchev.pdf Drigas. B..pdf Di Eugenio. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. D. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. and Vrettaros. Yu. http://www. and standards.cstr.org/softwaremap/trove_list . and Glass. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing.ac. Christian (2001).upenn.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . http://eduforge. Paper presented at ACL2005. D. http://llt.elsnet.pdf Eskenazi. University of Edinburgh.

http://www. M.H.digicult. In J. A. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool.cs. Chicago..pdf Ram. K. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. and Moorman. and F. (2004). Lester. Dobreva. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram. Illinois Institute of Technology.cs.colorado. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Donnelly. K. and Moorman. A. (2004).amazon.iit. Cambridge. M. S. (Eds. M. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 . http://www.linckels. Upper Saddle River. (2000). M.pdf Zhou. Cambridge. Chicago. D. C.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System.. (Eds.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.) (1999).) (1999). and Martin. Vicari. A.amazon.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss.. http://www. and Meinel.iit. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://www. Abbott. 435-439. http://lsa. NJ: Prentice Hall.iit. R.iit. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. (2005). August 31.pitt.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. http://www. http://www. Maceió. Paraguaçu (Eds. Chicago. David (2001). Doctoral dissertation. McHugh.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. http://www. MA: MIT Press. Brazil.pdf Lee. computational linguistics and speech recognition.pdf Jurafsky. J. Evens.cs.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. and Rusbridge.amazon. Feng-Jen (2001). http://www. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading.. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Doctoral Dissertation.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss. and Glass. A.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross. Jung Hee (2000). http://www. MA: MIT Press. C.pdf Steinhart. C.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. D. Univ. S. Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Linckels. of Colorado.cs. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.pdf Yang.. http://www. Illinois Institute of Technology. M. Doctoral Dissertation. Illinois Institute of Technology. Yujian (2000).).

A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. Jokela (2003). chat rooms. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. In the future. As personal computers become more powerful. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching.org/science/setiathome. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. 170 © 2006. http://www. Collaborative Peer Relationships . There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. instant messaging. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. movies.seti. Brandon Hall Research .ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. whose research is based on activity theory. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. memory.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. and games. and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. thus bypassing a central server. or e-learning environments. thus bypassing a central server.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power.

com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple.groove. http://publius.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. http://data.md3.mit. sharing.berkeley. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.cs.campusmoviefest.cs. http://p2p. http://cosl. Any computer can join the infrastructure. and translation servers throughout the Web.stanford. http://picto.edu/info/ove rview. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://www. each with its own data schema.usu. http://www.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers.cs.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.edu/piazza.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.weblogger.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.com/ eduCommons . http://wwws.sun. http://lockss.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival. http://www.cdt. encyclopedia. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content.ucsb. http://www. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Do Not Reproduce 171 .edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money.pdos.jxta. http://edutella. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks. http://oceanstore. where students meet to share and exchange their productions. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.The eduCommons is an open system for creating. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources.lcs.washington.

co.stockholmchallenge. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 . http://lionshare. musicians.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.edu/apps_list. http://www.its. and videomakers.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. Mac. for a small fee.llearn. data. http://www.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.html MoveDigital.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op. no adware.elearningcentre.com/ Overnet is an open source.com/products/in dex.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p. allows anyone.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.” http://www.net/freescience_learnmo re_it. http://p2p.psu.” It also says that there is “no spyware.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources.limewire. http://www. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.co.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program.internet2.movedigital.net/index. headquartered at Penn State University. http://www.overnet.se/proje ctdata. cross platform application (Win.bdaweb.fastrakconsulting.com/english/content/ho me. http://www.bdaweb.advancedreality.

org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. Julita (2004).html Fletcher. and Higher Education 2003. Intranet Journal.pdf Farges. Online paper. Case Studies.sunderland. Ginty. http://www. http://www. Bokma.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.com/article. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.campustechnology. Healthcare. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. June 1. D. pp.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. Government. K. http://www.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.htm Cross. University of Texas.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. H.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. 301-313.htm Farago-Walker. Applications. N. A.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . Jay (2001).org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. http://voyager. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. Campus Technology. and Koumpis. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. http://www.intranetjournal.masternewmedia.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. Austin.kbs. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. http://julita.org/index. 1624-1631.pdf Ratti.. July 2001. Judith (2006).ac..org/index. Jennifer (2002). eLearning and future trends.pdf Vassileva. http://www.learningcircuits. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Amsterdam: IOS Press.usask.unihannover.learningcircuits.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. and Guergachi. http://www.editlib.. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues. 2006. (2004). A. Robin Good Blog. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories.edb. http://www.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. Susan (2003). Online article. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Learning Circuits. January 2002. Paul & Cunningham. Wolfgang (2002). 2005. January 17. Tektonidis. Miriam (Eds. AACE Journal 12(3). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. pp 1051-1058. significance and impact.editlib. In Cunningham.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing.). R.html Jokela. (2002). Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits.utexas. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. http://www. Martin (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Luigi (2005). http://www. How P2P will change collaborative learning.

Learning happens everywhere and at all times. discussion forums. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. whiteboard). blogs.. there can be no electronic interaction. for the learner. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. etc. wikis. social environments. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. and. (Cortlett et al. often only for the purposes of the course. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. Individualization in an LMS is weak. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. and through a variety of technologies. such as search engines. This requires support over time. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. Brandon Hall Research . 174 © 2006.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. Technology needs to be situated. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. but these are only available to members of the course. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE must support lifelong learning. libraries. and social bookmarking sites. learning management systems.). A PLE is structured by the learner. To practice real-world situations. e-portfolios. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. as learners move between institutions. chat. In many cases. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. amongst institutions. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. learners need to be in real-world situations. without an offline client to the LMS. work places. Secondly. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone.

uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.uk/index. Sharples. 22-27 July 2005. Incorporated Subversion.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.jisc.cetadl. 11.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).bath. http://www. Online case study paper. PLE Reference Model.org.za/CD/papers/Corl ett.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more..doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. 2006. O. James (2006). Do Not Reproduce 175 . http://www. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. it helps the user plan. J.edublogs. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Jan. http://www. Edinburgh.mlearn. Terry (2006). http://www.ac.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. http://www.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan. Las Vegas.ac. UK. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.cetis.ac. Running on the learner's PC.ac. track. T.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.cetis.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. and review his or her learning activity.ac. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Colin (2005)..ac.pdf Farmer. http://portal. (2005). http://terrya.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett.ac.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. January 9. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. Nevada.jisc. 2006.uk/ilogbook/de fault. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.bham. M. http://incsub. D. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. manage.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog.. Chan. http://www. Ting. and Westmancott.elearning.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. http://elgg.

personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. (Filippini-Fantoni. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. rule-based filtering. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. Often. However. artificial intelligence. or it can be an implicit model. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. etc. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.g. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. Do Not Reproduce 176 . collaborative filtering. picture. Keenoy et al. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. Furthermore. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. These techniques include content-based filtering..g.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). colour. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. However. learning environments. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want..) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. 2005). Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. through a questionnaire).). etc.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.

org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.ac. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user. chc021 http://www.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. Do Not Reproduce 177 . dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.hcrc. objects leave “trails” . Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. wireless networks.uk/ilex/final.virtualmuseum. A demo is available at: http://www.ca/English/Per sonal/index.html (handheld PCs.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user..org/en/index. http://www. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. dynamic user profiling techniques. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites.g.ed. the personalization can be applied to content.firstmonday. and/or presentation of materials.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. http://www.directa.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.beta80group.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.emarcon. The trails can useomarmo. navigation. http://www.net/home.noech.org/default.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. http://www. http://www.nl/publications/papers/M traits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.pdf kaleidoscope. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. PDAs).time-ordered http://www.calimera. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.ecdc.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.elenaproject.

it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf Beler. The Future of Access (or. S.org/mymetmuse um/index. University of Glasgow.pdf Bright.umuai. S. http://arxiv. W. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. (2004).Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.unibo. Daisy (2002).calimera. Ngo. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.uniba. William Niu. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. J.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. L. D.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. http://tmtfactory. 2004. with a particular focus on the museum sector. 2004.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.metmuseum. Borda. and Cook J. May 25. Magical Mirror: multimedia. J.(2001).hatii. De Carolis. HATII. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. http://www. and Nuguid. (2004). K.. http://adiret. http://www. and FilippiniFantoni. http://smart..pd f Cavalluzzi. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.CY/0409055 Boyle T.. https://www.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Online paper.pdf Callaway.. A. May 25.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406.. Brandon Hall Research ..au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. X.arces. G. A. Online paper. Pizzutilo.arts.. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Italy.unimagdeburg. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. http://www. (AVI 2004). Kay.org/ Bibliography Abbott. (2005). Bowen.ac. and Kuflik. Italy. C. A. and Verdaguer. PowerPoint presentation.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. T.pdf 178 © 2006. (2004). Cozzolongo.pdf Ceccaroni. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. interactive services in home automation. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. (2005). A. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Ler.ascilite. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.. (AVI 2004).org.gla. Melbourne.cs.org/pdf/cs. Gallipoli. http://www. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. Gallipoli. A. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). http://www. B.di..

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and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. 2001). In the business world. Brandon Hall Research . vendors. Knowledge Management. instructorled. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization.Portals Related terms Collaboration.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. content management. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. learning management systems. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . and real-time training and documents in a supportive. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. collaborative environment. which form a dynamic user profile. and other roles outside an organization (Collins.

com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.fathom.saba. students. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.cyberu.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. http://www. instructors. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. As of early 2006.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.proquest.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.elementk. calendars. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. museums.000 publishers worldwide http://www.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. e-mail distribution lists. document management information.asp Element K – Access to over 2. collaborative environment. and shared lists for tasks.300 online courses http://www.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. interactive discussion groups. administrators.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.hp. the portal offered information on more than 20. http://www.700 online courses http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.microsoft.microsoft.teach-nology.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo.executrain. school administrators. instant messaging.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. go to: http://www.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. http://h20219.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. news and announce-ments. and universities.www2.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. http://www. and schedules. online meetings with text. instructor-led.worldwidelearn.trainingregistry.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. audio and/or video. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.elearningeuropa.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.000 online courses http://www. Do Not Reproduce 185 .000 lesson plans http://www.com/home. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.

Hershey. http://knowledgemanagement. A. http://www. http://www. K. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Ron (2004). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. March 1.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. May 2000. baby! E-learning portals. M.nl/mart/CategoryView. http://www. (2003).edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. http://www.amazon. A Portrait of Learning Portals.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . In Jafari.htm Brockbank. J. and Sheehan.com/article.tamtam. http://www. (Eds. (Eds.asp?id=9028 Barron.asp Katz.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Reviewed at: http://www. Learning Circuits. Richard & Associates (2002). http://blogs. (2003).. Heidi (2003). http://www.amazon. category. including educational uses. M.campustechnology.amazon. Heidi (2001). A. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. and Gordon. San Francisco: JosseyBass.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. 2004. September 2000.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. http://www. You’ve come a long way.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. Campus Technology Magazine. Bray (2001).asp Terra. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. R.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. PA: Information Science Publishing.educause. Campbell.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. http://www. Cornelia (2000)..learningcircuits. C.learningcircuits.ittoolbox. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. Hershey. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. Tom (2000). E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.) (2003).amazon. and Sheehan.Education. New York: AMACOM.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. and Aucoin.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113.educause. PA: Information Science Publishing. New York: AMACOM.

Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. the word “lecturing” means “to read. web conferencing.macromedia.” In the Middle Ages.replayhq. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.com/site/index. http://www. the word “lecturing” means “to read.” In the Middle Ages. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. In fact. Experience them at: http://www. However. Skypecasting. Online presentations can be very boring.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Do Not Reproduce 187 . Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. Consequently. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. In fact. when experts are not readily available. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. http://www. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.lsc. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. virtual classrooms. webcasting.

edu.00.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. online communities. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. http://ajax.thinkofit.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.com/publications/lel/lel.acue.ccimeet.silicon.elluminate.masternewmedia. virtual teams. http://www. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. and Web presentations.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.infoworld. Webcasts. a columnist at InfoWorld. social software for online collaboration. http://icampus.infoworld.com Hewlett-Packard.brandonhall.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. See the TEAL Project at MIT. http://cde.39155030. online meetings.htm http://www. although many are trying to change this practice.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.humanresourceWebinars. http://weblog.hp. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. intranets. in partnership with Dreamworks. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.html#a1185 http://weblog. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. and e-learning. forums and message boards.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 . videoconferencing. videoconferencing.adelaide.com/webconf/index.athabascau.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. http://www.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.edu/TEAL). While it is expensive.com/cxoextra/0. http://www.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.com/news_radars/we b_presentations. independent listing of Webinars.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.kolabora.htm http://www. instant messaging. http://www. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. groupware.kolabora.380000 5416.mit.

htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www.apreso.programjunction.e-learningcentre. presentation and streaming presentation tools. http://buyersguide. Breeze. although it does not have to be.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. brain.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. and kidneys.com/software/presen tation. virtual meetings. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.timelyweb.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.co.com/downloads/sea rch.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/live. http://www.co.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.elearningcentre.html Using Apreso software. htm http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. Captivate.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations. http://www.elearningcentre. Dreamweaver.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. virtual classrooms.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.co.co.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.lsc. Web conferencing.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.com/presentatio ns/index. http://www.com/eweek/webc onferencing.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.eweek. Coursebuilder.elearningcentre. and Flash.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.co. http://www. and whiteboarding. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.filesland.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.” http://www. http://www.presentations. Web seminars. Authorware.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.elearningcentre.

Luigi (2003a). 7(3). http://www. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal. http://www. http://labnol. http://www. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.masternewmedia.fasfind. Armit (2005). Christine (2001).russellmcnally. Robin Good Blog. Sept.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth. http://www. Robin Good Blog.aace. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Learning Circuits. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. K. Russ (2004).org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. 2005. Live ELearning. 2004.htm Duckworth.com/BreezePart 1. Sept.01. http://www.pdf McFerrin.russellmcnally. July 8.masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003c).html Canali De Rossi.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.com/product /software/795/index. http://www. http://m.htm Hofman.com/wwwtools/m/21593. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. (in two parts) http://www. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. P.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.learningcircuits. http://www. 2003. Live and Online!: tips. 2003.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. April 30.amazon. 3. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. 2003. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. (2002).asp McNally.blogspot. Digital Inspiration. July 26.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). May 15. July.com/BreezePart 2.. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.masterviews. Luigi (2003b).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Belinda (2003).aln.downloadjunction.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.pdf http://www. Jennifer (2004).htm Canali De Rossi. and Furr.

(2004). Dec.. but… Presentations Magazine. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. and Winfield. and Quick. Feb.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. 2005. Software.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. http://kmi. Start Saving Time and Money Today. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. 11. S. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. http://www. L.ac. (2003).jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 .infoworld. Choose the Right Vendors.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1. InfoWorld. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.pdf Spielman.html Zielinski. Dave (2002). http://www.open. Choices are great. P.amazon. K. AMACOM. and Equipment. Choose your presentation tools carefully.presentations. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.

Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. Standardize approaches. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Does not require any advanced skills. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Tools for rapid e-learning are. learning objects. including tools and templates. Instructional design built in. FAQ. but not always good for you. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. or HTML knowledge. just-intime e-learning. It is best suited to textbased materials. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. For example. According to Ready Go!. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. are built in. or where the online information frequently changes. Advanced features. by necessity. such as creating links. extreme e-learning. and drill down pages. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Do Not Reproduce 192 . microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. a demand to produce online content very quickly. glossary. It can refer to learning something quickly.does not require any plug-ins. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. It can refer to learning something quickly. tests. Navigation built in . Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. easy to use. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials.automatically assures that all navigation works. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Deploys easily . Bringing in learning objects such as Flash.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. graphics. programming. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. In the second sense of the term. In the first case. simple. 2003). The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning.

