Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

material. The modern classroom. detentions. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. for example. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. that lecturing.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. We tend to forget. as books were scarce. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. the raising of hands. with rows. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. But learning technologies have a much longer history. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. They are. is a 2000 year old “technology. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. and language for communication. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today.” Starting in the first century AD.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. still used in many institutions of higher education. With these reforms. and recess. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. Technologies are any technique. or device that extends human abilities. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. the classroom became industrialized. Do Not Reproduce 1 . marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Learning became standardized and linear. to quote Donald Norman (1993).” The word comes from the Latin lectura. class periods. Medieval universities followed the same practice. or “reader. fire for warmth and cooking. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. “things that make us smart.

2 © 2006. and talking machines (phonographs or record players).E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Sadly. many different ways to learn. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. When a new technology first comes into use. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. When a new technology is introduced. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). Thomas Watson. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests.” Similarly. At the same time. moving pictures (films). For example. chairman of IBM. linear teaching techniques online. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. and reciting. A third way to learn is by seeing. Brandon Hall Research . in fact. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. changing the practice of teaching. Schools were started to teach accounting. Students in these schools learned by reading. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Like all new technologies. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. even if the originator of the words is not present.just the ability to follow an example. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . There are.” In 1970. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. memorizing. Eventually.

To realize these advantages. sometimes referred to as a mashup. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. it needs to adhere to architectures. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. 2006). But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Rather than pages. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Rather than pages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. Do Not Reproduce 3 . Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. 2006). However. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. as this is a non-technical guide. mashups can only be done using computer technology. and standards. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. frameworks.

free. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. Brandon Hall Research . With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. Number 3.php). (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. 4 © 2006. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. 2005. January. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.grid. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.fr/publicatio n.

org) has a number of published documents that. presentation and interactive environments.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. http://ltsc. taken together.aicc. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. Do Not Reproduce 5 . Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.org).imsglobal. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification.ieee. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://sourceforge.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. Major specifications for e-learning. http://imsproject.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. enabling the search for content.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. At the same time. and education administration. interactive learning components. http://purl. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.accessgrid. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. In Europe.elframework.oclc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. research.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. http://www. At the same time. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). http://www. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. In particular.adlnet. and makes extensive use of XML.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.

” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.is based on open. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. 2006) has argued.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. They noted that “…in education. Instead of just providing courses. While packaged courses still have a place. Bollier says.” In late 2005. In business. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. As Anderson (2004. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. 6 © 2006. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. reinforces this theme.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. “[a] pull economy . Moreover. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. Brandon Hall Research . I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. For example. Instead. 2004). Rather. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). Instead. This is especially true for adult education.

http://www. Do Not Reproduce 7 . Chris (2006). I hope you will find it useful. In the last chapter. Milan. Web 2. Thus. http://www. Z.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. http://www. R. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).ntnu. UK. G. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. F. and Conte.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. (2005). M. Italy.html Anderson. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more.. 41(2). Chris (2004). Five years ago. http://www. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. 12(10).com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. McClatchey.. June 2005. Wales. M. mobile devices. 10/tail. Ahmad. the reader can approach any topic in any order. is becoming commonplace. and a bibliography. M. The Long Tail. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. M. Zanichelli. New York: Hyperion. Bertolazzi. 2005).. Cardiff. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. and wearable computers. ambient networks.org/abs/cs. A.wired. Bryan (2006). Odeh.idi. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. online resources.DC/0502051 Alexander. F. From this. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al.. October. those learners are now keeping their own records. Umer. March/April 2006.. Wired Magazine.. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Reggiani. User-created content. Bibliography Abbas. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.pdf Anderson..amazon.educause. Ali. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. along with selected examples.com/wired/archive/12..0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. (2005). R. http://arxiv.

. and McGinnis (2004). Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. http://www. Web Services . Tsiatsos.pdf Cerri. 13.htm l 8 © 2006.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti.pdf Bogonikolos. Montreal. Weiss. http://www. International E-Learning Specifications.. K.amazon. NJ: Prentice-Hall. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology.gmu. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.aspeninstitute. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . David (2005). WI. T.a sp Chatarji.ICALT 2001. (2002). Triantafillou. Portugal.bcs. 16. Thomas (2004). http://www.pdf Erl. S. of Distance Education 10. Switzerland. (2001).pdf Friesen. K. R. http://ewic..virtual. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. 13-16.devshed.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. C. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. 2004. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Online.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product.Dev Shed. Lausanne. M. Madison.cscsi. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. 6-8. Dec. http://www. Norm (2006)..ca/softeval/report s/R110203. 4-36. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. Centre for Distance Ed. American Jrnl. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). 2001..athabascau. 2.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. N. Jagadish (2004). Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Giotopoulos. and Votis.cti. Upper Saddle River. Porto. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.org/celda2005/index.cancore.. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. V. C. T. (2002). (1996). 14-16. http://www. Stefano (2005). http://cde. Nov. http://www. and McGreal. Sept.htm Bollier..org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis.. Athabasca University. 2002.ca/protocols_en. http://www. G. Chrysostalis. http://ru6. N.iadis. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. March 2002. Brandon Hall Research . Likothanassis.org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. Oct. M. Hornig..edu/pdf/ajde. 2004. USA. 19.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. Aug.

.pdf He.aifb. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.det.act. D.computer. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. Germany. Sept.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1. SCORM and the Learning Grid. and Vossen.. of Education and Training.pdf Knorr. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. 27 . and Putland.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. Gregor (2005). J. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. F. ThoughtWorks White paper. Donald (1993).com..com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1. Proceedings. 2003.com/paper_pushpull . Erlanger.xml. (2002). http://www. T. L. Switzerland.28 April 2004. Education. and Brown.56 Marshall. http://www. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Stephen (2004). MA: Perseus. W. Working paper. 30.ascilite. http://ewic. J. (2003). http://csdl2.org. Green.html Hockemeyer. J.pdf Millea..pdf Neumann. http://www. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). A field guide to software as a service.200 5. (2005). (2005). Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.htm Hohpe.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies.S.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . (2005).xml&DOI=10. http://www.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. Australia. and Albert. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. Sept. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. V.bcs. http://www. Perth. Hao (2003). E. Infoworld. Cambridge.unikarlsruhe. 1026-1032.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel. for the Australian Dept.html Kong. Stuttgart. and Borck.c om/docs/SOA_World. January 2005.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. (2004). J.xml.gov. (2005). I. http://www. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 2005.bcs.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc.pdf Norman.johnhagel. J. 2002 http://ewic. and Zhang. C. Lausanne.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids. Luo.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. http://www. G.amazon. April 18. http://www.1109/CIT. R. G. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.infoworld.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2. and Geys.au Limited.

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selected elearning related examples. and a bibliography for each section. Included are related terms. online resources to learn more about each technology. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Do Not Reproduce 11 .

because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. understand. posture. SRI Consulting (http://www. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. too. privacy. emotions. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. 2005). et al. understand. Brandon Hall Research .” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.. emotional design. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.sricbi. and to respond to them effectively. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. security.. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. or sad.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. 12 © 2006. in Italy. gestures. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. facial recognition. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. In online therapy. and react to human emotions. 2005). confused. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. For example. and react to human emotions. keystroke patterns. Without the ability to understand emotions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.” (Anolli.

” Meet Ditto at: http://www.mit. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. See the links at: http://emotion. April 12-15. October 22-24.cs.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. Affective Computing.informatik. Dr. and legality. Check it out at: http://www. listing many links to interesting resources.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. 2005.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX.nsma. Hatfield. 2005. UK. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. accuracy. See: http://www.de/link/affective_p ortal.media.co.unige. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. bibliographies. including studies of emotions in computers. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. with many resources.arizona.org. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.bartneck.myself-proj.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. China. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.bham. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.html In Germany.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.convo.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Do Not Reproduce 13 . UK.aisb. University of Hertfordshire.edu/emotion. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Access it from: http://www. are available online: http://www.unitrier. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.

Oregon.pdf Goren-Bar. David (2003). Y. Yamada. D.dis. http://www. Brassac. Lee. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Maldonado. http://www. Realdon.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. http://www.. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman.. Oregon. Isbister... P.. Erlbaum. and Zancanaro. (2005)... Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. K. CHI 2005.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Issue 11/12. http://www. and Waterworth. Portland. Portland.sics. Nakajima.uniroma1.1 2/love. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation.wired. O... Brave. http://www. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.sics. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. and Zouinar. and Laaksolahti. Z. Nortillaro. Bouraoui. Oregon. (2005). April 2-7.. Vescovo.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook.sics. I.. S. http://www. M. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. P. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. N. and Confalonieri (2005). K.sics.doc Hook.stanford. H. M.it/~lhci/009.pdf Diamond. Pachoud.. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Joseph (2005).pdf 14 © 2006. Pianesi.sics. C. J. L. F. D. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. Portland. http://www. December. K.. 2005. F. Zurloni. Graziola. (2005).pdf Cahour.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour. Oregon. CHI 2005 conference. V.doc Chateau.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar. Stock. R. M. and Merisol. I Like It . April 2-7. C.sics... Mantovani. CHI 2005 conference. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Portland. O. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. J. Oregon. 2005 http://www.com/wired/archive/11.. 2005.html Fallman. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. April 2-7. Nass.. Agliati. April 2-7. (2005). H. Portland. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Balestra. J. L. and Morishima.. Rocchi.. C. A. April 2-7. CHI 2005..Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. A. http://www. Iwamura. (2005). CHI 2005 conference. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. (2005). April 2-7.. September 13. Brandon Hall Research . NJ. B. J. 2005. Salembier. Vermersch.. B.. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.pdf Kaye. Wired Magazine. The Love Machine: building computers that care.

Portland.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. T. Paper for WEBIST 2005. 2005. Cambridge. MA: MIT. http://www.amazon. and Picard.pdf Masum. Dec. Portland. and Ishizuka. CHI 2005.sics. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2004). Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. China.. http://www. (2002).sics. Oregon. http://www. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. M. 35(2). http://www.ac. Oregon. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. May 26. Tan. Regan (2005). J.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Affective Springer.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. J.utokyo. S.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Portland.pdf Mentis.iste. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. CHI 2005.pdf Norman. OR. R. April 2-7. April 2-7. Miami. Beijing.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. (2005).t. http://www. October 22-24.sics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. CHI 2005 conference.de/emeocom p/content. (2005).com/gp/product/3 http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005.ruebenstrunk. http://www. 2005. 2002. and Daily. and Steele. (2005). S. 22. Gerd (1998). E-book http://www. http://www. M. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Donald A. Computing. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.HTM Steele.htm Tao. Rosalind (1997).miv. Berlin: Picard.amazon.elearningreviews. R. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. ACII 2005. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Helena (2005). An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion. New York: Basic.

2005. Oregon. University of Birmingham.cs. Doctoral Dissertation.uk/research/cog aff/Wright.pdf 16 © 2006. Portland. Brandon Hall Research .bham. http://www.Affective Computing Wiberg. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.thesis. Ian (1997). Affective Computing vs. Charlotte (2005). April 2-7. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg.ac.doc Wright.sics. Emotional Agents.

Dick Stenmark. and. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. 2004). For example. autonomous agents. Do Not Reproduce 17 . learning/adaptation. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. 1999).gu. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. benevolence. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. and many of them can actually learn. Third. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student.. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Fourth. 1999).se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. rationality. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge.informatik. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. and both may be found in the same program (for example.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Second. In this context. veracity. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. avatars. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. see the paper by Far et al. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. First. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. proactive (goal directed).

agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. (1998) developed a conversational agent. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. 2000). which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. She made mistakes. Mentor. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. 2005. Brandon Hall Research . Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. 2004) and are. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. et al. In such situations. 18 © 2006. acting against other teams of agents. Baldi. therefore. not only about environments. However. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. 2005). Therefore. Viswanath. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. and the students had to continue to teach her. A second agent in the simulation. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Katzlberger. useful in educational simulations. Even though each agent acts independently. but also about other agents. Massaro et al. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Agents have beliefs. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor.

Hypermedia. For details of this research: http://www. http://www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs.uka.editlib. For details see: www.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. and expert guides. Therefore.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.com/ CodeBaby Corp.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623.csc. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. (2004): http://www. See: http://www.ac. See the article by Williams et al. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. 459462. They are available as adaptive coaches. (2003).isi. See: http://www.fsu. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. See: http://liinwww.editlib. Do Not Reproduce 19 .de/bibliography/Ai /agents. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. not only about environments.netobjectdays.extempo. S. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. but also about other agents.stanford. See a demo at: http://www.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.old.redwoodelearning. A. & Ebbers.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.org/index. and Telecommunications 2003.org/index. go to: http://ldt. expert role-players. go to: http://ritl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.liv.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ira. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Go to: http://www.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.codebaby..

. http://csdl.Agents Baylor. W. 10 (3). 11(3).aace. http://www.pdf Jafari. Germany. 28(2). Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. http://www.old. Large Complex Systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro.editlib. and Shaw.pdf Clarebout. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.. S. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. 306-311).editlib.. 75-80.editlib. Norfolk. Elan.educause. ELearning 2003. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. (2003). Hypermedia. Clarebout. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. and Tsang.org/index. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). (2005).editlib. Ng. 3. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. 267-286 http://www. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). http://www. 1503-1506. A. B. G.org/newdl/index. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. http://www..cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Z. (2002). Jrnl.computer. e-Learning 2005. VA: AACE. http://www.org/index. Inter-active Learning Res. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.cfm?fusea ction=Reader. E. http://www. Proceedings. 1353-1356. Erfurt.org/index. L. 275-285.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. http://www. M. In Richards.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. C...pdf Kao.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. (2002). Sun. Johnson. A. 5(7). Brandon Hall Research . Educause Quarterly. Koono. No. S.). & Kim.org/index. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Educause Quarterly. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. and Palopoli. (2000).editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006.org/index. S.. G. (Ed. Paper presented. & Johnson.. L. (2002). G. & El-Khouly. J. J. & Lin. G. & Bengu.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.... In Proceedings. http://www. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.educause. (1999)..edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. Zahia (2004).pdf Guessoum. July. 2005. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. G. Y.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao.netobjectdays.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. W. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. Y. Ali (2002).

(2003). Nashville.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. (2004). Thomas (2005). Sandel. Doctoral Dissertation. V. 4(1). International Journal on E-Learning. W. S. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.org/index. M. August. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning..ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.unikarlsruhe.informatics..org/index. http://www.cse.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. IFIP WG12.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. Krittaya (2005). Nashville.amazon.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. 1999. http://cslu.pdf Luengo. http://www. Toulouse.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Vanderbilt University. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Fuhua Oscar (2005).pdf Menczer. www. ED-MEDIA. of California.. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. France.editlib. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. www. (2005). P. E-Learning 2003. 1632. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.ogi.pdf Lin.teachableagents. Doctoral Dissertation.editlib. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. A. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. R. Beskow.org/16948 Leelawong. and Ho.editlib.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). http://dl.indiana. and Winikoff. O. http://www. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. C. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. TN.pdf Kim. E. Vanderbilt University. Cohen. In Proceedings. D. M.aifb. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Learning by Teaching Agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 ..com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. U. and Stucky. 21-38. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.de/BIK/vpa/109.. Hershey. Doctoral dissertation. Y. (2006). http://www.5 . Daniel.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. L. 17(2). 143-162. www.amazon. and Cole.edu/fil/ Padgham.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro..K. J. Tennessee. http://www.aace.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.org/index. 16591666. (1999). In Proceedings. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. and Ferneley. http://www.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. V.teachableagents.

H. M. Government. Healthcare. ED-MEDIA 2005. & Booth.). & Lim. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. (2004). and Solomon.org/papers/ 158bis.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.utexas. G. http://www. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. G. (1999).ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. Russia.teachableagents. & Madsen.org/index. 1999. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.org/16968 Sahin. (2005). (Ed. R. Petersburg. Atreya. St. (2004). (1999). Peter (1998).vt.edu/565321. G. http://www. 30003002. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Wesley. In Richards. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. Biswas. M..org/index. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Proceedings. & Leelawong. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation.org/index. Kommers & G. S. and Higher Education 2004.editlib.aace. EDMedia 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. 3169-3176. http://www.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. B. 47-59.ist. 10 (3). Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). and Núñeza. N.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.html Shim. Carnegie Mellon University. (2005). http://citeseer.cs. June 1-4. Doctoral Dissertation. M. PA. Finland. (2004).lib. Brandon Hall Research .. In P.. http://scholar. S.aace. 321-333. L.Agents Perez.editlib. Ferat (2000).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://www. Richards (Eds. Adebiyi.). J. Gilbert.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. 14(1). A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.pdf Williams. 61-65. Proceedings. http://www... In Proceedings.. R.. 14151420. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.editlib. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies..editlib. http://www. http://www. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). Pittsburgh. ED-MEDIA 2004. D. K. http://dl.psu. K. L.org/index. J.org/newdl/index. 194-201. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.

ac.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 .html Yan. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. http://ca.upc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.wiley. Chicago.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. Chun. Michael (2002). (2004). April 18-21. http://research. 2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Paper at CLAG2004.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce


Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

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They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. While many systems purport to be personalized. 2002). Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. Talking Head Tutor vs. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Do Not Reproduce 30 .” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. gestures. rather than using a single type of knowledge. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed.e. etc) and how they are interrelated. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. objects. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. concepts. (2003).” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.

pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.cs.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. ecommerce..di.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.uregina.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR..” http://www. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.cs. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. see: http://lsa. http://lsa. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. (2005a. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation. http://www. including student monitoring.” http://www.colorado.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.colorado. Do Not Reproduce 31 .” http://www.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.iit.cs.uic.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “. and multiagents.unito.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.

” http://ctat.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. http://www. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . Brandon Hall Research . 32 © 2006.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.pdf Oguejiofor et al.pact.” http://www.gast.edu.it.iis.unsw. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.cs.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.ht ml To achieve their goals. http://quantumsimulations. http://ariic.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004. http://www.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.enel. and INFOMAP. question answering (QA) techniques.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.sinica.uc3m. http://www.edu.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.kicinger. As a result.cmu. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. Infrature. http://bach. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.com/index. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.ucalgary. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.library. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. http://www.infrature.

and an interactive intelligent tutor. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. skill gaps. see: http://www. http://www.cs. Aurora .com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. and learning style.ke-corp.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. so that these systems become more realistic. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic .Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.stottlerhenke. http://pact. The reality is that.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.it. challenging. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.” http://www.cmu. Do Not Reproduce 33 . and engaging. preferred cadence.cs.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.edu.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988.cmu. http://www. Find out more at: http://ctat.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. Task Tutor Toolkit . Inc. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. an adaptive testing algorithm.usyd.com/s10.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.virtuelage.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.gemini. intelligent conflict resolution.pact. without programming. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Stottler Henke Associates.

htm Marvin Minsky.masternewmedia. For more info: http://www2.” Learn more at: http://www.learningcircuits. Brandon Hall Research . go to: http://aied.ucalgary. Read it at: http://www. http://www.ed.technologyreview.wpi.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. For more information.ed.org/AITopics/html/tutor.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.org/2000/fe b2000/ong. Taiwan.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). See: http://www.uk/aiedsoc. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.ac. Find it at: http://www.ca/eng/in dex. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. http://www. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. 34 © 2006. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.ac.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.uquebec.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. with the next one in 2007.cs.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.teluq.enel.inf. China.licef.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.org/cfp. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. http://aied.aaai.inf. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.autotutor.its2006.com/printer _friendly_article. The AIED conferences are held every two years.

Baroglio. (2004). Hershey. and Penstein Rosé. Paraguaçu (Eds. ITS 2004.. http://www.unito. S. and Koedinger.Volume I. G. B. I. P. Hermann (2002).pdf Barcena. http://www. T..amazon.pdf Baldoni. Chicago. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. http://www. http://www. (2004). Eshaa (Ed.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . C.ht ml Aleven.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist.. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. R. (2004).82 Bhatt. and Read.. http://lingcog. K.. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Reilly.org/10. M. C.pitt. J. (2004).pdf Alkhalifa. Brazil. In Proceedings. C.cmu. Vicari. S. Artificial Intelligence Review. E. (2005). V. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. Argamon. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems.di. R.pdf Aleven.). and Evens.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). K. http://dx.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. V. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .1109/ITCC. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. and Picard. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. M. and Patti.. R.edu/pubs/pub_4073.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit. (2002). http://www. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.) (2006).iit. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Mostow. 22: 3–39. and Douglas. Roll. McLaren. M.doi. http://nth. B.html Barker.ri. PA: Idea.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read... & F.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04.eurodl. Lester.ac. 6(1). http://www. 482-487. Maceió.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. (2004). Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. Kort.wpi. V.2005. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.sbg. In J.

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Aug. http://ltodi.ca/People/far/re s-e/theme05. L.).iaalab. and Future Directions. Yu. 15-16.. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez. M (2005b). and VanLehn. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Hierarchical Graphs..leaonline.pdf Di Eugenio. J. Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.pdf Far. 225-234 http://www. http://www. J.ca/People/far/.ucalgary. http://www.niu. M (2005a).edu/pubs/Collab orationAIED05.ucalgary. Empirical Results. (2004). and Frasson.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.it.uic. C. B. Netherlands.enel.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www. Decision-Support and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education..cs.com/doi/pdf/10. Taiwan. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. (2005).gast.cs. and Glass. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration. and Sarmanova. Tainan... Pardo. Reva (2000).. Educational Psychologist.pt/hgamboa/Publica/ c2_331. Walker.. A. (2001). Sewall. McNamara. B. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. (2000). D. C. ICEIS'2001.est.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Di Eugenio.html Gamboa. In ACL05. Amsterdam. http://ctat. D..ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. A. A. and Kloos. (2005). http://bach.H. http://www. 18-22 July. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.ncku. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems.pdf Frize. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Yu. S. (2005).pdf Harrer.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Do Not Reproduce 37 .enel. B. Fossati. 2005.cmu.uic. S. http://www. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). B. D.edu.) Fasuga.uc3m. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems.. A.. Fall. and Fred.es/~sergut/pub lications/Gutier04b. Bollen. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence. Amsterdam. M. http://www. In C. 11(3). Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. http://www. Looi et al.tw/iceer2005 /Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013. 1-5 March.pact.-K. Haller. K. AutoTutor. D.pdf Freedman. R.pdf Graesser. 40(4).cs. Haller. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. E. (2006). D. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. (Eds.cs. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process..ips. Fossati. S. H.edu/~freedman/papers /link2000.site.uottawa. and iSTART. 23(4). McLaren. and Glass..

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Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. Assessment software can generate templates. self-evaluation. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. affective. For example. or performance samples. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. and output. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. quizzes. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. for example. or performance samples. rubrics. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. eassessment. in the near future. evaluation. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. 1956). and psychomotor. More sophisticated forms of automated. quizzes. When combined into a “360° evaluation. Do Not Reproduce 45 . once only done by a human assessor. quizzes. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. samples. are already available. aptitudes. In a business situation. computer mediated assessment (CMA). Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. and documents for assessors to use. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. computer-based assessment tools. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. online assessment. computer based assessment (CBA). We can expect that. the automated scoring of essays. making it hard to escape assess-ment.

Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. multilingual support.com/redinq/html/inde x. from Resources Management Services in the U. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment. Diploma. 46 © 2006.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Find them at: http://www. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.rmsuk. a customizable look and feel. preview pages for all question types. skills. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. Review it at: http://www. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.xstreamsoftware.testcraft. For details.learningandteaching. Try it at: http://nt. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. has recently won awards for its performance. and adaptive question branching.K. see: http://www.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. abilities. http://www. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.brainbench. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. Brandon Hall Research .com/news_ performance_analyzer2. However. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. personality.. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. and past work behaviors.com/evaluator Testcraft. See the site at: http://www. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. See: http://www.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment.horizonwimba.info/lear ning/solo. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.redinq. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. and (4) computer marking. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.com The Evaluator. a completely customizable report engine.0.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.questionmark.

com/wwwtools/magazin es. and self-study. check out the Dialang web site. learning tools.” organized by academic discipline.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.fasfind.” See their offerings at: http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.epistema. http://www.respondus.uc. http://www.colorado.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. and services useful for outcomes assessment. See more at: http://www. institutional evaluation. For information on latent semantic analysis. See: http://www.operitel.pedagogue.flaguide.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.ets. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. and adminis-tration features. reporting. on its Web site.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.dialang. see: http://lsa.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. Try it at: http://www. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 . once only done by a human assessor. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.org/ ETS. http://www.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www.vantagelearning. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. http://www.org/english/index. surveys.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.

ira. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. http://www.tasainstitute. Check them out at: http://school. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.ac.” http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.com/tools/rubric s. Explore the links at: http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA.uiuc. http://cba.com/useguide/as sessme/online.uka.ac.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.nestafuturelab.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.discovery.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. with over 1.unimelb. http://www.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.wlv. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. is available from: http://liinwww. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. http://www.economicsnetwork.org/research/ reviews/10_01.umuc.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.thinkinggear.oir.health.au/assessi nglearning/03/online.heacademy.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.ac. http://www.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. http://www.learnflex. http://www. with a list of 34 strategies.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. Obtain a copy at: http://www.edu.htm 48 © 2006.cshe.rmcdenver.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.uk/home. Brandon Hall Research .ulster.200 references.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.ac.com/schrockguid e/assess.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.000 different tests from its database.scit.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.com/029.

1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. http://www.htm Atkinson. N. 53-65. Online paper.com/career_asse ssment. McNamara. M.. Carro. http://www. 8 (3). Ortigosa. J.info/learn ing/solo. R. K. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. New York: Academic Press.amazon. New York: McKay. D.quintcareers. James (2005). London: Paladin.pdf Biggs.htm#2. http://www. M. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.html Bibliography Alfonseca.ifets. G. http://www.org/en/en_mod41. Louis. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers..iltaonline. S. Pérez. A.info/journals/8_3/6. Online paper. and Collis. (2001).learningandteaching..unt. T.3 Bateson. B. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. and O'Hagan.iltaonline. T. J. Missouri. http://www.ict4lt. E. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www. L.. and Davies. Iwashita. St.amazon.. and Hirschman.pdf Atherton.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. S. (1982). Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.tcet. A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. (2004)..amazon. P. Educational Technology & Society. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.. & Rodríguez. Freire. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Gregory (1973). http://www. (1956). (2001). (2005).pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 .

Arlington Heights.assess.. http://www. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". (1997). Kay (1999). CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. C. Chodorow.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.eschoolnews. Burstein (Eds. Ciravegna (Eds. http://www.. Burstein. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Linn (Ed. June 22. eSchool News. www. IL: Skylight.ets. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Hillsdale.org/intelligent/archives. How to Assess Authentic Learning. http://www. (2003). Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Daniel.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics.pdf. In the R.msu. Shermis and J. 3rd Edition. & Olsen. K. Robert (2005). Burstein. and Marcu.assess. In S. Jill C. Kevin (2003). Kaplan (Ed.htm Burstein. Harabagiu and F. D.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. http://llt.computer. Mexico. In M. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.. IEEE Intelligent Systems.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective.amazon.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. J. Jill. & Leacock.). New York. (2003). Rethink testing for future success. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. (1989).com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. V. New York: Oxford. NY: Macmillan. Martin. Inouye. http://www. August 2003. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. M. B. and Knight. In M. L. Shermis and J. and Chodorow. (2003).com/Books/b39739.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Brandon Hall Research . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Marcu.amazon.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. 1.com/news/sho wStoryts. In R.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. J. http://www. Hillsdale. C. Jill. Burstein (Eds. http://www. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Educational Measurement.amazon. 2005. Jill.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. http://www. Acapulco.ht m.com/Books/b39739. (2002).htm 50 © 2006.Assessment Tools Brown J. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Daniel..

(1998). May. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.. Morgan. (Ed. and Parry.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion.edu. 5. P. C. Loughborough.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. http://llt.amazon. P.html Do Not Reproduce 51 .edu.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Davis.ac. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.nmsu.utas.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). http://llt. Y. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.ncte. D.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. (1999).iltaonline. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Chalhoub-Deville.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Language Learning & Technology 2. (1999). n.unimelb. H. http://wwwpsych. http://www.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.html Chalhoub-Deville. W. http://www. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Millard. http://www. Board on Testing and Assessment.pdf Dunkel P. M. & Landauer. K.msu. N. (2005). College Composition and Communication Online. http://eprints.html Davies. In Proceedings. The Student Assessment Handbook. Howard.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. M. Writing assessment: a position statement. http://www. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".. 2. Micheline. D. Online newsletter.ecs.nap. Language testing and technology: past and future.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. C. Language Learning and Technology.Proceedings from a Workshop. Laham.msu. L. (2004). Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Nathan. March 9.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. E. T. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. (2004). University of Tasmania.) (1999). Foltz. and Grellett. v.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. O’Reilly. Louis. http://www. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). (2001). B.hlc. W.doc. 2: 77-93. EdMedia '99. National Research Council. Micheline..soton.au/worldcall/str5. S. London: Falmer. (2001).htm Cebrian.. St. Online newsletter. and Sclater. www...