Clark (2005). rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. http://www. and Publish.com/studio.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Assign SMEs who are committed. http://www. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Kendrick (2006).” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. computer games.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Learning Solutions. 2006. To be effective. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.raptivity. and other good stuff. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.elearningcentre.org Web site. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. January 23. or where the online information frequently changes.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. Do Not Reproduce 193 .masie. 2003). and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. Edit.scate.elearningguild. Reusability. Templates. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources.articulate. conferences. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. a demand to produce online content very quickly.htm Bibliography Abell. 2004). manage the content and the users.versus high-interaction). See a demo at: http://www.co. Future-Proofing. Reduce the number of development vendors. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. Enhance.readygo. http://www. virtual classroom.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. centrally located files.” Find out more: http://www. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.amazon. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. See sample templates at: http://www. schedule and due dates.pdf Aldrich..e. and communicate deliverable expectations. version control protocols. San Francisco: Pfieffer. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. low.microlearning. http://www.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. which contains information on resources. http://www.

Vignettes for Training White Paper. http://www.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Dianne (2005). Learning Solutions. Mar.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.adobe.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. Lane (2002). 2004. 10. January. e-Learning Crop Circles.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning. tools. Bersin and Associates White Paper.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Mark (2003).pdf Jimenez. Penny (2004). Brandon Hall Research .elearningguru. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. June. http://www. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. Learning Circuits. Larstan Business Reports. Josh (2004). http://www.ltimagazine. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Jennifer (2004).pdf Jimenez. http://vftraining.bersin. 2006.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Transform Magazine. E-Learning for short attention spans. June 30.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. Jan.elearningguild. http://www.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.pdf Crosman.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Ray (2006). Chief Learning Officer.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 2002. April. Chief Learning Officer. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. http://www.ltimagazine. July 2.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Tips and Techniques. Rapid Intake White Paper. Josh (2005). August 2004. 2006. http://www. http://www.clomedia. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. and Bersin. LTI Newsline. Making rapid elearning work.htm Bersin.com/articles/ab stracts/index. LTI Newsline.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Garin (2004). Bill (2005). Nov. LTI Newsline.learningcircuits.clomedia. Jay (2005). J. Chief Learning Officer. July 2004.asp Bersin. (2004).meetingone.com/showArticle. Ray (2005). 9. J.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.transformmag. http://www.clomedia. http://www.pdf Brodsky. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning.pdf Gustafson. http://www. http://www. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Paper.elearningguild.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.elearningmag. Kevin (2002). Joe (2005). Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough.

E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.com/news story.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.htm Masie Center (2005). http://www. 2006. http://download. June 2004. Clive (2006). Learning Circuits.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Chief Learning Officer.pdf Shepherd. The Training Foundation online article. Ed (2004).com/articles/ default. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. January 16. http://www.macromedia. February 2005. Macromedia White Paper.clomedia.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. http://download. Press release. Simulation. http://www.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. (2004a). Mobile and Device Based Learning.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Eric (2003).clomedia. January 2003. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.trainingfoundation. 2005. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. http://www. Macromedia White Paper. http://www.trainingpressreleases.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 . (2004b).elearningguild.pdf Mayberry.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms. http://www.learningcircuits.macromedia. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Learning Solutions. April 20. Nick (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. Stephanie (2006). Rapid e-learning gets the job done.pdf Macromedia Inc.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.

gov. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. technology. Inc.botball. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. http://mindstorms. http://www. http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://robotics. and math. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. engineering.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. for underwater exploration.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. engineering. and mathematics. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.nasa.lego. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. Do Not Reproduce 196 . This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.org/aboutbotball/overview.aad. technology. http://www.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.active-robots.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.ife.whmsi. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.com/ http://www.

net/ Run by NASA.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. http://www.ac.atr.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. http://www. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://robothaven. http://www.rec.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.edu/index.euron. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. http://www.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.profetic. particularly robotics. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. links.microworlds. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. http://robotics. and vocal tics. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. Do Not Reproduce 197 .cmu. By donning motion sensors.com/r_home.edurobot.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.ed.nasa.irc.ri. one child at a time.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. go to: http://www.evolution.kipr.osaka-u.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. lip movements.org/article.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. and other information on robotics.jp/ See also: http://www. and mathematics. It features news.brooklyn. technology.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.cuny.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.gov/rcc/index.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.ams. Mr.eng. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. engineering.sci. http://www.

Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). http://zeus. R.pdf Stewart. (1999). T. H. Sept.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. (2001).pdf Cooper. Abbott.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. Lathan.amazon.. C.pdf Papert. Dobreva. Meeden. L. http://www. Sept. McHugh. H. D.digicult. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. http://www.ccmlab.. New York.l3s.pdf Boersch. http://www.fhbrandenburg. (2001).de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er. U. (2004). M.cmu.. Ontario. M. P. and Dautenhahn. Keating.l3s. and Loose. http://www. D. D. S. Ottawa. Düsseldorf.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.tools for accessible education. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. K. Computers. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. M. June. and Meeden. Ferrari. Yanco.brynmawr. M. M. and Rusbridge. http://rob. I. and Hempel. Heinsohn..amazon. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. L..pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . I. Germany..wtec. G. (2004). AAATE Conference 1999. (2004).. Kumar. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. A. Kumar. http://www. S. Proceedings.. Paper at the American Assoc.. Germany. 28-30. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. R.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. B.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. and Mataric. http://www.pdf Blank.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics. http://dangermouse. Robots in the classroom . and Yanco. H. New York: Syngress Publishing. Miller.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. D.pdf http://www. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Artificial Intelligence Conf. (1980).andrew. (2004). http://www.. Donnelly. Harwin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank. D.uml.. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. (2005)... and Wagner. W.pdf Nourbakhsh. and West. D. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.pdf Ferrari. Basic Books. November. A. J. D. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.. (2005). Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Hohmann.cs.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. and Powerful Ideas. Mindstorms: Children.

examples are early yahoo. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking .com and Alta Vista. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. Ezzy (2006a. collective intelligence. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. which submit queries. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . data mining. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. in parallel. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. But. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. search engine optimization. They bring into the equation user preferences. dependable information. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. as this section of the report shows. such as Yahoo. Examples are Google and Overture.so they take the structure of the Web into account. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. While search engines have improved over the past several years. information retrieval. federated search. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. meta-search engines. One is the problem of finding relevant. collaboration. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Meta–search engines.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. such as Google and Altavista. Web directories. Do Not Reproduce 199 . each with their own defining feature sets. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. resource discovery. a rich user experience. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences.

and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://www.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. Brandon Hall Research . especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. and text. http://www. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. http://www. http://www.about.gigablast. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). for a variety of reasons. video. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.faganfinder.alltheweb. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.convera.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.alexa.com’s search service http://a9.com/ 200 © 2006. http://search.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.gada.com/ Answers. then fill in the search box. http://www. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www.altavista.com About. get answers http://www.com Gada. 2004).ask.aeiwi. http://www. http://www. http://www.answers.aol.

Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://www.grokker.lexxe.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. blogs.google.qelix. http://rollyo.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://www. http://oaister.com/search/def ault. http://qube.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.icerocket. http://getoutfoxed.hotbot.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://search. Brandon Hall Research .com/v2/index.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.umich.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.com/ Gravee .netscape. and the Web.com/ 201 © 2006.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.gnod.com/ IceRocket – Searches images. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.mooter.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. http://www.msn.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.squidoo. http://dmoz. http://www. http://www.umdl.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.gravee. http://channels.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://search.otavo.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.jookster.looksmart.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.pubsub. http://www. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. http://www.

Clusters results. http://www.ucr.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.psu. users tag their favorite results and block spam.ai.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. Wink then diplays the results.govmine. http://www. http://books.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.acronymfinder.com/v2a/flash.healthfinder.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. books.com/ Wink – Using social networking.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://froogle.google. http://www.yahoo. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.imdb. and movies.gpoaccess.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.sri. http://swicki. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.ujiko.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://icerocket.blinkx. http://firstgov. http://tagjag. http://citeseer.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. http://vivisimo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www. http://www.google.com/ 202 © 2006.wink.stumbleupon.ist. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . Much of this information is hidden from view.gnoosic.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://scholar.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://www.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. cast lists and theatre schedules.eurekster.gov/ http://www. http://www.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. http://www. http://infomine.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.google.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. reviews.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.

AolKIDS.cfm?doid=105 6808. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.com/ MediaFinder . http://www. http://portal.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.nlm.nih.A legal search engine. http://www. http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.rrzn.omgili.f cgi QBIC .com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.uni-hannover. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.almaden.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. http://wwwqbic. http://lawcrawler.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.merl. http://www.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.krugle.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.convera. Yahooligans.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers.rawsugar.org/ Omgili .com/ LitLinker .acm.scirus.gov/entrez/query.koders. http://www.findlaw. reviews. http://www.fm/ LawCrawler .ncbi.ithaki.com/ Last. ArtKIDSRule. http://www. AwesomeLibrary.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.liveplasma. & KidsClick!.org/citation. http://kids.imdb.last.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.pandora. http://www.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.ibm. http://www. FactMonster.

or federated searching.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.columbia.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.columbia. http://www. http://a9.xcavator.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.psu.ee.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu . http://wang16.truveo.ee.technorati.cs.ee.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.ist. and tracks a user's search history.seekport. http://www. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.com 204 © 2006.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www.psu.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. as of this writing.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.cmp.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.columbia.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web. http://nlp.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. http://smealsearch1. http://www. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www. and their relationships.4 billion links. companies.soundspotter. http://www.searchking.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. bookmarks. http://www. http://www.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://www. http://techsearch.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.searchedu.nyu. http://www.zoominfo. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.” Content-based search engines for pictures. and notes. Brandon Hall Research .

yellow pages. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. http://clusty. http://www.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages. http://www. shopping sites. produces a visual display of the clusters.dogpile.ithaki. apartment rentals.ac. http://www. http://www.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www.zapmeta. news sources. http://vivisimo. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.ixquick.searchtools. audio. flights.inria.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. lottery results. http://www-rocq. http://www. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. and links the clusters.trovando. therefore. eBay. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. greeting cards.net/indexu. health information sources. and Web mail for the topic entered. video. games.researchbuzz. jobs.kartoo. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://www.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.search. Brandon Hall Research .com/ Info – Searches reference works.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.uk/ SearchTools. http://www. http://www. white pages.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. http://www.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. movies. city guides. dating and personals.intute. tickets. pictures.copernic. weather.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. is a valuable resource for researchers. classifieds. maps/directions.com/ 205 © 2006.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.info. hotels.

http://www. http://www.ac.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.eurekster. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. S. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. or topic .ac.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. phrase.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. December.ucr.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://firstgov. http://swicki.firstmonday. can be published on the user's site.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. Brandon Hall Research . Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. or swicki. and Shoham. 10(12). Unlike other search engines. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.just as a search engine is used for text. (2005).tveyes.elearning. Y. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. This search engine. For example.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. http://searchenginewatch.html 206 © 2006.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.bolton.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. the user's community has total control over the results. Users can also browse by subject category. http://www. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.searchenginecolossus. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. http://infomine.netmasters. focused searches on topics they care about. First Monday. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. http://www. Frank. A.com/ Stephen Downes. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ http://www.citysearch. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. is against the idea of federated searches. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.downes.co..

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita..pdf Updegrove. Networks.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. (2005). The Semantic Web. http://www. and Davis.pdf Samaras.soton.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. E.unikarlsruhe. G. and Diaz. (2003).shirky. 2003. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.pdf Tao.. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. L.uk/selene/reports/D el3. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. 2004.amazon. D. 7.marketingprofs. Karenos. http://www. and Woukeu. and Stumme.. K. CT: Manning. Millard. and Gouarderes. Marketing Profs. and Worldview. 7 (4).dcs.ifets. M.. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. http://ewic. Andy (2005). L.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. 2005. http://www. (2004). http://www.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. A. Staab. H.pdf Tane. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. http://eprints. InfoWorld.asp Udell.pdf Tao.com/login/sign up.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. R. (2001). Greenwich. http://www.. Millard. http://wwwsop. Wagner. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks.inria. Lytras.. Economics and Culture.html Stojanovic. http://www. and Studer. USA. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. H. 2004.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. Davis. May 17–22. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Schmitz. D.. P. (2004). Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.bcs.infoworld. December 3. New York. Syllogism.ac. http://www2004.bbk. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. A. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. August 2.info/journals/7_4/5.. J. G. D.. New York. Thomas (2004). F. F. (2004). Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. 26-28. Nov. Clay (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web.pdf Sampson.ecs. C. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. G. Paper presented at the GLS conference.aifb. John (2004). http://www.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Christodoulou. (2005). Woukeu. S.pdf Shirky. G.ac.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.html Do Not Reproduce 213 .

w3. 2002.uk/elearning/ story/0. Darwin. and the Semantic Web. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. 2005. Who said that? Metadata. and Miller.darwinmag. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. http://www. Semantic Web. trust. June 14.00. January 17.html Wilson.10577.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.ac. L. Scott’s Workblog. Scott (2002).uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. CETIS Online article.cetis.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). 2003.com/read/swiftkick /column.cetis.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . http://www. Scott (2005).981948. http://www. Peter (2003). Online article.guardian.co.ac. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. David (2002). June 21. (2003). Online article. B. http://education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. http://www. http://poorbuthappy.

reviewed simulations as an online content format. i.insead.e.insead. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. 2005). This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.uiuc.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.calt. especially ones set by themselves. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.ncsa. According to High (2004). Do Not Reproduce 215 . scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. role-playing.” My first report in this series. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. learn.calt. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. games. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. http://cave. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). participants will be motivated to evaluate. http://www. but information about it remains on the Web.gov/ Winters et al. http://sos.icherubini. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. http://www. It was decommissioned in 2005.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. microworlds.noaa.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.

http://www.med.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.edcenter.berkeley.dc.calt.calt. http://crme.soe. http://www. they are only available for Macintosh computers.net/celestia/index.. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.fsl. http://thinkertools. Linux. Do Not Reproduce 216 . http://www. and Mac OS X.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.making-history.umich.geo. and murmurs.calt.insead.insead. http://www. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.shatters.sdsu. http://www.lsa.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.noaa.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning.insead.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. heart sounds. http://www.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. Mass.edcenter.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.miami. http://geowall.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.calt. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. http://www.edu/harvey_about.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.edu/geowall/ind ex. http://www." http://www.insead.umich. pulse rate.sdsu.edu/ http://um3d. It runs on Windows. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. with many examples to try. However. breathing." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.

com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. http://www.com/product s/firefly. http://www. For example. go to: http://www.adobe.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.ISLE .com/ Forio .intermezzon.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.knowledgequest.knowledgepresenter. http://www.virtualfishtank. http://www.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming. http://www.com/ Knowledge Planet . http://www.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. http://www.com/ MaxIT .KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.knowledge-director.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.com/broadcastoverview. http://www. Integrates with many media types.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .asp Knowledge Quest . http://www.knowledgeplanet.ht m Intermezzon .forio.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.biographix.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/ Kookaburra Studios . to play in a virtual fishtank. http://www.maxit. http://www.com/ MaxIT . A guide’s voice prompts the employee.adobe.atghome. http://www. without programming knowledge.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 . http://www.stt-global.experiencebuilders.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .assima.net/ Biographix .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.maxit.

http://www.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.percepsys.com/3dTraining.elearningcentre. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.” http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.com/ Reusable Objects . http://www. http://www.nexlearn.xstreamsoftware.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.learning2005.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.qarbon.stagecast. http://www.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.icherubini.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .stottlerhenke. http://coe. http://www. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.com/product_r pe.virtualcontrolroom. including simulations. http://www.com/products/sim.com/portal/index.outstart.reusableobjects. http://www.teds.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.sdsu.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation. which can then be used to build simulations.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.co.

.jibc.blikstein. Jennifer (2004). Simjour. International Workshop. Learning Circuits. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). and Bostan.science.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. October 2004. 2002.pdf DeVries.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. p. http://www.bc. Utrecht.amazon.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. Aug. http://www. (2005). Learning Circuits.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.ac. (2002). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. 12.uva.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. Taghiyareh. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Kamau (2004).com/news/showS tory.. San Francisco: Pfieffer. and McCloughlin. Rasmussen. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.learningcircuits. The promise of online simulations. http://www. A. M..ft.pdf Cherubini.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.clomedia. http://www. http://www. (2004). How playing power drives lessons home. Bjorn (2004). DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.PDF Blikstein. T. J.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training. A.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.learningcircuits. html Bibliography Aldrich. 2004. U.htm Aldrich. Making the most of software simulations. http://www. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. http://www. Shannon (2004). and Wilensky. http://www. computer games. eSchool News.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Clark (2004). 2004. H. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. B. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 219 .. Mazloumian. September. Chief Learning Officer. In Interaction Design and Children. http://www.eschoolnews. http://www. Feb. Financial Times..learningcircuits.htm High. 8. Learning Circuits. Paper presented at Robocup conference. http://www. Six criteria of an educational simulation. A.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. F. Gash.htm eSchool News (2004). 2004.bbk. Sept.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.medialabeurope. Holland.com/content/template s/clo_feature.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. 4. P.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Clark (2005).uk/ccs/elearn/resources. June.

July. http://www. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Cherubini. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. The American Prospect. 8(31). 284-294.. 1(10). Online report.cs. L.learningcircuits. 1997.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc..pdf Tjaden. Gary (2003). Fort Lauderdale.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. Online paper at: http://lsm. http://www. and Sund Martin. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. In Association for Computing Machinery.simplay.protonmedia. USA. http://www.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04.html Lunce.prospect.icherubini. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Computer simulations in distance education. http://www. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. M. T. http://www. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.. http://itdl. (2003).html Sobeih.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. & de Jong. (2001).pdf Swaak.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. Department of Computer Science. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. A..dei. Learning Circuits.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. A.-Apr. AACE conference. 17. A. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. C.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. http://www. R. (2001).ht m Sloman.pdf Turkle. Simulation levels in software training..for Philosophers and Engineers. Laser.ncassr. Montréal. Aaron (2005).bham.ac. September. (2004). Sherry (1997). Viswanathan. (2002). and Strohecker.case studies. http://www. and Hou.projects.net/papers/ELearning. October. N. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. J. and Ip.uc. October 15-19. April. Mar.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer.html Winters. Les (2004). Implementation and Evaluation. A. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. M..html Linser.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper. J. Florida. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.

They are programmable and. which transmits over short distances. optical tags. 2005). For a full discussion of this issue. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.ala. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. While controversial. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. or water. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. easily changed.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. RFID technology is developing rapidly.. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. grease. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. http://www.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. therefore.org/Template. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. especially in museums and for outdoor education. infrared (IR) tags. especially for tagging retail items in stores. Do Not Reproduce 221 . see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy.

awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. Infoworld.. G. & Richards.open. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. 5.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. Noma.com/monthly/articl e.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. especially for tagging retail items in stores.iu.toydirectory.edu/index. A.asp?id=1222 Ross et al..html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly. Osawa. S..html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. http://www. http://www. http://uitspress.edu/102605_meal. http://www.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 .com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining. A. (2004).cfm?fus http://www. K. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. C. (2005).rfidnews. Noda.ac.iu. http://www. Ando.. & Kondo. James (2006).. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.aace.checkpointsystems. June 27.msu.infoworld.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. in a 2005 online article.org/ Bibliography Borck. http://www. Oct.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. April 13. (Eds. 2004. and Case. In Kommers.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray..html (Online).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. http://www. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.).. http://www. Shibuya.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x. N. Tsukagoshi.. symbology tags. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.” http://vis.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.org/newdl/index. 2005.csmonitor. K. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.digicult. http://cnm.com/default .aace. P.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al. T.

2005. G. van Kranenburg.pdf Robinton.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc..pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 . standards.com/monthly/article .digicult. TD Monthly. http://www. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. M. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. RFID: frequency. http://csdl2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. and Yano. Michigan State University.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. H. Ogata. http://www. and Backhouse. http://www.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low.xml&DOI=10. Y. and Dobreva. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). Aparna (2004). 2004.msu. (2005). M.1109/WMTE. March. 4(3). DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. M.ac..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.toydirectory. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. eSchool News Online. Masters Thesis. January 1. Corey (2004).66 Ward.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. R. http://www.jisc.computer..org/news/showstor y. R.asp?id=1222 Ross. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www. Andrew (2005). (2003). Proceedings. S.pdf Salcedo.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602. 261-263. adoption and innovation.eschoolnews.. Donnelly. (2006).

faculty.icio. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. search. The result is something called a tag cloud. metadata. For instance. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. and Web links. while users of the del. ontologies. and books. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. Fifth. Do Not Reproduce 224 . staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. Flickr held over 100 million images.us Web site (http://del. music. as each member can upload resources discovered. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.icio. Fourth. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations.us) post their favorite Web sites. or distributed in emails. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. For example. no matter their location or timing. Students. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. As of April 2006. Third. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. tagging. printouts.First. in turn. Second. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. they act as an “outboard memory. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. researchers at all levels (students. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.” a location to store links that might be lost to time.” However. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.

com/ Blinklist .com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.com Clipmarks . music. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink.icio.com/archives/beta_up date/index.43things. Blink also provides tools to sort. the users decide. and/or books and find them again. http://www. Also retrieve it easily. search others’ references.icio. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. RSS.com/ Del. http://del. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. Also.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. Do Not Reproduce 225 .com/ Flickr – Store.feedmarker.us/ Digg . and organize the academic papers they are reading.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. store.com/ Furl . Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://ask.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.us . or check out what everyone wants to do.net/ CiteULike . http://www.eventful.furl. share their stories. share references with colleagues. http://www. blogging.A free service to help academics share.clipmarks.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. With digg. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. sort. describe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. search. http://www. http://www.blinklist. They can save references. connect with others. http://flickr. and to share them.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites.digg. http://blogmarks. get inspired.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. and search for a specific user's Blinks. but. http://consumating. and share photos with others. users can see what others are Blinking.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.metafilter.connotea. http://blog. http://www.org/ Consumating .com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. http://www.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. users submit stories for review.citeulike. http://www. and non-hierarchical editorial control.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.

pageflakes. http://www. http://www. similar to Digg. http://www.yahoo.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. based on what is happening in the news media.gnolia.com/ Project Pad .com/ Kaboodle . and discover relevant links. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://www. http://www.netvouz.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://www.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.simpy.com/ Jots . http://myweb2. share.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.A free.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.linkroll. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.northwestern. http://jots. updated in near real time.rojo. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.html Linkroll .jookster.search.edu/ppad2 /index. http://www.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 .memeorandum.eu/products/networ k_menus.smugmug.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://ma.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.spurl. http://www. http://www.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.kaboodle. http://www.networkltd.org/news.com/ Simpy – Search tags. http://projectpad. http://www. http://www.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.shadows.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.com/ Magnolia . or enter new items and tag them.netscape.

quickonlinetips.com/udell/gems/d elicious. http://unalog. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.us. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky. http://www.quickonlinetips.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.peterme.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.tagzania.quickonlinetips.com/archives/00055 8. and social bookmarking. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.html http://atomiq.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. http://www.infoworld.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.zvents. http://www. http://www.html http://tagsonomy. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. http://upcoming.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.” http://www.html http://www. and share it with others.com Wists – A social shopping site.wink.com/index.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. http://tabblo. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.S.us.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.A.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.com/writings/ontology_overra ted. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.wists. http://www. http://weblog. If a city is not there.yelp.suprglu. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 . tags. http://www.veotag.com/ SWiK .educause.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. Flickr.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001. http://www. http://www.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.icio. with contributions from users.icio. http://swik.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . and Digg.

http://www. http://many.dlib.html Coates.educause.html McGillicuddy.com/wwwtools/m /6350.plasticbag..com/originalCo ntent/0.org/teachersource/learning . 20.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. June 21.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.shtml Golder.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.htm Hammond. B.html Lawley. (2005). Hannay. April 2005. D-Lib Magazine. and Scott.techtarget.adammathes. March/April 2006..org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. http://searchcio.. Social consequences of social tagging. Flack. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Plasticbag. Tom. http://www. B. T. Andy (2006).php Lund.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. T.com/wwwtools/m /7172. SearchCIO.corante. Many2Many.ascc.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.hpl. http://www. http://www.ejournal. (2005). Hammond.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://tomgruber. HP Labs Report. Web 2.fasfind. Keynote address.sid19_gci1195182. Ulises (2004). (2005). 11(4).. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. Adam (2004).hp. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. 2005. 41(2).com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.pdf 228 © 2006. 2006. 2.pbs. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. (2005).pdf Gurber.. http://www. http://www. 2006. Online paper.fasfind. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.00.com. Bryan (2006).289142. Sept. Lund. May 5.html Mathes. J.typepad..org. http://ideant. and Huberman.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. M. 2005. D-Lib Magazine. 11(4). S.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Brandon Hall Research . T. B. April 2005. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.ht ml Mejias.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. http://dlib. T. Liz (2005). and Hannay. Tom (2005). Jan. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Shamus (2006). The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.” http://magazines. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.

com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. http://www. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Tags vs. Will (2005).html Mote. Jon (2004). May 20.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.weblogged.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . 2. InfoWorld. Ulises (2005). August 20. Nicholas (2004). http://ideant. Jon (2005).infoworld. Trusted Sources. http://www. The New School of Ontologies.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Webblogg-ed. Online Paper.html Udell.typepad. InfoWorld. Aug. http://www. 2005.pdf Richardson.infoworld. 2004.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th.isi. 2005. Ideant. July 20. http://www. 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.

family. social software. e-mail. SMS. shared links. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. reviewed social networking as an online content format. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. My first report in this series.com. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. etc. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. 2005).icio.com. social networking sites such as Friendster. dating sites.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Do Not Reproduce 230 . online personals such as Match. photo sharing sites. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging.us. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks.) Relationship Management (Orkut. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.al.” that is. communities of practice. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et.) Experience Sharing (blogs. tagging. etc. etc. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. e-mail. photo albums. Friendster.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. shared link libraries such as del.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. etc. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.

and geographic regions. http://www. and the military.diaryland. documents.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. Facebook has networks for colleges.html Last. and files and then make them available to others.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.com/introNetwor ks.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.com/signin/index. in associations. http://www. http://www. work.orkut.com/ Orkut .com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. https://www.codeville. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.classmates.my-diary.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. workplaces.facebook.myspace.intronetworks. List who a person knows and find out who others know.faceparty.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. http://www.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. photos. https://www. audio.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.linkedin. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. as a blog. high schools.livejournal. video.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. http://www. http://www.com/ Live Journal .com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. Do Not Reproduce 231 .friendster. http://www.esnips. http://www. http://www. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. http://www.last.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. which is then open to other readers.” http://www.freeopendiary. http://www. or as a social network.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. and within “communities of interest. http://www. Share it with others if desired.

see the JNthWeb Wiki.com/hijackers.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software.html Org.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that. http://www. http://360.” http://www. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/inflow3. Columbia University.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.stumbleupon. http://platial. upload photos.pbwiki.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.netminer.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.pbs.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis.xanga. http://www. Users share their writings and meet each other. http://www. http://www.S. Brandon Hall Research . http://jnthweb.com/index.orgnet. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.html 232 © 2006. http://ideant.analytictech. This software produces great graphs of social networks.yahoo.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. http://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.typepad.spartasocialnetworks.com/reg/sample.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.orgnet. http://www. http://www.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College. http://www. coupled with NetDraw.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.analytictech.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.com/ucinet. check out the map at org. intelligence (1993-2001). It costs several thousand dollars.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.

html Anderson.. 2004.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software.fmg.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites.analytictech. http://www. Life with Alacrity.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www. Educational Social Overlay Networks. Patti (2003). but. http://en. http://www2.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.lifewithalacrity..com/xq/asp/sid.net/ssa/index. OD Practitioner.html Allen.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu. Christopher (2004).insna.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.socialtext. 32(4).com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. 28. http://www. http://faculty. 2005. http://www. May 2003.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://terrya.com/cgibin/mb.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.usemod.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo.ucr. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web.org.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. see the list in Wikipedia.jsp SocioSite: Networks. http://www1.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 .theworkfoundation.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.elearningcentre. http://www. 13. Nov.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking.pdf Bibliography Allee. http://www.co. Verna (2004). Groups. KM and the Social Network.elsevier. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets. Terry (2005). Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies.odnetwork.kmmagazine.futurelab. http://www. http://www. Knowledge Management Magazine.edublogs. http://www. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid. http://www.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. Virtual Canuck. Oct. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.uva.wikipedia.

July 12. but.htm Davies. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. L. http://harvardbusinessonline. May 2003. and Parker. Stephen (2004).harvard .com/read/010104/ context. Stowe (2004).html Cross.amazon. Feb..edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. 44. You Don't Know Me.downes. R. Cambridge. Liedtka. Linked: The New Science of Networks. J.1759.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd. Cambridge.com/read/050103/ social. http://harvardbusinessonline. L. No.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard..contentdirections.hbsp. L. Research Report. Dead Already? PC World. The Semantic Social Network.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Stephen (2005). William (2003). Distance and E-Learning. September 2003. 2005.00.com/article2/0.harvard . Cracking the social code. and Weiss.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/mr/hbsp.ca/files/osn. (2002).1225/R0503H Cross.darwinmag. (2005). R.darwinmag. 2. Borgatti. http://www. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review. Winter 2002. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. and Parker. S. Business Networking Systems. Stowe (2003a).jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard.html Dvorak. R. http://www. A. Perseus Publishing.html Boyd.. 11. http://www.. MA: Harvard Business School Press. OLDaily. (2002). R. Stephen’s Web. John (2004).pcmag. March 2005. MA. Darwin. Stowe (2003b).edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.com/read/090103/ social. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. January 2004.downes. Social Capital & Social Software. Vol. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems.analytictech. http://www. Christian (2006). http://www.ca/cgibin/page. A. European Journal of Open. June 2002. and Prusak. September 20. The Work Foundation. 2004 http://www.hbsp. 14.eurodl. (2002).com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.pdf Cross. http://doi. Harvard Business Review.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . A. http://www. The Barriers of Content and Context.html Boyd.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes. http://www..j sp?doi=10.darwinmag. Harvard Business Review.jsp Downes.1 648185. Darwin. (2004). Feb. http://www.

M.net/AugmentedSocial Network.learningcircuits. Zucker.).cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. (Online book). M. http://www. August. http://www.org.wun.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. J. http://repositories. A. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms.. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet.. K. CogDogBlog. Research Report.net/ir/reviews/revs163. Art (2003). (Eds.uiuc. Online paper. Eva (2003).salon. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. (2004). 2005. New York: Little.learningcircuits.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. L. (2001). http://asn.futurelab.ucr. http://www. (2003). 2005. and Riddle. Riverside.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. Oliver.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.org/cgi/viewconte nt. Allan (2006). Learning Circuits. Grant. J.. Caroline (2005).edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman.pdf Levine. 29. http://lrs. L.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. Social Networks. Southhampton.. Brown. Research Report. Sayers. Feb. and Facer.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . David (2005a).. Lanham. Hauser.planetwork.pdf Jordan. Social software in action (No real software required). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. K. Institute for Social Science Research. S. 15. How to Save the World Blog.netform. April 15. http://cogdogblog. http://blogs. CA: University of California. UK: Futurelab.htm Kleiner. A. Social Software and Learning. (2006). http://www.h tml (Review) Gladwell. (in 2 parts) http://www..org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. Ulrike. & Barney. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. (2000). Bristol. Seven Principles of Social Networking. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series.ac. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. 21. July 14. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. D.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel.htm http://www. 2006. S. Malcolm.ed. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice.pdf Pollard.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. First Monday. (2005). and Foster. http://faculty. and Brewer (1994). 8(8). No. Dec. R.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust.cdlib.amazon.