M. PA: Information Science.pdf MacDonlad. France.html Khan. C. Howell.amazon. Hillsdale.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones. Seven technologies for assessment.html. Compiegne.medianet. Patrick (2000). (Eds. Howard (1993).edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault.amazon. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 .pdf Landauer.) (2002). No. http://www. M. and Ward.pd f Kenyon.. Robert. 25. & Laham. R (2002). J. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.msu. W.) (2005). 4. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Language Learning and Technology. http://www. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. and Watt.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones.kent. S.pdf Hricko. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Y. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. http://llt. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 5(2). Potenza. W. May. Language Learning and Technology.. J.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. Discourse Processes. http://lsa. International Journal on E-Learning. H. n. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Fremer. and Howell.softwaresecure. V. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. (2005).amazon. 259284.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.proexam.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. Foltz. D. (1998). (2001). M. Hardas. http://www. and Ma. (2001). K.htm..org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.. New York: Basic Books.msu. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. v. (1999). 2.Hershey. Gardner. J. M. http://mason.edu/papers/dp1. Lawrence.colorado.gmu. Weller. D. http://www.amazon. (Eds. N. Online paper. T. and Malabonga.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. http://www.LSAi ntro. http://www. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase. (2002).. P. & Mason.com/pdf/Pap erTests. http://llt. 5. http://www.. May.

and Gifford. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. M. PA: Information Science. J. (2005). The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. http://www. Online Assessment. Washington.. Journal of Technol. http://www.amazon. Fitzgerald. & Leacock. (2000). (Ed. and Hricko. Hershey. Handbook of writing research..amazon. http://eric. Burstein. Government. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. and Skinner. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Howard. (2006). D. Tim (2006). C. A.operitel.ed. 403-416. (1979). Problem Solving. G. Learning. R. http://www. S. and Writing.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Measurement and Evaluations.ed. http://www.) (2000).S.bc.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. DC: U. Howell. Operitel white paper. http://nces.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. M.com Do Not Reproduce 53 . Self.amazon. http://escholarship.) (2005). Graham. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. K. http://www.edu/cgi/viewconten t. University of Gothenburg.. S.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Mahwah.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. D. & J. pp. B.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. M. Reports from the Institute of Education. (2006). New York. Information Science Publishing. and Assessment. In C. 4(6). pdf Weiner.amazon. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. (Eds. McArthur. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. National Center for Education Statistics. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. NY: Guilford Press.

The quality of online audio depends on many factors. According to Crofts et al. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.5 megabytes. podcasting. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. while it is playing.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Brandon Hall Research . being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers.. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. which is gaining in popularity.e. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. compared with even a few years ago. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. is podcasting. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. (2005). depending on the file size). one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. (i. the rest of the file has time to arrive. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). For example. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . One audio application of interest to educators. or by “streaming.

Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.thepodcastnetwork. You can’t add your own notes. http://www. http://www. (i.rds.scientificcomputing.e. http://www. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. in part. Assists non-native speakers. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. http://www.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.purdue.. Provides another channel for material review. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. http://sourceforge. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. GNU/Linux.apple. such as those for iPods. Provides feedback to learners. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. This frag-mentation is being fueled.com/blogs/doug/index. Do Not Reproduce 55 . open source software for recording and editing sounds. Microsoft Windows. to personalized media). But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. It is available to download for Mac OS X. http://www.envision.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. and other operating systems.

ltd. http://www.htm For a list of podcasting tools.masternewmedia.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.automaticsync. http://www. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.ibritt.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. tools. playback. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators.co.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. including software to record and play podcasts.48. sound editing.71.htm RECAP Ltd. CD audio extraction.avsmedia. http://www. enhancing. phrases.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Audio and video software.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . http://epnweb.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.com/resources/dc_medi a. http://www. http://www.podcasting-tools.edupodder.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. which is gaining in popularity.com. freeware. http://64. and utilities for conversion.com/AudioTools/in dex. DJ mixing.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. and broadcasting are all found on this site. 56 © 2006. go to: http://www. http://www. is podcasting. shareware.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.elearningcentre. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.audiotoolsdirect.com/lipsync/in dex.uk/podcasting/index. including podcasting. http://recap. recording. or sentences from audio Web sites.

Retsema.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.bias-inc. Richards (Ed. http://recap.. 417-419).editlib. In G. Sound Sense.uk/articles/podguide. http://digitalcommons. Healthcare. Dion Cory (1999).unl. Robin Good’s Blog. Ray (2005). Luigi (2005).com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 . Fox. http://www. Scientific Computing World.aace.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.html Curtis. M.cakewalk. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.html Bibliography Buhman. S. L. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.masternewmedia.com/products/audition/ main.adobe.htm Jobbings. VA: AACE. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.ltd.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.multitrackstudio. http://www.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index. P. 45-50.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. University of Nebraska. and Williams.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. J. B. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. First Monday.. http://www. May 20. 2005. Chesapeake. Dilley. (2005).org/index. http://firstmonday. http://dl.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. 10(9). http://www.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. (2003).sonicfoundry. September.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1)..scientificcomputing.org/3455 Girvan. A.html Canali De Rossi. Government. April 2005. Doctoral Dissertation.com/home. July 2005. Dave (2005). Brenda (2001). RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). and Swenson.audiolink.

Podcasts. Peter (2005). Eva (2005). Podcasting and Vodcasting.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. http://edmarketing. N. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.educause.learningcircuits.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. June 2005.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng. http://www.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. http://www. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Learning Circuits.pdf Noakes. C. Brandon Hall Research .apple. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. and Lomas.

Do Not Reproduce 59 . rapid e-learning. In this vein. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. No authoring tool does everything. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. 2005). The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. shtml). see: http://www. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. and Evaluation) processes. Further.com/publications/emerging/emerging. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Implementation. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen.brandonhall.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. content development.microsoft. please see http://www. simulations. either directly or with third party tools. As well. Further. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Design. Development. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. (For details. either directly or with third party tools. and. in the end. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats.

video.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.info/ Allen Communications .Capture Station 2.com Agile . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. visualization. video. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.articulateglobal. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . music. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.htm ActiveSlide.accordent.allencomm.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain. www.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. and marketing applications. http://www.acroservices. http://www.com/products/ Articulate .com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. go to: http://www.Thinkcap Studio .Designer’s Edge. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. http://www. http://www.anark. XML.adobe.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.Media – Import 3-D Models.thinkingcap.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. and images and turn them into 3-D training.com/presenter. http://www.com Anark . http://www.com/ Acroservices .activeslide.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Do Not Reproduce 60 .

TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly.copycatsoftware.ht m Brainshark Inc. http://presentation.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. hotspots. such as the following: Web.bridge-pt.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming. pop-up messages. rich text. .elearningpowertools.com/eng/index. video.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.atlanticlink.php e2train .co. http://www.com/in dex_eng. http://www.brainshark. http://www. video.ilessons. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.lersus. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.uk/contentpoint. DVD-video.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . buttons. and PowerPoint slides.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . http://www.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. and animation. Flash. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.Content Point . or Macromedia Flash media presentations.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.e2train.shtml Dynamic Media .digitalworkshop.exe files. Do Not Reproduce 61 .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.dynamicpowertrainer. http://www. http://www. audio.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.htm Composica . http://www. CD Rom. http://www.com/inde x.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop .uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.turbodemo.com/ Business Performance Technology .htm Bernard D&G .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www. pointers. http://www. http://www. Integrates various media. stand alone .composica.com/product s/Pro.com/power point-presentations-index.co.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. Builds quizzes.Composica Enterprise .com/ Counterpoint .

com Imaira Digital Media .gen21. Brandon Hall Research . all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.sculptoris.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.experiencebuilders.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. http://www.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. Post the characters on any Web site. http://www.com/index. http://www.eclipsys.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation . http://www. graphics.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .hunterstone. and.horizonwimba.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.com/ Hunter Stone .eedo. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. http://www.com Element K . Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.com/products/forceten. in the end. without programming knowledge.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .com/Solutions/Elear ning. html E-Learning Consulting . 62 © 2006.e-learningconsulting. http://www. http://www. and installation files.epistema.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. http://www. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.elicitus.elementk.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.com No authoring tool does everything. http://www.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools.com/ka. http://www. HTML courses.

elearninginabox. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.com/home/home. http://www.uk/ INTEC .WTDS-Web Training Development System . http://www.seminar.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates.asp Knowledge Quest .lecturnity. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 63 .knowledgequest.co. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. shtml Itaca . http://www.ie/software/publisher.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.easyprof.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.impatica. Word.intecllc.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. audio.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/pro dserv.de/ Impatica .Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www. combining multimedia content like video.intuition.Used to create presentations without programming skills.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.com/flashh ome. http://www. http://www.knowledgeplanet.js p Knowledge Planet . centralized knowledge base.com/ Information Transfer .E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. http://www.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. and animations with tests and interactivity.pdf Intuition .knowledgepresenter.EasyProf .LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons. Built-in testing engine. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG . http://www.ipsinc. with no programming and no plugins. Has its own built-in learning management system.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .knowledgextensions. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.

course publisher.com/coursegen.maxit.mckinnonmulherin.mindiq.htm MediaMaker .CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. 64 © 2006.com/ NetPlay Software .maxit.com/ Percepsys .mohive.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www. http://www.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. PowerPoint slides.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.co.LEARNERLand – Text. http://www. http://www. with a built-in learning management system. http://www.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .SNAP! Studio – A course builder. http://www. and course player all in one software package.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.instant-demo.ph p MindOnSite .com/ OPTX International . http://www. http://www.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.uk/ MindIQ .Authoring Tools Learn.learn.mindonsite.com .Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. graphics.com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.screenwatch.learnerland. .customcourse.ch/eLearning/EN /index. Ready-made button and navigation aids.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.percepsys.com/learncenter.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Works with SAP Learning Solution.com/index. http://www. and other online presentations for play back to students.

turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. http://www.com/ Qarbon .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. a customizable.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .sensalearning.Nuvvo .rapidintake.com/Products/elear ning_objects. popups. crosswords. and assessments. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 65 .readygo. http://www. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. http://nuvvo.suddenlysmart.cfm Serco (technical) .com/ Scribe Studio .qarbon. matching games. http://www.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.pointecast.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.podia. and Flash.E-Learning Objects .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. Audio.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. customizable flashcards. http://www.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. http://www.com Rapid Intake . Microsoft PowerPoint.Publisher Professional . image labeling.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.teknical. http://www.or SCORMcompliant.reusableobjects. JPEGs.softchalk.podiaOnDemand .Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.scribestudio. When content is developed. http://www. interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www.com/products/stud ymate.respondus. http://www.shtml Reusable Objects . image hotspot activities.com Respondus .com/ Savvica . http://www.com/sensasol ution.net ReadyGo .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. http://www.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games. without knowing code.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. GIFs.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.In minutes.htm Suddenly Smart . Courses can be posted.net/ PointeCast .

uk/index.toolbook.2conformant objects and assessments. http://www.com/Technology. images.com/products/lc. Brandon Hall Research . and rapid simulation. http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author .asp TEDS . French.webex.techsmith.com/ US Government . http://www.asp TrainVision .html Westcliff – SCObuilder. htm Techsmith .co.com/camtasia. CD.teds.time4you. templates.syberworks.Presentation Studio . http://www. http://www. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. video.funeducation. and text.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. and wizards. 66 © 2006.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.htm time4you GmbH .Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. or Network.php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. and highly interactive e-learning content. http://workforceconnections. audio. or Spanish.com/services/webpresentation-svc. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.toolbook.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.com/learn_assistant . http://www.com/product_sa.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. kiosks.westcliffdata.dol. http://www.lectora.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.com/learn_assistant .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. content conversion.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. http://www.php?from=menu SumTotal . SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.trainvision.Authoring Tools SumTotal .AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.gov/ Webex .h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.php?from=menu SyberWorks . http://www. http://www. http://www.

and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana . (2005). BC.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. October 24-28. and host online discussions. AACE.cs. and Brusilovsky.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.tue.com/downloa d_rb40eval.oswego.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005.pdf Ramp.amazon. www. Lin (2005). Blessing.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.xstreamsoftware. Do Not Reproduce 67 . Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. E. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology... http://www. Evanston.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Berlin: Springer. Melia.org/index. www. S. C. and Riesbeck.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. Northwestern University. http://www. Canada. Montreal. June 2005. right in their browser with no additional software required. De Bra.bloki. publish blogs. T. and Ainsworth. (2005).oswego. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. Healthcare. http://www. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments. 2005. Vancouver. See: http://www.pdf Murray. L.. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA).editlib. interactive and intelligent educational software.win. http://www.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. http://www.htm Zapatec . P. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. (2003). Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. C.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.brandonhall. E. http://www. M. McMullen.cs.xplana. D.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. S. Government.. and Pahl. P. Illinois. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.com/products/products _xwb.

org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.brandonhall.htm Tozman. W. (2005).sis. http://www. Eindhoven. Learning Circuits. http://www. shtml 68 © 2006.Authoring Tools Ramp. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.htm Tozman. The myth about tools. Masters Thesis. 2004.edu/~paws/publicatio ns. Reuben (2005). E. Reuben (2004).com/publications/emerging/emerging. June 2005. http://www2. Sunnyvale. Gary (2005). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Brandon Hall Research . NL.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. CA: Brandon Hall Research.pitt. Nov. http://www. Technical Univ.htm Woodill. A.learningcircuits..

a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. especially in gamebased learning activities. Do Not Reproduce 69 . but in e-learning. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. and generally simulates human activity. In some situations.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. the avatar may represent an actual human being.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Similarly. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. for example.” Maldonado et al. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. In the area of psychotherapy. games. in the broadest sense. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. In the context of elearning.

http://www. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars.html Online Resources In Europe. in cooperation with a number of groups.redwoodelearning. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.typepad.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.exodus. Inc.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. Try them at: http://www. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.tmmy.telsim.co.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.codebaby.sculptoris.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. http://www.” which are avatars that teach.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.knowledgeenvironments. See: http://www.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.vcom3d. http://www. In the toolkit. http://www.co.daden.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. 70 © 2006.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. http://blogoehlert. offering a large number of supportive functions. modular application.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. See them in action at: http://www. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.oddcast.

B. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.ac.. www. S. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.stanford. C. Nass. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Nakajima. Y. Ahad.pdf Maldonado...Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. H. S. Yamada.W.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. and T. www. D. Raj (2003). M. A.naccq. Nexus Media.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. J. 25. Chan (Eds. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . 2003. New Zealand. K. Lee.. H.. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. and Nodder... Suthers.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 .pdf Jung. Iwamura. In T..Training Education & Education International Conference. C. and Morishima. (2005).pdf Seth. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. http://isnm. and Weber. (2005). R. (2004).elearningguild. Koschmann.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. 2005.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Aug.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI. Brave.

Few. if any. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. who wrote. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. Blogs are used for communication. However. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Blogs are used for marketing. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Clyde adds. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. video blogging. Nevertheless. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. 72 © 2006.” As well.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. education. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. the use of blogs in education is here to stay.” The Catalyst Group. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. A form of online publishing. in a note of caution. as the following examples show. screencasting. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. or they can be open to the general public. Brandon Hall Research . Similarly. For teachers.

an applications company. is a great resource. http://www. movie reviews look different than recipes. if they have subscribed to the blog.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. For more information.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg.weblogs. elearnspace.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.html http://radio.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space.wavemarket.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network.us/archives/026 753. President of an instructional design firm. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.weblogs.com/spg.g. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. Do Not Reproduce 73 .sonyericsson. see: http://structuredblogging. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. It’s found at: http://www.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. http://www. In this approach. with a wide range of writing styles.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. Canada. http://www. http://www.ca/gems/matrix2 .edtechpost. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. His blog.cramersweeney. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Find it at: http://www. other than simple word searching.com/ Jenna Sweeny.elearnspace. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. http://www.com/wordpress/ http://informl.org/ http://carapace.internettime. When someone the user knows arrives.blogburst.

org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.blogspot.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.org/socialstudies/ blogs. http://blogpulse.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse. http://www. Teresa A. In March 2006.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.anecdote.pewinternet. Find her work at: http://64. Get the guide at: http://www. http://www.com. there were 891 educational blogs listed.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog. View them at: http://video.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.com/index.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.mkbergman.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.google. Brandon Hall Research . based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.essdack. “blogs are cool. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.postgenomic. check out this site: http://www3.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. a librarian. http://www.pdf 74 © 2006.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.co.blogcatalog. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.48.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog.metaxucafe.elearningcentre. including educational blogging.71. http://www.

cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.174. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. http://www. Michael (2005).teachesme. September 2005.com/news/sho wStoryts. Luigi (2004). David (2005).pdf Canali De Rossi. 1837604.masternewmedia. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.pdf Clyde.htm Catalyst Group (2005).com.1895.pdf A form of online publishing. http://www. 2006. http://www. Stephen (2004). http://www. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community.freepint. 14-26.asp Davis. and Fox. July 14.downes.com/wwwtools/m/10171. Master’s Thesis. http://www.com/work/theses8. 2006.com/article2/0.waypath.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919.pewinternet. http://www. Panelists: blogs are changing education.com/issues/130105 . (2006). No.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. July 19. Syracuse University. Luigi (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek. Robin Good Blog. 29.mkbergman.masternewmedia. 39(5). Laurel (2005).com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. New York. go to: http://m. FreePint Newsletter. Enterprise blogging.eweek. 2005. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise.pdf Pierce. EduBlog Insights. http://www. http://www. James (2005). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Anne (2004). www. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. EDUCAUSE Review.catalystgroupdesign. Ways to use Weblogs in education.com Bibliography Bergman. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. 5.ca/cgibin/page. Do Not Reproduce 75 .everyhuman. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes. eSchool News Online. Robin Good Blog. A.asp Lenhart.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi. http://anne2.eschoolnews.htm#feature Coursey. Oct.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education.00. http://www.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450. Blogs: a global conversation.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes. Sept. September/October. http://www.educause. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. S. May 16. March 24.fasfind. or they can be open to the general public. AI3 White Paper. http://www. January 13. Syracuse. July 11. Dennis (2006).12. Educational Blogging. Pew Internet and American Life Project.lo w.

Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. Flock was launched in October 2005. and “themes. Netscape.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. Webtops Description For many. http://www. a browser that has been around for a long time.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce. 76 © 2006. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. has a small following.flock. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client.omnigroup. which owned the rights to Netscape. For example. search engines.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients.mozilla. the defeat of the Netscape browser. bookmarking. (http://www.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. (http://www. thin clients. and photo sharing.mozilla. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. http://www. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. Like all technology innovation curves. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. http://www. blogs. where many applications interact with each other automatically. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). Brandon Hall Research . http://www.activeworlds.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share.com/firefox/). America Online. or at least their influence is decreasing. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. while Opera. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser.opera.mozilla. Internet Explorer. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. 2001).

CO. 16. W.typepad.com.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.cnn.webdevelopersnotes. Opera Browser.com.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. 29. and Copeland.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. William Horton Consulting. 2002. http://www.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing.bestdegree. Aug. http://db.networkworld. Malik. No.com/news/2001 /0129browserless. Brandon Hall Research .zdnet. Michael (2006).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers.com/getbits.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en. (2002). http://www.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0.html Engst. Network World. 21. OmniWeb 5. Renai (2005). Oct.00.0. called “Webtops. or at least their influence is Schonfeld.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert. 2006.wikipedia.wikipedia. across several articles. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’.php3 Bibliography Cox.pdf LeMay.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.tidbits. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.2000061733. http://money.evolt.. Jan. Still Perfecting its Pitch. 742. TidBits.washingtonpost. ZDNet Australia. http://www. and Horton. 2004.html http://blogoehlert. July 30.com.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.wikipedia. http://www.0: The Powerful Web Browser. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton.com/desi gn/browsers_list. Adam (2004). Most of these are archived at: http://browsers. K.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en. CNN Money. M. WashingtonPost.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. May 16. E. Boulder. 2005. http://www. John (2001).com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p.39218173.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006. O. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.typepad. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop. 2001.

Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. display. clickers. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. or clickers. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. management. classroom communication systems. increasing their motivation to learn. Brandon Hall Research . voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. The use of clickers has several advantages. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. Beatty. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. 2006. integrated with other types of learning technologies. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. giving almost instant feedback. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. costs can be an issue. The devices keep students alert and involved. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. 78 © 2006. However. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment.

com/index. http://www. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.learnstar. http://www.pearsonncs. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.com/Default.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. Do Not Reproduce 79 . suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. the costs and headaches multiply.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.gtcocalcomp.physics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom.com.” http://www. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. higher education.optiontechnologies.” In spite of the costs. http://umperg.umass.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.einstruction.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. training the faculty member to use the software.com/products_int erwrite.h-itt.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.com/cps/index. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. http://www.smartroom.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. http://www. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. http://www. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.com/index. and military settings. http://www. corporate.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs.pearsoned. http://www.qwizdom.

Australia. Feb.cua. 2004.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.edu/articleprinter1.aclearn. Melbourne. 41(5).jmu. NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.net/display. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and Lederman.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.ubc. 3. 2006.cisat.utexas.itee.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. R. http://www.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. (2003). 3.pdf Mazur. Research Bulletin.edu.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Eric (1997).cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). Volume 2004.cfm ?file=/051103/story2.pdf Cassidy. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.educause.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. March 3. Tom (2004).ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. Upper Saddle River. 80 © 2006.uq. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://inside. including material on the use of classroom response systems. ELearning Dialogue. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. No. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Ian (2004). Q. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. http://www.amazon.com/news_issue. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. 272-275.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.pdf Burnstein.elearning. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.active-learning-site. The Physics Teacher. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.utexas. July 7. Anne (2006). http://www. http://www.campustechnology. http://www. Inside CUA.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. http://www. https://sharepoint. integrated with other types of learning technologies. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Educause Learning Initiative.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty.

The Institute for the Future. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. many respond.g.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.g. social bookmarking. through brainstorming). a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. it requires skill and experience.g. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. organization. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. Do Not Reproduce 81 .. and consensus building. and collaborating. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. doing. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. reduction.. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. clarification. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. evaluation.

http://www. expert location. jot down notes. and information technology adoption. contacts. http://www. Presence (see who’s online).Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). voice and data collaboration.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.bantu.inteam. organize.com/product s/index.html?ad-main Annotea .brightidea.zoho. 82 © 2006.bluetie.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.com/virtualoffice/index.com/ Blenks – In-team . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. http://www.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. and bookmarks.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. calendar.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .com There are many different ways to collaborate.avecomm. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.teamspace. http://www.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .w3. http://www. http://www.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. share files. collaborative file management. and instant messaging. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.com/services/faq_basi cs.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. http://www.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.advancedreality. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. collaborate. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. and upload photos. and communication. http://www.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). with templates and workflows for product development.backpackit. intellectual property management. Brandon Hall Research .This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Collaboration Tools

Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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Collaboration Tools

JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Collaboration Tools

Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

expertise. http://www.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 .com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.webcrossing. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and other business communications.tacit.projectdox. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. feedback. newsgroup server.yahoo.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 . http://www.Processes email. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.com/ onProject – myonProject . and more.Instant setup. discussions.writely.04.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. online management for projects of any size and scope. e-mail server. and share documents. http://groups. scaleable.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. documents. http://www.brevient.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. Use it out of the box.Intuitive project management software for work teams.com/company/news/pres s/2005.com/project. http://www.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files. http://www. set user permissions. FTP server. Works with Microsoft Project. and share. connects peers.webasyst. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. calendars. chat server.tomoye.25. http://www.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.onproject.axista. assign tasks. project. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . http://www. and business relationships. http://www. http://www.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . Share multiple projects with multiple users.nexprise.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. http://www. simple. affordable. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. XML-RPC server.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . interact. files. stimulates idea generation. and data into a single storage area.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . http://www.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.opmcreator. and e-mails.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . or use it to build a Web application. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software.

Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. http://www.com/ HP .HP Virtual Classroom . shared desktop.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. breakout rooms. URL sharing. http://www.photoninfotech.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. and text chat.project-open. http://www.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. navigation.elluminate. shared whiteboard and presentation. video.teamdynamix.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. integrated content management system. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.saba. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. http://education.com/index. http://www.nagarro. http://www. content button. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. applaud and meter. print icon.Features include Hands up.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . and human performance management applications. http://www.Projistics .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.Web event calendaring.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. and communicate with their project teams.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. exit and help. scheduling solutions. and save to disk icon. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. Access to the tool is also given to clients.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . http://www.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and collaboration to timesheet management.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting . fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. whiteboard pages.com Nagarro . private/group chat.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.peoplecube." virtual collaboration.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . project tracking.caucus. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. visual. identify and resolve potential problems.0 . private whiteboards for each participant. annotation tools.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. project planning. form to submit questions. custom stamps.hp. Brandon Hall Research . and payments. attendee list. invoicing. data. and Web pages.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products. content. review button.

and by whom. learning. http://www. http://www.horizonwimba. meeting management.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . Features include shared documents. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .intralinks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .A secure.glance.elluminate. http://www.com/ Intralinks .com /internet_conferencing. how often.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . synchronous online lectures.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. office hours. http://www.mixmeeting. and more. sales presentations. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. and phone use. guest lectures.adobe.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.convenos.interwise. virtual office hours. http://www. http://www.genesys. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. and collaboration features. Web. and Web conferencing with WebEx. session reports. http://www. e-mail invites. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. Record classes or Webcasts. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. http://www.communiqueconferencing.Synchronous Webconferencing software.net/site/getglance/ex amples. and meetings. online classes. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. instant messaging.batipi.Delivers unlimited voice.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . and content display. Allows holding live.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. application sharing.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. and videoconferencing. video. and Webconferencing specialists. http://www.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.0 . For example.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. http://www. Webcasts. and collaborative content-building sessions. video.

and desktop videoconferencing services. transparency tools. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . the Internet. e-learning classrooms. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . Multilingual. polling and quizzes. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. including Web conferencing. http://www.ivocalize. online seminars.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke . desktop sharing.asp 92 © 2006. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room.liveoffice. http://www. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . http://www.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.radvision.raindance.com/bridgepoint.meetingone. live demos. Brandon Hall Research .jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . broadcasts files. and into the enterprise.To support large deployments. and a change presenter ability. record and playback.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. http://www. audio. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.Web and audio conferencing services. pre-recorded broadcasts.com/website2/even ts_imc. keyboard and voice chat.netspoke.telnetz.com/ Linktivity Division.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. teleconferencing. annotations. and real-time videoconferencing. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. instant messaging.com/rndc/services /services. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.asp Meeting One – Click&Share. notes.LiveOffice provides Web-based. any application. http://www. attendee lists. remote control. http://www. toll-free conference calling.com/action.Collaboration Tools iVocalize . or an entire desktop. hand raising. http://www.linktivity. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.

It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. present PowerPoint slideshows.cudenver. Solutions include Web meetings. http://www. publishing. http://www. 2006. teleconferencing. surveys. Web conferencing.collabtech.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.com/home/s_vmps.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. discussion forums. and moderation of Webcasts. Japan on July 13-14.Powers online meetings. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. http://www. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. http://www. http://carbon. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. show rich multimedia content and documents.webtrain. text messaging. Webinars. remote support. The suite manages the creation.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . http://www. tour Web sites. or meeting. editing.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. Requires only a browser and a phone.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).webex. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding.wave3software. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. and system management. http://www. and document collaboration.voxwire. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. http://www. e-learning. and instant messaging capabilities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.vodium.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. send text messages. conference calling. share other applications.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . http://www.edufolio.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .ctcevents. set up labs and conduct quizzes. course.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.

http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.org/tools.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.org/index.thinkofit. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.1 Bibliography Alexander.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.collaborationloop. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006.mitre. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.com/webconf/works paces. March/April 2006.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. http://www.globalschoolnet. http://www.writely. Sign up for free at: http://www. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning. 41(2).ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. scientific.usabilityfirst. Bryan (2006).kolabora. http://www. Web 2. http://www. also has a great list of collaboration tools. communities.htm Mitre Corporation.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. also known as “groupware.criticalmethods. http://www.org/collab/in dex. http://cde.com/View.com/groupware/ index.springerlink.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.educause. http://collaboration.” http://www.athabascau.1:100250.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.

. Robin Good Blog.htm Canali De Rossi. Robin Good Blog. January 21..masternewmedia. 4. K. Luigi (2003a).Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . May 2. June 5. Komzak. 2003.uk/12081/ Beshears. Page. Sept. Findlay. Chief Learning Officer. J. 2565-2569. S. 2002. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.htm Butler.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. Bill (2004). Michaelides. http://www. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2004a). Collaboration First.. http://www. http://www. Potter. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. http://www. Shadbolt. J. Dalton.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. http://www. A. Models of collaboration.masternewmedia. Live ELearning. D.. M.masternewmedia.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies. Curtis (2002). http://www. De Roure.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. September. Luigi (2005). Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. http://www. http://www. J. Maceió. D.clomedia. and Tate.htm Canali De Rossi. D. http://www.N. N.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. CMS Watch.soton.. 3. 2004.html Canali De Rossi.com/Feature/109 Elliot. and Coleman. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Collaborative Strategies. S. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).com/writings. Fred (2002).org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.. Brazil.htm Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. A. Luigi (2003b). (2004).. Robin Good Blog. (2003).com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Matthew (2004). Proceedings. 2003. Nov.diglib.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. http://www. (2004).cfm/files/pa per_12386.ac.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.cmswatch. Robin Good Blog. http://eprints.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature.collaborate. Eisenstadt.. June 30.pdf Bonk.. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Nov.. A..ecs. June 22. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. T. Creating an eCommunity. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Buckingham Shum.editlib. J. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. http://www. ChenBurger. R.htm# Clapp.htm Canali De Rossi. Then Knowledge Management. Q2Learning White Paper. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. 2002.bruck. Fitzgerald. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. and Forster. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration.masternewmedia.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools.org/index. M. Luigi (2004b).

http://wscg. http://www. January 2005. Innovation and Development..org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.ieee. J. R. 1(2).edu. D. & Purnell... P. Bjorn (Ed. Willis. K.. University of Athabasca.pdf Kaplan. Evaluation. Chesapeake. D.)...html Hurst.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. 5(1). and Martens. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.amazon.html Institute for the Future (2005). & Weber.Collaboration Tools Elliott. (2004). Educational Technology & Society.) (2004).amazon. W.org/index. Kirschner. (2002). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.ca/online_book/c h8. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.. G. 5(1). Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. C. (2004). Palo Alto. (2002). http://ifets. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. Aavani. and Thomas.html Kreijns. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. 827-829). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Callan.. Learning Circuits. Kirschner.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. http://www. http://www. http://sleid. J. Norwell.zcu. Educational Technology & Society.. Studies in Learning. J. e-Book. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. August 2002. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. D. Gibson. (Eds.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing.au/include/getdoc. http://ifets. In Crawford. Institute for the Future White Paper. P. J.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. R. VA: AACE. http://www.athabascau. (Eds.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full..html Munkvold. Brandon Hall Research . M.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan. and Jochems. K. and Miller.learningcircuits. London: Springer-Verlag.editlib. A. J. Carlsen. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. I.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.ieee. Nov. K. CA. Soren (2002). R. (2005). Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. J.. A. McFerrin. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.. (2002). and Sharifi.rheingold.cqu.pdf Strijbos.) (2003). 24.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. http://www. http://cde.. Technologies of Cooperation. Price.

messaging. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. http://www.jisc. VoIP. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. blogs. whiteboards. For example. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. telephony.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. discussion groups. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.au/eq/default. instant messaging. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire.ac. labs. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. a process referred to as “text mentoring. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. discussion forums. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. Do Not Reproduce 97 .” http://goldenswamp. UK.com. For Laurillard. Hegarty et al.uk/deletacademictalk.janison. It is being developed into a transportable. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. telepresence. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. html The Learning Place in Queensland. re-usable. and yet tailored and flexible. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. chat.

htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.elearningcentre. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. S. Mark (2004). International Journal on E-Learning.conversate. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. CAP e-Guide.elearningcentre..htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. Computer Mediated Communication.org/ Online Resources Teresa A. http://www. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. including communications tools. Brandon Hall Research .htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. developed in Brazil.elearningcentre.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.48.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.editlib. J. http://ewic.google.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.org/index.editlib. and Cerri.thinkofit. F.co.org/index.ac.fasfind.com/webconf/hostsi tes.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. and Bortolozzi.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at.co.htm 98 © 2006.71. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid.co. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.com/wwwtools/m/2645.gov.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. http://safety. M. (2005). http://www.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. http://m.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.htm http://www.ngfl. http://www2. chat. http://www. University of Warwick. JulySept.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. 13-20. and telephony tools.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. (2004).uk/schools/docum ent. http://www. M. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing. Find her work at: http://64.pdf Eleuterio. 2004. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. Komzak.bcs.warwick.