John (2000). David (2005d). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. First Monday. Scott.salon. 341-358. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online).html Pollard.com/writings/group_poli tics.h tml Shirky. http://blogs. 2006. David (2005b).com/0002007/2005/0 8/11.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.cnet.htm Tosh. Kluwer Academic Publishers. G. CNET. 11.html Siemens. (2005). Van de Vijver. Luis M.00. June 16.1 842806.html Do Not Reproduce 236 . http://www. 2005. Draft paper online. 23. G. Social Software presentation. How to Save the World Blog. Learning and Computing. Lance (2005).ht ml Sessums. George (2005). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. Jan. http://eradc. In: S. Elgg: Community Learning Space. and M. http://www. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. http://elgg.shirky. Learning Circuits. How to Save the World Blog.html Ravid. http://elgg. Delpos (eds. Social network analysis: what to map. http://blogs.net/csessums/weblog/6238.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02.indiana.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. (2004).Organization. Aug. Connectivism: learning as network creation. http://www. http://www. May 5. June 2.edu/rocha/ises. March 9.sagepub. Aug. http://www.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. Nov. http://informatics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. David (2005c). Thousand Oaks.asp Wood. 2005.salon. 2.). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.learningcircuits. http://www.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. 2005. and Raefali S. Christopher (2006b). http://blogs. 2006.pcmag. Molly (2005). Clay (2003). September.h tml. Social software and the politics of groups. 2005. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Nov. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. Rescuing social networking.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. 2003. Social Network Analysis. pp. 2005.com/booksProdDesc. How to Save the World Blog. Christopher (2006a). 9(9).salon. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet.html Pollard. and Werdmuller.com/article2/0. The social networking landscape.net/csessums/weblog/13748. 8.pdf Ulanoff. (1998).1895.firstmonday. B. Teaching. Salthe. CA: Sage Publications. D.

such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV). 2001. In 2000.com/halo/index. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.” but other more elaborate technologies.hp. just like during a real meeting. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together.g. http://www. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. "online" or "offline") of other users. When it is fully successful. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. a communication link between the home site and a remote site.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging.. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.hp. 2001). There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. are also available. presence. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. share files and documents. 11. another person while communicating via the Web. as if they were in the same room. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.html http://www. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. and the sense of contact with. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. retrieving. Do Not Reproduce 237 . presentation tools. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. and shout over each other to try to be heard. cameras.

at a physically remote real world site.ibm.sourceforge. BSD.com/index. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers." http://www. http://telepresence. http://get.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://laimuz. a communication link between the home site and a remote site.aim. http://www-142. http://www.ac. http://www. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user.dmem.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. This would enable the user to experience being fully present.org/teleimmersion.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.ebuddy. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. http://www.advanced.advanced.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.uk/ind ex.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.live. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence.ht ml http://www.open.ac. MacOS X. the CAVE.strath. secure. http://gaim. in every sense. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.net/ Jabber – An open.jabber. http://www.percro. The driver sits in a box. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.org/teleimmersion2.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.' http://cnm.unizar.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.fakespace.yahoo. http://messenger. http://www.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. and Windows. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.

Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. and Pejas. M.org/rfc/rfc2779. Network Working Group (2000). Naeve.amazon. F.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://www. and Handberg.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. and IJsselsteijn.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. http://www.. http://www2. (2002).. Presence applications poised for takeoff. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.se/pdf/CID-206.pdf Lynn.) (2003). as well as news.pdf Fontana. S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. Regina (2004)..edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. In Soldek.acs. Ken (Ed. 44-49. A.65 064-0. http://www. (2001). 6. G. http://www. Hubert (2001). the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.html Goldberg.txt Knudsen. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Sept. MA: MIT Press. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.pdf When it is fully successful.ieor. (Eds. J. 2002. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. Cambridge. September 24. Ins and outs of teledildonics.html Riva.org Bibliography Dreyfus.. John (2004).ietf. McHugh.. history.digicult. Amsterdam: IOS Press.. Davide. Online memo. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.nada. http://www.pdf Knudsen.wired. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.kth. http://www. January 2005. Donnelly. http://www. Nils (2000). June 1. A. A. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Abbott. Calgary.amazon. http://kmr. C. Wired News.berkeley. J. Alberta. http://cid. London: Routledge.) (2000). http://www. (Eds. M. W. A. 2004. Do Not Reproduce 239 . (2005).hig. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. Network World. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. On the Internet. C. and Rusbridge. Banff.virtual-presence. Dobreva. Being There: Concepts.kth.com/news/culture/0. L. and Naeve.no/at/nmm/enlund.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.nada.networkworld. D.

http://www. Jon (2005).infoworld.. Jan. H.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. Germany: Hagen.modes. and Handberg.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . In Hoyer. et al. H. InfoWorld.org/docum ents/Sponberg. (2001). L.swedishlearninglab.Learning. Knudsen.pdf Udell. 28. C.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. (Eds. http://www.

2002). streaming video. A new version of television. even a video plug-in for Skype. reviewed video as an online content format. the largest Internet telephone service. Video. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Do Not Reproduce 241 . is an essential part of learning in today’s world. screencasting. amateur and professional video cameras. 2005). is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. in all its formats. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. in all its formats. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. PDAs. tlearning. telepresence. vlog Description Video. videocasting. bandwidth becomes an issue. Once video goes on the Internet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. However. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. My first report in this series. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. cell phones. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. IPTV. video blogging. Video blogging has become common. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). vodcasting. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). television. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet.

dmeurope.medialogic. and maintains loyalty. http://video. PDAs.axor. http://www. improves the satisfaction of the client. low bandwidth video stream. See samples at: http://www.rocketboom.google. BT.brightcove. http://participatoryculture. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. see Rocketboom.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.com/default. according to Foroohar (2006).on2.com Do Not Reproduce 242 . voice. even a video plug-in for Skype. the Internet telephone service.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. As the following examples show.dfilm. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. http://www. Britain's largest telecom firm.html Dialcom Networks. It is still going strong at: http://www. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. cell phones.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further. http://www.org/ In 1999. http://www.co. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. a three-minute videoblog.rocketboom. the largest Internet telephone service. video.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.ar/iptv_en.uk/index. employees. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. In spite of the limitations. http://www.com. the “triple play” of video.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. and multimedia content to customers. amateur and professional video cameras. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. or students through a high quality. with IPTV. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. http://www. http://www. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.apple. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.com For an example of a video blog.com/index_about. partners.

cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.dvguru.mil/index.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. and divide them into chapters or segments.addictingclips. or set-top box.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. http://www. http://www. whether dial-up.bittorrent.veotag.com/nara.elearningcentre. read “Ten video sharing services compared.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning. http://www.spider.navy.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. PDA. For example.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.bittorrent. http://www.veoh.com/ BitTorrent. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. video.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.xstreamengine. http://www. http://www.hpc. http://www.ourmedia. See the current selection at: http://video.com Do Not Reproduce 243 .concord. See examples at: http://www.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.” http://www.org/ At YouTube. cellular. http://vpb. desktop. and visual resources.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. http://www. tag them.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.youtube.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. https://www.co.com/pressreleas es.” Users can upload video clips for free.google. http://eduscapes.com/seeds/index.

” http://www. http://www. Online article at: http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere.co.thinkofit.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.org.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. http://www.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. (2003). http://www.org/doing/media. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.com/article. but business models are fuzzy. D.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Pradeep (2004). www.com/webconf/video.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. which users can submit.streamingmedia.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. by alphabet.pjb. termed “mobile television.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.elearnspace. and Bates. The site already contains nearly 6.pdf Bardia.mefeedia.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.masternewmedia.uk/files/pdf/1443. Peter (2003).iptv-industry.lsda.500 vlogs organized by popularity. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 . through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.” http://knowledge.edu/articl e. http://www.masternewmedia.masternewmedia. P. http://www. http://www.upenn.” http://www. t-learning Study . Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.wharton. and by tags.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.uk/tlearning/contents.” http://www.educause.

Mon. L.ac.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle. Brian (2002).masternewmedia. Foroohar.. IBM Institute for Business Value study. 2005. http://www. (Eds. and Young. 8-9. 2005. http://www. and Swenson.org/newdl/index. Goldfarb. Brian (2005). Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Campus Technology.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.campustechnology. The IPTV Revolution.com/showArt Thornhill.com/id/8018601/si 8.msn.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 . Wi-Fi. Feb.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi.). http://www. G. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp.pdf tough road deploying IPTV. Jonathan. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Dec.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. http://edmarketing. NC: Duke University. 2005.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. (2003). What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.apple. Luigi (2005a). Networking Pipeline.aace. University of Missouri. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper.). In Richards. http://www. P.ibm.usc. Rana (2005).htm Canali De Rossi. Tom (2005).masternewmedia.asp?id=7769 Meng. (2005). Durham.networkingpipeline.) (2002). Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.amazon.htm IBM (2006).msnbc. Changing Channels. 2005. S. Video Streaming: a guide for icle.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. http://www. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Luigi (2005b). 2005. 2. Robin Good Blog. 417-419).cfm?fusea .pdf Klass. http://www1. Newsweek (International Ed.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.umist. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www.bcr. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Asensio. M. Robin Good Blog. Dec. Peter (2005). 2005.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. Matthew (2005). Beyond Wireless Broadband. Online paper. implications. Wi-Max. 7. Manchester. Telcos face http://www-rcf.com/article. (Ed. discussions and Curtis.pdf ction=Reader. Nov.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. April 26. Friedman.pdf http://www. C. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. June 6. 1.

html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. and storytellers. and the aim of the virtual experience. Near Eastern. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. Videoconferencing is not required. To do this. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. http://www1. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.ubc.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. http://www.kahootz.columbia.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. http://solipsis. Depending on the level of realism achieved. Exploration and discovery are enabled. interaction. and Religious Studies department. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. augmented virtuality.net/wiki2/index. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. simulation.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc.ca/index.cs.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Do Not Reproduce 246 . http://www. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines.arts. desktop virtual reality. mixed reality.org. By using aspects of game play. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. designers. The space is persistent. inventors. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.netofpeers. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. exchange enabling. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. distributed virtual environments. http://ancient. Creed. and look do not count much in virtual spaces.futurelab. skin color. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.

org/highlights/augur. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.S. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.org/index.secondlife.html The U.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory. For example. http://www. and the aim of the virtual experience.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.ahds. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.ac. https://www. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.shapedc. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. Do Not Reproduce 247 .html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.spider.informationinplace.equator. http://www.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.opencroquet. including education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.ergonetz.hpc.com http://www. http://www. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).healthdatamanagement. http://www.ahds.com/edu/index.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.navy.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.epfl. http://vads.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.ac. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. Shape has developed the augurscope.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. http://www.activeworlds. http://www.ac. http://vrlab.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. http://www.html http://vads.ch/About/about_index.mil/index. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.

cti. (2006). Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. 2004. http://vr. Philopoulos. 2006. http://www.1314022. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.ecu. Dec.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration..cti.uk/elearning/ story/0. and Tsiatsos.pdf Bouras. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. J.cti. http://ru6.00. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.. T. T. http://ru6. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.com/article. (2001). 175-199. 2004. Hornig. Learning Circuits.pdf Hoare.learningcircuits.coe. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.guardian. A.edu/vrel.oln.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4.co. C.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).10577. 27. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Robin Good Blog. http://education. 28. Trend: augmented reality check. V. Virtual teaching aids become a reality.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. http://www. Eva (2004).gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.htm Dickey. East Carolina University.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . Journal of Network and Computer Applications.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.html Jones.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.htm Bibliography Bouras. Campus Technology.masternewmedia. Sept. Triantafillou. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. 24. G.campustechnology. Stephen (2004).pdf Bouras. (2004). http://courseweb. G. http://www. Research report. and Tsiatsos.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. Sept. (2001). Luigi (2004). C. and Tsiatsos. Michelle (2003). http://www. T. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. August 9.. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.intuition-eunetwork.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. C. and Hicks. 2004. Technology Area . http://ru6.unt.

Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Donnelly.actapress. O. (2004).p df Prasolova-Førland.unibo..com/Reference. & Sester.icc2005. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). (2005). Vol.edu. A.. 1. M.. G.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. A. E.actapress.digicult.unihannover. ISPRS. La Coruna/Spain. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Bertolotto. C. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. http://www. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. M. http://www.. P.pdf Katterfeld.com/PaperInfo.elearning. Dobreva. Abbott. P. 1(2).pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 .html Liarokapis.actapress. S. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. F. Gerard (2002). (Section on Virtual Reality). http://www.monash.. (2005). M. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. and Seyedarabi.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. Petridis. No. Ekaterina (2005). http://www. Istanbul. D. F.pdf McArdle..Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.org/htmleng/english. Conlan. July 9-16. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Proceedings. T. and White.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen. https://www. M. and Sester. 35. http://www.ikg.pdf Ross.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10. McHugh. (2005). http://www. Proceedings. M.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. (2005). http://www.. (2002).aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen.tcd. Monahan.eng. R.com/PaperInfo. M. 2004. and Rusbridge.. Web-based Education 2005 conference.ie/Owen. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.cs. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.. C. January 2005. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. 2005. Lister. and Mangina.

As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. visualization can represent alternative points of view. mapping. The educational advantages of visualization are many.dpc. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. images. Finally. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users.inxight. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. My first report in this series. dynamic displays.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. reviewed visualization as an online content format. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. On the other hand. and data rendering.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. location based systems. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. pattern recognition. graphics. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data.ucar. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. geographical information systems. data mapping. cognitive collage. See some amazing demos at: http://www. cybercartography. GIS. Do Not Reproduce 250 . allowing for innovation or new understandings. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. 2005). The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. Flash. data filtering. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. et al. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. 2003).

Free demo at: ew_68. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.ddd. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.vrco.pdf tracking.cs.utexas.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.alice. See: to education.zoomclouds. http://www. http://www. allowing 2-D image stitcher.vista.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.esrin.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. http://www.typorganism. VR.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .” http://richie. and will require visualization applications.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.ontopia.0 as an approach authoring system.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. Museum Edition.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. delivery. such as a blog. see ZoomClouds.nih.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.nlm. http://www.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.semagix.bham.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.unifiedfield.idc. which showcases their potential.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.tmm.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.ubc.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. http://www.edu/index. whatsoever.ul. http://www. http://www. and display (without glasses!).it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.esa.html http://www. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.com/solutions. http://www. For an example. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.ac.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.

a young graphic designer. Sample their efforts at: http://www.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Sample the collection at: http://svs.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.gov/index.skyscraper.net/omnigator/models /index.owu.com/VBody.com/index.co. http://www.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.html For a practical application of visualization. http://www.bbc.feedtank.marumushi.at/home. http://www. See their tool set and examples of their work.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . http://chatcircles. Be sure to explore the “zoo.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.nixlog.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.lecielestbleu.indiana.org/timeformations/ intro. April 7th.gsfc.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.media.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.nasa.cs. See his list of resources at: http://www. http://www.ontopia. Brandon Hall Research .medibolt.in English or Spanish.edu/ Paul Nixon. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.com Web site in Tokyo.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.semagix. http://www.com/solutions.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.medtropolis. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.edu/postcartoaag06.vrvis. http://www. http://www. It has images of space and the earth from space. http://news. 2004.mit.html 252 © 2006. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. http://makingmaps.”’ BBC News. http://www.” http://www.

nlm.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See this technology in action.com/omni.http://www.com/applicatio n.ibm. http://www. http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.org/about.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.html XCelsius .org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.microsoft.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.arcscience. retrieval.idashboards.S. http://www.http://www.amnh.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.umd.gfdl.com CenterView . and information presentation. at the University of Maryland. http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. anatomically detailed.spotfire.corda. http://clustrmaps.com/cat/dashb oard/index.html Top Tier http://www. for example. http://www.unifiedfield.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. one million items.cs.vicodi.com/index. http://www. http://research.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. in the U.xcelsius.com WorkPlace .com http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.nih.http://www.ambientdevices.mccrackendesign.htm Using time as an added dimension.html How do users visualize very large data sets. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.noaa.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .

http://www. for well log and borehole plotting.intergraph. http://tangible. http://www. for 3-D data visualization. trends.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. http://www.golden.mit.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.mapinfo. http://www.esri.com Do Not Reproduce 254 . http://www.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. for 2D and 3-D graphing.com/mam/mam.S.softill.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. networks.musanim.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. Didger. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images.visualanalytics.oziexplorer. and. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping. http://www.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. Grapher. including the following: Voxler.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. http://www.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. and anomalies in data. They have worked with the U.media. Strater.advizorsolutions. http://www.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.timemap.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://research. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. MapViewer.microsoft.topozone. http://www. associations.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.

org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.visualcomplexity.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. http://www.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.okino. and rendering software. http://www.cs.edu/index.com Pixologic is 2.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. is available online. for 3-D landscaping and animation.agocg.” http://www.sdsu. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.formz.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. Carrara. Following are two: http://graphics. Clicking a related term extends the process.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. http://www.visualthesaurus.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.ac.accurender. modeling. http://www. and rendering.stanford. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. http://www.com/vc/index.edu/eet/ Ell..cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. http://www.masternewmedia. many of which are unique.daz3d.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.topicmap.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www.pixologic.iu. together with their estimated depth of influence. P.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. including the following: Bryce.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. http://www. animation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. http://coe. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 . for 3-D modeling.liveplasma.ubc.” http://vis. Try a demo at: http://www.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.5-D modeling and rendering software.