CharityVillage. 20-21.hbs. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. chat. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. J. 31. E-Learning 1. British Journal of Educational Technology. Learning Circuits.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. Technologies of Online Learning. London: Routledge. 2002. 2002. http://www. Diana (1993). James (2005).” Do Not Reproduce 99 . and Collins. Sven (2002).amazon. (2002). whiteboards. University of Birmingham.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. distance-learning course at Keele University. Bostock. discussion forums. R. J. and Wales. Nick (2002). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. University of Athabasca. Francis.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. UK. http://cde.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. (2000). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. J..html Laurillard. VoIP. and Elliott.html Laurik.com/cv/research /rmed35.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool.com Library.html Morgan. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. A. 2002. I.formatex. September 23. 2005 http://www.ac.ac.athabascau.org/micte2005/4.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review.charityvillage. M. 31 (3). Pattie (2005). 19. Jan. (Mlearn 2002). (2004). 20-21. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. Hegarty. June. e-Book.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. D. http://hbswk. J. Working Knowledge Newsletter. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. S. http://dircweb. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape.ca/online_book/c h5.uk/papers/Stone_ A.edu/item. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. http://www. (2002). Developing a successful e-mail campaign.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone.learningcircuits..king.pdf Kadirire. Aug.pdf LaCroix. June. http://www.jisc. 199-212. and Briggs.

The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. 2005). competency-based training. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. 2000).” it started in 1950 with Dr. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. 100 © 2006. performance appraisal. a Harvard psychologist. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. skills inventory. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). organizational and personal goals are tied together. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. entering defined competencies into a matrix.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. W. skills verification.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Edwards Deming.imsproject. skills. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper.org/competencies /index. In 1973. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. David McClelland.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Brandon Hall Research .

https://launchpad. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp.learnflex.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. go to: www.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.htm Many companies have their own competency models.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Do Not Reproduce 101 . measurement. objectives.desire2learn. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.org. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.com/article16.html The U.cpgvision.itsc.wmich.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.ncrel. See the list of competencies at: http://www. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. Read their white paper at: http://www. For a large list of competencies for physicians.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.. activities. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.S. http://www. and development interventions.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. http://www.learningcircuits. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. diagnose symptoms. and carry out proper procedures. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.ibm. For example. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.edu/paprog/clin_events .

com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.E. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.co. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. 2005. Express Computer. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. pp.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. London: Wiley. New York: AMACOM. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. Building a skills inventory.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. April 25. April. F. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.com/skillsman. 1-14. Study 706. Ken (2000). (2001). Brandon Hall Research .cipd. Chief Learning Officer.. http://www. http://www. American Psychologist.co.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www. (1973). Competency and competency frameworks.amazon.amazon. Miller. (2001). R. a Canadian company. (1982). http://www.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. 102 © 2006. Josh (2006). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.ca/index. Clare (2005).hrsg. regardless of industry or sector. http://www. Benjamin (1956). Sudipta (2005).Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. New York: David McKay. v.28. London: IDS. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. http://www.shtml Hogg.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Competency Frameworks. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.expresscomputeronline.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.amazon. N. http://www. Rankin.clomedia. L.cipd. David.amazon. and Neathy.oracle. http://www.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.syberworks.” http://www.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.com/ 20050425/technologylife01.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.ht m Online Resources HRSG.

(Eds. Learning Circuits.com/2.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner.html Radsma. Gary (2004). S. Parkin’s Lot. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. April 30. Rankin. http://parkinslot.html Sternberg.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. Godfrey (2005). The Psychology of Abilities. R.operitel. 2nd ed. White paper.linezine. http://www. and Cahorn. (2004). (1999). Competencies. http://www. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. N.learningcircuits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. University of Toronto. P. P. UK: Cambridge University Press. Michael. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. White paper from Operitel Corporation.amazon.p df Rankin. http://www. N. G. London: IRS. http://www. London: IRS. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Sanders. (2003). Johanna. S. Ellen (2000). http://www.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 .com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. and Grigorenko.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.collectionscanada. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. http://www. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. Cambridge.amazon. 2005. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Creating a Culture of Competence. Competency based learning management. New York: John Wiley. (2001). Master's thesis. Fall 2000. (2000).) (2003). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. E.amazon. http://www. and Hollyforde.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. and Epstein. E-Learning Competencies.blogspot.1/features/e wette.htm Whiddett.operitel. Operitel Corporation.com Woodill. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. http://www. Ethan (2001). March 2001. (2005). and Expertise.

the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. and reporting. 2006). it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. such as registering users. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. launching courses. Today. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. manage. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop.” As well.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. you could hire a company to build a private. Repositories. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. manage. in fact. the standardized railway system still works while private. If you could afford it. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. and “topic maps. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. I feel that closed.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. Do Not Reproduce 104 . First. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. With the advent of learning objects. LCMS. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. displaying a course catalogue. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. Learning objects. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.

to date.blogspot.co. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.pdf Cohen.cmsmatrix.e-learningcentre. rather than complementary.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. Cisco Corporation White Paper.uk Bibliography Bonk. Ed.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. and publish to multiple outputs. They have designed competitive. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. http://travelinedman. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. reuse in many places. (2005). http://sakaiproject.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper. 2005. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” Web services and “topic maps. functionality to an ECM.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . http://www. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. According to its official Web site. http://www. TravelinEdMan blog. (2004). Curtis (2005).cisco. http://www. http://www.atutor. http://www.topicmaps. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. 18.clomedia.author-it.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Dec.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.” http://drupal. http://www. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately. March 2005.html Cisco Corp. San Jose.topicmap.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Strategies for managing scalable content. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. http://www. http://plone.com http://www.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.

http://www.operitel. S. March 3.org/Articles/cont entmanagement.) (2005).as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . “Monoliths.html McGee.elearnspace. C.ntua. McGovern.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie.. (2003). Van (2005).educause. C. Content Management: our organized future. 2003. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. PA: Idea Group.com/publications. (2006).htm Simon.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533.softlab. May/June.asp Woodill. and Brantner.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms.gerrymcgovern. (Eds.edtechpost. http://www. 40(3). Hershey.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. http://www. June 9. G. May 15. A. 2003. and Carmean.htm Siemens. Learning Solutions. http://www. Educause Review.. B. Mashups. http://www. Budapest. George (2003). elearnspace blog. 2005. 2006. Gerry (2003). Why content management software hasn’t worked. Retalis. 2003. Scott (2005). Jafari. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. S. and Oliveira. New Thinking Blog.ca/mt/archive/00 0689. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. January 23. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. 2005. EdTechPost blog.pdf Weigel. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. P. http://www.

As data mining tools and techniques evolve. knowledge discovery. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. 2001). Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). 2000. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Luan and Willett.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Do Not Reproduce 107 . How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. delivery models and infrastructure investment.

pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. http://imej. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.hkuspace.icosystem.wfu. http://www.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. http://www. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.reeltwo. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. by applying fuzzy logic. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. http://pami.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.soul. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.uwaterloo.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. http://www. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.com/index. Do Not Reproduce 108 .

P.pdf Freitas. In Proceedings.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . and Kamel. Smyth. http://www.2004. and Web mining..usyd.html Hammouda. P..unikiel. 1316.edu. (2004). http://www. 68(8). K. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://www. Lange. http://www. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. M. S.pdf Fayyad. School Business Affairs.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. and Tschiedel. G.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux. http://www. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Feb. B. In Pierre. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).kdnuggets.. R. G. New York: Springer.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. 2001) http://www.is. M Fayyad. and Cheung. http://www.pdf Jantke. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. Data Mining: What’s New. Both products are from Convera. 1--34.. Porto. P. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Innsbruck. and Smyth.pdf Loo.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages. K. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. Feb. AAAI Press/MIT Press.cs. Grieser.uwaterloo. (1996).pdf Iskander.cs. New York: Springer. Thalheim.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. 2006. B. G.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. Uthurusamy.kent. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. text mining. (2006).. knowledge discovery.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. and R. Robert (2002). In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Long Beach.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.com/PaperInfo. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. U. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. (2000). B. http://pami. K. 238-241. Learning by doing and learning when doing . Piatetsky.. 13-16 http://asbointl. pp.convera. Australia. Grigoriev. (cited in Luan and Willett. (2006).informatik. California. edited U.kdnuggets.ac. Alex (2002).actapress.html Bibliography De Veaux.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc. Portugal. Austria. What’s Not.amstatonline. Samuel (Ed. 1996.

asp Merceron.pdf McCalla. 319-346.ags. http://wwwjime. (2004).pdf Merceron. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. Japan.ejel. Advances in Management Information.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. Maomi (2004).pdf Mor. David (2005). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). C.wfu.cabrillo. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. K. Hiroshima. International Journal on E-Learning. RP Conference Presentation. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. 7(1).aace. Oliveira.open. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). http://www. http://www. and Minguillon. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).ccsd. A. C. and Ullrich. May 17-22.-Dec. Scholl.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. and Willett.html Ueno. A. http://dl. Yacef (2004).com/acatalog/18 45641523. Oct. Train. T. NYC. 2004 (7).. 39-40. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.editlib.unisb.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.pdf Pahl. 47-55.computer.pdf Merceron.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. J. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.pdf 110 © 2006. Gord (2004).Data Mining Luan. C. J.compmech. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Monk. http://imej. 3(4). (2004). 15(4). analyze for more adaptive teaching. A.org/index. http://www.org/16915 Romero.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. Billerica. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. S. Vol 4. Data Mining in e-Learning. 52-59. http://www. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning.. store. (2001). http://csdl2. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. M. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. and K. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. and K. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction.ac. E. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. http://archiveedutice. A. MA: WIT Press. 41-54. http://www2004. 3(1).. and Ventura.cnrs. Claus (2004).de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. (2004). (2006). and Yacef.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. Yacef (2005).

com/ In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 111 .une. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.bnhexpertsoft. http://www. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. and 6) document results.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time.com/ Facilitate. 3) vote/prioritize. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). 5) carry out a survey.facilitate. in their case study of medical education. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.decisionarium. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.edu. For example. 4) develop an action plan. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www.tkk. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. 2) categorize. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.

ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://www.edu. V.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.net/index.bnhexpertsoft.utoronto.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index. http://www. http://science. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.p df Chakrabarty.hut. C. http://www. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. White paper from BNH Expert Software. see: http://www. and information on this area.com/index.pdf Ehtamo.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. Kankana (2005). 12(2-3).whichbook. Jay (2004)..pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.sal. 112 © 2006.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. R. books. H. and Frasson.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.hut.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.uottawa. http://www.dssresources.hut.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.pdf Frize. Brandon Hall Research .uniserve.sal. (2000). http://www.meetingworks. For newsletters. http://www. Hamalainen. http://www. 23(4).com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. and Koskinen.html Hamalainen. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.” http://dmoz.site. August. Raimo (2003). Online manuscript. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. http://www. 101-110. (2004). M.sal.

. USA. (2004). 2005. http://www.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. M. Gerhard (2003).2004.html Scott. F.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. http://www.ideagroup. Manchester. T. Dan (2003). http://www.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. Hershey. Theresa (1998). Grigoriev.. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. http://www. http://dssresources.html Rhyne. SIGGRAPH publication. Germany. PA: Idea Publishing.. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. B. Thalheim. B.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Oct.hicss.dfki.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . Jan. de Carvaho. 317-328.. Enn (2005). In Proceedings. P. CAL-laborate.pdf Ounapuu.uniserve.hawaii. 238-241.. 2002... Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. Porto.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Aachen. August 16-18. and Laurindo. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. Memmel. http://www.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. S. Grieser.com/PaperInfo.html Shimizu. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. June 20-24. Portugal. Hawaii. http://www.com/books/details.actapress. http://science. 2004. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.is.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Rostanin. Kauai.ac. 9. Vol.pdf Power. B. Learning by doing and learning when doing . G.edu.siggraph.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.pdf Knolmayer. Lange. and Tschiedel.. Enn (2004). Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.com/history/dsshist ory. Jim (2002). Thalheim.unikiel. M. O.pdf Jantke. 6-9. http://damit. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Hawaii. (2006). and Tschiedel. K. K.manchester. B.mc. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.informatik.

projectors. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.theregister.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. electronic paper. big enough to be projected on large walls. By stacking a second projector. Do Not Reproduce 114 . Electronic paper could change that some day. In the near future. head mounted displays. http://www. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.co. For air displays. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.co. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.theregister. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). monitors. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. Finally. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. This can be a holographic image. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. digital paper. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. In regards to digital paper.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. in cooperation with Sony. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. lighting up theater size screens.” Selected Examples Samsung. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.

com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.fogscreen.ices.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.com/technology /overview NTERA. http://www. intelligent interfaces.H. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. In 2005.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.informatik. still/video camera. Do Not Reproduce 115 . it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. see: http://www.io2technology. http://www. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.provisionentertainment.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.edu/design/Camera. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. See a demo at: http://www. see: http://ad.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.ntera.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.html Promera is a hand-held computer. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. http://killer.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. For a list of his publications.com/about. http://thejournal.E.unifreiburg. http://www.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.firstmonday.cmu. Inc. To access the articles.technorati. Projector.siliconlight.

and Pizer. State. (2005). 3.uk/index. Livingston.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. and Ottmann. T. 2005.jisc. W.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. Largest LCD and video projection.org/citation.. Garrett.). London: Springer.acm. http://www. Vancouver. A..Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Germany.. K.ac.unifreiburg. Richards (Ed. Dec. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. G.. In G. Tim (2005). Pisano. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). Hirota. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. pages 3053-3068. Oct. H. M. M.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. E. S. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.pdf Wang. http://blog. http://ad. Brandon Hall Research ... 2005. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Canada.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn.loaz. Whitton.com/timwang/index. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. http://portal. Hamburg. Government. (1996). Healthcare.informatik. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.

Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.chalkandwire.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.htm Educause. http://www. http://www.com/college/portfoli os.uk/default. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.co. and simple usability.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.osportfolio.foliotek. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios. http://isle. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://www.com/products/e portfolio/default. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. evaluation.com/eportfolio/i ndex.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. 2005). My first report in this series. open source electronic portfolio.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.livetext. maximum flexibility.elearningcentre. http://www.ac.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.pebblelearning. http://www.pupilpages.iwebfolio. http://www. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.angellearning. http://www.educause.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. Do Not Reproduce 117 .com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.paisley. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.

campustechnology.ch/dyn/9. http://www. College of Education http://www. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou.educause. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.com/magazine/va ult/A5260. B. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. (2002).E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper.thejournal. http://elgg. FD Learning White Paper.ac. http://ferl.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.com/article. an online resource on collaboration.org.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0. http://www.pdf Batson.doc Banks. Dec.becta. http://www. Graham (2005). 2004 http://www.elearnspace. University of Iowa. Online Paper.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell.nottingham.org/Articles/epor tfolios..htm IMS.pdf Conway. helping to transform education and training.amazon. http://www. Trent (2002).asp?id=6984 Cohn. http://www. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download. http://www2.educause. (2004). Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.org/collab/v. THE Journal Online. E. with many links.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. Brandon Hall Research .edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.imsglobal. http://connect.cfm 118 © 2006. Educause Quarterly. Bob (2004). the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. thus.educa. has a section on eportfolios. J. and Hibbitts.criticalmethods. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. March.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. Frederick (2005). http://www. Vol 27 No 4.

and Werdmuller.. elearnspace.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. K. Feijen..cjlt. Online paper..org/papers/Learning_l andscape. research. Aalderink. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. http://www. (2002)..A. ePortfolios. Educause Quarterly.educause. Harvey. & Figgins. M. George (2004). http://www. V.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. and portfolios. D. 39.elearnspace.ca/content/vol31. B. Fall. Reflective learning. (2004). engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective.amazon.pdf Greenberg. 37(2). An Overview of e-Portfolios. July/ August 2004.. 4. (2005). Dec. J.. http://www. W. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.citejournal.pdf Lorenzo. Love.A. Light.htm Tosh.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. vol. http://www. html Young. Cook.eradc. future thinking: digital repositories. B. Trinity College.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. and Haywood. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.alt. http://www. D. http://www. e-portfolios.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 .org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224... C. J. (2005)...uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. Online. Bryde.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. 28–37. (2005). Dublin. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.3/tosh. http://www. (Focus on Teaching). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. Lee. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. T. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. J. April 1. G.. Gary (2004). J. (2002). S. M.educause.. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. Business Communication Quarterly. and McKean. D. 144-169. and Ittelson.. http://www. G. 16. and Wade.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. J. Fleming. 2(2).ac. (2003). Educause Review. 2005. P. 31(3). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. G.educause. http://www. no.

from the University of Wisconsin.myspace.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. games. Facebook. and learning (Amory.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.secondlife. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. 120 © 2006. http://www.cyworld.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. and Second Life. identity work. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Dr.com.com http://us.com/ http://www. complex problem solving. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. play. serious games. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. 2005). multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. Cyworld. MySpace. Brandon Hall Research .html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. 2003). Constance Steinkuehler.hive7. Examples include Hive7. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.com/ http://www. For a brief review of these tools.facebook. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. as such. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. simulations. writing about “first person shooter games.” says that “in the mod world. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.freescale.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Try them out at: http://www. see: http://news. Marc Prensky (2003).com/ http://www.

com/solutions/gam es/default. create.muzzylane.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. http://www.softimage. http://www.org/?14@33.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. produces educational games for training.com/xna/ Softimage.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. has game development tools for the Xbox.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).siggraph. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. http://www. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. helping speed up the game creation process. along with their Web sites.ucalgary. Do Not Reproduce 121 . Started in North America.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver.com/ In 2005. edit. http://www.magnetargames. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. Canada.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. Inc. http://www.” http://www. This game allows users to play. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.clickteam. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.thinkingworlds. You can read about them at Pluginz.com/news/548 http://www. allows members of a game development team to work together.com/ Thiagi. See the selection of games at: http://www. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. dubbed XNA Studio. For example. The toolset.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. Review them at: http://esub. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience.microsoft.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.mpjgaB KQdAe. Many of their learning games resources are free.nasaga. There is a free 30-day trial version. implementation.pluginz.

researchers. 2003.programmersheaven. Hawaii.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory. Honolulu.htm Dr.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. http://www.ac. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. Brandon Hall Research .” Find his list of publications at: http://www.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.gdconf.htm Dr. http://www.wisc.uga.org/index2.coe.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference.seriousgames.education.org.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.ukzn.com/zo ne8/index. http://www. http://www. http://www. June 25-28.seriousgamessummit. Sign up at: http://www.digiplay.pdf 122 © 2006. http://www. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.dk/people/sen/public.” Read her research at: http://website.itc. http://it. Alan (2003). and speakers on all aspects of gaming.futureplay.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.uk/index2.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.

cambridge.uwf.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren.pdf Reynolds. Chapter 33. Bob (2005). Games and Education = Oil and Water.pdf Michael. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.uwf. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. In Richard E. Technology Trends for the Year. see: http://www.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. January 2. 17-22. Rob (2006a). Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Simon (2005).edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. R. C. 2005. http://www. 2003. Williams. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fourth Quarter. Oct. http://www.amazon. D. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Gaming. http://www. Jan. Multimedia learning in games.pdf Godwin-Jones.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. and Inform.pd f Prensky.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Bryan (2006). 2006.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. H. June. S.php Reynolds.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 .edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.php Rieber. http://www. Train.marcprensky.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.msu. Xplanazine.amazon. 9(1).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. and Maurer. S. simulations and microworlds. Dreher.xplanazine. H. March 10. http://www. http://www. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Gamasutra. SRI-BI. 19. Montreal. Serious Games: Games That Educate. Rob (2006b). Mayer (Ed. Clifton Park.. and Michael. (2005). (2005). (2005). Developing Serious Games. 2005. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Guetl. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Lloyd (2005). http://llt. and Chen.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Marc (2003). Learning on Demand Bulletin.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.. http://www. 2006.itc.xplanazine. 549-567. Xplanazine. D.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. http://www. http://www. IT-University Copenhagen.iicm.

Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Brandon Hall Research . Constance (2005). C. Michigan State University. University of Wisconsin .Madison.teachableagents. J. (2005).edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. http://www. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Masters Thesis. (2006). http://website.amazon. http://woz. 2004.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis.. 2005.. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. and Swamy.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler.msu. Beers. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. and Biswas. G. Clifton Park.pdf Swamy. Doctoral dissertation. N.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Jason (2004).wisc. N.p df Tye. Gupta.commtechlab.pdf 124 © 2006.education. http://jason. R. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. was held in Southampton. and robotics in elearning. Artificial intelligence techniques. For a list of papers: http://www. UK.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. including identifying commercial products. haptics. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.tudelft. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. April 10-12 2006. such as Markov models. FG2008. Do Not Reproduce 125 .html Research by Dr. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.soton. London.” http://mplab. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. http://www. artificial intelligence. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing.fg2006. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. at the University of California.fg2008. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. looking for particular sequences.ac.cybernet. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.ucsd.com/~ccohen/gest ure.ecs. 2008. FG2006. affective computing. http://www. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.

pdf 126 © 2006..ercim. Lombardi. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Pittsburg. 3. (2002). Face and gesture recognition: overview.com/PaperInfo. 2000. http://doi. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES.. 57-64. http://www. Porta. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. M. Y. T. Korea. F. A.cse. 675 676 http://lcv. R.11 09/CMPSAC.mit. Aug.pdf Corradini. July 2227.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Brandon Hall Research .org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. and Bender. (2000). http://www. (2004). and Ma. July 1997.stat. Las Vegas.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02.ieeecomputersociety. M.org/reports/Report -NR-03.. 18. eLearning Developers’ Journal. L.elearningguild. Munich.pdf Borghi. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. http://www.2000.html Chang.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. In Proceedings. Ludwig-Maximilians University. (2005).ogi. 19(7). and Cohen.fsu. G. J. March. 2003. Geiger.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman. Gao. Report No. Deller.org/10.actapress. (1997). IEEE Transactions. http://www.pdf Ebert. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. T. W.884693 Chen. PA. Michael (2003). Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. http://cbcl. October 14-16. A. 191-196. Visualization.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. Nevada. P. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. http://www. Nicole (2001). J.iscslp2006. Wesson.pdf Beringer. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). http://www. Shi-Kuo (2000)..smartkom. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.pdf Daugman. and Poggio. M. (2005)..

Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). A. 2004:16. J... Y. P.hindawi. Lai. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee.clayton. A. (2005). Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. Sept. http://interact. C.actapress. and Kim. and Yang. and Carreira. and Koike. L. http://portal.org/persagen/DLAb sToc.150 Nakanishi. J. Canada http://cims. http://www.1109/ICALT. Robust face image matching under illumination variations. January. H. 442-446. C.research.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. Computer vision in the interface.computer. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. and Bobick.edu/mas963/en hencedwall. Y. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Sato.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk.media.20 05. L. http://www. (2003).F (1999). Journal on Applied Signal Processing.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. and Wong. (2004).aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . S. Michael (2004).ucsb. J. 884 – 900. Vancouver.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. http://www.pdf Wilson. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. (1997). (2005). C..mit.rutgers.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. 2533–2543. 27-30.recveb.pdf Ou. http://csdl2.. 242-245... and Chang. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc. September 2002. Chen.xml&DOI=10. Setlock.com/PaperInfo. 2004.com/GetPDF. J.. D. S. Fussell. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. IEEE Transactions. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Wong.pdf Peixoto.org/citation.. Communications of the ACM. Proceedings. 21(9). C.D. M. X. In Proceedings.pdf Loi. British Columbia. Y. Lee. http://www. Park. 47(1).acm. 1999. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. (2002).

Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 .com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. In acquiring Macromedia.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. and in his recent 2006 book. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. e-Learning By Design.com/TechIllustrator. Designing WebBased Training. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design.avs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.adobe.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.techillustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.autodesk. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.

org/cms/Home.elearningcentre.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. http://www.com/E/1335. http://esub.uk/index. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.com.microsoft.smartdraw.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. http://virtuality3d.ibm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . http://www. The most listings are for 3-D software. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.0.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.2. Download a copy: http://www.co.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.acdamerica.com SmartDraw http://www. http://www.co. and playback.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models.siggraph.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. rendering.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics. Nevertheless.co.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.3dlinks.com/index.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. animation.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.itedo.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.google.corel.blender3d. post-production. interactive creation.uk/index. In acquiring Macromedia.broderbund. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.xaraxtreme.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306. Do Not Reproduce 129 .

amazon. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). http://www.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow.org/index. http://www. Tokyo. STC.amazon. e-Learning by Design.amazon. (2004).com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Brandon Hall Research . Pheonix. Germany. http://www. X.stcphoenix. William (2006). Cheshire. Evidence and Narrative ..ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. A. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. (2005). William (1991). The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. Richards (Eds. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . NY: John Wiley. Japan · Sept 7-10. A. and Uyar. http://www. Gloria (2004).Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton.pdf Tufte. CT: Graphics. New York: John Wiley. http://www.carto. CT: Graphics Press. Edward (1997).editlib. http://www.amazon.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. June 1-3. 2nd Ed.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. Cheshire.). Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Potsdam.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Edward (2001). S. http://grids. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. CT: Graphics Press.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Cheshire. http://www. http://www.pdf Qiu.ucs. Pallickara. Designing WebBased Training. In P. ED-Media Conference.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.amazon. Kommers & G.pdf McConnell. Carolina Chapter.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. Fu-Kwan (2004). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Envisioning Information.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Proceedings. Frances (2004).amazon. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. William (2000).indiana.stc. Tools Usage Survey Results. Edward (1990).

miralab.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching. gloves. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.html http://www.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.mpbtechnologies. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner. including pens.pureform.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.” http://www. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.sssup. Haptic devices come in many forms.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). When used appropriately. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. Read the press release at: http://www.handshakeinteractive.unige. and force-feedback mice.forcedimension.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. joysticks/ joypads. http://www. Finally.it/projects/pureform. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. Do Not Reproduce 131 . http://haptex. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. http://wwwpercro. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.

and Ichitsubo. http://www. http://csdl2. Report delivered January 15.pdf Hespanha. (2002).. http://www.” http://www. suits. Y. David (2003).asp Body-based devices include gloves.com.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4.xml&DOI=10.unige.sensable. http://www. http://www. McLaughlin.. M.smh. (2005). http://haptex.2005.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS. New York Times (Online).piaggio.1. 2005.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. http://www. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).1_release-public. M.1109/ICAL T.computer. http://www. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.isfh..informatik. Matsubara. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. J.unipi. N.ccii.haptics-e.unitrier.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. and Sukhatume.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. G.” http://www.sensegraphics.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. 132 © 2006. Upper Saddle River.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138.roblesdelatorre. Reality bytes. Brandon Hall Research .jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. Italy in March. 917-921.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.306 Kushner. M. 2005. http://www.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.phptr. 2003. July 31. Deliverable D4.immersion.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.se/index.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue. Proceedings. Nakamura.miralab. NJ: Prentice-Hall.. Iwane. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. professional. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. M.

L. 3-5 June 2004.media..computer. Prentice Hall online article. C. http://csdl.B. Reaching through the net to touch. Research report. McGill University.pdf O’Modhrain. G.ethz. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. Oct.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. Blindness. Daithí (2003). Medioni. 250a. Proceedings. Sukhatme. & Uchikawa.pd f O’Modhrain. Laurie (2004). (2004).ra. (2003).. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.. (2000).S. G. D. http://www. and Essl. M. July 3. Journal of Vision. G. J. S. 22... http://www.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres. McHugh. A. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). 2004. M. CA. (2005).pdf McLaughlin. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. A. http://www. http://www. Santa Clara. Wired News. Y.mit. http://web. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Vincent (2005). R. http://www. M. and Jaskowiak. Technology and Haptics.pdf Rowell. 1(3). H. The Haptic Museum.digicult. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Japan.usc. S.html Ross.S.journalofvision.. Haptics Laboratory.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. http://www. (2001). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Abbott. and Gillespie. 2003..ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 .. April. Kaneko.asp?p=345621 Sakano. M. Chapter on Haptics. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. Donnelly. and Rusbridge.matr. Centre for Intelligent Machines. K.net/article-7304.cim..ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. and Hughes.com/articles/printerf riendly. Shahabi. (1997).html O’Malley.pdf Ó hAnluain. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Dobreva. M.informit. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis.mcgill.

see: http://www.html Sony. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). haptics. electronic paper.html For humans to use a computer. Called Librié. head mounted displays. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. gesture recognition. For humans to use a computer. input devices. Now in the research and development phase. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. whiteboards Description devices. Philips. http://www. Writing will require special digital pens. human-computer interaction. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. For a review. like digital ink and paper. handwriting recognition. tangible computing. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. experience computing. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.buffalo. However. they must interact with it through an interface device. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.dottocomu. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript.com/b/archives/ 002571. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. they must interact with it through an interface device. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. display technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. and some. wearable computing. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . digital paper. projectors. monitors.

http://www. Do Not Reproduce 135 . which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. Although this technology has been around for a few years.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.com/technology/howitwor ks.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.ices. and 5) build. 2) roll. These methods are 1) touch. consisting of a pen and a charger. textures.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.edfacilities. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.fujitsu.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. http://www.html http://killer.edu/design/Digitalin k.ac. 3) throw.smarttech. http://www. http://www. Writing will require special digital pens.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. http://killer." http://web.edu/design/Foldable Display.eink.cmu.lifehacker.channelnewsasia.sony.cmu.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.media. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. 4) bend.mit.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.logitech.com/index. http://www.html In 2005. see: http://www.cs. http://www. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. http://www.” http://www.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. it is constantly being improved and updated.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.ices. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.swan. http://www.wacom.cfm Now in the research and development phase.

Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.becta. with its use of digital ink.wired. http://www. Following are three such articles: http://www.cs.anoto.edna. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.wired.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards.wired.mspx 136 © 2006. http://www. is described in a 2002 press release. http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. Brandon Hall Research .0 8/epapers.thewirelessdirectory. http://www.elearningcentre. See their advice and resources at: http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.usask.com/wired/archive/9.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.0 4/anoto.com/wired/archive/8. http://whiteboards.html http://www.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.org.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.devx. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.edu. http://www.com/wired/archive/5.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.au/edna/page458 8.html http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.thegrid.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.aclearn.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.co.org. human computer interaction. http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.net/display. and graphic. http://www.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.microsoft.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Interface Devices

Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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Learning Management Systems

An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Learning Management Systems

Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

4.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Plzen. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS.learningcircuits.. http://lttf.pdf Dillenbourg. Exeter. Building educational virtual environments. M. C. James (2003). Molinari. (2002). http://incsub.mq..org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. November 2004.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .. Pierre (2000). Derek (2004). Virtual Learning Environments. Aavani.ucisa. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.unitn. August.htm Bouras. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .A possible future for online learning. and Tsiatsos.science.building new education strategies for schools. and Walker.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo.pdf Dalziel. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). WSCG Conference 2005.ac. 2005.pdf Morrison. M (2005). Proceedings of ALT-C.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. Avgoustos (2004). Czech Republic.edu. 2006. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. Sam (2005). Ronchetti. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. Browne. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.org/eun. http://www. R.ieee. Learning Circuits.pdf Cohen. (2006). (2002). Report published by UCISA. A.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. April. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Jan. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. UK. http://www.anadolu. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. 21.pdf Sadeghi. and Sharifi. (2005).edu. L.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. 2005. 31-Feb. Incorporated Subversion. June 20-21. M. Proceedings. Ed. A. http://wscg.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 . and Trifonova. http://www.zcu. http://www.ac. 5(2).cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. http://www..pdf Tsinakos.bath.. Jan. ICALT2002 Conference. (Online edition). T.nxtbook. Chief Learning Officer.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Workshop on virtual learning environments. http://tojde. http://www. University of Birmingham. Proceedings. A.eun.melcoe. October. T. James (2005). http://www.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE).PDF Farmer.

May-June.pdf Wise. http://www.pdf 144 © 2006. 2005. J.infodiv. Van (2005).aace. and Higher Education 2005. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. October 2005. (2006). Maomi (2005). Report for the Melbourne. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Government. Vancouver. L. Brandon Hall Research . and Quealy. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel.unimelb. LMS Governance Project Report.educause.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Healthcare.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.Learning Management Systems Ueno. Educause Review. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. May 2006 http://www.edu.org/newdl/index. 40(3).

Rather. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. The acronym SCORM. sharable content objects (SCOs). intelligent tutoring. SCORM. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” such as a graph.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Beyond that. learning object model (LOM).” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. At the simplest level. reusable learning objects (RLOs). Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. a well-known standard for learning objects. 2006).” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Wiley.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. 2004. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). Do Not Reproduce 145 . Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.” This use has been more successful.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. learning object repository (LOR). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. rapid learning. They are emulations of “software objects. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. Learning objects have several uses. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. However. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. As online educational materials are produced.

http://www. and distributes digital research material. http://dlist. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. and they can be general or subject specific. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.org/index.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://learnware. Brandon Hall Research . http://dspace. preserves. http://www.downes. computer-use practices.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. indexes.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.uvic.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.cdlib.fedora. http://web.sir. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006.arizona.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. stores. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. culture. http://www. This idea is based on older.uwaterloo. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.educanext. http://www. curriculum.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). It is open to any member of the academic or research community.

ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.utoronto.org/ci/en/ev.merlot.llearn. http://www. with a focus on information literacy.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.000 items.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.unesco. http://www.dist.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.org/Home. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.oise.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.lrc3. http://www.lolaexchange.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 .unsw.koha. http://www.profetic.net/project.goenc. http://mlor. http://portal.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.cisco.edu/DesktopDefault. http://www.mcli. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions. http://www. http://www.rice. http://ideas.publiclibraryofscience.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.edu. http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.maricopa.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. with almost 15. http://lester. http://www.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.thegateway.wisconsin. http://nsdl.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.

html#com123 Bibliography Barritt.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.jcdl. and Anderson.cancore.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.dicole. http://www.. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. CANCORE. And Longo.L. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.elearnspace. Celentano.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.lornet. http://www. Online paper. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. and Alderman. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. (2004).doc Christiansen.ca/implementing_proje cts. http://www.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. 1(3).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.itdl. is available at: http://www.nmc.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. http://www. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. M.org/eng/scientifiques.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . http://www. M.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www.uwm.uniroma1. (2004).amazon.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. T. F. EdTechPost. A.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.edtechpost. http://www.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. http://www.org/guidelines/index. March. J. http://www. C.org/blog/archives/ 002089. http://www.dis. authored by Rachel Smith.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.it/~lhci/002. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.ca/mt/archive/000 681.uis.

B. S. http://www. Fredinand (2004).org/index. http://www. Downes. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. G. Norm (2005). 1(3). Online. & Strijker.. T. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. G.. 2(4). 1 (3). T.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. (2000). Harrigan.learningcircuits. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS..irrodl. R. Online Education Using Learning Objects.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. and Schafer. March.htm Friesen. A. D.ca/implementing_projec ts.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.ca/protocols_en. http://www. J. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.html Heery. http://www. Software Architecture Document..9.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Learning Circuits.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal.blogs. March. http://www. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Warren (2000). 2(1). D. M. Version ... R. Research Report. http://www.9%2015-11-03. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. and Mohammed. Norm (2006).html McGreal. March.org/content/v2. International Journal on E-Learning. MacLeod. Paquette.cancore.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 . The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. http://dl. Stephen. http://ideas. (2003).itdl. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2004).itdl. Friesen. (2004). G.. 14. and Morales. N. Online document. S. Rory (Ed. Jan. Roberts. Anderson.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Online paper. http://www. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. http://www.aace. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire..doc Fiaidhi..amazon.edusource. London: Falmer. M.... 2004. S.org. Babin.org/14190 Downes. http://www. K.1/downes.cancore. A Primer on Learning Objects. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. Rachel (2006). Mattson.org/mar2000/ primer. 5-16.pdf Krauss.cfm/files/pap er_11841. (2004). Hatala.html Friesen. http://www. Richards..editlib.eduserv. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.) (2004). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.html Leeder.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. html Edusource (2003).

Paper presented. Lori (2002).dis. David A. April 2002. Online. http://www.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. M.htm Wiley.pdf http://www.Rafts or Battleships? ..org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. T. (2000). June. (2002). (2000). McGreal.itdl. Derek (2004a).p df Wiley. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. A. http://www. Learning Material Repositories . V.dis. Final Project Report. (2004).bath. and Pragnell. 2004.co.Part 1. http://proceedings. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. Wolfgang (2004). pdf Roselli.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. 2004. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Govinda.org/read/ Wiley. (2002). White paper for Fastrak Consulting.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. N. Rossano.uniroma1. Brigham Young University.learningcircuits. July 14. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Objects of Interest.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. http://www. Clive. Elizabeth (2004).uniroma1. 7(1).kth.ac. and Senteni. (2005). Derek (2004b). David A. Learning Material Repositories . (2006). http://www. 9. Doctoral dissertation.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. 12. M. (Ed. David A. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. March. http://www. InSITE conference.bath.). Iterating Toward Openness. M.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. Learning Circuits.usq.Rafts or Battleships? . Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.html Murphy.fastrakconsulting. G. INTERACT 2005. R.ac. http://www.informingscience.it/~lhci/rossanopres.. http://www. Jan.htm Nejdl.org/docs/dissertation.learninglab. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.htm Shepherd.pdf Santally. Aug. http://www.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects..pdf Richards. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.. : http://reusability. http://opencontent.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. 1(7). http://opencontent. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. and Freisen.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. Brandon Hall Research .edu.Part 2.

more demands for a person’s attention. including cell phones. geocaching. users will be able to use a variety of devices. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.S. proximity tools. navigation. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. and security issues. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). personal media players.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. However. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. location-based systems are found in museums. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. galleries. as with any new technology. PDAs. Do Not Reproduce 151 . Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. galleries. including privacy concerns. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. and wearable computers. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. gaming consoles. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. Department of Defense. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. findability. laptops.

it is a great tool for teaching science. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.http://www.com/ mapping service.frappr. http://www. information. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp . and to learn about them using a phones.org/ consoles. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40.cadcorp.state.google. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.com/ Geographic Information System. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers. Clark Labs . to model the climate in any place in the world.live.http://www. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth. http://www.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work.il.com able to use a http://www.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. earth.org/ http://www.biogeomancer. http://earth.mapinfo.http://www. See how this direction.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006.google. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www. to what a GIS system uses.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices.greatestplaces. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.berkeley.org/ educational of Mars.http://www.pangonetworks.smm.intergraph.clarklabs.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. gaming http://www. http://local. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www. Brandon Hall Research . The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.us/research/G ESRI. experiences that people. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players.museum.google.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .google. laptops.com/ Intergraph . Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.esri.edu/ the globe. The map is wearable readable geographic locations.000 archaeological sites in the state. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. PDAs.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.http://www.

at: http://www.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.bc.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.confluence.geog.fi/english/page.co.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 . create. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. http://www.” http://www.gees.ac.asp?path=5 00.ac.ac.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.chimer.leeds.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.cetadl.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.edu. Earth.opensourcegis. http://www.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities. http://pngis. http://www. as well as papers on trends in GIS.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. see: http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.5372. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.geography. http://platial. See their complete range of products.com/gis4mt/index.edu/sco/gis/hi story.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.esri.eoscenter. http://www.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. http://www. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.wisc.com/index.bham.org/index. http://portal. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.ordnancesurvey.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.

Heather (2005). http://www. http://education.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 .digicult. 1999. and students. N. Dobreva.research. Online article. 2005. Information in places. Eva (2004).html Ross.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer... January.info/index.ac. http://www.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.C.intelresearch. We learning: social software and e-learning. M.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. http://www.guardian. enthusiasts.. A. Chapter on Location Based Devices.digicult. and Rusbridge. (2005). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.00.htm McLean.... Issue 6. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags. (2003). http://geotags.ibm. D. McHugh. 2003. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Jan 2004. Fabrizio (2005).co.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. G. Guardian Unlimited. (1999). and Location-Based industry professionals. http://www. S. http://www. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. 15.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. http://elearningeuropa. Part II. (2001). Dec. http://www. Learning Circuits. http://www. 38(4). M. IBM Systems Journal. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.pdf Cardinali.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. IEEE Report.1642288.geocomm.pdf Spohrer. DigiCULT Newsletter.uk/elearning/ story/0. Future LocationBased Experiences.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.directionsmag.com http://geotags. A. http://www. Abbott. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. and visualize spatial information.learningcircuits. http://www. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Pavlidis. Arnaoutoglou. manipulate. Steve (2005).com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Donnelly. CAD. Mapping.jisc.. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. G. C. and Borriello.intergraph. 2005. and Chamzas.com/ Bibliography Benford.. Nov.pdf Tsirliganis. A. Koutsoudis. J.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. F.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.

in schools and universities. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. tag clouds. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. Programs can be “stand alone. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. or protocol.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. API clouds. Many of these objects are software programs. in schools and universities. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application.” that is. Similarly. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. of how to communicate with each other. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. For two or more programs to talk to each other. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. the rules for sending files across the Internet. integration. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. Mashups are constructed in several ways. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. E-learning in the workplace and. also called “object learners and interoperability. or through “Web services. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. A “mashup. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. For example. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. hybrid applications. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).” then. provides access to the API of another Web site. all expressed in binary code.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. to a lesser extent. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. composite applications. personalized. run all by themselves. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic.” instructors. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. to a lesser extent. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. Using SOAP.

mashupfeed. communications.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. a writer for Business Week.. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. http://www. such as those for collaboration.icio.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. etc.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. 2004). Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.businessweek.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.deitel.icio.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.html Rob Hof.wikipedia.htmlhttp://www.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. http://del. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. Brandon Hall Research . online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.deitel.0 APIs. As Warlick (2006) has noted. http://blogs. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. http://www.Mashups. providing an informal collaborative environment.emilychang. at the same time. http://en. http://www. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.programmableweb. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. document management. Many have educational value. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.us.programmableweb.com/ http://www.” It has many examples of mashups. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.

J. Web Services. Galen (2006). 6. http://ww6. http://www.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. http://www. Issue 1. Douglas (2004). January 2004 http://lttf.html Warlick. C. Learning Solutions. July 28. http://www. Paul (2002). G.htm Siviter. (2006). 6.businessweek. Do Not Reproduce 157 . Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Robert (2005).html Woodill. (2004). 2006. David (2006). SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman. Infoworld.bctechnology.pdf Stacey. Learning Technology newsletter. techLEARNING. 2002. http://www. 2005.infoworld. Mashups. Mix. May 15. and Oliveira. and mutate.operitel.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Learning Technology newsletter. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. C.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. Enterprise mashups.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.techlearning.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1. Elearnspace. match.elearnspace. SOAP. March 6. and Padron. 2006.com/products/print_fri endly.htm Torres.org/resources/webs ervices.pdf Seimens. July 25.com/publications.ieee. Issue 1. 6. Vol.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Curriculum as Mashup. http://www. Vol. Dec. 2006. Business Week Online. George (undated).com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. Dodero. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. J.html Hof. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. January 2004 http://lttf..ieee.

and institutional stores. repositories. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. http://libraries. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.ac.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. http://metadata.edu/content.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects.imsglobal.wssu.cetis.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index. metadata.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning. pervasive computing. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. and services.cancore.do?tm= O4E. An ontology.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). in the context of information technology. Do Not Reproduce 158 . http://www. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. to develop metadata standards.mit. http://simile. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. Ohio. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.edu/o4e/viewhome. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. http://www. and artificial intelligence are being developed. http://dublincore. http://iiscs.mit. http://www. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.educause.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. search engines.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. community.

W. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.. University of Illinois graduate paper. In Proceedings. T. October 29. Thomas (2005b). Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Moulin. http://www. Dec. Online article.pdf Henze. http://www. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.pdf Friesen. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 .org/10614 Mathes. Infotangle. (2004). (2004). April 18. (2003). http://tomgruber... Finin. and Joshi. C. sometimes A.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. http://www..html Gruber.php?id=25 Kroski.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.. A. Benayache.cancore.aace. 98-111. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). June 2004. and Chaput. F. Lenne. (2004). Adam (2004). (2002).ifets. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.info/issues. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Pouloudi.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. 2005. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. http://www. Ellyssa (2005). MA. October-December. Boston. Patrick (2006). M. and Poulymenakou. Perich. April 21.com/view/buil database as they enter data. International Journal on E-Learning. http://dl.. Defining “taxonomy”.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website..adammathes. November. http://infotangle. M. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.ca/editors.boxesandarrows. and Nejdl. P.htm Gruber. http://www. 2006.. A. H. Barry. Thomas (2005a). Green Chameleon.ifets. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. tags into a BoxesAndArrows.pdf Delphi Group (2004).tagcamp.. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. A.org/.umbc.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema.blogsome. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras. and Mosoiu. 7(4). C.. A.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Delphi Group report.delphigroup. 7(4). http://www. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel.php?id=25 Chen. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Dolog. TagOntology . Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://tomgruber. B. Presentation to Tag Camp. D. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. 7.info/issues.edu/get/a/publication/ 105. B.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.greenchameleon. N. 2003. 82-97. http://www. Norm (2005). 2002. http://ebiquity.

htm Weibel. (2004).pdf Oin. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. 7(4). NISO Press. and Diaz. and Shao. (2004).dlib.html Wodtke.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). 70-81. Wagner.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Christian (2004).Metadata. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. 2004.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. D-Lib Magazine. Understanding Metadata. S. Trondheim.. http://www. 11(7/8). J. May 22. 7(4).info/issues. J. (2003). P. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.. I. Learning Circuits. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. and Godby.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Chen.ppt Ricci.ifets. Christina (2002). BoxesAndArrows. D. April 9. 2004.learningcircuits. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.ifets. G.niso.. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.info/issues.php?id=25 160 © 2006. Stuart (2005).boxesandarrows. Reuben (2004).com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. 26-28. 2005. 2002. http://www. http://www. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. N. http://www. http://www. http://www. Norway.ecdl2003. M. BoxesAndArrows.boxesandarrows. Lytras. Nov. July/August.php?id=25 Tozman. Brandon Hall Research .

2004). strong search capabilities. 2003). mLearning. tablets. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. times the number of personal computers (PCs). personal digital assistants (PDA).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing.6 billion units in operation by that year. brokerage.” Two years ago. and mentoring. personalization. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). it is predicted that there will be 2. and building. time and space. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. personalization. you are. podcasting. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. Essentially. MP3 players. cellular telephones. laptops. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. powerful support for effective tablet PCs. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. location-dependence. learning. location based technologies.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. laptops. using ambient intelligence. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. learning architecture [that] will support creation. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. rich players. video) and distributed databases.” The Mobilearn However. such telephones. instant messaging (text. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. cell phones. multimedia. there were estimated to be 1. in mobile computing (McLean. tablet PCs. improved identity creation. conversational learning. wearable computing. communicative skills and community interaction. pervasive computing. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.

Cited in Prensky.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. there were estimated to be 1. Brandon Hall Research .cs.net/ 162 © 2006. 2004). http://gseacademic. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). http://urbantapestries. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. in Japan. US. http://www.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.stockholmchallenge.” They have a “firefly watching system.harvard. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. audio. pictures. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.se/projectd ata. http://csdl2.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.ccu.” and a “bird watching learning system.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.ccu. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.mobilearn. compared to only 50 percent of computer users.cs. http://news. or a combination of media.Mobile Devices Two years ago.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. Israel.co.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. Users can access and create location-specific text. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.” a “butterfly-watching learning system. Australia.pdf http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.pdf http://www.cs.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.bbc.edu.edu.ccu. (2004). Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.edu.” http://www. and pre-service teachers.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. movies. http://www.

fasfind.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning. and a glossary.com/home_en. 2006 in Dublin.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. links. of the University of Oulu in Finland. http://www.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.94.fasfind. Learn more at: http://www. http://213.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. Gaming.elearningcentre. http://www. http://www. activities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.knowledgepulse.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault. http://www3. http://spotlight-mobile. resources. http://urbantapestries.uk/handler/publi cations.com/wwwtools/m/2737.bham.htm Jari Laru.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.” http://m. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. For example.232.msu. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.com/wwwtools/m/8907. technologies.ac.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.fasfind.eee.telus.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. including issues. applications.com/wwwtools/m/2717. http://www. http://www. http://llt.beta80group.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.iadis.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 . Ireland.135/ipodined/news.mobilelearning. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.co.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.

S. http://www. and Sharma.idi. (2005).. (2004). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). EDUCAUSE Review. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.pdf Geddes.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.html Kadirire. http://www.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. Learning and Skills Development Agency. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.pdf Attewell.jisc. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. B. J. R. 9(1).kaywa.pdf Anderson. http://www.J.org/micte2005/4. http://www.cs.ccu.unitn. A.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. No. L. Language Learning and Technology.6. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2(9). Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. 5.science.pdf Chen. and Sheu. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.htm JISC (2005). (2005).tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. Bob (2005).jisc. 17-22 http://llt. and Pagani.edu. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. http://www. A.html Bibliography Alexander. (2003). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. E.pdf Godwin-Jones. 347-359. http://knowledgetree. 19. January 2005. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. September 2005.pdf Jasola.m-learning. Gaming.. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Y.. M. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. http://www.net.flexiblelearning. and Trifonova. No.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . Sept. Vol.ac. James (2005).a u/edition06/download/geddes.ntnu. Ronchetti. JISC Guide. Bryan (2004). Kao. http://mobile. Paul (2005). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.html Grew. Jill (2005). P. Univ. http://www. of Birmingham http://www.pdf Colazzo. Emerging technologies: Messaging. 39. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Molinari. Report.educause.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.itdl. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. T. (2002).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.formatex. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.ac. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.msu.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.uk/eli_practice.

The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. ASCILITE2005 Conference.org. A.htm#Implications Prensky. Proceedings.ox. (2004). http://doi. T. August 29-30.org/10. S. (2001). Amherst. A. June 27. Neil (2003).oucs. and Cultural Heritage. http://www.. Växjö. Marc (2004). http://www. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. L. http://www.ascilite. Peter (2005).acm. F. Donnelly. Roffia.org/citation.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. June/July 2005.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.. Chan.. H. E. Vecchietti. 2005. E. UsabilityNews. Ann (2005). http://www.. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). 2002. Brisbane. MA: HRD Press.. 2004.1109 /WMTE.com/news/article2 490.usabilitynews.1039222 McLean. J. Sweden. (2002). Cinotti.. Växjö University.innovateonline. Glyfada. Proceedings. Pigozzi. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Presented at WMTE 2002. M. Coralini.amazon. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. S. Australia.ac.. David (2006). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. M.fhjoanneum. Conference on Virtual reality. http://drei. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. T..info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.pdf Mellow. Malavasi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light.2002.info/index. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. (2005).uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. D.ieeecomputersociety. M. Romagnoli. Archeology. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Galasso. J. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. M. and Nischelwitzer.pdf Scagliarini.doc Meisenberger.2. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. multimedia-based learning application... http://www. and Dobreva. http://21st. T.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 .century. computer-aided. Teleborg Campus. 1(5). The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.phil-inst. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Kristóf (2002). Feb..au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Greece. M. and Sforza. Wang.asp Liu.digicult. http://www. Liang. and Yang.pdf Metcalf. http://portal.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos..

M.clomedia. 2005.ac. Taylor. and. Guardian Unlimited. Learning in the Mobile Age. April 2005. http://www. http://education. 40(3). 2005. Enabling Mobile Learning.guardian. Budapest.com/content/templat es/clo_article. (2005).. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. and Vavoula. A theory of learning for the mobile age. http://kn.eee.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. Draft paper submitted for publication.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. May/June 2005..1490476. Chief Learning Officer. Understanding.co. May 23. http://www.uk/elearning/ comment/0. Feb. Mike (2005). Hungary.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298.bham. J.html von Koschembahr.open.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 .edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. 40-53. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. E-Learning on the move. Christopher (2005).pdf Sharples. http://www.educause.pdf Thomas.fil. G.uk/public/getfile.00.ac. Michael (2005). Ellen (2005).

TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).” See also Jordan et al. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. i. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.it/index.e. et al.. Di Eugenio. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.uk/~silvia/litReview. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.. Do Not Reproduce 167 . not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. rather than just returning Web pages.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . http://dmoz. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. (2005a. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.lexxe. natural language generation. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. (2004). ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. natural language understanding. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). machine translation.translating one natural language into another. speech synthesis. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. http://www. (2004). http://wwwusers. speech recognition.itc.york. Lee et al. http://tcc. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.ac. Kim (2000).cs.

(2004). Volume 1. S.cs.ldc. http://www.aaai. tools. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www.ac.amazon. K. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). S. (2005a). Yu. January. (2005b). B.msu. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. http://www. Haller.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. Maxine (1999). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. (2004).. Language Learning and Technology. http://www..uic.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. http://www. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries.pdf Di Eugenio. Makatchev. pdf Jacquemin.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. http://llt..html Bibliography Bagshaw.org/aitopics/html/natlang. MA: MIT Press. D.org/softwaremap/trove_list .elsnet. and VanLehn. research. M. Online. Cambridge. Paul (1994). http://www. November 2004 http://imm.org/Voice/Activity.cs. and Vrettaros. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. http://www. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. D.ed.cstr. 2(2). and standards. University of Edinburgh. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Fossati.. D. Issue 5. http://www. and Glass. M.demokritos.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing..upenn.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . Christian (2001).edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype.cs.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. Haller. D.pdf Coxhead. B.pdf Eskenazi. Paper presented at ACL2005. Yu. 62-76. http://eduforge.uic. J.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity.w3.ac..bham.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.. M. Peter (2001). Fossati.html#fn1 Di Eugenio.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. and Glass. P.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Drigas. A. http://www.

J. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. Illinois Institute of Technology. Doctoral dissertation. Illinois Institute of Technology.pitt. Feng-Jen (2001). http://lsa. http://www. http://www. Donnelly. Doctoral Dissertation. Brazil..iit. http://www. http://www.amazon. (Eds. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. M. M. S. M.pdf Steinhart. and F.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross.iit. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.linckels. and Rusbridge. S. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue.pdf Jurafsky. of Colorado.pdf Lee.H. 435-439.) (1999). and Martin.cs. C. http://www.. and Moorman.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Vicari. M.pdf Ram.colorado. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. D.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System.amazon.) (1999). and Moorman. R. D.iit. (2005). C.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 .. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Chicago. Jung Hee (2000). Chicago. Univ. computational linguistics and speech recognition. Abbott. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2000). In J. Chicago. K.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. Doctoral Dissertation.cs. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. (2004). A.digicult. Lester. Doctoral Dissertation. Evens. http://www. Upper Saddle River.). August 31. Illinois Institute of Technology..edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. Dobreva.pdf Yang. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. M.cs. MA: MIT Press. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.amazon. (2004).. NJ: Prentice Hall.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Cambridge. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. and Glass. A. http://www. (Eds.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. http://www. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. and Meinel.iit.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. C. McHugh. A. David (2001). A. Maceió. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. MA: MIT Press. K. Paraguaçu (Eds.pdf Zhou. Cambridge.cs. Yujian (2000).com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram.pdf Linckels.

org/science/setiathome. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. whose research is based on activity theory.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. In the future.seti. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. movies. 170 © 2006. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. Jokela (2003). and storage. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. and games. Brandon Hall Research . There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. thus bypassing a central server. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. or e-learning environments. instant messaging. thus bypassing a central server. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. As personal computers become more powerful. Collaborative Peer Relationships . Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. http://www. chat rooms. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. memory.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power.

http://www. where students meet to share and exchange their productions.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://www. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.weblogger.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.The eduCommons is an open system for creating.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.lcs.groove. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. Do Not Reproduce 171 .html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers.campusmoviefest.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content.ucsb.edu/piazza.cs. Any computer can join the infrastructure.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity.sun.jxta. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks. http://picto.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. http://data. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival. each with its own data schema.md3.mit. sharing.cs. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary. http://publius.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable. http://wwws. http://edutella. http://lockss. and translation servers throughout the Web.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://www.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes.washington.berkeley.cs.stanford. encyclopedia. http://www. http://cosl. http://p2p.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.usu.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple. http://oceanstore.edu/info/ove rview.pdos.com/ eduCommons . and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.cdt.

It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. cross platform application (Win.net/freescience_learnmo re_it.bdaweb.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.fastrakconsulting.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op.co. for a small fee.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. musicians.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” http://www. data. no adware.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources.its. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists.llearn. http://www.psu.internet2. Mac.bdaweb. and videomakers.edu/apps_list. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. allows anyone.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.stockholmchallenge. http://www. http://p2p. http://www. http://www.com/english/content/ho me.co.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p. http://www.overnet. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.elearningcentre.se/proje ctdata.com/products/in dex.” It also says that there is “no spyware.movedigital. http://www. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. headquartered at Penn State University.com/ Overnet is an open source.net/index. http://lionshare.html MoveDigital. http://www.limewire.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 . and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide.advancedreality. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop. http://www.

http://julita.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. http://voyager. http://www. Intranet Journal. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. January 2002. http://www.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. (2002).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher.usask. Miriam (Eds. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. A. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology.learningcircuits. and Higher Education 2003. Learning Circuits. pp. Robin Good Blog. http://www.com/article. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. AACE Journal 12(3). Julita (2004). University of Texas. 2005.learningcircuits. Applications. Tektonidis. http://www. Bokma... Campus Technology. Jennifer (2002).pdf Farges. and Koumpis.htm Farago-Walker.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. K.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi.editlib. pp 1051-1058. Online paper. Ginty.intranetjournal. Online article. H..org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. http://www.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. Paul & Cunningham. (2004). Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. A. http://www.ac.unihannover. 2006. June 1. Luigi (2005). Amsterdam: IOS Press. Austin. Case Studies.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.sunderland. Healthcare. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises.org/index. http://www.pdf Ratti.kbs. January 17. http://www.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. How P2P will change collaborative learning.edb. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. N.). Government. 301-313. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera. Martin (2004).html Jokela. Susan (2003). and Guergachi. D.campustechnology.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Paivi (2003). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.pdf Vassileva. July 2001.utexas.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . Wolfgang (2002). http://www. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. eLearning and future trends.masternewmedia. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. In Cunningham. Judith (2006).htm Cross.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues.org/index.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. significance and impact.editlib.html Fletcher. R. 1624-1631.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann.