(2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. 3149 http://www. 14(1).ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.com/ Bibliography Alpert. Sherman (2003).org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Lugano. http://acg.media.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. http://acg.com/ http://www.pdf Bertin. Proceedings.gvu.editlib.pdf Bergmann. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Switzerland: University of Lugano. EXYSTENCE network.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. http://www. http://www. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. Luca (2003).vrco.) (1999). les réseaux.topicmaps. Jacques (1967). B.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.htm http://www.mit. G.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. http://www. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www. Paris: La Haye.amazon.media.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. http://www. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 .ualber ta. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. M.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. http://www. pp.org/index. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.gatech. and Resetarits.net/printRec. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.edu/research/resea rch. (Eds. Madison: University of Wisconsin.complexityscience. J.. Paier. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. K. http://www.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.infovis.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. les cartes. J. Working Paper. both visualization companies.mit. J.usilu.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.complexityandeducation. 1-34. Mackinlay. http://www. Jacques (1983). and Woodill.fakespace. and Shneiderman..gatech. He finished his PhD.gvu. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. http://www.istituti. The Semiology of Graphics. A. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. (2003).edwardtufte.

http://www. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. August 11. C. and Knezek. M. http://www. Luca (2005). Ruth (2003). G. K.ac. available online at http://www.univparis5.psycho.com/articles/abst racts/index.editlib.asp Mittal. eLearning Developers’ Journal. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. and Rusbridge.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.html Madhavan. (1992). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. (2006). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 41(3)..html Rhyne.org/index. K. No. A. http://www. May/June.digicult. J. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. G. Donnelly. NC: Duke University..uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Campus Technology. 17-30. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. (2005).aace. Dobreva. Arns. 2005. http://www. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Canadian Journal of Psychology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. Vol. D. and Bertoline. http://createdrealities. Morales. 329-351.. http://www. September. (2005). 4(1)..siggraph.org/dl/index. Brian (2002). 69-82.pdf Goldfarb..K. Abbott.campustechnology. McHugh. (Section on Visualization).elearningguild.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638.educause. Durham. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. January 2005. S. A. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. (2005). http://nivea. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.fr/CanJ/CanJ. and Woolsey. June 1. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.ht m O'Regan. 16(4). P. http://itdl. M. Siggraph. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. A. (1998).agocg.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 .pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Theresa (1998).com/publications. 3.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Educational Media International. 3(1). International Journal on E-Learning. Brent (2006). J.cfm/files/paper _5994. S. K.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones.amazon. EDUCAUSE Review. L.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. (2005). 46: 461-488. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. http://www.com/article. 42. and Pagalthivarthi. http://www.asp?id=11222 Metros.html Ross.

com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. 2nd Ed. David (2002). David (2005).com/tufte/index Tufte. August. 2nd Edition. Edward (2001). MA: Addison Wesley Longman. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Shneiderman. Cheshire. Mike and Rogers. M. Visualization. http://www. No. CT: Graphics Press.indiana. Colin. Reading. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Fall.ciconline. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Information Visualization. Envisioning Information. Cheshire. (2004).Visualization Technologies Scaife.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. 2. http://www.edwardtufte. 185–213 http://www. Matt (2002). Computers. Edward (1997). Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. http://www.amazon. http://www.edwardtufte.amazon. Information Visualization: perception for design. Harlow. Sharpe.org/threshold Tufte. CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. B. 45.amazon. http://www. evidence and narrative. Yvonne (1996).E. Digital Information Graphics.slis. 4th Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp.amazon. (2004).com/tufte/index Ware. From multimedia to multisensory education. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. http://www. Edward (1990). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. (2001). Spence. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. England: AddisonWesley. Threshold. Robert. Vol.com/tufte/index Tufte.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman.

Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.co.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. 1996). http://www. and a microphone. communications tools.skype. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. Internet telephony. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. in remote communities. http://www. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Internet telephony is relatively simple. requiring an Internet hookup.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.elearningcentre. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. http://www. http://www. but it is rapidly improving. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. In the near future.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. headphones or speakers. http://www. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.jajah. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. Do Not Reproduce 259 . Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.avaya.envisioninc. Using VoIP. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.infoworld.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.

weblogsinc.. S. Language Learning and Technology.susx.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. 9(3).org/xpl/freeabs_all. http://www.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. (2005). http://www. http://llt. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. September. Join the discussion at: http://voip.spectrum. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.ac. 9-12.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .nald.pdf Ottoson. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. http://www. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. but it is rapidly improving. Brandon Hall Research .org Bibliography Cherry.ieee.cogs.pdf Ganchev.msu.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. I.ieee.voipreview.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Meredith (1996). Mobile distributed e-learning center. http://ieeexplore. M. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. http://www. Geraldine (2005). A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Steven (2005). 260 © 2006. Robert (2005). Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. March 2005. Stojanov.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. IEEE Spectrum Online. and O’Droma.

com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. http://www.bbc. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. including batteries.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. For example.co. The entire system.ppt In January 2006. like a wristband or jewelry.bris.ac.checkpointelearning.cs. managing. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. anytime. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.ices. Selected Examples In Europe.hubuska.edu/design/Ion. http://www.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.cmu. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.p df http://www. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. http://wearables. Do Not Reproduce 261 . http://killer. weighs less than three pounds.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. training to do their jobs. including wearable computing. http://news.learnexact. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.

What you’ll wear in 10 years. like a wristband or jewelry.cmu. Simson (2004). (2004).html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.ices. Wired News.eee.cs.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.org/index_graphical.ac.org/index. especially for comercial airlines. http://www.uk/index.com/read_art icle. and Levene. http://about.com/news/culture/0. S. March 24. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.wired.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.704 81-0. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications. and Lupisella.html http://www.edu/ http://wearcam.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. C.edu/research/wear ables/index.eyetap.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. (2003).org is a rich source of references. Brandon Hall Research . thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.ethz.” including computers built into underwear. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. especially in the area of wearable cameras. M.toronto.media.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.com/news/culture/0.edu/design/VuMan.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. or repairing complex machines. http://www. http://isd.wired.html Garfinkel. http://www.nasa. http://www.html The design of “smart clothing. See: http://genesis.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.ac. http://www.jisc.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.eecg. http://killer.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. http://www. Dec.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.bham. and other organizations involved in inspecting. Mmoma (2006). 2006.toronto.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). training. M.technologyreview. http://www.sportbrain.mit. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. the automotive industry. 1. http://www. 2004.wearable.eecg. Wearable Computing for the Commons.uoregon.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.gsfc. http://www.com/Home/Home.70 481-0. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Technology Review (Online).

Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. http://wearcam.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. 2005. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Toronto: Anchor Books. and Niedzviecki. Steve (1998). Fairfax.org/icwckeynote.amazon. Olga (2005).com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. S.html Do Not Reproduce 263 . May 12-13.businessweek. http://www. VA. ICWC98. Wearable computers that you can slip into. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. H. http://www. March 8.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. htm Mann. Business Week Online. (2002).

with all the potential for viruses and spam. and course offerings. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. and electronics. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. podcasts. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).” as its content is changed by the author.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. listings of the latest books. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. job searches. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. including cell phones. blogs. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. CDs. and laptops. When changes are made to a Web site. Do Not Reproduce 264 . The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. PDAs. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. To read content from a Web feed. basic text format for quick review. social bookmarking. Instead of having items emailed to you. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). TV guides. and Atom is the second.0 format). a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. photo collections. feeds. with all the potential for viruses and spam.

FeedPublish http://www.newsisfree.com/ .net/dl.net/ .com/ http://www.http://feedtier. OnFolio .U.downes.protopage. SharpReader http://bytescout.feedreader. Sage . RSSCalendar .sharpreader.videora. RSS Bandit http://www.com/ 0.com/ http://www.http://www. EaZy RSS reader 5.com/ Selected Examples 5.feedburner. each http://www. Newsgator Aggie . Here is a list of 48: ml 7. PubSub .com/ 5.http://bitworking.http://www.http://www.pluck.com 9. Rojo .http://www.http://www.com 2. FeedBurner http://www.com/produ http://neosmart.attensa.html http://www.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.6. Feed-Directory . Feedroll .org/ shtml .blogplanet.com/today/ http://www.com/ 3.projectdu.feedjavascript.pubsub. StepNewz .com/feedscout.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators. Gregarius .com/rss/ http://www.hexamail.rss-to.org/Aggie.com/ Brightcove .com Amphetadesk 8.awasu.com/amphetadesk http://www.http://www. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. Videora .com/ Awasu .rssbandit.com tml 2.newsgator.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www. RSS-to-Javascript .bloglines. Syndirella . Feedtier .ca/edurss02.rssreader.html http://www.http://www.http://www.com/productBlogExpress. FeedForAll .http://www.disobey.rssreader. RSSReader http://www.com/ 6.learningfeeds. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).feedroll.http://www. 6. Project D. Edu_RSS 0.bytescout. FeedScout 4. Protopage Bloglet .com/ http://www. feedbeep . and Atom is the second. Fuzzy Duck http://yole. RSS Orbit .com/ 0.com/thunderbird/ .rsscalendar. NewsIsFree http://www.2 7.http://www.mozdev.bloglet.puremis.ht with its own features.brightcove. RSS2Exchange http://www.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .fuzzyd.shtml .net/index.com/ 9.http://www.com/ http://www.com/ 3.org/ .feedpublish.http://feedbeep.com/myrsstoolbar.mozilla.uk/rssreader/ 7. Do Not Reproduce 265 .http://gregarius.http://www.com/ http://www. Reader http://usablelabs.http://www.com/rss2exchange/ .com/ 8.com/ BlogExpress 1.http://www. RSS Software .h http://www.somee.rojo.com directory.net/ http://www.feedzilla.htm http://www.onfolio.http://sage.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .com 4.co.com/v2 BlogLines .feedforall.com/ . FeedReader 1. LearningFeeds 8.http://www. Thunderbird .feedster.com/ Attensa . Pluck .http://www.topix. Feedster .

2003.elearning. May 19. http://www. http://www. http://timyang. 31.contentious.masternewmedia.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.downes.mcli. see: http://www.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.ubc.ca/cgibin/wiki.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.wcc. eLearning Developers’ Journal.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Brian Lamb. Bill (2003). 3.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.org/blogs/archives/main /000877. Brian Lamb. maintains a long list of RSS resources.lo. Oct.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.com/wiki/doku.ca/files/RSS_Educ.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://www. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. http://www. Luigi (2004).php.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project. 2004. including listings for various electronic devices.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 .com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.php Online Resources Stephen Downes.eschoolnews. http://www. Read his article written specifically for educators.maricopa. http://www. 2004.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. and D’Arcy Norman. eSchool News.dist.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. To have a blog aggregated.elearningguild. http://www. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.teachinghacks.redjupiter. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.vccs.pdf Canali De Rossi.com/news/showS tory. http://www. Dan (2004).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111. Robin Good Blog. http://careo. Aug.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.htm David.hebig. a blog by Alan Levine.ca/edu_rss. RSS could transform online communications. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators.downes.Possible Future Evolution.

1.teachinghacks. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends.theshiftedlibrarian. 3. http://www.oreilly. Eva (2004).html?page=1 Udell. and Norman. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. 13.mcli.pdf Gannett.dist. http://www. (2006). June 18. A.org/2004/jun20 04/downes. http://googlereader. Otherwise Engaged. Stephen (2002). Aug. Vancouver.html Powers. Lamb. June 2004.htm Harrsch. D. RSS Ideas for Educators. Online paper. BC. http://www. 2005. RSS: a learning technology. 1. T.downes. Jenny (2005).com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. http://www. http://www.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine. Stephen (2004).oreillynet.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.usatoday. Jon (2005). 2005. http://www. Mihai (2006). Anh (2005). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. The Technology Source Archives.htm D’Sousa. March 23. InfoWorld. The Shifted Librarian. May 2004.html MediaThink (2004). 2005. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. http://www. http://www.learningcircuits.htm Downes. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.maricopa. Aug.alexandrasamuel. Namespaced extensions in feeds.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.mediathink. 2005. 2003. and Webb.html Do Not Reproduce 267 . July 7. Using RSS for data integration. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. July/August 2003.htm Levine. http://technologysource. 5-8. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Version 1.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. USA Today (online). O’Reilly Network.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Google Reader Blog.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Sept. Alexandra (2005). (2003).xml. Learning Circuits. Online paper. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. RSS: the next killer app for education. http://www. Quentin (2006). 2006. 2006. Shelly (2005).infoworld. RSS: the next big thing online.pdf Parparita.html Samuel. MediaThink White Paper.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. University of North Carolina.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. B..ca/files/RSS_Educ.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big.Web Feeds Downes. http://www. Aug.blogspot.learningcircuits. M. Learning Circuits. Mary (2003).

tikiwiki.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. 4. time-less. Anyone can add to it.sourceforge. it is important to have several contributors. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. http://www. See the progress at: http://edu.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. custom permissions.com/cgibin/wiki. 3. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. http://wikipedia. an image gallery. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. http://www. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.wikipedia.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 268 . anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.schtuff. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. and email notification. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. http://www. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.com/ For wikis to work. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. 2005).300.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. RSS.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.net/features. and projects. 2.sourcewatch. the software used to run Wikipedia.usemod.org/index. With some basic instructions. There are now over 1. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. approaches. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. features. can be used by a team for joint writing. My first report in this series. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. and never finished. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.org/tiki-index. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. is available for other applications. Content is ego-less.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA.

10.usemod. http://en. http://www.Weblogs.html Do Not Reproduce 269 . http://www. of the University of British Columbia. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. http://radio. http://www.shtml Brian Lamb.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.gilbane. http://www.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.jot. A free trial is available.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. a rich source of information on wikis. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. http://flosse. Twiki.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://www.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. See why it is different.com/cgibin/mb. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.ubc.” Essentially.com/ Jon Udell.elearning. an archivist with the British systems. http://www. Swiki.infotoday.seedwiki.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.wikibooks.com/artpdf/GR12. http://www.socialtext.dicole.” is projects. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. “Quickiwiki.infoworld. His article. http://careo. Columbia Archives.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison. features.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.learningwiki.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. http://weblog. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison. http://kairosnews.

org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 . Australia.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.com/wwwtools/m/25242.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments. N.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.html Augar.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. Renée (2005). Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://aronsson. Teaching and learning online with wikis.elearningcentre. that she updates regularly. International Journal of Information Ethics. Operation of a Large Scale. http://www. Dec. http://firstmonday. http://www. (2004). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.co. Wiki pedagogy. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. 5-8.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.fasfind. Raitman. July.nu’s first nine months in service.” http://tlc. http://m.. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.educause. (2002).ucalgary. First Monday. W.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .ikiw.pbwiki.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki. Anja (2004).org has lots of resources on wikis.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Perth.se/wikipaper.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson. http://container.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.html Ciffolilli. R. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. Andrea (2003). including a section on wiki tools. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004.profetic. 2.71.48. Profetic: dossiers pratiques.zkm. Nov. 8(12).org.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis.” http://writingwiki.ascilite. http://www. Dec. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Online paper. http://64. Phantom authority.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer.pdf Fountain.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. and Zhou. http://www. http://www. including wikis. L. http://whiplash.

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. http://www. and Rudolph.html Wood.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. L.html Stafford. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. April 2003. January. Clark.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. S.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . 2006..Oct. O’Reilly Network. Neil (2003). Brian (2004). 19. Online article at PCMag. Quickiwiki. The wiki way. Educause Review. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. M. UniversityWiki. Making the case for a wiki. 12(10).com/artpdf/GR12.org/content/v5. 2004. http://gilbane. M. Jon (2004).com.com/article2/0.educause. April 2004.infotoday. and Webb. http://c2. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .asp Schmitt.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. http://Weblog.14 02872.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz.. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.shtml Rubenking. Oct. J..pcmag. 2005. July 7. David (2003). W. http://www. Emma (2005). Online article. Twiki. http://www. http://www. Swiki.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. 36-48.ariadne. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://www.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison.usemod.com/cgibin/mb. T. Lauren (2005).ac. (2004). Cossarin. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Online article at: http://www. Wiki Tools. Richard (2003).1/technote _xxvii. Ariadne..uk/issue42/ Udell.amazon.00.com/udell/2004/ 10/19.infoworld. InfoWorld. David (2004).irrodl.oreillynet.pdf Leuf. Online article.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Bo & Cunnin. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. Issue 42. (2001). (2006). Sept. Why Wikis Work Not.html Tomkin. Searcher.10.4149. http://www.

may or may not be adopted by the significant population. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. which. floppy disks. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. CD-ROMS. which can then lead to inventions. After a product has been successfully launched. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. Do Not Reproduce 272 . in turn. However.

in both formal and informal settings. Some will die quickly. Further. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. this approach is now rapidly changing. both in classrooms and online. to the complex. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. and decline. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. mature. In any field. in part. ascend the curve. to the complex. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. But not all technologies will travel this road. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. in part. Ontologies. For a variety of reasons. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. some will never leave the development stage. However. change itself seems to be inevitable. This is due. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. However. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. This is due. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. peak. In any field.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. Do Not Reproduce 273 . change itself seems to be inevitable. or may never become commercially viable. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. while others will last for decades. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice.

Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. 274 © 2006. 2003). 1994). The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. In North America. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. gaming consoles. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. 28). and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. ecological disasters. p. Brandon Hall Research . The children of the baby boomers. libraries. the space race. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. generally went to work earlier. mind-altering drugs. video games. electronic media tends to be on the surface.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Their children. the civil rights movement. 2002. global warming. The technology of e-learning. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and personal digital assistants. the baby boomers. In contrast. Once we master the art of reading. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. television. means that they actually think differently. The speed of change increases with each passing year. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. For the older generation. mobile phones. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. video games.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. terrorism. Because of this. born in the 1970s. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. and computers. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. The experience of younger learners with television. movie theaters. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience.

surprise. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. shortly. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. Within the next five years. commercials. In the next wave. With feedback. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. or violence is needed to keep our attention.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. But they are usually disappointed. results in an action by the other participant. Generally. sex. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). touch and taste. whereby the action of one participant. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. However. until we become habituated. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. and the mapping of everything. designers of Sesame Street. Two hundred years ago. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. portfolios. Then even more movement. and digital ink and electronic paper.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. the learner. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. technologies. creative products. wearable computers. Likewise. we will see the restructuring of education and training. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. the computer. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. For example. that is all about to change. digitization of smell. in a back-and-forth exchange. It works for a time. Guides are optional. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. huge data wall displays. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. it will be a giant collaborative workspace.are usually ing paths. In approaching electronic educational media. In approaching electronic educational media. Do Not Reproduce 275 . the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.

com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Brandon Hall Research . Bob (2006). http://www. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Gary (2006). Marc. Douglas (2005).com 276 © 2006.amazon. Digital Game-based Learning.operitel.amazon. Dallas.amazon. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.amazon. technologies and services for the next 5 years.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. (2001). Texas. http://www.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.amazon. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www. http://www.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff. Clayton (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. New York: Collins. http://www.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. http://www. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. James (1994). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. May 2006. New York: McGraw-Hill.

uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. New York.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.informatik.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.mit. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.bartneck.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.cs.bham.51.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.nngroup. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.de/link/affective_portal .se/~muse/ho me. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.myself-proj.umu. Den Dolech 2 P.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. Marc Schröder. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. Box 513.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. 1515 Broadway.unige. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.media. 17th Floor.O. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.

webist.auburn.org/ AiLive Inc.ailive.liv.edu Extempo Systems. CA 94304 USA http://www.computer.extempo.informatics. L69 7ZF. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Inc. Palo Alto. Manuel I. Suite 206 Boulder. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. #1910. Bloomington. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal .: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. N.rit.csc.Portugal Tel. O.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.agentlink. 3400 Hillview Avenue.com Do Not Reproduce 278 . CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Building 5.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .indiana. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.W.net/ Auburn University Auburn.isi. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. P. 1900 East Tenth St. Washington.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. L69 7ZF.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.ac. UK http://www. D.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. 27A 2º esq. Box 2124 Menlo Park.educause.codebaby.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. Edmonton. 10004-104 Avenue.

Huntsville. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.mindworkshop. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Secretariat. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.ascilite.redwoodelearning.autodesk. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.ascension-tech. Wellington.animationfactory. One Park West Tewksbury.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Box 527.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. PO Box 24478.apple. Inc. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. 110 Cuba Mall. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.com Alchemy Mindworks P.avid.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.au/index. Box 5200.adobe.catoolkit. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . Burlington. W Toronto.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.O.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.org/ Apple Computer.php/Main _Page Autodesk.animats. Inc. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com/ Avid Technology.com/home.O.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. Avid Technology Park.org.

com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.siggraph.org Do Not Reproduce 280 . 190th Street.com/index. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.com/ NewTek. Suite #480 Torrance. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.newtek.ucsb.460.com Pty Ltd The Basement.S. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.A.autotutor.psych. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.aaai. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.macromedia.6450 http://www. Santa Barbara. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. TN 38152 USA http://www.org/ SWiSHzone. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.org/home.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.swishzone. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.aclweb. Tel: +1. Inc.com/pub/index. San Antonio.html Ulead Systems 970 W. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.massivesoftware. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.eitechnologygroup.818.viewpoint. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .htm Macromedia.

htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.ke-corp.10th Street S.cmu. Egry J. Calgary. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cmu. 1. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.com/index. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cs. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.iit.uquebec.org/eden.edu. Inc. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. H-1111 Budapest. West Montreal. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 281 . 100 Sherbrooke St. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.cs. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.cs.teluq.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . u.gemini.eden-online.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.pact.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.ca/eng/ind ex.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.edu Quantum Simulations.W.licef. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.usyd.it.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.ulster.scit. Suite 1500 Montreal. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. Suite K.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.unisa. Antrim BT37 OQB N.uk/cticomp/CAA. Chantilly.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.cis. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.ucalgary.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.wpi.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.cshe.enel.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www. Co.ac.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester..edu. Calgary. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.W. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Suite 360 San Mateo.virtuelage.uk/home. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street. East Adelphi.brainbench.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. CA .umuc. Newtownabbey.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .edu. Alberta.wlv. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.stottlerhenke.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.cs.unimelb.ac.

com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.pedagogue.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.ets.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street. Suite 753 Madison.redinq. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.ingeniousgroup. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.questionmark. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.quintcareers.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.unt. Suite 201 Peterborough. Box 305280 Denton. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www. Box 317 New Hartford.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .tcet. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton. FL 32720 USA http://www.operitel.rmsuk.flaguide.O.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave.colorado. Suite 105 Princeton.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. Johnson Street.com/redinq/html/index.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.O. Norwalk.horizonwimba.com Quintessential Careers DeLand. Suite 100.S. Boulder.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.

html Do Not Reproduce 284 .ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.oir. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www. 2280 St. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.epnweb. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com/AudioTools/ind ex.xstreamsoftware.cakewalk. Watertown. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.com/home..com AudioLink. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.audiolink.automaticsync. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign.. Inc.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh. Suite 200 Ottawa. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory. Inc. Suite 100 Newtown. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.aspx BIAS.uiuc.adobe.com/lipsync/ind ex.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www. Ontario.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.avsmedia.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.multitrackstudio.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall. 50 Hunt St.com XStream Software.bias-inc.vantagelearning. Laurent Blvd.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.

136 South Main Street.bloki. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. Suite 200 Boulder. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.purdue.brainshark. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.adobe.A. Inc.accordent. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Suite 200 El Segundo.O.com/power point-presentations-index.edu iTunes Apple Computer.apple.e-learningcentre. Waltham.com/index. 860 Sandalwood Road.com Brainshark.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.mckinnonmulherin.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street. Continental Blvd.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www. Sheffield..com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 . Sheffield Technology Parks. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www.com AcroServices c/o L. S1 2NS UK http://www.trainvision. Grime and Associates. Inc. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. Cooper Buildings.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.sonicfoundry. Arundel Street.acroservices.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.envision.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. Suite A300 Salt Lake City. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. San Jose.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.co. West Perrysburg..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.anark. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.

org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index.atlanticlink. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.maxit. UK Tel. Ste.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com.customcourse.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax.allencomm.com/Index.learn.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Brandon Hall Research .p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall. Austria http://www.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www. Inc.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32. Suite 2300 New York. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www.co. 20100 Milan. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.bridge-pt.com 286 © 2006.uk/contentpoint.copycatsoftware. Italy http://www.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. NG8 6PE. 200 South. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www. Nottingham. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.ciscolearning.lifeboatdistribution.dynamicpowertrainer.horizonwimba.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.

com ExpertAuthor.64. 38-40. O.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.knowledgequest.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.rapidintake. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.easyprof. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Suite B Lehi. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.64.eedo..elicitus. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. Suite 29A Nashua. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www. 441 W Main St. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.elearninginabox.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd . FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www.e-learningconsulting.O.mohive.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.10 Fax: +34 93 490.com/products/forceten. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.edufolio. Inc.eclipsys. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.68 http://www. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. Box 2827 Redmond.knowledgeplanet. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.com Do Not Reproduce 287 . P.experiencebuilders. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive.

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CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.php? content=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd. Redmond. Johannesburg.co. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Suite 150 Lindon.westcliffdata.com RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Suite 200 Ottawa. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Ste.com RapidGuide c/o XStream Software.xstreamsoftware.Companies and Organizations PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West. Cedar Ave & Napier Road. 2280 St. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.com 290 © 2006.com Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www. Ontario.com SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. Inc. 3rd Floor Magalia. Laurent Blvd.com Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.uk/index.co. 200 South. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.com Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr.com ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.uk/index. Inc.webex. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Richmond.com Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.reusableobjects. Laurent Blvd. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc. 2280 St.. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www.respondus. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www.pointecast.readygo.. Ontario. Brandon Hall Research .westcliffdata.com/services/webpresentation-svc. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www.allencomm.articulate.screenwatch.xstreamsoftware. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.php? content=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House.

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GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.com Batipi 11 St.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 294 .optiontechnologies. Inc. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.aspx Qwizdom.adobe. Pleasant St.smartroom. Amherst.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Somerset. Orlando.qwizdom. Suite 101E Falls Church. Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Jospeh Street.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.944. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.0162 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Puyallup.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. 12617 Meridian E.avecomm.batipi.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.backpackit.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.brevient. SW.umass. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.inteam. Pittsford. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. NJ . MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.pearsoned.bantu. Ontario. Suite 103 Toronto.com BlueTie.physics. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.com.bluetie.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Inc. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Suite# 401.

convenos. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 295 . MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 6th Floor San Francisco.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.communiqueconferencing. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. 170 West Tasman Dr. Suite 522.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.telnetz. 232 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.saba.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.com 404 Fifth Avenue.brightidea.communityzero.centraldesktop.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. #205 Pasadena.html Citrix Systems. Suite 630 McLean. Suite 950 Portland.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.citrix. Suite 600 Ottawa. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.cisco.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Cisco Systems. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Draper. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.courseforum.com Centra c/o Saba. 795 Folsom Street. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. 100 North Lake Avenue. Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.comotivsystems. San Jose.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.collaborationloop.caucus. 1192 East Draper Parkway. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.com Brightidea. 6th Floor New York.

33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.same-page. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com LLP PO Box 325.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. 57th Street Gainesville. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.edufolio.emc. Inc. Inc.elluminate. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.facilitate. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Lauderdale. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.W. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Brandon Hall Research .flypaper. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. 82 Pioneer Way. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.forumone. Sanibel FL.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. 1034 N.com Engineering.. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.engineering.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.digi-net.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.exactamerica. Ontario.com 296 © 2006.com Digité.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.epam-pmc.digite.ezmeeting. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.

gotomeeting.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.grapevinesoftware.hotcomm. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com Glance Networks. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. Ste.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.novell.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.horizonwimba. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.net Global School Net 132 N. Suite 2300 New York.net Groove Networks.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.globalschoolnet. ON.com Groupwise c/o Novell. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. Inc. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.groupsupport. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.glance.genesys.V.groove. Inc.hp. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. Suite 500 Markham.com Do Not Reproduce 297 .com B.4517 http://www. 395 Encinitas.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.gordano.com c/o Citrix Systems.net GroupSupport. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. Inc. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. Clevedon.com GoToMeeting. El Camino Real. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.

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Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com onProject.mitre. 1289 N.near-time.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.opentext.performancesolutionstech. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.meetingone. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Suite 1450 Chicago.parlano.onproject. 3 Wing Drive.mayeticvillage.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. Riverside Plaza.org/tools.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Inc. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.h tml Parlano 10 S. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.com Near-Time. Inc.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.liveoffice. Harbor. Fordham Blvd.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.peoplecube.opmcreator.netspoke. Suite 1401 Denver. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.oracle.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice. Suite 300 Torrance.com/collabsuite/index. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.

Suite B.sitescape. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications.projectdox.nagarro.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. 35.stalker. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. Box 3325 York.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Ste 275 Mill Valley. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.com/content/default. 1175 58th Avenue. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.project-open.seldensystems. Inc. 3679 Concord Road. Suite 445 Scottsdale. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Cactus Rd.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.sharemethods. Inc. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. 51. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.raindance. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.com Raindance Communications.Adyar Chennai.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 . 17-17 State Highway 208.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com RADVISION Inc. Suite 200 Greeley.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.photoninfotech.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.cyber-grad.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.O.com Selden Integrated Systems. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Suite 440 San Jose. New No. Suite 210 Maynard.microsoft.radvision. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.q2learning. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. P.

PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.wave3software.teamdynamix. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale.usabilityfirst. Suite 950 Washington.teamspace.webofficepoint. Ontario M2N 6H8.tacit.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.O. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.teamware.vignette. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Kierland Blvd.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.trichys.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.tomoye.txl Viack 14811 N.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau..vodium. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. Canada http://www.com Teamware P.viack. Suite 100 Austin. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.com/groupware/in dex.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Suite 810 Toronto. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 301 . Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.sumtotalsystems.

com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.atutor. Inc. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.webasyst. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education. Ontario. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . Toronto.P.Box 2900 Alameda.santacruznetworks.author-it.. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.net WebEx Communications.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.axista.webtrain. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver. CA 94588. P. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.zoho.cpgvision.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. Inc.O. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.gov.backpackit.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.webcrossing.qld. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www. 130 St. Suite 115 Pleasanton.webex. Robarts Library.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks. Inc. George St.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing. Inc. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www. First Floor University of Toronto. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. 5200 Franklin Dr.