The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. and through a variety of technologies. for the learner. Technology needs to be situated.. without an offline client to the LMS. wikis. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. etc. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. In many cases. This requires support over time. such as search engines. To practice real-world situations. (Cortlett et al. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE must support lifelong learning. Secondly. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. Brandon Hall Research . This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Individualization in an LMS is weak. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. discussion forums. 174 © 2006. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. learning management systems. chat. but these are only available to members of the course. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution.). whiteboard). blogs. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. social environments. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. often only for the purposes of the course. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. as learners move between institutions. and. learners need to be in real-world situations. amongst institutions. work places. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. and social bookmarking sites. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. libraries. e-portfolios. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. there can be no electronic interaction. A PLE is structured by the learner.

uk/ilogbook/de fault. PLE Reference Model.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog. 11. Running on the learner's PC. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Chan.ac. 2006. Incorporated Subversion.uk/index. O. 22-27 July 2005. M.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett. Las Vegas. James (2006).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more..bham.ac. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook.elearning.jisc. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. January 9. http://www.org.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. manage. D. Jan.bath. Do Not Reproduce 175 .. http://www.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). track. Nevada. http://www.edublogs. http://portal.ac.. http://www. Online case study paper. it helps the user plan. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.pdf Farmer.jisc.mlearn.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://terrya.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. and Westmancott. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.ac.za/CD/papers/Corl ett.ac. http://www.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. J.ac. Ting. Terry (2006).uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. T. Colin (2005). http://incsub. Edinburgh. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. 2006.ac. Sharples. http://elgg.cetis.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan. and review his or her learning activity. http://www.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.cetadl. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. UK. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.cetis. (2005).

artificial intelligence. Often. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. However. or it can be an implicit model. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. These techniques include content-based filtering. Keenoy et al. etc. rule-based filtering. etc. picture. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. Furthermore. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. collaborative filtering. Do Not Reproduce 176 . and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. (Filippini-Fantoni. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. 2005). through a questionnaire).g.). learning environments. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. colour.g. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. However.

and/or presentation of materials.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.uk/ilex/final. http://www.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.hcrc. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.org/default.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. wireless networks.emarcon.calimera.. PDAs).nl/publications/papers/M traits.ca/English/Per sonal/index.elenaproject.net/home.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 177 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.g.html (handheld PCs.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.noech. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. the personalization can be applied to content.pdf kaleidoscope. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user.beta80group.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. A demo is available at: http://www. objects leave “trails” .ecdc. http://www.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .ed.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.directa. dynamic user profiling techniques.virtualmuseum. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. The trails can useomarmo. http://www. chc021 http://www. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. navigation.firstmonday.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. http://www. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.ac.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.org/en/index.time-ordered http://www. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.

(2001). May 25.. http://smart.hatii. Italy. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. with a particular focus on the museum sector. A.unibo. B. C. HATII.pdf Beler. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf Callaway. and FilippiniFantoni. Ler..pdf Ceccaroni. T. http://tmtfactory.ascilite. L. William Niu. and Nuguid.calimera. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. J. Ngo. Brandon Hall Research . Daisy (2002).. (2004).Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (AVI 2004). ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. http://www.pdf Bright.pdf Calimera Project (2005).pdf 178 © 2006.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04. Bowen.metmuseum.. W. 2004.umuai. http://www. 2004. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Melbourne.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. May 25.. X. http://www. and Kuflik.uniba. Gallipoli.CY/0409055 Boyle T. G.cs.arts. Pizzutilo.org/pdf/cs.. Online paper. (2005). Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.ac.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. https://www. http://www.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.pd f Cavalluzzi. D.arces. http://adiret. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Cozzolongo. A. and Verdaguer. (AVI 2004). (2004). University of Glasgow. Online paper. PowerPoint presentation.. Borda. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. and Cook J. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. (2005). A. The Future of Access (or. K. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. http://arxiv.unimagdeburg. Kay. Italy.gla. A. (2004). J. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).. De Carolis.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. http://www.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.org/ Bibliography Abbott.di. Magical Mirror: multimedia. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.org.org/mymetmuse um/index. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. interactive services in home automation. Gallipoli. S. A. S.

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Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.Portals Related terms Collaboration. In the business world.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. learning management systems. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . collaborative environment. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. vendors. Brandon Hall Research . Knowledge Management. instructorled. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. which form a dynamic user profile. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. content management. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. 2001). 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers.

the portal offered information on more than 20.executrain.700 online courses http://www.elementk. document management information. and schedules.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. http://www. students. instructors.fathom. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.www2. http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. museums. news and announce-ments.proquest. administrators. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. Do Not Reproduce 185 . http://www.asp Element K – Access to over 2.000 lesson plans http://www.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.elearningeuropa.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. online meetings with text.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo.trainingregistry. school administrators. interactive discussion groups.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. and shared lists for tasks. http://h20219. e-mail distribution lists. collaborative environment. As of early 2006. instructor-led.teach-nology.hp.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.300 online courses http://www.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.microsoft.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. and universities.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.saba. instant messaging. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index. go to: http://www. audio and/or video.worldwidelearn. calendars.microsoft.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.com/home.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.cyberu.000 publishers worldwide http://www.000 online courses http://www.

aspx Bibliography Ateshian. Richard & Associates (2002).org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Hershey. (2003). Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. and Sheehan.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. PA: Information Science Publishing. A Portrait of Learning Portals. (Eds.learningcircuits. and Sheehan. http://www. http://www.nl/mart/CategoryView.asp Katz. You’ve come a long way. M. Campus Technology Magazine.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. New York: AMACOM. including educational uses. http://www. A. http://blogs. (2003)..com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. Cornelia (2000). Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. C.ittoolbox.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. Heidi (2003). San Francisco: JosseyBass.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. http://www. In Jafari. Hershey.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. and Gordon.amazon.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.educause. J. K. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.) (2003). Bray (2001). R. March 1. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. Tom (2000).asp?id=9028 Barron. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.tamtam. baby! E-learning portals. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. http://www.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. A. Campbell. category.htm Brockbank..Education. Learning Circuits. September 2000. M.educause. Ron (2004).amazon.amazon.learningcircuits.campustechnology. New York: AMACOM. http://www. Reviewed at: http://www. http://www. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . May 2000.com/article. PA: Information Science Publishing. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.asp Terra. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. and Aucoin. (Eds. 2004. Heidi (2001).amazon. http://knowledgemanagement.

Online presentations can be very boring.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. http://www.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Do Not Reproduce 187 .htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. web conferencing. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.com/site/index. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.lsc. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. Experience them at: http://www. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. In fact. webcasting. In fact.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available.” In the Middle Ages. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. when experts are not readily available.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. the word “lecturing” means “to read. However. virtual classrooms.replayhq.macromedia.” In the Middle Ages. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Skypecasting. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Consequently.

com/publications/lel/lel. http://www.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.masternewmedia.infoworld. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.com/udell/2005/0 2/25. groupware.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .htm http://www.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing. forums and message boards.edu. http://icampus.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.380000 5416. although many are trying to change this practice.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. videoconferencing. http://weblog. http://www. Webcasts. http://www.acue. http://www. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. http://www.elluminate. While it is expensive. See the TEAL Project at MIT.htm http://www.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. videoconferencing.com/cxoextra/0.edu/TEAL). Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.00. online meetings.silicon.com/news_radars/we b_presentations. http://www.com/webconf/index. a columnist at InfoWorld. in partnership with Dreamworks.hp.athabascau.kolabora. instant messaging. and Web presentations. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.mit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www.kolabora.thinkofit. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. intranets. http://cde.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. independent listing of Webinars.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. http://ajax. http://www.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.brandonhall. online communities. and e-learning.humanresourceWebinars. social software for online collaboration. virtual teams. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.39155030.com Hewlett-Packard.ccimeet.adelaide.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.infoworld. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.html#a1185 http://weblog.

although it does not have to be. http://www. and whiteboarding. and kidneys.co.html Using Apreso software.lsc. Web seminars. virtual meetings.uk/eclipse/Resources/live. brain. presentation and streaming presentation tools.elearningcentre. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.” http://www.com/software/presen tation.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.com/downloads/sea rch. http://www. virtual classrooms.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . http://buyersguide.co.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. http://www. Dreamweaver.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.com/eweek/webc onferencing.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. htm http://www.programjunction.elearningcentre.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.e-learningcentre. http://www.co. http://www. Web conferencing.eweek. Authorware. Coursebuilder. http://www.apreso.timelyweb. Captivate.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations. Breeze.co.com/presentatio ns/index.presentations.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.filesland. and Flash.elearningcentre. http://www. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.

org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth. Russ (2004). 3. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. 2003.pdf http://www. July. Digital Inspiration.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.asp McNally. 2003. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www.blogspot.masterviews.masternewmedia. April 30. May 15.aace. http://www. http://m.01. Luigi (2003a). How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Christine (2001).aln. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/21593.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.downloadjunction. 2003. Robin Good Blog.com/BreezePart 2.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.pdf McFerrin. Belinda (2003).com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. 7(3). Live and Online!: tips. Robin Good Blog.. http://www. Jennifer (2004). http://www.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. http://www.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.com/product /software/795/index.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. 2005. (in two parts) http://www. http://labnol. 2004.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.russellmcnally.russellmcnally. http://www. Live ELearning..htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003b). Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.com/BreezePart 1. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.learningcircuits.htm Hofman.fasfind. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal. Armit (2005). Sept. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. and Furr. P. Luigi (2003c). http://www. July 8. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. (2002). Learning Circuits. July 26.htm Duckworth.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . K.html Canali De Rossi. Sept.

InfoWorld. and Winfield.infoworld. K.amazon.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. http://www.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 .uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. 11. Feb.ac. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.open. 2005. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. and Quick. (2003). Choose your presentation tools carefully. http://kmi. http://www. L. Dave (2002).presentations. http://www. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. AMACOM. (2004). but… Presentations Magazine. S. P. Choices are great.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. and Equipment.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1.. Software.html Zielinski. Dec. Choose the Right Vendors. Start Saving Time and Money Today.pdf Spielman.

Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. In the second sense of the term. It can refer to learning something quickly.automatically assures that all navigation works. Navigation built in . or where the online information frequently changes. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Do Not Reproduce 192 .” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. such as creating links. but not always good for you. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. Deploys easily . Standardize approaches. In the first case. a demand to produce online content very quickly. programming. including tools and templates. tests. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. glossary. Does not require any advanced skills. It can refer to learning something quickly. It is best suited to textbased materials. just-intime e-learning. easy to use. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Tools for rapid e-learning are. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. or HTML knowledge. Instructional design built in. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. FAQ. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. 2003). learning objects. For example.does not require any plug-ins. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. extreme e-learning. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. graphics. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. and drill down pages. by necessity. simple. are built in. According to Ready Go!. Advanced features.

computer games. manage the content and the users.” Find out more: http://www. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.raptivity. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. San Francisco: Pfieffer.readygo.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. http://www. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. virtual classroom. See a demo at: http://www. January 23. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan.e. conferences. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.pdf Aldrich.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. a demand to produce online content very quickly. or where the online information frequently changes. http://www. Edit. 2006. See sample templates at: http://www.masie. low. Leverage professional project management methods and tools.org Web site.co. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Learning Solutions. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. centrally located files. Templates.articulate. http://www.elearningcentre.amazon.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. version control protocols.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. http://www. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.versus high-interaction). Kendrick (2006). and communicate deliverable expectations.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. http://www. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. Reduce the number of development vendors. which contains information on resources.htm Bibliography Abell. schedule and due dates. Assign SMEs who are committed. 2003). http://www. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.scate. Clark (2005).. Future-Proofing.elearningguild. To be effective.microlearning. 2004).com/studio. Enhance. and Publish. Reusability.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Do Not Reproduce 193 . and other good stuff. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.

com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. June. Kevin (2002).cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Making rapid elearning work. http://www. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning.pdf Jimenez.elearningguild. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. 2002. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Josh (2005).pdf Jimenez. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. (2004).asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. Mar. LTI Newsline. Larstan Business Reports.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. tools.com/content/templat es/clo_article.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. Josh (2004).clomedia.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Jay (2005). Mark (2003).asp Bersin. http://www.elearningguild. 2006. Lane (2002). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. http://vftraining. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. http://www.ltimagazine. Transform Magazine.ltimagazine.elearningguru. Brandon Hall Research . 2006. J. Dianne (2005).bersin. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www. 2004.transformmag.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.clomedia.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. E-Learning for short attention spans. and Bersin. http://www.htm Bersin. Chief Learning Officer. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. http://www. http://www.clomedia.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.com/articles/ab stracts/index.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Chief Learning Officer. Paper.pdf Crosman. April. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. http://www. Ray (2005). e-Learning Crop Circles. Jennifer (2004). Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.elearningmag. Jan.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. LTI Newsline.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Chief Learning Officer.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Rapid Intake White Paper. LTI Newsline. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Tips and Techniques.pdf Gustafson. http://www. Bill (2005). http://www. http://www. Garin (2004).pdf Brodsky.com/showArticle. http://www. http://www.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. August 2004. January. J. Penny (2004). July 2.learningcircuits.adobe.meetingone.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Learning Circuits. Nov.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning. 9. Ray (2006). Learning Solutions. 10. Joe (2005). June 30. July 2004.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald.

April 20. http://www.com/articles/ default.macromedia. Eric (2003).pdf Mayberry. 2006.elearningguild. http://download. Macromedia White Paper. (2004b).asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.htm Masie Center (2005). What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Stephanie (2006). http://download. Learning Circuits.trainingpressreleases.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. http://www.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. Chief Learning Officer. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f.com/content/templat es/clo_article.learningcircuits.com/news story. http://www. (2004a). January 2003. Mobile and Device Based Learning. 2005. Learning Solutions. The Training Foundation online article. February 2005. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. June 2004.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Simulation.clomedia. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. http://www. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.trainingfoundation.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.macromedia. January 16. Macromedia White Paper. Ed (2004).pdf Macromedia Inc.pdf Shepherd. http://www. Clive (2006). Press release.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. http://www. Nick (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 .

whmsi. http://www. Inc. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.botball.aad. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. and mathematics. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. and math.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.gov.nasa.active-robots. engineering.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. http://www.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. http://robotics. http://mindstorms. technology. engineering.lego. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. http://www. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. for underwater exploration. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.ife. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.org/aboutbotball/overview. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.com/ http://www. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. Do Not Reproduce 196 . Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. technology.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.

engineering. and vocal tics.nasa.ams.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. http://www.brooklyn. one child at a time. http://www.euron. Do Not Reproduce 197 . Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://robothaven.cuny. and mathematics.gov/rcc/index.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. http://www. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.microworlds.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.ed. technology. http://robotics. It features news.edurobot.rec.com/r_home.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.sci. http://www.ri.osaka-u. lip movements.cmu.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.edu/index. and other information on robotics. By donning motion sensors.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics. http://www.net/ Run by NASA. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.kipr. particularly robotics. go to: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.irc.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. links. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.ac. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.evolution.profetic. Mr. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.org/article.atr.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.eng.jp/ See also: http://www. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.

pdf Ferrari. A.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. M...edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. A.uml. (2005). Meeden. Ontario.pdf Boersch. and Hempel. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Harwin. M. Lathan. H. 28-30. and Dautenhahn.pdf http://www. and Meeden. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. G..amazon. Hohmann. Kumar. and Mataric. D. K. M. S. Ottawa. Artificial Intelligence Conf. Heinsohn. November.. http://zeus.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.fhbrandenburg. McHugh. http://dangermouse. H. http://www. Miller.digicult. P. (2004).. Abbott.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. (2001).cmu. and Powerful Ideas. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. http://www. U. Sept.brynmawr. Sept. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.pdf Blank.pdf Nourbakhsh.. D.wtec.l3s. W. M. D. (2004).. Kumar. and Yanco. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. Germany. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. D.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. Mindstorms: Children. http://www. Ferrari.. Dobreva. http://www. http://www. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. http://www.. L. B.pdf Papert. C. R.. Germany. M. R. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.cs. and Rusbridge.. Keating. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4)..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (2004). (2004). T. June.pdf Stewart. New York.pdf Cooper. and Loose. D. (2001). (1980). Basic Books. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. http://rob. Proceedings. AAATE Conference 1999. Computers.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er. Düsseldorf. L.tools for accessible education. J.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. Paper at the American Assoc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank. D. D. and West.. I.. Robots in the classroom .ccmlab. and Wagner. S. Donnelly. I. (1999). http://www.andrew. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.amazon.l3s..de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Yanco. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. New York: Syngress Publishing. (2005). H.

One is the problem of finding relevant. such as Yahoo. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user.so they take the structure of the Web into account. as this section of the report shows. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. While search engines have improved over the past several years. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. Ezzy (2006a. collaboration. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Meta–search engines. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. information retrieval. Examples are Google and Overture. But. such as Google and Altavista. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings.com and Alta Vista. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. federated search. Do Not Reproduce 199 . and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. They bring into the equation user preferences. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences.examples are early yahoo. collective intelligence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. a rich user experience. meta-search engines. Web directories. which submit queries. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . search engine optimization. each with their own defining feature sets. Search is probably the most used elearning application. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. resource discovery. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. dependable information. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. data mining.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. in parallel.

http://www. get answers http://www.aeiwi. http://www. http://www. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. 2004). http://www. http://www.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources.gada. http://www.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).aol. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. for a variety of reasons. Brandon Hall Research .com/ 200 © 2006. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://www.answers. http://search. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.convera.com’s search service http://a9.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.about. video.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.alexa. then fill in the search box.altavista. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://www.com/ Answers. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.faganfinder.ask. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. http://www.com Gada.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. and text.com About.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.alltheweb. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.gigablast. http://www.

http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://rollyo. http://www. http://www.squidoo.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www.hotbot. http://www.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.mooter.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://dmoz.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.google. http://getoutfoxed. http://search.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.grokker.netscape.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ 201 © 2006.pubsub. blogs.gravee.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.looksmart.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://www.com/search/def ault. http://channels. and the Web.umdl.otavo.jookster. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://www. http://search.com/v2/index.icerocket.msn. http://qube. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://oaister.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.umich. Brandon Hall Research .com/ IceRocket – Searches images.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.qelix.com/ Gravee .com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.gnod. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://www.lexxe.

Clusters results.com/v2a/flash.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://www. http://www.acronymfinder. http://www.stumbleupon.com/ Wink – Using social networking.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.gpoaccess.google.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. Wink then diplays the results. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.google. http://citeseer.ucr.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://www. http://books.eurekster.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. books.healthfinder.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www.govmine.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . cast lists and theatre schedules.gov/ http://www.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. reviews. http://www. users tag their favorite results and block spam. Brandon Hall Research .sri.psu.yahoo. http://www. http://www. http://www.wink.com/ 202 © 2006. http://vivisimo. http://swicki.google. and movies.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.ist.ai.blinkx. http://tagjag.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://infomine. http://froogle. Much of this information is hidden from view.ujiko.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. http://scholar.gnoosic.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://icerocket. http://firstgov. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.imdb.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers.ithaki. AolKIDS.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). http://www. http://www.nlm.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.liveplasma.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.almaden. ArtKIDSRule. http://lawcrawler. http://www.last.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.cfm?doid=105 6808.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. Brandon Hall Research .com/ Last. http://www. AwesomeLibrary.pandora.nih.fm/ LawCrawler .A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.krugle. http://www.scirus.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.convera.rrzn.merl. http://www.uni-hannover.com/ LitLinker .A legal search engine.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.rawsugar. & KidsClick!.imdb.org/citation. Yahooligans. http://www.ibm. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.acm. http://portal. reviews.gov/entrez/query.findlaw.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www. http://www.omgili. http://www.org/ Omgili .ncbi. http://wwwqbic. http://www. FactMonster.com/ MediaFinder .com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://kids. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.f cgi QBIC .koders.

http://www.zoominfo. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.columbia. http://www. http://www.” Content-based search engines for pictures.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.seekport. http://www.columbia.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. companies.soundspotter.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.cmp. and notes.xcavator. bookmarks. and their relationships. http://www.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://www.searchking.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.psu.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.cs.ee.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.columbia.ee.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://smealsearch1.com 204 © 2006.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.4 billion links.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ. http://www.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://nlp.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. as of this writing. http://wang16.nyu.searchedu. or federated searching. http://techsearch. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www.technorati.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.ee.ist. http://a9. http://www.psu. http://www.truveo.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. and tracks a user's search history.

com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://www. shopping sites.ac. http://www. including a set of international telephone directories. dating and personals. produces a visual display of the clusters. tickets.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.net/indexu.ithaki. maps/directions. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.intute.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.researchbuzz. movies.copernic. pictures. http://www. news sources. http://www.ixquick. health information sources.inria.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www. apartment rentals. is a valuable resource for researchers.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. audio. lottery results. http://www-rocq.info. city guides.com/ 205 © 2006. video.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.searchtools. http://www. hotels. Brandon Hall Research .search. classifieds. and Web mail for the topic entered. http://vivisimo. greeting cards. weather. http://www. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. jobs.kartoo. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. therefore.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. and links the clusters. http://www. games. yellow pages.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.zapmeta.com/ Info – Searches reference works. flights. http://clusty. http://www.trovando.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. eBay.uk/ SearchTools. http://www.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. white pages.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. http://www.dogpile. http://www.

com/ Stephen Downes. the user's community has total control over the results.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.html 206 © 2006. phrase. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. can be published on the user's site.ac.firstmonday. http://infomine. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.co. and Shoham.downes. or swicki. 10(12).ac. is against the idea of federated searches. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. (2005).uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://swicki. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.gpoaccess. This search engine.netmasters.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Frank. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. http://searchenginewatch.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. Y.gov/ http://www.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. or topic . http://firstgov. http://www.citysearch. http://www. focused searches on topics they care about. First Monday. Unlike other search engines..just as a search engine is used for text. A.bolton.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. For example. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. http://www. http://www. Users can also browse by subject category. S.eurekster. http://www.ucr.elearning.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.searchenginecolossus. December.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.tveyes.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.

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Search Engines

Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2


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Search Engines

Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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F..unikarlsruhe. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. C. USA. http://www.bbk.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1.shirky. 2004. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.pdf Sampson.bcs. R.infoworld. and Worldview.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. The Semantic Web. New York..com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. (2004). P.pdf Shirky. New York. http://www. A. Schmitz. 26-28. D. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. and Studer. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.pdf Tao. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks.uk/selene/reports/D el3. http://www. G. Networks. Nov. (2005). InfoWorld. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.soton.pdf Tao. F.amazon.ac. Staab. (2004). Woukeu. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. December 3. J. Lytras.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. Greenwich..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. Paper presented at the GLS conference.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. http://www. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. L. and Gouarderes.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. May 17–22. (2001). 2004. 7 (4).. G. Syllogism. 2003. and Diaz. Wagner. Clay (2003). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. E. D. John (2004). http://wwwsop.pdf Tane. G...pdf Updegrove. http://www. http://ewic. (2004). http://www2004. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. D. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Karenos. and Davis. and Stumme. Millard. CT: Manning.marketingprofs. and Woukeu. Thomas (2004). August 2.ac. and Christodoulou. Millard.html Stojanovic. H.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.ifets.. Andy (2005). Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. A. http://www. (2005).asp?source=/5/updegrove1. Economics and Culture. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.pdf Samaras. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. http://www. 2005.com/login/sign up. K. http://eprints. S.dcs.. M.asp Udell. (2003).html Do Not Reproduce 213 . 7. L. Marketing Profs.info/journals/7_4/5..inria. eLearning based on the Semantic Web.ecs. H.aifb. G. Davis.

ac. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. CETIS Online article.w3.co.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).cetis. Online article. Scott (2002). January 17. 2002. B.html Wilson. Who said that? Metadata. (2003). Semantic Web.981948. Peter (2003).uk/elearning/ story/0. Scott (2005). June 21.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. trust.com/read/swiftkick /column.guardian. http://www. L. http://education. Online article.darwinmag. and Miller. http://www. 2005.cetis. Scott’s Workblog. http://www.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . http://www. 2003. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. and the Semantic Web.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. June 14.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck.00. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Darwin. David (2002).10577.ac. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. http://poorbuthappy.

“Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.” My first report in this series.calt. According to High (2004). “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.noaa.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.icherubini.insead.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. especially ones set by themselves. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. but information about it remains on the Web. http://sos. Do Not Reproduce 215 . games. http://cave. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. learn. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.ncsa. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. http://www. 2005).gov/ Winters et al.e. participants will be motivated to evaluate.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. http://www.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. reviewed simulations as an online content format. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. role-playing. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It was decommissioned in 2005.insead. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.uiuc. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.calt. i. microworlds.

umich.soe. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.berkeley.calt. and murmurs.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www. http://crme. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.making-history.calt. http://thinkertools..edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. Linux.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. and Mac OS X. It runs on Windows. http://www.sdsu. http://www. http://geowall.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.calt.shatters. However. http://www.edcenter.fsl.dc.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.noaa.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. http://www.lsa.edu/geowall/ind ex. breathing.geo.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.edu/harvey_about.edcenter.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.edu/ http://um3d." http://www.med.umich." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.sdsu. Do Not Reproduce 216 . http://www. pulse rate.insead. Mass.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.miami. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.insead. http://www.calt. heart sounds.insead. with many examples to try.net/celestia/index. they are only available for Macintosh computers.insead. http://www.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.

http://www. http://www.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.adobe.com/ Forio . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .intermezzon.com/ MaxIT .experiencebuilders. without programming knowledge.adobe.ISLE . go to: http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.com/ Kookaburra Studios .STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.atghome.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. Integrates with many media types. For example.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software. http://www.ht m Intermezzon . http://www.stt-global.forio.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma . A guide’s voice prompts the employee.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.virtualfishtank.knowledge-director.asp Knowledge Quest .com/ MaxIT .com/ Knowledge Planet .KnowledgePresenter Simulator .Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.com/broadcastoverview. to play in a virtual fishtank. http://www.maxit. http://www.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www.knowledgequest.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming. http://www.biographix.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.knowledgepresenter.knowledgeplanet.assima.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 . http://www. http://www.com/product s/firefly.maxit.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.net/ Biographix .

” http://www. http://www.com/portal/index.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.outstart. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.stagecast.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.nexlearn.co. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://coe. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.percepsys. http://www. http://www.com/product_r pe.reusableobjects.virtualcontrolroom.com/3dTraining. including simulations. http://www.icherubini. http://www.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.teds.sdsu. http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie.com/products/sim.learning2005. http://www.com/ Reusable Objects .jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.elearningcentre. which can then be used to build simulations.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.stottlerhenke. http://www.xstreamsoftware.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.qarbon. http://www.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.

J. html Bibliography Aldrich.learningcircuits. http://www.medialabeurope. 8. Learning Circuits.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich.pdf DeVries. 2004. June. http://www. October 2004. T. Clark (2005). B. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). A..org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. International Workshop. (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 219 . Character simulations make e-learning come alive. 2004. (2005). September.learningcircuits. 12. computer games. (2002). Making the most of software simulations.clomedia. Holland. http://www. Gash. eSchool News.learningcircuits.ft.bc. and Wilensky.amazon.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. Bjorn (2004). Feb. A. How playing power drives lessons home. Paper presented at Robocup conference.PDF Blikstein. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. and Bostan.pdf Cherubini.com/content/template s/clo_feature. http://www. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. Taghiyareh. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. http://www.bbk.uva. Simjour. p.. Aug. San Francisco: Pfieffer. http://www. In Interaction Design and Children. 2004. Utrecht.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. http://www..htm High. M. Six criteria of an educational simulation. Kamau (2004).blikstein. http://www. Clark (2004).science.. 2002.ac.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. The promise of online simulations. H..htm eSchool News (2004).org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. U. P.jibc.eschoolnews. 4. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Jennifer (2004). Learning Circuits. Mazloumian. http://www.uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Financial Times. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. F. and McCloughlin. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Sept. A.com/news/showS tory. Learning Circuits.htm Aldrich. Shannon (2004). Rasmussen.

org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. (2001). Viswanathan. Cherubini. http://www. Laser. Florida. R. September.prospect. October 15-19. Fort Lauderdale. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. (2001). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Simulation levels in software training.case studies. and Sund Martin. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.projects. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. A. Online report. and Strohecker.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper.. Sherry (1997). (2003).pdf Swaak.. Montréal. Computer simulations in distance education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.. Aaron (2005).net/papers/ELearning. Mar. 17. and Hou.html Sobeih. The American Prospect. July. http://www. http://www. http://itdl. N.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. http://www. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. T.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 .bham. Department of Computer Science. M.for Philosophers and Engineers..protonmedia.learningcircuits. & de Jong.pdf Tjaden. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. 8(31).html Winters. and Ip. L.pdf Turkle. AACE conference. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.dei. 1997.html Linser.html Lunce.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. http://www.ac. In Association for Computing Machinery. Implementation and Evaluation. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. J.cs. A. http://www.simplay.. A. 284-294. 1(10).uc. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. Gary (2003). Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . (2004). (2002).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.ncassr. USA. J.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer. October.ht m Sloman.. Learning Circuits. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.icherubini. http://www.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. Les (2004). C.-Apr. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. April. Online paper at: http://lsm. A. M.

ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. therefore. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.ala.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. especially for tagging retail items in stores. which transmits over short distances. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). RFID technology is developing rapidly. optical tags. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. For a full discussion of this issue. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags..cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. easily changed. http://www. 2005). grease. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. While controversial. especially in museums and for outdoor education.org/Template. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. Do Not Reproduce 221 . according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. infrared (IR) tags. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. or water. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. They are programmable and.

csmonitor. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. In Kommers.edu/index.msu. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. Osawa.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.iu. James (2006). 2004. N. (2005).” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. G.. & Kondo.toydirectory.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 .com/monthly/articl e. A.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.. http://www. http://www.. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. S.. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. in a 2005 online article.checkpointsystems. A.digicult. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.infoworld. and Case.org/ Bibliography Borck. (Eds. K. & Richards. http://cnm.aace.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.open.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.cfm?fus http://www. http://www..html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. http://www. K.” http://vis. http://uitspress.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. http://www.org/newdl/index. Ando..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. 5.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.. Oct. Noda. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. T.edu/102605_meal. (2004). P.iu. 2005.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. http://www. Tsukagoshi. June 27.aace. http://www.rfidnews. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. April 13. C.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x.com/default . Shibuya. symbology tags.). Infoworld. especially for tagging retail items in stores.html (Online). Noma.

org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. Proceedings.jisc. G. Donnelly.. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.2005.asp?id=1222 Ross. H. Aparna (2004). http://www.pdf Salcedo. adoption and innovation. 2004.. Andrew (2005). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. van Kranenburg. 261-263. Y. eSchool News Online. M.xml&DOI=10.toydirectory. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. and Yano. http://www. (2005). http://www.. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. http://www.. R. (2006). TD Monthly.1109/WMTE.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc.eschoolnews. Michigan State University. M. Masters Thesis.org/news/showstor y. M. standards.com/monthly/article .info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low.digicult. January 1. Corey (2004). RFID: frequency. Ogata.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 .66 Ward. 4(3). S.ac. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. http://www.msu. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). R.computer. http://csdl2. (2003). Technology Watch Report 1. March.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602. and Dobreva.pdf Robinton. and Backhouse.

as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. Students. metadata. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.us) post their favorite Web sites. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Third. tagging. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. Second.First. Fifth. faculty. in turn. Fourth. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. As of April 2006. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. and books. as each member can upload resources discovered. Flickr held over 100 million images. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. printouts. and Web links. music.us Web site (http://del. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.” However. The result is something called a tag cloud. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. ontologies. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.icio.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. For instance. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. no matter their location or timing. they act as an “outboard memory. search. Do Not Reproduce 224 . or distributed in emails.icio. while users of the del. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. researchers at all levels (students.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. For example.

share references with colleagues. http://www. but. sort.net/ CiteULike .com/ Flickr – Store. search. users submit stories for review. http://www.A free service to help academics share.org/ Consumating . and search for a specific user's Blinks. share their stories.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. store.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. http://consumating. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.com/ Furl . so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. describe. http://www. music.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. http://www.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. and organize the academic papers they are reading.clipmarks. http://www. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. http://blog.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites.us . Also retrieve it easily.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.icio. and/or books and find them again. and share photos with others. With digg.connotea. and to share them. Blink also provides tools to sort. users can see what others are Blinking.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.icio.43things.digg. connect with others.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.eventful. http://flickr.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. the users decide. http://www.feedmarker. They can save references.com/ Del.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. blogging. or check out what everyone wants to do. Do Not Reproduce 225 . http://blogmarks. http://www.furl.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.com/archives/beta_up date/index. Also. http://del.blinklist.citeulike. and non-hierarchical editorial control. http://ask. RSS.com Clipmarks . They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com/ Blinklist . rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.us/ Digg . http://www. search others’ references. get inspired.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists.metafilter.

html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.networkltd. http://www.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/ Jots .kaboodle.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.edu/ppad2 /index. http://jots.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.smugmug. Tags can be shared or kept private.com/ Kaboodle . http://www. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.yahoo. or enter new items and tag them.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. similar to Digg.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.com/ Magnolia .jookster. http://www. http://www.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.spurl.simpy. and discover relevant links. http://www.html Linkroll . http://www.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.northwestern. http://www.shadows.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.org/news.memeorandum.A free.eu/products/networ k_menus. share. http://myweb2.com/ Simpy – Search tags.rojo.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . http://www. http://www.gnolia. http://ma. http://projectpad. based on what is happening in the news media.search.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster . http://www.netscape. updated in near real time.netvouz.linkroll.pageflakes.com/ Project Pad . http://www.

com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.us.educause. http://www.veotag. http://www. http://weblog.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.com/index. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.quickonlinetips. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/archives/00055 8.html http://atomiq. with contributions from users.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. http://unalog. http://upcoming.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.quickonlinetips.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del. http://www. Flickr.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.tagzania.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.html http://tagsonomy.icio.icio.infoworld. http://www. http://www.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.suprglu. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky. If a city is not there.quickonlinetips.” http://www.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.yelp. http://tabblo.wink.html http://www.com/writings/ontology_overra ted. and social bookmarking.peterme. and Digg.zvents.com/ SWiK . allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.S.us. http://www. and share it with others. http://swik.wists. tags.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.A. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu .com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .com Wists – A social shopping site.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.com/udell/gems/d elicious.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup. http://www.

fasfind.hpl.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. Flack.hp. Brandon Hall Research .cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.shtml Golder. June 21. 11(4). April 2005. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. B. May 5. J.00. M.” http://magazines..typepad.org/teachersource/learning . Hannay. Tom.techtarget. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.fasfind. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. (2005).asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. http://www.html McGillicuddy. and Hannay.. Social consequences of social tagging. D-Lib Magazine. 2006. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. (2005).org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.dlib. http://www. Liz (2005). Hammond. 11(4). D-Lib Magazine. HP Labs Report. http://www. Adam (2004).org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Jan. 20. 2006. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.htm Hammond. http://dlib.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. Many2Many. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Andy (2006). Web 2.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.educause.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. B.com.org. Bryan (2006). http://www.pdf 228 © 2006.html Lawley.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. SearchCIO.html Coates.adammathes. Keynote address. T. http://www. Shamus (2006). http://searchcio. http://ideant. T. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.com/originalCo ntent/0.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Huberman.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. Plasticbag.. Tom (2005).plasticbag.ascc. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. 2. T. 2005. (2005). B.html Mathes.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource.sid19_gci1195182.com/wwwtools/m /6350. Online paper. S.. http://tomgruber. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. 41(2).pbs.. (2005). T. Lund. March/April 2006. Ulises (2004). http://www. http://many.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.pdf Gurber. April 2005..ht ml Mejias. and Scott.php Lund. 2005.com/wwwtools/m /7172. Sept.289142. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.ejournal.corante.

Tags vs.html Mote. Trusted Sources.html Do Not Reproduce 229 . August 20. http://www. Will (2005).com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. Aug. http://www. 2004.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. Webblogg-ed. July 20. http://ideant.isi. Online Paper. 2005.infoworld. The New School of Ontologies. Ulises (2005). InfoWorld. May 20.html Udell.infoworld.pdf Richardson.typepad. InfoWorld. Nicholas (2004). 2005. Tag mania sweeps the Web. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.weblogged. Jon (2004). Collaborative knowledge gardening. 2005. 2. http://www. Ideant.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Jon (2005).

communities of practice. photo sharing sites. Friendster. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.com.us.icio. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. shared links.com. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. etc. online personals such as Match. reviewed social networking as an online content format. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. etc. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. Do Not Reproduce 230 . e-mail. SMS. social networking sites such as Friendster. photo albums. etc. dating sites. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. family.) Relationship Management (Orkut. tagging. shared link libraries such as del. My first report in this series. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. social software.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et.) Experience Sharing (blogs. etc. e-mail.al. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. 2005).” that is.

http://www. workplaces. and the military.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. http://www.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. or as a social network.com/introNetwor ks.myspace. as a blog. http://www. photos.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. http://www. http://www. high schools. Do Not Reproduce 231 . which is then open to other readers. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.com/signin/index. http://www.com/ Orkut .livejournal.com/ Live Journal .friendster.esnips. and files and then make them available to others. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. List who a person knows and find out who others know. http://www. http://www. and within “communities of interest.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. Share it with others if desired. The sites are places to meet people with common interests.freeopendiary.html Last. http://www.my-diary. Facebook has networks for colleges. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.” http://www.facebook. https://www.classmates.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. audio.faceparty.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.codeville.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. http://www. video.intronetworks. documents.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. in associations.linkedin. and geographic regions. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.last.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. work.orkut.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. https://www.diaryland.

http://www. http://www.com/index. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.analytictech.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. http://www. It costs several thousand dollars.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.spartasocialnetworks. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.S. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. Users share their writings and meet each other.yahoo. Columbia University.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. check out the map at org.com/reg/sample. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. Brandon Hall Research .html Org.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. http://www.typepad.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.analytictech.com/hijackers. http://360.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.netminer.orgnet. intelligence (1993-2001).com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr. http://ideant.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.xanga. coupled with NetDraw.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.pbwiki. http://www.com/ucinet.com/inflow3.pbs.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.orgnet.stumbleupon.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College. http://jnthweb. http://www.html 232 © 2006.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.orgnet. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. http://www.” http://www.com/index. upload photos. http://platial. see the JNthWeb Wiki.

Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies.pdf Bibliography Allee.odnetwork. http://www.uva. Patti (2003).elsevier. Oct.elearningcentre.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu.usemod.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.com/cgibin/mb. http://www. http://www.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. Nov. http://www.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.. Knowledge Management Magazine.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo.co. http://terrya. http://www1.html Anderson.futurelab.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. 13. http://www.wikipedia.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites.edublogs. Verna (2004). 2004.theworkfoundation. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.kmmagazine. Christopher (2004). see the list in Wikipedia. http://www.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. May 2003. http://www.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites. http://www2.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid. Virtual Canuck. Terry (2005).edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me. http://faculty.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.com/xq/asp/sid.socialtext.ucr.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. but.net/ssa/index.. 28.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 . OD Practitioner. Educational Social Overlay Networks.fmg. Life with Alacrity.jsp SocioSite: Networks.lifewithalacrity. KM and the Social Network. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. Groups.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. 32(4).insna. http://www.analytictech.html Allen.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://en. http://www. 2005.org.

downes.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. Stephen’s Web. but. and Parker. http://www.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd.pdf Cross. and Prusak.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . September 20.ca/cgibin/page. http://www. R. Stowe (2003a). The Semantic Social Network.. http://www. Dead Already? PC World. Cambridge. (2002).analytictech. You Don't Know Me. (2004). Stowe (2004). Business Networking Systems. R. Linked: The New Science of Networks.com/read/010104/ context.. J.com/article2/0. L.pcmag. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. Feb.darwinmag. No.j sp?doi=10. and Parker. The Work Foundation. European Journal of Open. http://www. 2004 http://www. Liedtka. Vol. March 2005. Stephen (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context.. R. Christian (2006).1759.1 648185.downes. 44.theworkfoundation. Social Capital & Social Software. June 2002. L.. A. Research Report. R. S. (2002). (2002).htm Davies.hbsp.html Cross. July 12. California Management Review.amazon. 2005.hbsp. Distance and E-Learning. Harvard Business Review. May 2003.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. Stowe (2003b). September 2003. Perseus Publishing. http://www.ca/files/osn. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. Winter 2002.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social. Stephen (2005).jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. Darwin. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.00.harvard . Harvard Business Review. 11. L.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes. January 2004. John (2004). Darwin.harvard . Cambridge.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.html Boyd. A. MA. Borgatti. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.com/read/050103/ social. Cracking the social code. 2. http://www. 14. Feb. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. http://harvardbusinessonline. and Weiss. http://www. William (2003).jsp Downes. MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://doi. (2005).com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.html Boyd. OLDaily..com/mr/hbsp.jhtml?id =2705 Cross.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. http://www.1225/R0503H Cross. A. http://www.contentdirections.html Dvorak. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. http://harvardbusinessonline.darwinmag. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.

K. 8(8). http://blogs.pdf Levine. (2000). Dec.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. Oliver. 29. Eva (2003).com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel. http://cogdogblog.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. Grant. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. 2005. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. http://lrs.. Research Report. Seven Principles of Social Networking..learningcircuits. S.htm Kleiner.netform. No. CA: University of California.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg.ac. http://asn. Allan (2006).amazon. (2006).planetwork. http://www. (2001). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. 2005. (2003).learningcircuits.futurelab. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. UK: Futurelab. New York: Little.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. (Eds. and Facer. J. Lanham. http://www.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. http://repositories.org/cgi/viewconte nt.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. Feb. Art (2003).salon. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. http://www. M.wun. Bristol.htm http://www. Social Networks. First Monday.. (in 2 parts) http://www..uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet.cdlib. and Brewer (1994). Caroline (2005). April 15. L. and Riddle.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . August. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business.). Sayers.net/AugmentedSocial Network.uiuc.h tml (Review) Gladwell.net/ir/reviews/revs163. J. Malcolm.ed. Institute for Social Science Research. Online paper. How to Save the World Blog. M. CogDogBlog.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. (2005). Research Report. July 14. K. L. & Barney. Ulrike. R. Social software in action (No real software required). Southhampton. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Hauser. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside.org.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. 21. (2004)..ucr. D. A.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Brown.pdf Pollard.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. 15. Zucker. http://www. and Foster. 2006. Social Software and Learning. http://faculty.pdf Jordan. (Online book). Learning Circuits. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. David (2005a). A.. S.

The social networking landscape. Learning and Computing.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha.Organization. http://elgg. http://eradc. http://www. Aug. June 2.com/booksProdDesc.html Do Not Reproduce 236 . David (2005c). Delpos (eds. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. 341-358. 23. Connectivism: learning as network creation. CNET.1 842806. and M. Social software and the politics of groups.htm Tosh.1895.salon. http://elgg. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. (1998). http://www.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02.).ht ml Sessums. David (2005b). G. 9(9). 2005. How to Save the World Blog. May 5. Thousand Oaks.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. David (2005d). D. George (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. Rescuing social networking. Social Network Analysis. Nov.html Ravid. 2005. Elgg: Community Learning Space. 2005. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. 2005. 8.00.cnet.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. John (2000).com/4520-6033_16240543-1. Jan. CA: Sage Publications.net/csessums/weblog/6238.net/csessums/weblog/13748. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.edu/rocha/ises. March 9. 2003. Van de Vijver. Draft paper online.firstmonday. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). (2005). http://www. Lance (2005). http://www.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11.sagepub. 11. First Monday. 2006. How to Save the World Blog. Nov. 2005.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. Christopher (2006a). (2004). 2006. September. http://www.h tml Shirky. In: S.salon. http://blogs. Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://blogs. How to Save the World Blog.html Siemens. and Raefali S. http://informatics.salon.com/writings/group_poli tics. and Werdmuller. G. Social Software presentation. http://www. Scott. Teaching. June 16. B. Salthe.com/article2/0.html Pollard. pp.shirky. 2. Clay (2003).pcmag. Learning Circuits.indiana. Molly (2005). Luis M. Christopher (2006b). Social network analysis: what to map.html Pollard.learningcircuits.h tml.asp Wood. http://blogs. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet. Aug.pdf Ulanoff. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work.

and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. just like during a real meeting.com/halo/index. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. presentation tools. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. 11. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.” but other more elaborate technologies. are also available. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. and shout over each other to try to be heard. retrieving. another person while communicating via the Web. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 2001). and the sense of contact with. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. When it is fully successful.hp. http://www. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. 2001.g.hp. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. In 2000. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. "online" or "offline") of other users.html http://www.. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. share files and documents.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. cameras. presence. Do Not Reproduce 237 . as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.

org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.percro.unizar. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence.jabber. at a physically remote real world site. http://www. http://gaim. and Windows.ac.yahoo.uk/ind ex.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.strath.org/teleimmersion.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.dmem. http://laimuz.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. in every sense.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.fakespace. BSD. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .org/teleimmersion2. MacOS X. http://messenger.ac.ebuddy. http://telepresence. http://www. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. http://www. secure.sourceforge.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. The driver sits in a box. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.' http://cnm.ibm.live.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. http://www-142.net/ Jabber – An open. http://www. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.advanced.open.aim.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there. http://www." http://www. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. the CAVE.com/index.advanced.ht ml http://www. http://get.

. D. (2001). London: Routledge.no/at/nmm/enlund.txt Knudsen. Presence applications poised for takeoff.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. On the Internet. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.org/rfc/rfc2779.nada. F. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. http://www. http://www. and Rusbridge. Sept. Online memo. Cambridge. Do Not Reproduce 239 . Wired News. C. S.pdf Lynn. Abbott. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. (Eds. M. and IJsselsteijn. http://cid.wired. and Naeve.amazon.amazon.digicult.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. Alberta. Banff. (Eds. as well as news.) (2003). McHugh. Ins and outs of teledildonics. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. Naeve. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).) ACS 2000 Proceedings. W.kth. Regina (2004). June 1.ietf. Being There: Concepts. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. http://www. http://www. and Pejas. January 2005.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.html Goldberg. A.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.html Riva. Donnelly.ieor. Amsterdam: IOS Press. M.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.nada. http://www2. A.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. C...berkeley. http://www. and Handberg.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. history. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. John (2004).) (2000).65 064-0. Ken (Ed. 2002.org Bibliography Dreyfus. Hubert (2001). J. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. Dobreva. Davide. (2005).hig.acs. 6. http://www.pdf Knudsen. http://www. Network World.. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.virtual-presence.. A. Network Working Group (2000). A. Nils (2000). The production of presence – distance techniques in education. http://www. http://kmr. J. MA: MIT Press.networkworld.com/news/culture/0. G. 2004. Calgary.pdf When it is fully successful.kth.. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. September 24. L.se/pdf/CID-206. 44-49.pdf Fontana. In Soldek. (2002).

and Handberg. 28.modes.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. In Hoyer.org/docum ents/Sponberg. H.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. Jan.swedishlearninglab. (2001). (Eds. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.. http://www. et al.Learning.pdf Udell. H. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . L. Germany: Hagen. http://www. Jon (2005).infoworld. C. Knudsen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. InfoWorld.

IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. telepresence. in all its formats. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. tlearning. amateur and professional video cameras. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Video blogging has become common. vlog Description Video. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. screencasting. 2002). It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). video blogging. videocasting. Do Not Reproduce 241 . streaming video. 2005). Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. However. in all its formats. My first report in this series. cell phones. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Once video goes on the Internet. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. PDAs. even a video plug-in for Skype. IPTV. vodcasting. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. reviewed video as an online content format. television.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Video. the largest Internet telephone service. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. bandwidth becomes an issue. A new version of television.

brightcove.uk/index. video.rocketboom.dfilm.axor. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. http://www.ar/iptv_en. the “triple play” of video. and multimedia content to customers. http://participatoryculture.html Dialcom Networks. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. the Internet telephone service. video on the Internet is not readily searchable.com For an example of a video blog. even a video plug-in for Skype.rocketboom.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.on2.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://www. see Rocketboom. according to Foroohar (2006). http://www.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. http://www. improves the satisfaction of the client.medialogic. low bandwidth video stream. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. Britain's largest telecom firm. or students through a high quality. http://www. amateur and professional video cameras.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.org/ In 1999. cell phones.apple. In spite of the limitations. As the following examples show. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. http://www.google. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. partners. BT. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .com.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further.com/index_about. http://video. It is still going strong at: http://www. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.co.dmeurope. http://www. with IPTV.com/default. PDAs. the largest Internet telephone service. and maintains loyalty.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. voice. See samples at: http://www. a three-minute videoblog. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. employees. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines.

org/ At YouTube.co. http://www.concord.com/ BitTorrent.google. cellular. http://eduscapes. or set-top box.mil/index. video.xstreamengine. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.bittorrent.com/seeds/index.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. For example. https://www.dvguru.elearningcentre. read “Ten video sharing services compared.hpc. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.veotag.” Users can upload video clips for free.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.bittorrent.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.com/nara.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.youtube.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. PDA.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. See examples at: http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. http://www. whether dial-up.navy. and divide them into chapters or segments. tag them.” http://www.com/pressreleas es.ourmedia. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. and visual resources. http://www. http://www.spider.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning. http://vpb. http://www.veoh. desktop. See the current selection at: http://video.addictingclips. http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 243 .

Pradeep (2004). D.wharton.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.upenn.masternewmedia.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere.co.educause.lsda.pdf Bardia. P. Online article at: http://www.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www.streamingmedia.com/webconf/video. http://www.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.” http://www. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. and Bates. t-learning Study .edu/articl e.” http://www. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. www. (2003).edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.iptv-industry.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. but business models are fuzzy. which users can submit.uk/tlearning/contents.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.” http://knowledge.elearnspace. The site already contains nearly 6. and by tags.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.masternewmedia.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. by alphabet. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.500 vlogs organized by popularity.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 .org.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.thinkofit.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. http://www. Peter (2003).org/doing/media. http://www.com/article.” http://www. http://www.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.uk/files/pdf/1443.mefeedia.masternewmedia. termed “mobile television. http://www.pjb.

masternewmedia. M. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.com/showArt Thornhill. http://edmarketing. Beyond Wireless Broadband. (2005). 417-419). The IPTV Revolution. L. 2.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. Brian (2005).).com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.bcr. S. In Richards. Foroohar. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.). Telcos face http://www-rcf. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.pdf ction=Reader. Tom (2005). Dec. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. 2005. Feb.umist. Durham.amazon.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development.campustechnology. Brian (2002). April 26.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. 1. 2005.usc. and Young. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. G. 2005. Asensio.htm Canali De Rossi. Robin Good Blog. http://www. http://www. Changing Channels.aace. 2005. 7. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .com/article. 2005. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Networking Pipeline. Goldfarb. IBM Institute for Business Value study.msnbc. discussions and Curtis. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. (Eds.org/newdl/index. Online paper. C. and Swenson. June 6.pdf tough road deploying IPTV. http://www1.pdf Klass.masternewmedia.asp?id=7769 Meng. NC: Duke University. Campus Technology. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.pdf http://www.com/id/8018601/si 8. http://www. (Ed.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Luigi (2005a). P. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2. Matthew (2005). Wi-Fi.cfm?fusea .htm IBM (2006). Nov. Robin Good Blog.networkingpipeline.msn. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. Luigi (2005b). Peter (2005). http://www.ibm.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. Dec. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. Friedman.apple. 8-9. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle..edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.ac. 2005.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. implications. Rana (2005). (2003). Wi-Max. Jonathan. University of Missouri.) (2002). Newsweek (International Ed. Manchester. Mon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi.

org. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. and the aim of the virtual experience.ubc. and Religious Studies department. inventors.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Videoconferencing is not required. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.kahootz.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. desktop virtual reality. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. augmented virtuality. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.ca/index.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. interaction. http://www.columbia. exchange enabling. Depending on the level of realism achieved. http://www. designers. http://solipsis. distributed virtual environments. Do Not Reproduce 246 . People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Near Eastern. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity.netofpeers. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. By using aspects of game play. http://www1.arts. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. The space is persistent. and storytellers.cs. http://ancient. Creed. skin color. and re-experiencing or re-using past events.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. mixed reality.futurelab.net/wiki2/index. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. simulation. To do this. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines.

ac.spider.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.secondlife.mil/index. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. http://www. https://www.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.shapedc.ac. http://www. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. Shape has developed the augurscope.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.com http://www.navy.ch/About/about_index.informationinplace.html http://vads.com/edu/index.activeworlds. Do Not Reproduce 247 . a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. http://www. and the aim of the virtual experience.healthdatamanagement.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex. including education.equator.ergonetz.html The U. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved. For example.ahds. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.ahds.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.S.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.opencroquet. http://www.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).hpc.epfl. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. http://www. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.org/index. http://vads. http://www.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://vrlab. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.org/highlights/augur. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).ac.

http://ru6. Stephen (2004). Guardian Unlimited. (2001). http://ru6. 27. and Tsiatsos. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. http://courseweb. T. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. East Carolina University. Dec. http://www..cti.edu/vrel. Research report.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. 2006. Eva (2004).gr/ru6/publications/898162 4.10577. T.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.00. C. 2004.. http://education. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. 24. Triantafillou.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . 2004.uk/elearning/ story/0.htm Dickey. Sept. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. http://vr. http://www. Sept. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. Hornig.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. (2004).gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.html Jones.campustechnology.learningcircuits. T. V. Michelle (2003).cti.1314022.guardian. Campus Technology.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).pdf Hoare.unt. A.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.cti.. J. http://www. Luigi (2004). maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.com/article.co. http://ru6. Philopoulos. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. 28.masternewmedia.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.htm Bibliography Bouras. http://www. and Tsiatsos. and Tsiatsos.oln. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. August 9. G.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.pdf Bouras.coe.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. C.intuition-eunetwork. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Technology Area . and Hicks.ecu. C. Trend: augmented reality check. 175-199. G. 2004. Robin Good Blog. (2006).pdf Bouras. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. Learning Circuits. (2001).

T. Web-based Education 2005 conference.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . G. Bertolotto.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.com/PaperInfo. (2005)..pdf Ross. M. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Monahan.tcd. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. 35. P. (2005). No. and Sester.. M. C. Istanbul. 2004.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. E. Ekaterina (2005). A.. (2002). Lister.. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.. January 2005. M. O. and Mangina. Conlan.com/PaperInfo. https://www. and Rusbridge.org/htmleng/english. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. http://www..pdf McArdle. & Sester. S.eng. (2004). Petridis... and White.actapress. M. McHugh. Web Based Education 2005 conference.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. http://www.com/Reference. P. F. Vol.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. (2005). 2005. Proceedings. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. http://www. Proceedings.. (Section on Virtual Reality).icc2005. July 9-16.ikg. http://www.ie/Owen. La Coruna/Spain. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Donnelly.html Liarokapis. ISPRS. http://www. C. D. R.monash. F. (2005). Dobreva. M.actapress. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.unibo. http://www.unihannover. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Gerard (2002). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.cs.p df Prasolova-Førland. and Seyedarabi.edu. A. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Abbott.pdf Katterfeld.digicult. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. 1. M. http://www.actapress.elearning. International Archives of Photogrammetry.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. 1(2). Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen.

and data rendering. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. geographical information systems. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. The educational advantages of visualization are many. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. visualization can represent alternative points of view. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. 2003).com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. See some amazing demos at: http://www. mapping. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. pattern recognition. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. location based systems. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. Flash. cybercartography. Finally. et al. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. cognitive collage. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. data filtering. Do Not Reproduce 250 . reviewed visualization as an online content format. My first report in this series.inxight. On the other hand. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users.dpc. graphics. dynamic displays. allowing for innovation or new understandings. images. GIS.ucar.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. data mapping. 2005).

http://www.nih. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.utexas. allowing 2-D image stitcher. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. see ZoomClouds.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.ac. Museum Edition.vrco.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.edu/index. and will require visualization applications.alice. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. http://www.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.ul.ubc. http://www.vista. and display (without glasses!).idc.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 . VR.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.esa. For an example.esrin.bham. which showcases their potential. whatsoever.pdf tracking.unifiedfield. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode. http://www. http://www. such as a blog.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.html http://www.ontopia.cs. http://www. delivery.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.zoomclouds.com/solutions. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.” http://richie.tmm.typorganism. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. See: to education.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. Free demo at: ew_68. http://www.nlm. http://www.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://www.ddd.semagix.0 as an approach authoring system.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.

See his list of resources at: http://www.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.gsfc. http://www.net/omnigator/models /index.nixlog.media. a young graphic designer.skyscraper.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.ontopia.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.com/VBody.com/index.medtropolis. Be sure to explore the “zoo. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .com/solutions.at/home.medibolt.edu/postcartoaag06.cs.” http://www. See their tool set and examples of their work.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. 2004. http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.edu/ Paul Nixon. http://www. April 7th.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://news.html For a practical application of visualization.indiana.mit. http://www. http://chatcircles.lecielestbleu.co. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.vrvis.marumushi.”’ BBC News.semagix.html 252 © 2006. Sample the collection at: http://svs.owu.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. http://www.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.in English or Spanish.gov/index. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.bbc. It has images of space and the earth from space. Sample their efforts at: http://www. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality. Brandon Hall Research .com Web site in Tokyo.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.feedtank.nasa. http://www. http://www. http://makingmaps.org/timeformations/ intro.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.

microsoft.html How do users visualize very large data sets. at the University of Maryland.noaa.com http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.com/index. one million items.nih.ibm.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .com/cat/dashb oard/index. http://research.html Top Tier http://www.corda.xcelsius.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. http://www. http://www.vicodi.com WorkPlace . the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.idashboards. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.http://www.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.gfdl.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. anatomically detailed. http://www.html XCelsius . retrieval.cs.nlm. for example.unifiedfield.mccrackendesign.http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.ambientdevices.http://www.com/omni.org/about.com CenterView .arcscience.spotfire.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. and information presentation. See this technology in action. http://www. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.umd.htm Using time as an added dimension.amnh. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. http://www.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. http://clustrmaps.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.com/applicatio n. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. http://www. in the U.S.

http://www. http://www. networks. Strater.microsoft. associations.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. MapViewer. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.softill. http://www. for 3-D data visualization. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. including the following: Voxler.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. http://www. http://www.S.intergraph. http://www. Didger. and.musanim.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. for 2D and 3-D graphing. for thematic and analytical mapping.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.mit.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.mapinfo. They have worked with the U. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. and anomalies in data. http://www.media.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.com Do Not Reproduce 254 . Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.timemap.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.advizorsolutions.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.oziexplorer. http://www.esri. Grapher. http://research.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.com/mam/mam.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://tangible.visualanalytics. http://www.golden. http://www. trends.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.topozone.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. for well log and borehole plotting.

com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.pixologic. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. and rendering.ac.” http://vis. http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. http://www.visualcomplexity.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. http://www. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. http://coe. http://www. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.masternewmedia. http://www.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www. and rendering software. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.com Pixologic is 2.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. http://www.topicmap. many of which are unique.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools..com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.iu. including the following: Bryce. Try a demo at: http://www. animation. Carrara.” http://www. P. is available online. Following are two: http://graphics.edu/eet/ Ell.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 . http://www.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. for 3-D modeling.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. modeling.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.liveplasma.formz.accurender.stanford.visualthesaurus.okino.daz3d. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.cs. for 3-D landscaping and animation.ubc. together with their estimated depth of influence.com/vc/index.agocg.edu/index. Clicking a related term extends the process.sdsu.

com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. J..gatech.usilu. and Resetarits. http://www.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.media. Luca (2003). J.gatech.mit.topicmaps. pp.infovis.edu/research/resea rch. B. http://www. and Shneiderman.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.complexityandeducation. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.com/ Bibliography Alpert.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.media. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. EXYSTENCE network..ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.pdf Bergmann. http://acg.com/ http://www.vrco. Paris: La Haye.amazon. both visualization companies. http://www. J. Mackinlay. http://acg. M. and Woodill. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. http://www. les réseaux.fakespace. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. (Eds.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. http://www. 1-34.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.gvu.htm http://www.pdf Bertin.istituti.net/printRec.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. K. Jacques (1983). Working Paper.editlib. Proceedings. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.gvu. http://www. 3149 http://www.edwardtufte.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. 14(1). Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. http://www. He finished his PhD.ualber ta.complexityscience.) (1999). Switzerland: University of Lugano. G. The Semiology of Graphics. (2003). Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. Paier. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.org/index. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. A.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Jacques (1967). http://www. http://www. Lugano.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.mit. les cartes. Sherman (2003).