Laurent. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 303 . Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.une.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.facilitate. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.learnflex. S1 2NS UK http://www.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd. Sheffield. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.oracle.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Sheffield Technology Parks.co. Suite 201 Peterborough. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.desire2learn.bnhexpertsoft. TX..au/dss/grassgro/inde x.hrsg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc. QC. Arundel Street.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.edu. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www. 4000 Steinberg Street St.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. Cooper Buildings.e-learningcentre. Prof.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.kdnuggets.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.convera.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.syberworks. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa. Suite C215 Houston.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.

98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.com/ LiveText 1 S.ntera..com Do Not Reproduce 304 .io2technology. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.provisionentertainment.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. Second Floor La Grange. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www. San Francisco. Suite 606. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia.angellearning.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road. La Grange Road. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.siliconlight. Telford.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting.foliotek. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park. Suite 100 Indianapolis. Catherines.fogscreen. WA. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. Inc.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St.pebblepad. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.co.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow.nuventive. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.meetingworks. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www. West Conshohocken.chalkandwire.

C.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave.programmersheaven.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.thinkingworlds.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology. Inc Avid Technology Park..com/solutions/game s/default.freescale. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.magnetargames. One Park West Tewksbury.softimage. SR6 0AN UK http://www.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.seriousgames. Dept.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.microsoft.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.clickteam. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive.ucsd. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street. NW Washington. Puebla Lucia local 7. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.avs.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Sunderland Tyne and Wear. 0445 La Jolla. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.adobe.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .

com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www. Suite 1900 San Francisco.immersion. Suite 300 Burlingame.autodesk.ibm.miralab.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. Inc.. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www. Suite 300 San Diego. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.smartdraw. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.broderbund.forcedimension. Inc.tech-illustrator.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.com SmartDraw. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.itedo. Unit 9 Waterloo. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.unige.corel.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.microsoft.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www. 100 Pine Street.blender3d. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.mpb-technologies.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa. Washington Street Denver.ch MPB Technologies Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.

Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www. Ste. 15 Constitution Way Woburn. Suite 300 Calgary. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria.sensable.piaggio. Washington.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.se SensAble Technologies.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.ccii.wacom.C.edfacilities.smarttech. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW. 12th Floor Oakland. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. NW Suite 700. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. 200 South. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www. 7677 Oakport Street.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.sensegraphics. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. 2-56126 Pisa.eink. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. Inc.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www. D.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.allencomm.unipi.logitech.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.com Logitech Inc.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q.anotogroup.fujitsu. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 307 .com Interface Devices Anoto Inc.

gen21. Inc.trivantis. Suite 225 Golden.strategia. 6947 University Blvd. Inc. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.elementk. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www. Huntington Building. Suite 200 Cincinnati. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.com/redbooks. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.ibm.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. East Dundee.cornerstoneondemand. 4600 Westown Parkway. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.ips-inc. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. Suite #620 Santa Monica.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.html?Ope n InfoSource. Suite 301 West Des Moines. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street.com Do Not Reproduce 308 . Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai. Suite 660 Longueuil. Inc.. Inc.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.geolearning.netdimensions. Colfax Avenue Building 200. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Winter Park. Quebec.intellinex.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.howtomaster. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. 111 Water St.com DOTS .redbooks.webraven.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand.

Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.knowledgeplanet. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. Chantilly.learnsomething.com Do Not Reproduce 309 .wizdom.learnflex. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.learn.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.websoft.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 550 Queen St.Suite 350 Toronto. 100 Foxborough Blvd. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.intralearn.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. Inc.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough.meridianksi.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. East . Inc.com. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.mgen. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. 1 West Front Street Red Bank. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.compendiumcorp.isnewmedia. Suite 260 Foxborough.com mGen Enterprise mGen. Inc. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.maxit.

teralearn. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. 500 West Madison.plateau. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.sap. Louis. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal.com.com Do Not Reproduce 310 . CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Glebe Road.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. LTD 671 N. Suite 700 Arlington.ssaglobal.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal. Inc. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.syntrio. Suite 1280 San Francisco.sumtotalsystems.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.sselearn. St. Suite 2200 Chicago.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. West.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.technomedia.outstart.com TEDS Inc. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com/products/saba/learn ing/index. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.oracle.oracle.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.saba.teds.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.

ttg-inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.O.xtention.gyrus.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.trainingpartner. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. 2280 St.wbtsystems.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.risc-inc.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.xstreamsoftware. Suite # 105 Columbia.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . 122 West Way.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Ontario. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Inc. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.fldata. 17041 El Camino Real. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. Inc. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Victoria.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.com Tracker.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Inc.info/index. NY.vuepoint. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Laurent Blvd.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.. Inc. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. 240 Bay Street. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. Box 9752 Boulder. 4 Expressway Plaza. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.vbtrain.avilar. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.edutools. Suite 101 Houston.

4th Floor Oakland.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.com Do Not Reproduce 312 . 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.netera.sir.arizona.cdlib.ca ENC Learning Inc.uwm. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.goenc. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.

AZ. CT 06459 USA http://www. Box 1892.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.rice.clarklabs.cadcorp. Hertfordshire. P.edu/DesktopDefault.thegateway.4464 Markham Street Victoria.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.lolaexchange. Sterling Court. Houston.lrc3.O.dist.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.unsw.org Do Not Reproduce 313 . Norton Road. MS 44. Stevenage.org/eng/scientifiques. Fondren Library. Rice University.lornet. ETRAC.mcli. 5151 East Broadway.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.plos. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. AZ 85250 USA http://www.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.edu.maricopa. Box 3000 Boulder. SG1 2JY. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Suite 1600 Tucson.O. Suite 3100 San Francisco.merlot.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.llearn.

org Do Not Reproduce 314 . of Geography. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.eoscenter.geocomm. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.fi/english/page.edu.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.pangonetworks.cetis. Inc.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.5372. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.berkeley.O. Suite 100 Framingham. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.com/gis4mt/index. Dept. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.intergraph.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.asp?path= 500. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.cf m ESRI Suite 300.smm.esri.O.org Metadata. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.ac. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. Box 240000 Huntsville.mapinfo.cancore. P.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.edu PanGo Networks. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. 959 Concord Street.

com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Suite 100 Menlo Park.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.eee.lexxe.ac.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.advancedreality.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.itc. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.stockholmchallenge.aaai. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.ldc.mobilearn.upenn.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.elsnet.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.com Do Not Reproduce 315 . Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Inc.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. PA. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Electrical and Computer Engineering. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.bham.org/ Spotlight Mobile. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.knowledgepulse. Italy http://tcc. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Suite 501 Portland. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. PMB #112 Lake Mary.html ELSNET Trans 10. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.imsglobal.org/aitopics/html/natlang .uk/handler/default . Austria http://www. 19104-2653.

NY. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. 10010 USA http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.movedigital.seti.lockss.cetis. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.org/site/pp.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Inc. Inc.llearn.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Deane Rd. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .sun.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.overnet. Suite 300.4464 Markham Street Victoria. Whisman Road Mountain View. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.stockholmchallenge.com MoveDigital. Brandon Hall Research . British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.groove. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.asianart. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.net internet2.org 316 © 2006.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.ac. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.internet2. Inc.

elena-project.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. New York 10973 USA http://www. 3333 http://www. Alberta.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .com Portals CyberU. Suite 225 Santa Monica.elementk.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Box 172 1039 .com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.com ProQuest 789 E.cyberu.saba.trainingregistry.virtualmuseum. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.O.worldwidelearn.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. Eisenhower Parkway P.elearningeuropa.rmv.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI . Suite 600 Alpharetta.teach-nology. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.executrain.17th Avenue SW Calgary.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com Teachnology. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.microsoft. 1st Floor A .proquest.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. Inc. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill. 15-4-A Gatineau.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.

com Do Not Reproduce 318 .mit.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.com/halo/index. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.elluminate.com Presentations.com/presentatio ns/index.articulate. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com Raptivity P. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.genesys.readygo.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.apreso.lsc.macromedia.saba. Inc. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.6526 http://www. O. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.com ReadyGo Inc. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.. Minneapolis. Redmond.com 50 S. 3016 5th Ave. Ninth St.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. Alberta.presentations. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. NE Calgary.hp.scate.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.org Macromedia. Michigan. Suite B Orion.333.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. CA 94040. Box 2827.raptivity.

Radstock Somerset. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.euron.ife.eng.ac. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.generalrobotics. Lindsey Bldg. 100 Norman.ed.active-robots.nasa. Chilcompton. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.cmu. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.whmsi.irc.ams.osaka-u. Henrik I Christensen. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.evolution.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. 130 W. SE-100 44 Stockholm.botball.aad. D. SWEDEN.gov.org Evolution Robotics.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Centre for Autonmous Systems.ri.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. Inc.org Euron c/o Prof.atr.rec. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Inc.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Ste. Pasadena. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. Union St.

O. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Suite 60 Quebec. 42nd Floor New York.6100 http://www.gigablast.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.copernic. Brandon Hall Research . VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com Gada.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Suite 500 Oakland.gnod. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com Ask.ask. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.google.com Google (including Froogle. Google.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com excite.about.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.convera.dogpile.com Gnod.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.com 229 West 43rd Street New York. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.net/ 320 © 2006.alexa. Inc.findlaw.excite. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.

CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. Chicago.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.O.krugle. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.net Koders Inc.looksmart. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.1057022 LookSmart.kartoo.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.lexxe.icerocket. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Box 1133 Washington. 17th Floor New York.mooter. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.com Info.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.ac.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.org/citation. Inc.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.ixquick.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.msn.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.lalisio. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.intute. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.koders.info. Ltd.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 . Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.cfm?doid=1 056808.healthfinder.acm. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 601 108th Avenue NE.metacrawler. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.

pandora.seekport.W. 23rd Oklahoma City. Suite 207 San Francisco. 6th Flr.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 . New York. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.com/v2/index. Inc.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . INDIA.qelix.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. Mazgaon.ibm.pubsub..cs. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. Inc. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.rawsugar.almaden.nyu.. Suite 211 Palo Alto . Inc.edu/ PubSub Concepts.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Nesbit Rd. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.netscape.searchking. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. 64 Fulton Street.com SearchKing.columbia. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.biz Truveo.convera.W.82152 Martinsried http://www. Inc. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC. 2400 N. 7th floor. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp. Seventh Floor New York.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 360 22nd Street.ee. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.technorati. NY 10003. Mary Apts. 23rd Floor San Francisco.truveo. Mumbai 10.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York.com Pandora Media.

com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com Captivate c/o Macromedia. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.macromedia.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. EC4M 7NG London.zoominfo.com Flash c/o Macromedia. Box 1558 New Canaan.O.experiencebuilders.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.macromedia. 10 Old Bailey.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Yahoo http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.personal-reader. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Assima Ltd.tkk. Inc. Ontario.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.atghome.alphaworks.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. 1st Floor A .yahoo. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.seco.ibm. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.com Zoom Information Inc. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. Inc.biographix.assima.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 .elena-project.

com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Suite 200 Ottawa.noaa. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.learning2005.fsl. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Suite 300 Wichita.stottlerhenke. Suite 360 San Mateo. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. GreenPark Reading.bham.knowledgeplanet.com NexLearn.. LLC 100 South Main Street.knowledgequest.knowledgepresenter. Newburyport.com MASIE Center.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. 2280 St.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. Inc.. Laurent Blvd.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.knowledge-director. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Inc. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.stt-global.cs. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.nexlearn.intermezzon.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. B15 2TT.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.ac. CA .gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.forio. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.muzzylane. England http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. Ontario.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.

Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. Thorofare. Schaumburg.qarbon. Suite 240 Atlanta..edu/index. Suite A-207 Brossard. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.us Eventful c/o EVDB. Light & Acoustics.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Suite 125 San Diego. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.virtualcontrolroom.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.iu.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. Québec.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.icio. 55 South Market St. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.outstart. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Suite 400.stt-global.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. Morton Street. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.icio. Taschereau Ouest.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Suite 1550 San Jose. Suite 224 Bloomington.assima.com Stagecast Software.com/English/t6 essai.teds.eduperformance.checkpointsystems.maxit. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com Softsim Outstart Studio. 1821 Walden Office Square. Inc.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. CA 94089 USA http://del. 101 Wolf Drive.stagecast.com Do Not Reproduce 325 . Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. Inc. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.

com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.analytictech. 2001 Lind Ave.O.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Suite 900 Austin.netscape. First Floor San Francisco.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.com Classmates Online. Brandon Hall Research .gnolia. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.rojo. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.tagzania. WA 98055 USA http://www. Inc.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.zvents. Inc. Menlo Park. Inc. Box 920089 Needham.friendster. CA 94105 USA http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. Suite 500 Renton.furl.com Spurl ehf.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.. CA. 625 Second Street San Francisco.networkltd. 795 Folsom St.com 326 © 2006. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. Ltd.shadows.spurl. SW. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.com/ mag.classmates.eu Rojo Networks. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.com Friendster.

org Fakespace 11 E. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.jabber. Cupertino.O.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.bittorrent.O. 655 High Street Palo Alto.brightcove. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.percro. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.hp. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.jabber. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.advanced. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .apple. Inc. CA 90028 USA http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.com Jabber Software Foundation P.com/halo/index. 4th Floor Marshalltown. Box 1641 Denver. Box 1641 Denver.socialtext. New York. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.com Brightcove.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.net Sparta Social Networks.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.fakespace. Church Street.com Jabber Software Foundation P.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.sociosite. CA 94105 USA http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 327 . CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.dfilm.spartasocialnetworks.

CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.edu/vrel.futurelab.intuition-eunetwork.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. Inc.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.activeworlds. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . Suite 206 Bloomington.xstreamengine.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. 7220 Trade Street.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.com Intuition 9.informationinplace. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.org. CA 92121 USA http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. VA 23461-1924 https://www.navy.spider.veoh.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.ergonetz.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.hpc.accurender. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.org Veoh Networks.epfl.coe.ecu.percro.

Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Inc. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.V. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. 1333 Butterfield Rd.umd. Box 240000 Huntsville.xcelsius. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. Danvers. Golden. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Columbus.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.bham.cs.idashboards.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.ac.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Inc.esri. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.intergraph. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.O.mapinfo. Cambridge.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Troy. Suite 100 Lindon. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. 350 South 400 West. Inc. Suite 317 San Diego.com Golden Software. 809 14th Street. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.formz.com ESRI Suite 300.ambientdevices. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.feedtank. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.corda.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Suite 110 Troy. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Williams Building College Park. Draper.advizorsolutions.com Do Not Reproduce 329 .vista.com/ MapInfo One Global View. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.golden.daz3d..

9th floor New York. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.com Unified Field.unifiedfield.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.spotfire.net Pixologic. Inc.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.visualthesaurus.ontopia.nlm.topozone. Suite 3A New York. 3 East 28th St. Box 884. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. U.mccrackendesign. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Ontario L4V 1T8.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.org Visual Analytics Inc.microsoft.nih. 155 Spring Street. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. Unit # 1 Mississauga.okino. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue. MA 01863 USA http://www. Inc. Inc.com Spotfire.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 73 Princeton Street. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. Riga.S.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. CA 94712 USA http://www. Inc. 212 Elm Street Somerville.pixologic.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.visualanalytics.O. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. NY 10012 USA http://www.musanim.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.softill. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.vicodi. RIDemo Brivibas 183.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. Tracy. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville.

Suite 102 Mountain View.com Web Feeds Attensa. Unit A2 Naples.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.feedreader.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.vrvis.ethz. Inc.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. 11211. Inc.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. A-1220 Vienna.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .com Brightcove.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. FL 34108 USA http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Donau-City-Strasse 1. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.jajah. CA 95008 USA http://www.com JAJAH Inc.skype.feedforall. Tallinn. Hanover.feedburner. 869 97th Ave N. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. Suite 100 Campbell. Estonia http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. Inc. ETZ H Electronics Lab.brightcove. 2513 Charleston Road. California. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.attensa.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.inxight.sportbrain. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 94043 USA http://www. Valdeku 100.bloglines. Ltd.wearable. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Suite 2260 Portland. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.