C. (2005).html Ross.. 41(3).asp?id=11222 Metros.html Madhavan.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Brian (2002). McHugh. (2006).. available online at http://www.. G. P.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. S.. NC: Duke University.educause. and Pagalthivarthi. and Knezek. K. (1992). May/June. A. http://www. (1998). M.asp Mittal. Luca (2005). Vol.psycho. K. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. http://nivea. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. 16(4). G.com/publications. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.elearningguild. J.ac. A.org/dl/index.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.agocg.com/article. and Bertoline. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. 17-30.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Abbott. 46: 461-488. January 2005. http://www. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. August 11. Brent (2006).aace. http://itdl. Donnelly.siggraph. Campus Technology. L. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. September. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. http://www.amazon. (2005). 329-351. http://www.com/articles/abst racts/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. 42.org/index. J.pdf Goldfarb.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . (Section on Visualization). EDUCAUSE Review. Educational Media International. http://www.cfm/files/paper _5994.univparis5. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638.ht m O'Regan. Morales. (2005). 4(1). http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 3(1). Ruth (2003). http://www. D. http://www. No.campustechnology. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 2005. Dobreva. Siggraph.editlib.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. and Woolsey. 3. and Rusbridge. S. K. http://createdrealities.fr/CanJ/CanJ.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Durham.K. M.digicult. International Journal on E-Learning.. June 1.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. (2005).pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Theresa (1998). A. Canadian Journal of Psychology. 69-82.html Rhyne. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.. Arns.

pp.amazon. http://www. David (2002). http://www. England: AddisonWesley. No. http://www.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. August. http://www.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.ciconline. Spence. Fall. Threshold. Edward (2001). Envisioning Information.slis.indiana. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Visualization.edwardtufte.E. 4th Edition. 45. Robert.com/tufte/index Tufte. From multimedia to multisensory education. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 2. Reading. http://www. 185–213 http://www. Vol. Sharpe. Amsterdam: Elsevier. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd Edition. http://www. Colin. (2001). CT: Graphics Press. CT: Graphics Press. (2004).Visualization Technologies Scaife. evidence and narrative.amazon. 2nd Ed.amazon.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman. M.edwardtufte.amazon. Cheshire. Harlow. Cheshire.com/tufte/index Ware. Information Visualization: perception for design.org/threshold Tufte. Mike and Rogers.edwardtufte. David (2005). Digital Information Graphics. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. B. http://www. Matt (2002). CT: Graphics Press. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. Cheshire. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Edward (1997). Edward (1990).pdf Shneiderman.com/tufte/index Tufte. Yvonne (1996). Information Visualization. Computers. (2004). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.

An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. In the near future.elearningcentre.skype.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. http://www. in remote communities. communications tools.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. requiring an Internet hookup. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 259 .com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. 1996). and a microphone. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. http://www. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. Using VoIP.jajah.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. but it is rapidly improving. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.envisioninc.avaya. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. Internet telephony is relatively simple. http://www. headphones or speakers. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.infoworld. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. http://www.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Internet telephony.co.

.ieee. http://www. Robert (2005). Mobile distributed e-learning center. Language Learning and Technology.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. March 2005.ieee. http://llt. I. http://www.msu. http://www. M. 9-12. September. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. and O’Droma.pdf Ganchev. Stojanov.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. S. but it is rapidly improving. Brandon Hall Research . Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.susx. Steven (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.pdf Ottoson. (2005). 9(3).nald.ac. http://ieeexplore.weblogsinc. Meredith (1996). Join the discussion at: http://voip. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . 260 © 2006.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.org Bibliography Cherry. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. IEEE Spectrum Online.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.spectrum.cogs.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.org/xpl/freeabs_all.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Geraldine (2005). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://www.voipreview.

com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. http://www. managing. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.cmu. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.cs. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. For example. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. Selected Examples In Europe.edu/design/Ion.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. including wearable computing.learnexact.hubuska. http://news.bbc.ac. Do Not Reproduce 261 . training to do their jobs. like a wristband or jewelry.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.checkpointelearning. anytime.p df http://www. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. http://killer. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. http://www. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers.bris.co. The entire system.ices. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. including batteries. weighs less than three pounds. http://wearables. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.ppt In January 2006.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.

” including computers built into underwear. http://www. C.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. See: http://genesis. the automotive industry.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.gsfc.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. http://www.edu/design/VuMan.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.ac. M.html The design of “smart clothing. http://www.eyetap.704 81-0. especially for comercial airlines.edu/ http://wearcam.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006.jisc. http://about.cmu. M.wearable. http://isd. 2006. Simson (2004).aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). or repairing complex machines.ethz. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Brandon Hall Research .org is a rich source of references. and Levene.wired.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.nasa.ac.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.edu/research/wear ables/index.technologyreview. (2004). training.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. Mmoma (2006).eecg.sportbrain.org/index. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. and other organizations involved in inspecting. http://killer.mit.com/Home/Home. http://www. http://www.bham.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.70 481-0.eee.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.wired. http://www. S. Technology Review (Online).uoregon. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.html http://www. and Lupisella.org/index_graphical.cs. http://www. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. Wired News.eecg.com/read_art icle. http://www.ices.com/news/culture/0. http://www.toronto. Wearable Computing for the Commons.toronto.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. like a wristband or jewelry. March 24. especially in the area of wearable cameras. 1. (2003). Dec.html Garfinkel.com/news/culture/0.uk/index. What you’ll wear in 10 years. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. 2004.media.

html Do Not Reproduce 263 . Business Week Online.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. http://www. Steve (1998). htm Mann. (2002). H. March 8. Fairfax.businessweek. http://wearcam. Wearable computers that you can slip into. S. Toronto: Anchor Books. Olga (2005).amazon. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. 2005. and Niedzviecki. http://www. May 12-13.org/icwckeynote. ICWC98. VA. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif.

(The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. social bookmarking. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. CDs.0 format). enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Do Not Reproduce 264 . and electronics. listings of the latest books. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.” as its content is changed by the author. When changes are made to a Web site. To read content from a Web feed. and laptops. and course offerings. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. Instead of having items emailed to you. including cell phones. basic text format for quick review. with all the potential for viruses and spam. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. TV guides. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). photo collections. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. with all the potential for viruses and spam. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. feeds. job searches. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. and Atom is the second. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). blogs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. PDAs. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. podcasts. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.

com/ 5.feedzilla. StepNewz . FeedBurner http://www.shtml .com/ BlogExpress 1.feedforall.bloglines.http://www. RSSReader http://www.com/ 0.feedroll. RSS Software .http://www. and Atom is the second.com/ Attensa .http://www.videora.com 9. Fuzzy Duck http://yole.htm http://www.http://www.com/ 3.com/ Awasu .protopage. Reader http://usablelabs.com tml 2. RSS Orbit .com/v2 BlogLines .blogplanet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .net/ http://www.com/ 3.co.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ . 6.net/index.h http://www.http://www.fuzzyd. Syndirella . RSS Bandit http://www.com Amphetadesk 8.pluck.http://sage. EaZy RSS reader 5.feedreader. Protopage Bloglet . OnFolio .http://feedtier.com/ 0. Gregarius .rsscalendar.http://bitworking.newsgator.com/amphetadesk http://www. FeedForAll .rssreader.org/ shtml .com/ Selected Examples 5. Rojo .brightcove.http://www.com/ http://www. Feedroll .6.hexamail.puremis.rssreader.http://www.rss-to. SharpReader http://bytescout. Edu_RSS 0.com/ 8.feedjavascript. Newsgator Aggie .com/ http://www.com/ Brightcove .com/thunderbird/ .pubsub.onfolio.com/feedscout. feedbeep . The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).feedburner.com/productBlogExpress. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. RSSCalendar .disobey.com/ .http://www.bloglet.mozilla.mozdev.feedpublish.http://feedbeep. Videora . FeedPublish http://www.http://www. PubSub .net/dl. Here is a list of 48: ml 7. Feedtier .feedster.uk/rssreader/ 7.com/ http://www.com/produ http://neosmart. RSS2Exchange http://www.com/ 6.com/today/ http://www. RSS-to-Javascript . Project D.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www. Sage .sharpreader. Do Not Reproduce 265 .http://www.bytescout.http://gregarius.net/ .attensa.http://www.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.awasu.newsisfree.ht with its own features.com 4.http://www.html http://www.http://www.somee.org/ . NewsIsFree http://www.ca/edurss02.com/ .http://www. Thunderbird .http://www. FeedScout 4.http://www. Feedster . each http://www.com/rss2exchange/ .http://www.rssbandit.downes.com/rss/ http://www.U.rojo. FeedReader 1.com/ http://www. Feed-Directory .com/myrsstoolbar.com directory.2 7.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.html http://www. LearningFeeds 8.org/Aggie.com/ http://www.learningfeeds.com/ 9. Pluck .com 2.projectdu.topix.

com/wiki/doku.Possible Future Evolution.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.elearning. 2003.ca/cgibin/wiki.vccs. May 19.htm David. http://www.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. including listings for various electronic devices. http://careo.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. To have a blog aggregated.php. Aug. Robin Good Blog.ubc. Read his article written specifically for educators. a blog by Alan Levine. RSS could transform online communications. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. Brian Lamb. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .teachinghacks. eLearning Developers’ Journal.eschoolnews.php Online Resources Stephen Downes. 3.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. Brian Lamb.contentious.com/news/showS tory.redjupiter.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 .Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Bill (2003).pdf Canali De Rossi. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. see: http://www. http://www. 31.dist.downes.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). and D’Arcy Norman.downes.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. eSchool News. Luigi (2004).maricopa. maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://www. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. http://timyang. http://www.org/blogs/archives/main /000877. Dan (2004).lo.ca/edu_rss. 2004.wcc. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Oct. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. http://www. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. 2004. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. http://www.ca/files/RSS_Educ.mcli.elearningguild.hebig.

Mary (2003). University of North Carolina.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine. Lamb. http://www. Online paper.html Samuel. Eva (2004).xml.org/2004/jun20 04/downes. Online paper. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Stephen (2004). March 23.oreillynet. 2006. May 2004. http://www.mcli. and Norman.Web Feeds Downes.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. http://www. The Shifted Librarian.html Powers. 2005. O’Reilly Network. http://www. http://www. 13. D.. http://technologysource. Aug. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. 1. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. and Webb. http://www.htm Downes.infoworld.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. http://www.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x.dist.ca/files/RSS_Educ. 2006.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. June 2004. 2005.downes.alexandrasamuel.maricopa. Vancouver. RSS: the next killer app for education. 2005.1.html?page=1 Udell. http://www. Jon (2005). (2006). RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.blogspot.html MediaThink (2004). Using RSS for data integration. Learning Circuits.pdf Gannett.htm Levine.mediathink. A. http://www. The Technology Source Archives. http://www. USA Today (online). Version 1. Otherwise Engaged. Learning Circuits. July 7.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.usatoday. Aug. Google Reader Blog. RSS Ideas for Educators.htm D’Sousa.learningcircuits. http://googlereader. 2005. M.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.learningcircuits. 3.pdf Parparita.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. MediaThink White Paper. RSS: a learning technology. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. T. Alexandra (2005). Namespaced extensions in feeds. June 18.teachinghacks. Mihai (2006). Shelly (2005). Jenny (2005). 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. Sept.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends. 2003. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. 5-8. July/August 2003. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. RSS: the next big thing online. Quentin (2006).oreilly. Stephen (2002).htm Harrsch.theshiftedlibrarian. B.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. http://www. InfoWorld. BC.html Do Not Reproduce 267 . Aug. Anh (2005). (2003). http://www.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.

http://www. http://www. can be used by a team for joint writing.sourceforge. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. and never finished. http://www. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. the software used to run Wikipedia.com/cgibin/wiki. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. Content is ego-less. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. 3. and projects.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. it is important to have several contributors. 2005). approaches.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. There are now over 1. RSS. an image gallery. Anyone can add to it.com/ For wikis to work. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. With some basic instructions. 2.schtuff. and email notification. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.wikipedia. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. time-less. custom permissions. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. My first report in this series.org/index. http://www.300.org/tiki-index. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Do Not Reproduce 268 . Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. is available for other applications. http://wikipedia.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.tikiwiki. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything.sourcewatch.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. features.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.usemod. 4.net/features. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. See the progress at: http://edu.

http://en.” is projects.elearning. Twiki.shtml Brian Lamb. http://www.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. “Quickiwiki.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.com/cgibin/mb.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. http://www. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. an archivist with the British systems.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. a rich source of information on wikis. http://www.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. Swiki.infotoday. Columbia Archives.gilbane. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches.dicole.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. http://www.” Essentially. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work. of the University of British Columbia.com/artpdf/GR12.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.infoworld.10.Weblogs.socialtext.com/ Jon Udell. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison. See why it is different.learningwiki.ubc. http://www.seedwiki. http://www. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. http://weblog.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. A free trial is available.wikibooks.usemod.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. features. http://radio.jot. http://kairosnews. http://careo. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. http://flosse. http://www.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. His article.html Do Not Reproduce 269 .

nu’s first nine months in service.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004.71. Raitman.pbwiki. Andrea (2003). an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.zkm. Dec.org. http://www. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.” http://tlc. Renée (2005). Perth.. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. July. Phantom authority.co. that she updates regularly.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.48.ucalgary. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.org has lots of resources on wikis. Anja (2004). Wiki pedagogy.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 . cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson. http://www.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. http://www.profetic. International Journal of Information Ethics. and Zhou. Teaching and learning online with wikis.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. http://container. (2004). L. W. http://whiplash.se/wikipaper. Dec.” http://writingwiki. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.fasfind.ikiw. Online paper. including wikis. Nov.com/wwwtools/m/25242. http://m.elearningcentre. http://www. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki.html Ciffolilli.pdf Fountain. N.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.ascilite. 8(12). Australia.html Augar. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. 2. 5-8.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. http://aronsson. http://64. (2002).uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .educause. Operation of a Large Scale. R.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. including a section on wiki tools. http://firstmonday. First Monday.

Oct.4149. and Rudolph. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.pcmag. Emma (2005). and Webb.infoworld.html Wood.html Stafford.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. Richard (2003). Sept. January.. UniversityWiki. Cossarin.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. The wiki way. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. (2001). July 7.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Bo & Cunnin. Clark. Twiki. http://www.uk/issue42/ Udell. Issue 42. David (2003). M. L. http://www. (2004). Jon (2004).Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.amazon. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . 19. 36-48. W. Lauren (2005).ac.. Quickiwiki.. Brian (2004).asp Schmitt.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.10.org/content/v5. 2004.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.infotoday.00. Making the case for a wiki. April 2003.pdf Leuf. Ariadne.com/udell/2004/ 10/19. S. Why Wikis Work Not. Wiki Tools. InfoWorld. 2006. http://gilbane. http://www.oreillynet.ariadne. O’Reilly Network.Oct.. Neil (2003). Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. Searcher. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.usemod. April 2004.14 02872. http://www. Online article at: http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz.shtml Rubenking. Swiki. M. http://c2.com/artpdf/GR12. http://Weblog. Online article. David (2004).com/cgibin/mb. Educause Review.html Tomkin.1/technote _xxvii. (2006).com.irrodl.educause.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. http://www. 12(10). 2005. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Online article. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Online article at PCMag.com/article2/0. http://www. T. J. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Do Not Reproduce 272 . which. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. in turn. floppy disks. However. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. After a product has been successfully launched. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. which can then lead to inventions. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. CD-ROMS. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems.

Some will die quickly. while others will last for decades. mature. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. ascend the curve. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. in part. or may never become commercially viable. to the complex. this approach is now rapidly changing. peak. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. However. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. change itself seems to be inevitable. This is due. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. Further. in part. In any field. in both formal and informal settings. But not all technologies will travel this road. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. For a variety of reasons. This is due. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. Ontologies. both in classrooms and online. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. change itself seems to be inevitable. some will never leave the development stage. to the complex. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. Do Not Reproduce 273 . and decline. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. However. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. In any field. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time.

This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. The experience of younger learners with television. movie theaters. Once we master the art of reading. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. video games. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. the space race. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. 2002. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. In contrast. 274 © 2006. In North America. born in the 1970s.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. Because of this. For the older generation. ecological disasters. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. 1994). mobile phones. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. The children of the baby boomers. electronic media tends to be on the surface. gaming consoles. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. the baby boomers. television. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. p. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. the civil rights movement. 28). libraries. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. generally went to work earlier. and computers.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. Brandon Hall Research . The speed of change increases with each passing year. and personal digital assistants. Their children. 2003). The technology of e-learning. video games. global warming. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. terrorism. means that they actually think differently. mind-altering drugs.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life.

sex. and digital ink and electronic paper. For example. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. With feedback.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. and the mapping of everything. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. that is all about to change. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. shortly.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. In approaching electronic educational media. creative products. In approaching electronic educational media. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. In the next wave. we will see the restructuring of education and training. Do Not Reproduce 275 . results in an action by the other participant. technologies. Likewise. until we become habituated. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. portfolios. It works for a time. But they are usually disappointed.are usually ing paths. designers of Sesame Street. commercials. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. Then even more movement. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. or violence is needed to keep our attention. Within the next five years. Two hundred years ago. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). It is already a place for massively multiple player games. wearable computers. in a back-and-forth exchange. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. touch and taste. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. the computer. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. Guides are optional. whereby the action of one participant. huge data wall displays. digitization of smell. However. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. the learner. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. surprise. Generally. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena.

operitel. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Gary (2006). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. technologies and services for the next 5 years. http://www.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff. Digital Game-based Learning. Dallas. James (1994).com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.amazon. http://www.amazon. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.amazon. New York: Collins. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. May 2006. Clayton (1997).com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Douglas (2005).amazon.com 276 © 2006.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Brandon Hall Research .Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. Bob (2006). http://www.amazon. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Texas. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. (2001). http://www. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Marc. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.se/~muse/ho me. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.media. 1515 Broadway. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.cs.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.mit.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 .de/link/affective_portal . Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.ac. Box 513.umu.bham.informatik.51.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Den Dolech 2 P.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.bartneck.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.nngroup.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.unige. Marc Schröder. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. 17th Floor.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. New York. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.O.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.myself-proj.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.

: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. L69 7ZF.edu Extempo Systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. #1910. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.csc.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. Bloomington. N. 3400 Hillview Avenue.isi.Portugal Tel.com Do Not Reproduce 278 . Box 2124 Menlo Park. 2910-595 Setúbal .edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.codebaby. 10004-104 Avenue.ailive.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .extempo. 1900 East Tenth St.agentlink. Washington.indiana. Building 5.computer.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.org/ AiLive Inc. P. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. CA 94304 USA http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.W. D.auburn. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. O.webist.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.net/ Auburn University Auburn. Edmonton. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. UK http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.informatics.liv.rit. 27A 2º esq.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. L69 7ZF.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Manuel I. Inc.educause.ac. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. Palo Alto. Suite 206 Boulder.

Wellington.O.org. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com/home.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. W Toronto. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.au/index.mindworkshop. Burlington.apple. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.php/Main _Page Autodesk. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. Avid Technology Park.ascilite.com Alchemy Mindworks P. Box 5200.redwoodelearning. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.autodesk. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.catoolkit. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Box 527. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.animats. Inc. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Huntsville. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 .com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.ascension-tech. Secretariat.adobe.O. PO Box 24478. Inc.org/ Apple Computer.com/ Avid Technology.avid.animationfactory. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. One Park West Tewksbury.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.

A. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.818.autotutor. Suite #480 Torrance.com Pty Ltd The Basement.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab. Tel: +1.460.org/ SWiSHzone.psych.viewpoint. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Inc. Inc.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.eitechnologygroup. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.swishzone.com/index.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.massivesoftware. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.ucsb. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. San Antonio.aclweb. Santa Barbara.org Do Not Reproduce 280 . 190th Street.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group.macromedia.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.6450 http://www.aaai.siggraph. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.html Ulead Systems 970 W. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.htm Macromedia.com/ NewTek. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.newtek.S. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . TN 38152 USA http://www.org/home. Suite 100 Menlo Park.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.com/pub/index.

cmu.cs.W.teluq. H-1111 Budapest.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. u. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.cs. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 281 .cognitivesciencesociety. Calgary.10th Street S.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.com/index.pact.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Egry J. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.ca/eng/ind ex.edu. 1. West Montreal.uquebec. Inc. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.iit. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.edu Quantum Simulations.gemini. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.licef.cs.it.cmu. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.ke-corp.usyd. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.org/eden.eden-online. 100 Sherbrooke St. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.

edu.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.umuc.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba. Antrim BT37 OQB N.ac.cshe.edu.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.ac. Calgary. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.uk/cticomp/CAA.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.cs.unisa. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street. Newtownabbey.ulster. Chantilly.W.scit. CA . Suite 360 San Mateo..brainbench. Alberta. East Adelphi.wlv. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Suite K. Co.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .ucalgary.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.enel.uk/home.wpi.cis. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.unimelb.stottlerhenke.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road. Suite 1500 Montreal.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.virtuelage.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.

: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.questionmark. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www. Suite 100. Suite 753 Madison. Suite 2300 New York.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.horizonwimba.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.O. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.colorado. Boulder.ets. Norwalk. Box 305280 Denton.ingeniousgroup.operitel. Suite 105 Princeton.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 .quintcareers.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.flaguide. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado. Box 317 New Hartford.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. FL 32720 USA http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.O. Johnson Street.redinq.tcet.com/redinq/html/index. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa. Suite 201 Peterborough. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.rmsuk.S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.unt.pedagogue.

automaticsync.uiuc.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.multitrackstudio. Watertown.xstreamsoftware. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma.com/lipsync/ind ex. 2280 St.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Inc. 50 Hunt St. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.com/AudioTools/ind ex.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall.adobe.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.vantagelearning. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.aspx BIAS.com AudioLink. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.audiolink.cakewalk. Inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www.com/home.avsmedia.bias-inc. Laurent Blvd.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.oir.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.com XStream Software. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory. Suite 200 Ottawa.html Do Not Reproduce 284 . Suite 100 Newtown.epnweb. Ontario.

htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.envision. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.edu iTunes Apple Computer.adobe. 136 South Main Street. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. 860 Sandalwood Road.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. Arundel Street.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.com Brainshark. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www. West Perrysburg.e-learningcentre.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. Suite 200 Boulder.bloki.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.com Accordent Technologies 300 N.mckinnonmulherin. San Jose. Inc.com/index.co.brainshark.. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www. Waltham.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www.anark.com AcroServices c/o L.O. Inc. Cooper Buildings.acroservices.trainvision.accordent. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. Suite A300 Salt Lake City.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.A.sonicfoundry. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road. Continental Blvd. S1 2NS UK http://www.. Suite 200 El Segundo.com/power point-presentations-index. Sheffield.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue. Grime and Associates. Sheffield Technology Parks.purdue. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.apple.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .

AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.horizonwimba.maxit.allencomm. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. UK Tel. Suite 2300 New York.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.ciscolearning.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.bridge-pt.com.uk/contentpoint.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall. Nottingham.atlanticlink.com 286 © 2006. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. Brandon Hall Research . 20100 Milan. 200 South.lifeboatdistribution.customcourse.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. Italy http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.dynamicpowertrainer.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.com/Index. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.learn. Inc. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. Ste.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.co. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise. NG8 6PE. Austria http://www.copycatsoftware.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.

NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www. 38-40. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd . O. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www.experiencebuilders.64.eclipsys. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona.knowledgequest. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.easyprof. 441 W Main St.elicitus. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.elearninginabox.rapidintake. Suite 29A Nashua.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. Box 2827 Redmond.. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com ExpertAuthor. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 287 .com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.com/products/forceten.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. Inc.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.edufolio.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P. P. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www. Suite B Lehi.10 Fax: +34 93 490.eedo.64.O. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.mohive. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish.e-learningconsulting.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.68 http://www.

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opera.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia. Inc. Mumbai 10. P. Suite 900 Austin.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.active-learning-site. INDIA.blogburst.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Mazgaon.com Do Not Reproduce 293 .com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. CA 94608 USA http://www. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.O.flock. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.mozilla. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.qelix. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com OmniWeb Omni Development.O. Mary Apts. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Nesbit Rd.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Suite 209 Moorestown.cramersweeney.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.com/v2/index. Inc. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse... Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.omnigroup.com WaveMarket.com GTCO CalComp. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.gtcocalcomp. Inc. USA http://www.wavemarket. 6th Flr.

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VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.com Centra c/o Saba. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.courseforum. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue.cisco.centraldesktop. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.brightidea.collaborationloop. 170 West Tasman Dr.telnetz.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com 404 Fifth Avenue. Suite 600 Ottawa.com Do Not Reproduce 295 .com Brightidea. 6th Floor New York.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. Draper.com Cisco Systems.communityzero.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. 1192 East Draper Parkway. 232 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Suite 522. Inc.caucus.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.citrix.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. 795 Folsom Street. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. #205 Pasadena. Inc. Suite 630 McLean. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Suite 950 Portland.convenos. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.html Citrix Systems.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.saba. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. 6th Floor San Francisco. Inc.communiqueconferencing. San Jose.comotivsystems.

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Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.com GoToMeeting. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.novell.groupsupport. Inc. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. Clevedon. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. Inc. Suite 2300 New York.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.net Groove Networks.gotomeeting. 395 Encinitas.hotcomm. ON. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.com Do Not Reproduce 297 . Inc.grapevinesoftware. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.net Global School Net 132 N. El Camino Real.com Glance Networks.V. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.net GroupSupport. Suite 500 Markham.glance.hp. Ste. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com c/o Citrix Systems.genesys.horizonwimba.4517 http://www.com B.globalschoolnet. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.groove.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.gordano.com Groupwise c/o Novell. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.

CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. 44th St. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.com Interwise.ilinc. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.intralinks.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.microsoft.linktivity.hyperoffice. #115 Rockville. 11th floor New York. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.interwoven.ivocalize.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. Suite 412 Cambridge. 25 First Street.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.iceweb.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. Suite #150 Herndon. Sunnyvale. Suite 100 Tucson.inquesttechnologies.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 . AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.interwise.ibm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. Phoenix. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Inc. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.jdhtech.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.

Suite 1401 Denver. Fordham Blvd. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.peoplecube.oracle.performancesolutionstech.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . Suite 6500 Woburn.opmcreator.onproject.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.liveoffice.netspoke.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.com Near-Time.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. 1289 N.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. 3 Wing Drive. Harbor. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.meetingone.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.near-time. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. Inc.parlano. Inc. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.org/tools. Suite 1450 Chicago.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. Riverside Plaza.mitre. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.h tml Parlano 10 S. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com/collabsuite/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice.com onProject. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.mayeticvillage.opentext. Suite 300 Torrance.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.

Suite 210 Maynard.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.radvision.stalker. 3679 Concord Road. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. 1175 58th Avenue.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.O. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.seldensystems.com RADVISION Inc. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.nagarro.com Raindance Communications.com Selden Integrated Systems. Inc.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.microsoft. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. New No. 17-17 State Highway 208. 35. Suite 445 Scottsdale.projectdox. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. Ste 275 Mill Valley.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. Cactus Rd. Suite 200 Greeley.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. Inc. P.com SpiderWeb Communications. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Suite 440 San Jose.sitescape. 51.Adyar Chennai.raindance. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.q2learning. Box 3325 York.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. Inc.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .sharemethods. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.photoninfotech. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.com/content/default. Suite B.project-open.cyber-grad.

teamspace.vodium. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.wave3software.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .tacit. Kierland Blvd.txl Viack 14811 N.webofficepoint.com/groupware/in dex.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Suite 810 Toronto.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Canada http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.com Teamware P.usabilityfirst.trichys. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway..net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.sumtotalsystems. Suite 950 Washington.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.teamdynamix. Ontario M2N 6H8. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.tomoye. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.viack. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.vignette. Suite 100 Austin.O. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.teamware. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.

P. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. Inc.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.webex. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell.santacruznetworks.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . 130 St.net WebEx Communications.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.gov.webtrain. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.atutor. Suite 115 Pleasanton.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. P.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.Box 2900 Alameda. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. Ontario.webcrossing. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www. 5200 Franklin Dr. Inc. Toronto. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.. Inc.cpgvision. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. George St.O. CA 94588.backpackit. First Floor University of Toronto. Suite 1050 Vancouver.axista.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033. Inc. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www. Robarts Library.webasyst. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.qld.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing.author-it.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet.zoho.

Sheffield Technology Parks.oracle.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.hrsg.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.e-learningcentre.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.convera. Suite 201 Peterborough. Cooper Buildings. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. Laurent.syberworks.html Do Not Reproduce 303 .com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.co.facilitate. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario.learnflex.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401.edu. Arundel Street. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.une.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd.bnhexpertsoft. Sheffield. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www. TX. Prof.kdnuggets. QC.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. S1 2NS UK http://www..desire2learn.au/dss/grassgro/inde x. Suite C215 Houston.

Suite 606.siliconlight.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www. WA.meetingworks. La Grange Road.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.fogscreen.chalkandwire.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road.co.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd. Suite 100 Indianapolis.nuventive.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc. Inc. Catherines.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www..provisionentertainment.io2technology.pebblepad.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia. San Francisco.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. Telford.com Do Not Reproduce 304 . West Conshohocken. Second Floor La Grange.ntera. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.foliotek. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.com/ LiveText 1 S.angellearning. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.

magnetargames. 0445 La Jolla.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.softimage. Inc Avid Technology Park. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.clickteam. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. Dept. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.freescale. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.microsoft..programmersheaven.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.C. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.avs.ucsd.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.thinkingworlds.adobe. NW Washington.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.seriousgames. One Park West Tewksbury. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.com/solutions/game s/default. SR6 0AN UK http://www. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.

Washington Street Denver. Inc.com SmartDraw.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.ibm. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www. Suite 300 Burlingame.miralab. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. 100 Pine Street.autodesk. Suite 1900 San Francisco.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd.itedo. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. Suite 300 San Diego. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.immersion. Unit 9 Waterloo. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.handshakeinteractive.corel. Inc.blender3d. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.unige.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www..smartdraw.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.broderbund.tech-illustrator.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.microsoft.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.mpb-technologies.

WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www. 12th Floor Oakland.eink.sensegraphics. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW.edfacilities. Washington. NW Suite 700.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista. D.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.unipi.smarttech.logitech. 200 South.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.allencomm. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www. 7677 Oakport Street. Ste. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.C.piaggio. Suite 300 Calgary.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q.fujitsu.se SensAble Technologies.wacom.com Do Not Reproduce 307 . CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge.sensable.anotogroup.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. Inc.com Logitech Inc. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www. 2-56126 Pisa.ccii.. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont. 15 Constitution Way Woburn.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.

ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Winter Park. Suite #620 Santa Monica.netdimensions. Inc. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. Inc.ibm. Colfax Avenue Building 200.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.elementk. Inc.com/redbooks. Quebec.geolearning. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.howtomaster. Suite 660 Longueuil.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. Suite 200 Cincinnati.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC.intellinex.cornerstoneondemand.webraven.redbooks. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Inc. Suite 225 Golden. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. East Dundee.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.trivantis..com Do Not Reproduce 308 . OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.ips-inc. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.html?Ope n InfoSource.gen21.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F. Suite 301 West Des Moines. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. 6947 University Blvd.strategia.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai. 111 Water St. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.com DOTS . IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Huntington Building. 4600 Westown Parkway.

com Do Not Reproduce 309 .websoft. Chantilly.maxit. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. 1 West Front Street Red Bank.meridianksi.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.Suite 350 Toronto. 550 Queen St.knowledgeplanet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee. Inc.isnewmedia. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.wizdom.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learn. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.com. Inc. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough.com mGen Enterprise mGen. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.learnsomething. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Inc. Suite 260 Foxborough.learnflex. 100 Foxborough Blvd.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www. East .intralearn.mgen.

com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.sap. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.sumtotalsystems. Louis. West.sselearn. Fifth Floor Montreal.plateau.com Do Not Reproduce 310 .technomedia. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. St. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.teralearn.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. 500 West Madison. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.ssaglobal.com.syntrio.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.com TEDS Inc.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.saba.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. LTD 671 N. Glebe Road. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. Suite 2200 Chicago.outstart. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.teds. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com/products/saba/learn ing/index. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Suite 700 Arlington. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Inc. Suite 1280 San Francisco.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.oracle.

BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .vuepoint.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.O. Ontario. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. 17041 El Camino Real. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. Suite 200 Ottawa. 240 Bay Street. 4 Expressway Plaza.trainingpartner.com Do Not Reproduce 311 .avilar. Inc.fldata. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Box 9752 Boulder.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.com Tracker. Laurent Blvd. Inc.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 2280 St.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.xstreamsoftware. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Inc. Inc. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.vbtrain.gyrus.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.edutools.risc-inc.info/index. Victoria. 122 West Way.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc..xtention. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.wbtsystems. NY. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Suite # 105 Columbia. Suite 101 Houston.ttg-inc.

edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. 4th Floor Oakland. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.ca ENC Learning Inc.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.sir.cdlib.com Do Not Reproduce 312 . Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.netera.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.uwm.goenc. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.arizona.

aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. SG1 2JY.O. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. CT 06459 USA http://www.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.dist.clarklabs. AZ.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. Stevenage. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. Suite 3100 San Francisco. Norton Road.merlot.cadcorp. Box 3000 Boulder. ETRAC.edu.thegateway. Suite 1600 Tucson.maricopa.plos. Sterling Court.unsw. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.lornet. Fondren Library. Houston. Box 1892.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.org Do Not Reproduce 313 . Hertfordshire. MS 44.lrc3.mcli. P.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .lolaexchange.llearn. AZ 85250 USA http://www. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria. 5151 East Broadway. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.rice.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.O.org/eng/scientifiques. Rice University.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.edu/DesktopDefault.

mapinfo. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. Inc.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.intergraph. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.eoscenter.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.esri. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.pangonetworks. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.cetis. Box 240000 Huntsville. Dept. P.com/gis4mt/index.O.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Suite 100 Framingham.edu PanGo Networks.berkeley. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.cancore. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.smm.ac. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.O. 959 Concord Street.geocomm. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. of Geography.fi/english/page.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.edu.asp?path= 500.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .org Metadata. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300.5372.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.

imsglobal.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.org/aitopics/html/natlang . California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.lexxe. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.ac. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.org/ Spotlight Mobile. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.knowledgepulse. Inc. PA. Austria http://www.upenn.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.eee. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Italy http://tcc.stockholmchallenge.uk/handler/default . 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Suite 501 Portland.html ELSNET Trans 10.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. 19104-2653.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.elsnet.ldc.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.itc. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .advancedreality.aaai.mobilearn.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. PMB #112 Lake Mary.bham. Suite 100 Menlo Park.

com MoveDigital.movedigital. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.stockholmchallenge. 10010 USA http://www.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.org/site/pp.lockss.sun. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Inc. Suite 300.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Whisman Road Mountain View. Inc.asianart.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.internet2. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. NY. Inc. Brandon Hall Research .se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .cetis. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.groove. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.org 316 © 2006. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.4464 Markham Street Victoria.net internet2. Deane Rd. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.llearn. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.overnet.ac.seti.

proquest. 3º 08021 Barcelona. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .teach-nology.17th Avenue SW Calgary.elementk. Alberta. Eisenhower Parkway P. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.elearningeuropa.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.rmv.trainingregistry. 3333 http://www. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.O.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.com ProQuest 789 E.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.worldwidelearn.executrain.com Teachnology.virtualmuseum.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.com Portals CyberU.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .elena-project.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 1st Floor A . Suite 225 Santa Monica. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www. New York 10973 USA http://www.cyberu. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.microsoft. Inc. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Box 172 1039 .info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.saba.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .

com/halo/index. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Redmond. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.saba. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.org Macromedia. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.articulate.readygo.lsc.hp.elluminate.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.com Do Not Reproduce 318 . Minneapolis.raptivity. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.com/presentatio ns/index.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304..apreso.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.6526 http://www. NE Calgary.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. Box 2827.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. 3016 5th Ave. Ninth St.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.333. Suite B Orion.com Presentations. Michigan. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.scate.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Raptivity P. CA 94040.com ReadyGo Inc.mit. O. Alberta.presentations.genesys.macromedia.com 50 S.

Lindsey Bldg. 100 Norman. SE-100 44 Stockholm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Union St.org Euron c/o Prof. SWEDEN.irc. 130 W.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . Centre for Autonmous Systems.botball. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Henrik I Christensen.eng. Chilcompton.euron.cmu. Inc. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.ri.osaka-u. Ste.active-robots. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Radstock Somerset.org Evolution Robotics.aad. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.ife. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.atr. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Inc.ams.nasa.ac. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.generalrobotics.ed.whmsi. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. D. Pasadena.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.evolution.rec.gov.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.

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com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.O. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. 17th Floor New York. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM. Box 1133 Washington. Inc.intute. DC 20013-1133 http://www.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.org/citation.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.healthfinder. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. Chicago.icerocket.lalisio.net Koders Inc.lexxe.com Info.info.1057022 LookSmart.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.kartoo.ac. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.koders.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 .looksmart.msn. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search. Ltd.ixquick.cfm?doid=1 056808.mooter.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE.acm.metacrawler.krugle. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.

htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Mumbai 10. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.W.truveo.W. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.searchking.cs. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. Nesbit Rd.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Mazgaon. Suite 207 San Francisco.ee.netscape. 2400 N.columbia. Inc. Inc.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .ibm.rawsugar. 6th Flr..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC. Inc.almaden. 23rd Oklahoma City. NY 10003.technorati. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. New York.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 .seekport.. Mary Apts.convera. 360 22nd Street.pubsub.pandora.edu/ PubSub Concepts. Inc.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. Suite 211 Palo Alto . CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.biz Truveo.com Technorati 665 3rd Street.82152 Martinsried http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com/v2/index. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.com Pandora Media. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. 7th floor. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Seventh Floor New York.nyu. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. 64 Fulton Street.qelix. INDIA. 23rd Floor San Francisco.com SearchKing.

macromedia. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.alphaworks.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. 1st Floor A . CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. Inc.zoominfo.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.tkk.macromedia.Project Coordinator CSI .experiencebuilders.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. Inc.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .assima.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.com Zoom Information Inc. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.atghome. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.com Assima Ltd.ibm. Box 1558 New Canaan.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 .personal-reader.seco.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.elena-project. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.yahoo. Ontario. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.O. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.biographix.com Flash c/o Macromedia. Yahoo http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. EC4M 7NG London.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 10 Old Bailey.

Inc. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.knowledgequest. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.intermezzon. Laurent Blvd..cs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.fsl. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.muzzylane. 2280 St.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.stt-global.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.learning2005. GreenPark Reading. Newburyport. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. LLC 100 South Main Street.xstreamsoftware. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.nexlearn. CA . Suite 360 San Mateo.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. England http://www.com MASIE Center. B15 2TT.stottlerhenke.noaa.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.knowledge-director.com NexLearn.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.bham. Inc.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . Suite 300 Wichita.forio. Ontario. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www..knowledgepresenter.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.ac.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.

qarbon. 1821 Walden Office Square. Suite A-207 Brossard. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. Inc. Suite 224 Bloomington.eduperformance.icio. 101 Wolf Drive.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Suite 125 San Diego. Québec.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.stagecast.. CA 94089 USA http://del. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.maxit. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.us Eventful c/o EVDB. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.stt-global. Taschereau Ouest. Suite 1550 San Jose. Suite 400. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.assima. Schaumburg.checkpointsystems.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Morton Street.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.com Stagecast Software.com Softsim Outstart Studio.outstart. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.teds. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.icio. Suite 240 Atlanta. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Thorofare.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.edu/index. Light & Acoustics.com Do Not Reproduce 325 . 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Inc.iu.com/English/t6 essai.virtualcontrolroom. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. 55 South Market St. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.

com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Box 920089 Needham.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.gnolia.com Classmates Online. First Floor San Francisco.shadows.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.com Friendster.friendster. Inc.com 326 © 2006. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Ltd.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Brandon Hall Research . CA.eu Rojo Networks. CA 94105 USA http://www. WA 98055 USA http://www.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Inc. Menlo Park. 2001 Lind Ave.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. SW. Suite 900 Austin. Inc. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.spurl.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.netscape. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.O. Suite 500 Renton.zvents.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.com/ mag.. 795 Folsom St.com Spurl ehf. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. Inc. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.analytictech.classmates.tagzania.networkltd..com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.furl.rojo.

655 High Street Palo Alto.bittorrent. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Church Street.dfilm.com/halo/index.O.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.com iTunes Apple Computer.com Brightcove. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .jabber.net Sparta Social Networks. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.jabber.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.O.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.spartasocialnetworks.sociosite. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. Inc.apple.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.fakespace. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . One Cambridge Center Cambridge.html Do Not Reproduce 327 . CA 94105 USA http://www. New York. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.advanced.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.brightcove. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Box 1641 Denver.socialtext.com Jabber Software Foundation P.com Jabber Software Foundation P. Box 1641 Denver. CA 90028 USA http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.org Fakespace 11 E. Suite 900 San Francisco.hp. Cupertino. 4th Floor Marshalltown.percro.

hpc.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . IC ISIM VRLAB.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. VA 23461-1924 https://www.informationinplace.epfl. CA 92121 USA http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.futurelab.ecu. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. Inc. 7220 Trade Street.org Veoh Networks.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.com Intuition 9. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.org. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.coe. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Suite 206 Bloomington.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.intuition-eunetwork.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Suite 115 San Diego.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.percro.ergonetz.veoh.navy. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.edu/vrel.activeworlds. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.accurender. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.xstreamengine.spider.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.

Suite 110 Troy.daz3d. Inc. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.formz. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.corda. Suite 100 Lindon. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Cambridge. Suite 280 Downers Grove. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.advizorsolutions. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. 350 South 400 West.com/ MapInfo One Global View. Columbus. Williams Building College Park. Troy.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.bham.mapinfo.feedtank. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville. Inc.ambientdevices.O.com ESRI Suite 300.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.intergraph. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.umd. 809 14th Street..com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Golden.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.cs.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. 1333 Butterfield Rd. Inc. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.ac.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Suite 317 San Diego.vista. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn.xcelsius.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.golden.idashboards.com Do Not Reproduce 329 .com Golden Software.esri. Danvers.V. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions. Draper.

com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.mccrackendesign. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Inc. 155 Spring Street. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 330 .softill. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. Unit # 1 Mississauga.unifiedfield.com Spotfire.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.visualanalytics.musanim.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.spotfire. 2nd Floor Poolesville.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.S. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. 73 Princeton Street. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.topozone. Inc. MA 01863 USA http://www. Tracy.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. Inc. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Unified Field.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.ontopia. Riga. 20010 Fisher Avenue.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Ontario L4V 1T8.O.okino. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.org Visual Analytics Inc.nih.nlm.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.vicodi. 3 East 28th St. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. Suite 3A New York. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. RIDemo Brivibas 183.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. Inc.microsoft. CA 94712 USA http://www. Box 884. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.net Pixologic. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.pixologic. 9th floor New York.visualthesaurus. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. U.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.

303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.wearable. Tallinn.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.inxight.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. Inc.ethz. ETZ H Electronics Lab.brightcove.sportbrain. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.attensa.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Ltd. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. 11211. A-1220 Vienna. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.skype.com Brightcove. California. 2513 Charleston Road. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. 94043 USA http://www.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 . One Cambridge Center Cambridge.feedburner. Valdeku 100.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Suite 100 Campbell.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.feedreader.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Donau-City-Strasse 1.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. Suite 2260 Portland.jajah.vrvis. Inc.feedforall. Unit A2 Naples. Hanover.bloglines. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. 869 97th Ave N.com JAJAH Inc. Estonia http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.com Web Feeds Attensa. Suite 102 Mountain View.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. FL 34108 USA http://www. CA 95008 USA http://www. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.

V.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. 64 Fulton Street. Suite 381 Vancouver.com Feedster.rssreader.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.715135858 http://www. South #358 St.pubsub. Brandon Hall Research . San Francisco.mozilla. First Floor. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www... P.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.feedzilla. Petersburg. Building K Mountain View. Suite 900 Austin.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Seventh Floor New York. Pacific Business Centre #101 .1001 W. Nederland Tel: +31.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.jot. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.socialtext. Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.feedster. Switzerland http://www.pluck. Inc. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. 116 New Montgomery Street. Suite 605 San Francisco. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 3rd Floor Cambridge. Inc. Inc. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com 332 © 2006.. 795 Folsom St.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Coldbrook Business Corp.rojo. Broadway.org JotSpot. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com Rojo Networks. 200 2nd Ave.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.onfolio. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. 167 Hamilton Ave.com PubSub Concepts.microsoft. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

202. 230. 129. 84. 70 barcodes. 200. 103 Complexity theory. 241. 39. 96. 244. 148. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 266. 244. 162. 31. 244. 106. 96. 159. 45 Content management. 269. 89. 98. 64. 61. 123. 266. 250 Dashboards. 94. 157. 18. 138. 289 Authorware. 87. 260. 49. 26. 161. 252. 174. 69. 18. 205. 277 Agents. 230. 65. 221. 3. 110. 140. 28. 51. 105. 106. 67. 177. 235. 101. 95. 215. 102. 163. 91. 154. 259. 97. 161. 59. 120. 111 Blogs. 199 334 © 2006. 28. 251. 184 Conversational learning. 187. 217. 274 Communities of practice. 209. 111. 232. 285. 92. 78. 82. 64. 19. 176 assessment. 250. 44. 47. 227. 3. 96. 25. 120. 173. 199. 284. 67. 15. 55. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 245 Browsers. 56. 2. 155 Ambient computing. 85. 64. 251. 218. 250. 162. 143. 125. 5. 9. 201. 138. 105. 161 Cooperation. educational. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 184. 258 cognitive collage. 218. 60. 59. 33. 57. 30. 177. 21. 29. 220 Audio. 63. 20. 97. 37. 35. 73. 253 Data mining. 228. 27. 217. 175. 259. 46. 77. 117. 60 Avatars. 88. 12. 190. 143. 76. 97. 97. 26. 151. 33. 89. 76. 51. 67. 201. 46. 248. 268. 22. 259. 55. 94. 275 Computer based assessment. 75. 185. 116. Brandon Hall Research . 150. 3. 91. 60. 78. 148. 45. 29. 174. 84. 85. 4. 261 Animation. 56. 201. 266. 176. 209. 142. 230. 7. 93. 108. 28. 29. 247. 246. 257 Adaptive systems. 61. 111. 184. 243. 48. 76. 142. 164. 231. 121. 107. 198. 254. 251. 268 Communications Tools. 108. 216. 247. 168. 28. 69. 72. 61. 64. 266 Augmented reality. 118. 246. 224. 35. 185. 226. 14. 179. 66 AJAX. 88. 32. 79. 275 Collaboration. 160. 40. 74. 69. 98. 250 collaboration. 89. 156. 241. 28. 248 Authoring tools. 17. 183. 70. 37. 242. 87. 25.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 86. 19. 270 Boolean searches. 250 cognitive maps. 177. 65. 32. 174. 4. 104. 247. 13. 118. 149. 120. 226. 53. 47. 34. 61. 269. 161. 25. 46. 85. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 21. 31. 87. 87. 156. 209. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 101. 63. 275 Affective computing. 242. 113. 209 Air display. 33. 109. 255 Architectures. 104. 161. 230 Competency Tracking. 24. 80 Clickers. 100. 26. 83. 83. 90. 91. 204. 90. 156. 188. 18. 82. 188. 268 Broadband. 77. 25. 91. 250. 231. 120. 161. 156. 45. 246. 165. 29. 62. 57. 217. 66. 67. 118. 194. 186. 128. 146. 138. 117 Assessment. 255. 54. 83. 25. 52. 60. 68. 16. 92. 246. 224 Cell phones. 82. 268. 93. 86. 264 Classroom response systems. 34. 95. 255. 51. 17. 33. 154. 279. 32. 48. 225. 87. 235. 67. 78. 264. 114 cybercartography. 217. 225. 242. 24. 125. 22. 26. 111. 3. 62. 155. 93. 221 Bayesian probability. 45. 86. 236. 218. 230. 61. 46. 162. 115. 226. 184. 110 Adobe. 172. 31. 241. 122. 80 Cognition. 88. 81. 97. 43. 250. 60. 105. 296. 131. 54. 139. 221. 66. 17. 36. 129. 34. 47. 202.

233. 29. 167. 30. 24. 13. 257 Grid computing. 60 Displays. 215. 145. 92. 151. 244. 198. 23. 276 Instant messaging. 151. 45 Frameworks. 122. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 62. 128. 129. 118. 273 Interoperability. 32. 125. 77. 64. 122. 70. 215 Expert systems. 78. 151 FireFox. 111. 161. 135. 171. 114. 236 e-Science. 139. 102. 65 Google. 61. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 109. 262 Hybrid systems. 59. 45. 31. 139. 17. 96. 193. 9. 113. 287. 179. 32. 26. 71. 202. 220. 174. 3. 113 Deep Web. 114. 273 Informal learning. 15. 205. 320 graphics. 215. 28. 254. 94. 241. 135. 246. 252. 4. 276 images. 192. 256. 132. 245. 43. 210. 219. 134 Head mounted displays. 155. 250. 257. 111 Extreme learning. 160. 117. 27. 134. 119. 98. 138. 29 e-Portfolios. 170. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 104. 127. 205. 152. 111. 30. 26. 208. 184. 203. 156. 88. 31. 230. 54. 242. 193 Facial recognition. 7. 157 Hype in e-learning. 33. 188. 203. 273. 126. 15. 46. 15. 97. 121. 21. 192. 151. 62. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 12. 199 Informatics. 135. 39. 131. 112. 104. 19. 19. 56. 99. 125. 17. 207. 18. 65. 115. 275 Distributed systems. 84. 34. 62. 228. 231. 199. 30. 205 History. 136. 221. 78. 3. 104. 5. 18. 248. 62. 145. 10. 186. 35. 123. 177. 10. 243. 121. 155. 158. 132. 91. 83. 139. 82. 199. 274. 84. 86. 257 FrontPage. 37. 60. 246. 323 Folksonomies. 170. 97. 30. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 237. 82. 112. 33. 115. 91. 242. 86. 253. 152. 153. 45. 134. 31. 255. 251. 92. 254 Gesture recogntion. 31 Emotional design. 28. 115. 87. 250 Graphics. 108. 222. 268 Knowledge management. 48. 267 formative assessment. 134. e-learning. 189. 192. 261. 168. 3. 217. 44. 93. 128. 200 Design. 251. 170. 69. 120. 222. 246. 5. 267. 167. 48. 80. 155. 161. 275 Director. 92. 72. 7. 114. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 227. 114. 63. 128. 70. 174. 106. 125. 260 Dreamweaver. 60 dynamic displays. 77. 201.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 115. 80. 73. 28. 218. 34. 54. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 118. 5. 241. 92. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 98. 10. 18. 252. 6. 275. 176 Interface devices. 43. 154. 135. 247. 66. 191. 224. 250. 134. 224. 28. 247. 145. 4. 199. 128. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 21. 76. 104. 215. 136. 76. 244 Games. 72. 216. 73. 32. 278 Infrared tags. 5. 110. 239. 39. 34. 12. 76 Flash. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 273 Human-centered computing. 158. 55. 306 Individualization. 243. 171. 25. 250. 185. 120. 250 e-Commerce. 156. 194. 250 Immersive environments. 228. 206 Findability. 126 GIF graphic format. 119. 134 Healthcare applications. 148. 246. 6. 12. 196. 211 evaluation. 24. 90. 5. 120. 159. 117 Experiential learning. 12. 25. 258. 65. 129. 250. 251. 8. 238. 194. 170. 209 Handwriting recognition. 138. 255. 217. 3. 83. 68. 2. 155. 192. 259. 159. 12. 204. 24. 1. 158 iPod. 61. 40. 9. 132. 134 Haptics. 211. 217 Federated searches. 236. 114. 153. 87. 152. 223. 250. 33. 133. 169. 254. 305 Geocaching.

186. 163. 244. 136. 192. 287. 193. 104. 300. 228 Optical tags. 105. 164. 24. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 270. 193 Microsoft. 192 Networks. 151. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 139. 187. 64. 306. 173. 164. 209. 193 Projectors. 140. 161. 32. 318. 254. 158. 274. 27. 123. 120. 190. 79. 59. 246. 54. 238. 171. 59. 196. 42. 227. 104. 171. 62. 250 Pedagogy. 294. 17. 3. 221 Project management. 13. 192 Lecturing. 18. 254. 177. 191. 161. 321. 314 Meta-search engines. 125 Ontologies. 100. 200. 241. 115. 73. 134 Proximity tools. 280. 221. 232. 308. 7. 82. 141. 227. 161. 63. 171. 192. 221. 64. 152. 151 Quizzes. 32. 182. 105. 175. 189. 120. 221. 179. 52. 60. 201. 139. 154. 165 Mobile computing. 186. 160. 230. 101. 4. 151. 159. 221. 242. 28. 36. 160. 244. 7. 284 Portals. 189. 17. 318 Privacy. 65. 241. 55. 183. 177. 118. 147. 138. 181. 78. 64. 25. 192 Libraries. 66. 222. 101. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 121. 224. 78. 172. 230. 47. 151. 76. 128. 177. 86. 158. 138. 65. 210 Pervasive computing. 144. 188. 108. 189. 107. 61. 7. 176. 106. 65. 54. 234. 145 Learning Objects. 5. 165. 111. 148. 3. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 177. 88. 89. 5. 182. 259. 79. 114. 40. 174. 315 Motion Graphics. 158. 84. 218 Metacognition. 190. 32. 38. 33. 187. 155. 155. 62. 157 Medical applications. 55. 209 Microlearning. 82. 189. 31. 145. 273. 20. 330. 142. 62. 197. 89. 244. 45. 186. 110. 231. 190. 31. 209. 185. 161. 311 Learning Management Systems. 119. 178. 209. 5. 199. 162. 159. 171. 205. 144. 222. 161. 188. 158. 224. 2. 6. 43. 90. 154. 184. 261. 223. 204. 145. 184. 52. 198. 63. 93 Radio. 86. 243. 145 learning object repository. 274. 210 PowerPoint. 323 mapping. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 148. 33. 27. 241. 72. 63. 187. 131. 152. 318 Location based tools. 175. 3. 289. 85. 164. 92. 170. 55. 187. 66. 80. 206 Microformats. 135. 305. 30. 151. 8. 6. 209 pattern recognition. 60. 156. 87. 211. 64. 47. 219. 72. 237. 95. 152. 91. 202. 5. 179. 135. 109. 177. 174. 19. 85. 56. 161 Podcasting. 146. 260. 312 learning object model. 185. 298. 117. 179. 151. 105. 194. 91. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 99. 138. 84. 57. 85. 166. 261 Macromedia. 203. 175. 141. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 235. 223 Rapid e-learning. 172. 332 Microworlds. 5. 217. 210. 59 Presentation tools. 145. 32. 215. 59. 179. 115. 44. 176 Personalization. 224. 100. 221.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 61. 247. 82. 20. 317. 31. 55. 5. 58. 61. 159. 139. 260. 142. 145. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 174. 201. 66. 250. 166. 146. 12. 90. 73. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 151. 195. 158. 156. 24 Museums. 159. 184. 170. 111. 45. 32 Metadata. 193. 245. 222. 3. 230. 60. 162. 54. 195. 6. 273. 65. 234. 162. 147. 218 M-learning. 255 Neural networks. 12. 112. 267. 83. 254. 268 latent semantic analysis. 97. 162. 104. 163. 171. 10. 271. 273. 183 Navigation. 163. 104. 129. 143. 159. 178. 177. 233. 102. 59. 6. 146. 197 Legacy materials. 147. 309. 47. 103. 290. 45. 22. 230. 28. 227. 262. 219. 311. 178. 174. 83. 250 Mashups.

27. 273. 160. 52. 75. 263. 72. 81. 62. 45. 10. 60. 142. 199. 169. 167. 264. 231. 73. 154. 26. 225. 221. 52. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 10. 201. 230. 147. 151. 179. 24. 243. 247. 226. 215. 211. 146. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 62. 171. 45 Symbology tags. 157 Simulations. 215. 16. 76. 201. 161. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 262. 202. 19. 60. 226. 246. 275. 76. 203. 57. 236. 159. 6. 165. 4. 62. 33. 50. 46. 117 Reusability. 190. 302. 215. 237. 156. 192 Thin clients. 112. 246 Visualization. 49. 275 Vlogs. 18. 158. 216. 244 Tours (online). 147. 109. 67. 213. 8. 221 Social bookmarking. 188. 259. 217. 123. 7. 120. 183. 189. 149. 84 Telephony. 45 Semantic Web. 46. 137. 32. 226. 150. 45. 119. 138. 218. 241 Search engines. 46. 106. 158. 43. 227. 5. 222 Tag clouds. 196. 327 Videocasting. 250. 5. 202. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 217. 9. 224 Team management. 196. 12. 151. 187. 180. 202. 242. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 195 Virtual learning environments. 55. 98. 158. 266. 171. 214 résumés. 255 Turing Test. 267. 273. 174. 88. 104. 12. 127. 146. 245. 114. 255. 187 Smart labels and tags. 268 Tags. 76. 274 Tests. 332 Webcasting. 214. 226. 119. 69. 228. 226. 63. 203. 117. 145 Screencasting. 244. 155 Tagging. 223. 138. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 155. 216. 115. 319 Role-playing. 164. 239. 241. 128. 240. 231. 159. 260 Telepresence. 3. 251. 230. 33. 252. 59. 121. 62. 97. 227. 238. 2. 251 Serious games. 100. 6. 224. 252. 219. 97. 65. 226. 190. 241. 174 Virtual reality. 169 Streaming video. 212 reusable learning objects. 265. 187. 197. 218 Science. 65. 242 Security. 233. 120. 97. 148. 5. 145 Robotics. 145 Repositories. 139. 232. 145. 238. 155. 98. 224. 170. 9. 69. 222. 261 Usability. 201. 176. 158. 242. 331 Web conferencing. 12. 210. 244 summative assessment. 51. 125. 5. 224. 66. 3. 228. 97. 206. 198. 331 Wearable computing. 199. 156. 242. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 152. 247 Video. 66. 187. 63. 256. 48. 45. 76 T-Learning. 122. 232 Speech recognition. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 2. 194. 206. 5. 81. 148. 221. 254. 10. 268. 139. 15. 244. 143. 7. 209. 151. 47. 208. 241 Television. 261. 51. 264 Social networking. 241 virtual classroom. 224. 33. 38. 145. 241. 4. 222. 158. 134. 167. 209. 187 Virtual classrooms. 145. 196. 113. 205. 31. 45. 85. 275 Translation. 221 self-evaluation. 221. 152. 63. 260. 47. 243. 227. 143. 268 Skypecasting. 204. 216. 60. 159. 119. 253. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 61. 219. 134. 241 Vodcasting. 160. 281 SCORM. 259. 156 sharable content objects. 220. 254 Taxonomies. 120. 228. 187. 86. 225. 244 Tangible computing. 193. 167. 212. 209. 174.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 241. 33. 225. 255 Single-user wiki. 261 Shockwave. 200. 134. 218 Scenarios.

232. 90.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 134. 5. 209. 80. 103. 233. 266. 97. 3. 77. 10. 187 Whiteboards. 267. 268. 82. 307 Wikipedia. 256. 272. 87. 268. 157. 136. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 53. Gary. 184. 156. 114. 86. 106. 332 Woodill. 270 Wikis. 137. 1. 168. 135. 68. 269. 269. 6. 174. 104. 116. 115. 276 Word. 270. 233. 271. 59. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 84.

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