Pacific Business Centre #101 .onfolio. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com Feedster.pluck. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.feedzilla.com 332 © 2006.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. 200 2nd Ave. Suite 900 Austin. 167 Hamilton Ave.com Rojo Networks..O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Inc..com PubSub Concepts. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla..socialtext.microsoft. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. 64 Fulton Street. Broadway.rssreader.feedster. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.rojo.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. San Francisco. South #358 St.V.mozilla.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 795 Folsom St.jot. Suite 605 San Francisco. Nederland Tel: +31.715135858 http://www. Switzerland http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Suite 381 Vancouver.org JotSpot. Petersburg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Building K Mountain View.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. First Floor. Brandon Hall Research .1001 W. Coldbrook Business Corp. Inc. 3rd Floor Cambridge.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 116 New Montgomery Street. Seventh Floor New York. Inc.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.pubsub. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. P.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

49. 45. 78. 184. 61. 226. 243. 35. 59. 21. 161. 231. 18. 19. 268 Broadband. 66 AJAX. 31. 225. 177. 111. 64. 296. 255 Architectures. 29. 17. 248 Authoring tools. 61. 51. 120. 111 Blogs. 56. 164. 69. 51. 32. 22. 264 Classroom response systems. 246. 275 Collaboration. 82. 259. 101. 87. 29. 77. 250. 25. 188. 259. 12. 177. 97. 198. 77. 202. 92. 264. 200. 85. 47. 110 Adobe. 76. 31. 88. 90. 138. 220 Audio. 84. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 139. 56. 221. 149. 269. 125. 185. 44. 91. 66. 221 Bayesian probability. 260. 161. 76. 226. 97. 199 334 © 2006. 69. 53. 70. 34. 29. 230 Competency Tracking. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 204. 64. 95. 91. 3. 242. 202. 269. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 7. 274 Communities of practice. 115. 176. 28. 285. 201. 217. 60. 241. 75. 168. 28. 163. 162. 43. 224. 247. 96. 161. 16. 230. 254. 129. 183. 40. 174. 157. 111. 92. 26. 60 Avatars. 3. 190. 247. 31. 242. 20. 228. 89. 185. 138. 235. 33. 62. 236. 250. 160. 123.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 177. 108. 98. 88. 148. 98. 85. 217. 37. 111. 148. 94. 24. 108. 184. 129. 255. 221. 251. 63. 63. 59. 91. 250 Dashboards. 102. 32. 161. 47. 209. 70 barcodes. 85. 187. 45 Content management. 246. 61. 57. 25. 3. 268. 142. 140. 117 Assessment. 48. 62. 266. 245 Browsers. 156. 73. 86. 230. 61. 97. 26. 114 cybercartography. 258 cognitive collage. 251. 242. 64. 57. 172. 67. 94. 78. 54. 118. 17. 37. 277 Agents. 65. 257 Adaptive systems. 252. 83. 161 Cooperation. 45. 122. 146. 120. 279. 67. 34. 46. 155. 68. 232. 246. 30. 174. 184 Conversational learning. 205. 86. 268 Communications Tools. 82. 101. 91. 67. 84. 55. 235. 25. 83. 78. 209 Air display. 32. 225. 69. 266. 64. 155 Ambient computing. 51. 46. 67. 246. 33. 186. 39. 45. 61. 162. 116. educational. 95. 284. 5. 66. 81. 209. 86. 25. 72. 29. 26. 87. 156. 2. 80 Cognition. 113. 105. 97. 174. 35. 60. 96. 270 Boolean searches. 3. 250 cognitive maps. 199. 217. 162. 161. 55. 46. 18. 105. 218. 231. 15. 266. 96. 104. 156. 253 Data mining. 176 assessment. 90. 275 Computer based assessment. 224 Cell phones. 194. 93. 118. 83. 17. 106. 60. Brandon Hall Research . 218. 9. 100. 154. 244. 104. 103 Complexity theory. 268. 47. 151. 36. 120. 27. 131. 48. 74. 217. 261 Animation. 52. 28. 106. 143. 4. 241. 110. 150. 159. 247. 156. 109. 89. 107. 87. 89. 24. 18. 216. 218. 65. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 93. 175. 184. 93. 173. 266 Augmented reality. 230. 154. 188. 60. 28. 13. 215. 121. 88. 80 Clickers. 251. 117. 165. 255. 26. 33. 289 Authorware. 97. 54. 67. 209. 14. 82. 179. 125. 259. 19. 25. 4. 120. 128. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 33. 248. 241. 138. 275 Affective computing. 250 collaboration. 21. 250. 227. 76. 142. 250. 226. 46. 143. 244. 28. 34. 87. 105. 22. 87. 244. 201. 201. 230. 118. 79.

78. 201. 94. 115. 104. 78. 176 Interface devices. 237. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 155. 73. 96. 8. 35. 171. 109. 257. 3. 31. 4. 227. 121. 255. 92. 56. 186. 250. 92. 151 FireFox. 222. 26. 48. 199 Informatics. 217. 252. 254 Gesture recogntion. 104. 128. 99. 5. 223. 258. 138. 13. 29 e-Portfolios. 46. 161. 276 Instant messaging. 5. 250. 12. 19. 246. 135. 83. 30. 154. 18. 134 Healthcare applications. 54. 68. 39. 91. 43. 159. 151. 60 dynamic displays. 159. 261. 222. 158. 28. 76 Flash. 156. 203. 205 History. 211. 30. 31. 125. 122. 203. 10. 33. 151. 77. 139. 132. 167. 17. 177. 62. 12. 192. 236 e-Science. 21. 33. 33. 5. 145. 54. 120. 275 Director. 228. 80. 69. 236. 179. 243. 267. 193. 215. 167. 134 Head mounted displays. 31. 120. 200 Design. 205. 70. 171. 273. 170. 251. 151. 61. 207. 114. 199. 60 Displays. 134. 135. 65 Google. 70. 126 GIF graphic format. 251. 39. 198. 157 Hype in e-learning. 24. 221. 77. 191. 250 e-Commerce. 127. 126. 168. 246. 3. 18. 86. 233. 230. 273 Interoperability. 115. 278 Infrared tags. 170. 111. 48. 115. 25. 211 evaluation. 260 Dreamweaver. 2. 93. 88. 7. 192. 273 Human-centered computing. 245. 32. 123. 115.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 155. 129. 238. 262 Hybrid systems. 160. 117. 153. 210. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 193 Facial recognition. 12. 199. 204. 259. 3. 71. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 90. 62. 243. 44. 247. 135. 275 Distributed systems. 43. 28. 251. 133. 152. 15. 83. 161. 169. 106. 120. 60. 62. 274. 34. 112. 323 Folksonomies. 27. 145. 218. 194. 253. 6. 118. 287. 119. 128. 134. 224. 216. e-learning. 59. 9. 114. 138. 15. 268 Knowledge management. 17. 158. 86. 188. 246. 72. 18. 21. 30. 125. 231. 131. 26. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 152. 63. 98. 194. 104. 257 FrontPage. 155. 254. 139. 254. 28. 72. 125. 4. 55. 87. 114. 32. 82. 250. 152. 82. 3. 320 graphics. 134. 242. 128. 208. 24. 215. 206 Findability. 15. 128. 199. 34. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 10. 24. 139. 112. 19. 12. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 92. 189. 184. 273 Informal learning. 31 Emotional design. 118. 242. 117 Experiential learning. 132. 98. 45 Frameworks. 129. 185. 158 iPod. 174. 84. 305 Geocaching. 215. 250 Graphics. 156. 250. 110. 114. 62. 192. 136. 215 Expert systems. 91. 244 Games. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 111. 248. 97. 247. 219. 170. 135. 250 Immersive environments. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 65. 30. 205. 267 formative assessment. 246. 202. 23. 119. 108. 28. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 153. 250. 155. 25. 136. 217. 209 Handwriting recognition. 10. 174. 306 Individualization. 241. 113. 87. 255. 40. 111 Extreme learning. 170. 132. 192. 76. 217 Federated searches. 76. 122. 1. 6. 228. 239. 134 Haptics. 9. 257 Grid computing. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 7. 256. 102. 224. 121. 84. 61. 37. 134. 64. 66. 145. 114. 113 Deep Web. 5. 241. 252. 5. 275. 148. 45. 65. 196. 244. 45. 220. 276 images. 32. 80. 12. 29. 92. 97. 34. 73. 104.

12. 202. 145. 306. 107. 104. 280. 242. 171. 7. 141. 196. 162. 138. 222. 100. 184. 179. 8. 33. 221 Project management. 159. 182. 78. 247. 151. 138. 65. 312 learning object model. 111. 321. 131. 57. 120. 209 Microlearning. 97. 221. 59. 83. 30. 66. 165 Mobile computing. 147. 294. 17. 192 Lecturing. 164. 270. 330. 158. 183. 59. 33. 287. 25. 323 mapping. 192 Libraries. 245. 60. 172. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 201. 178. 3. 63. 54. 5. 173. 73. 237. 104. 13. 65. 47. 200. 209. 241. 163. 159. 100. 179. 125 Ontologies. 176 Personalization. 54. 179. 27. 24 Museums. 197 Legacy materials. 140. 27. 175. 65. 146. 63. 318. 99. 250 Pedagogy. 241. 36. 158. 3. 139. 177. 165. 156. 177. 171. 105. 115. 85. 160. 223 Rapid e-learning. 187. 192. 170. 311. 147. 154. 188. 158. 197. 260. 142. 309. 210. 136. 103. 290. 192 Networks. 187. 261 Macromedia. 7. 55. 219. 72. 19. 7. 64. 138. 115. 186. 82. 82. 215. 64. 128. 193 Microsoft. 152. 119. 148. 170. 161. 52. 241. 176. 318 Privacy. 151. 90. 90. 54. 184. 218 Metacognition. 84. 88. 166. 139. 32. 154. 318 Location based tools. 254. 182. 209. 274. 232. 221. 179. 45. 190. 28. 91. 243. 152. 82. 195. 117. 79. 189. 6. 59. 305. 5. 190. 157 Medical applications. 44. 166. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 300. 186. 315 Motion Graphics. 217. 178. 274. 104. 174. 145. 250 Mashups. 204. 187. 145 Learning Objects. 172. 155. 259. 85. 95. 194. 66. 32 Metadata. 60. 175. 171. 59. 55. 201. 273. 87. 218 M-learning. 188. 3. 244. 5. 79. 244. 184. 92. 151. 5. 65. 161. 224. 155. 20. 198. 12. 191. 89. 89. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 209. 24. 118. 80. 192. 61. 255 Neural networks. 174. 38. 10. 101. 206 Microformats. 64. 47. 151. 273. 164. 32. 161. 189. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 55. 31. 148. 135. 18. 78. 332 Microworlds. 311 Learning Management Systems. 314 Meta-search engines. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 162. 6. 143. 231. 181. 84. 190. 6. 158. 183 Navigation. 146. 142. 177. 203. 221. 171. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 230. 152. 146. 102. 260. 289. 189. 185. 3. 163. 61. 268 latent semantic analysis. 224. 221. 238. 235. 43. 5. 219. 105. 161. 64. 234. 262. 193 Projectors. 211. 4. 171. 141. 267. 62. 162. 139. 177. 254. 61. 175. 230. 120. 5. 59 Presentation tools. 246. 156. 145. 114. 20. 112. 254. 66. 134 Proximity tools. 145 learning object repository. 93 Radio. 135. 159. 72. 76. 31. 234. 45. 187. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 186. 86. 161 Podcasting. 228 Optical tags. 210 PowerPoint. 159. 32. 58. 164. 145. 17. 193. 105. 109. 91. 222. 174. 189. 60. 161. 111. 22. 230. 73. 230. 62. 151. 83. 271. 209 pattern recognition. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 222. 162. 177. 45. 40. 250. 210 Pervasive computing. 6. 151 Quizzes. 244. 177. 108. 233. 110. 63. 158. 195. 174. 85. 160. 121. 56. 199. 185. 151. 144.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 223. 205. 2. 123. 273. 317. 159. 224. 163. 31. 104. 298. 308. 221. 28. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 147. 55. 106. 86. 227. 193. 101. 284 Portals. 52. 32. 42. 178. 144. 227. 129. 62. 47. 227. 261.

28 Ubiquitous computing. 268 Tags. 117. 225. 5. 31. 76. 72. 158. 237. 139. 218. 302. 5. 225. 261 Shockwave. 243. 224. 113. 3. 5. 265. 223. 122. 26. 220. 62. 97. 9. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 196. 76. 226. 232 Speech recognition. 48. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 241 virtual classroom. 190. 226. 45. 228. 259. 38. 221 self-evaluation. 167. 81. 145 Screencasting. 4. 187. 46. 16. 228. 209. 169. 275. 261. 221. 241 Vodcasting. 176. 3. 86. 152. 152. 267. 125. 100. 154. 63. 254 Taxonomies. 128. 137. 203. 241. 142. 273. 215. 242. 52. 215. 244 summative assessment. 216. 260. 268 Skypecasting. 222. 139. 263. 224. 50. 119. 160. 331 Web conferencing. 49. 156 sharable content objects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 217. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 138. 224 Team management. 156. 6. 2. 239. 160. 45. 187. 226. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 51. 241 Search engines. 241. 244. 115. 62. 274 Tests. 197. 273. 179. 109. 241. 61. 84 Telephony. 169 Streaming video. 120. 9. 47. 60. 242 Security. 275 Vlogs. 255 Turing Test. 123. 155. 60. 75. 10. 259. 106. 148. 146. 12. 213. 10. 151. 245. 208. 143. 59. 45 Symbology tags. 201. 145 Robotics. 187. 214 résumés. 226. 164. 32. 66. 204. 120. 45 Semantic Web. 6. 76 T-Learning. 205. 19. 233. 145. 33. 8. 231. 227. 145 Repositories. 4. 226. 230. 33. 209. 201. 244. 224. 127. 167. 332 Webcasting. 242. 216. 85. 155 Tagging. 114. 221 Social bookmarking. 227. 183. 206. 217. 199. 260 Telepresence. 254. 45. 98. 214. 46. 18. 65. 225. 202. 62. 119. 221. 97. 221. 24. 149. 65. 240. 266. 264. 46. 268. 231. 134. 193. 243. 67. 7. 159. 7. 47. 255. 246 Visualization. 211. 151. 190. 112. 192 Thin clients. 255 Single-user wiki. 209. 170. 251. 63. 222 Tag clouds. 73. 76. 45. 134. 195 Virtual learning environments. 171. 151. 199. 200. 226. 43. 33. 261 Usability. 218 Science. 63. 250. 238. 174. 158. 138. 147. 10. 146. 247 Video. 187 Smart labels and tags. 238. 188. 174 Virtual reality. 194. 33. 224. 241 Television. 60. 218 Scenarios. 143. 97. 27. 52. 120. 157 Simulations. 158. 81. 134. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 62. 119. 244 Tours (online). 242. 189. 281 SCORM. 275 Translation. 222. 251 Serious games. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 247. 2. 187 Virtual classrooms. 206. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 51. 180. 244 Tangible computing. 158. 97. 165. 156. 246. 319 Role-playing. 121. 158. 150. 198. 69. 145. 252. 159. 171. 57. 236. 5. 145. 212 reusable learning objects. 216. 12. 262. 161. 210. 201. 331 Wearable computing. 147. 12. 5. 98. 167. 228. 104. 212. 66. 55. 252. 174. 187. 264 Social networking. 241. 227. 15. 148. 88. 215. 155. 196. 117 Reusability. 196. 202. 159. 219. 219. 253. 202. 256. 232. 230. 203. 69. 327 Videocasting. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).

256. 84. 53. 276 Word. 233. 157. 6. 184. 77. 307 Wikipedia. 137. 271. 90. 103. 1. 134. 266. 269. 10. 104. 115. 233. 82. 106. 267. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 187 Whiteboards. 80. 272. 5. 87. 114. 268. 136. 86.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 156. 332 Woodill. 59. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 269. 174. 270 Wikis. 3. 116. 232. 68. 168. 209. 268. Gary. 135. 97. 270.

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