Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. still used in many institutions of higher education. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. the raising of hands. Learning became standardized and linear. They are. detentions. to quote Donald Norman (1993). Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. and language for communication.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. the classroom became industrialized. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. The modern classroom. class periods. material. With these reforms. fire for warmth and cooking. with rows. for example. is a 2000 year old “technology. or device that extends human abilities. or “reader. Medieval universities followed the same practice. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. We tend to forget. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today.” Starting in the first century AD. that lecturing. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. “things that make us smart. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. coupled with faster printing and binding methods.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. and recess. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. as books were scarce. Do Not Reproduce 1 . Technologies are any technique.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. But learning technologies have a much longer history.

Eventually. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. moving pictures (films). linear teaching techniques online. When a new technology is introduced.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized.” Similarly. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. memorizing. and reciting. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. At the same time.” In 1970. For example. 2 © 2006. Like all new technologies. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. A third way to learn is by seeing. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . When a new technology first comes into use. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. Students in these schools learned by reading. Thomas Watson. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. There are. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. changing the practice of teaching. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Sadly. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Brandon Hall Research . Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. Schools were started to teach accounting. even if the originator of the words is not present. many different ways to learn. in 1876 someone at Western Union.just the ability to follow an example. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. in fact. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). chairman of IBM. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar.

Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Rather than pages. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. 2006).” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. To realize these advantages. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Rather than pages. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . AT&T was given what would become the Internet. sometimes referred to as a mashup. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. and standards. 2006). frameworks. However. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. as this is a non-technical guide. it needs to adhere to architectures.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. Do Not Reproduce 3 .

January. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. 4 © 2006.fr/publicatio n. Brandon Hall Research . with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. 2005. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. Number 3.free.php). Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.

At the same time.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. In Europe.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. research. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. and makes extensive use of XML. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. Do Not Reproduce 5 . relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. http://www. http://ltsc.aicc.imsglobal.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). http://purl. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www.oclc. In particular. http://www. At the same time. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. interactive learning components.accessgrid.ieee. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example.org) has a number of published documents that.elframework. presentation and interactive environments. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. Major specifications for e-learning.adlnet. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. http://imsproject.org). http://sourceforge. enabling the search for content. taken together. and education administration.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.

Rather.” In late 2005. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. Instead of just providing courses. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. For example. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. Brandon Hall Research . Moreover.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. Bollier says. 2004).” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute.is based on open. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. In business. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. 6 © 2006. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. reinforces this theme. Instead.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. “[a] pull economy .” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. This is especially true for adult education. As Anderson (2004. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. 2006) has argued.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). They noted that “…in education. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Instead. While packaged courses still have a place.

Wales.ntnu. the reader can approach any topic in any order. October. Because this research report is meant as a reference work.. Web 2. those learners are now keeping their own records.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. M. New York: Hyperion. Thus.com/wired/archive/12.. http://www.org/abs/cs. From this. Z. Bertolazzi. In the last chapter. R. (2005). The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. and a bibliography.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005.. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. 41(2).asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti... Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Zanichelli. Ahmad. F. 12(10). UK. M. Bryan (2006). often placed in repositories as open source content or software. G. mobile devices. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. F. June 2005. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. http://www.. http://arxiv. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. Do Not Reproduce 7 . R..idi. Chris (2004).pdf Anderson.amazon. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). I hope you will find it useful. A. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Five years ago.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. Cardiff. Odeh. McClatchey. Ali.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. March/April 2006.html Anderson. M. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments.wired.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. M. online resources. and wearable computers. http://www. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. is becoming commonplace. Chris (2006). Bibliography Abbas. ambient networks. and Conte. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. 2005). Reggiani..DC/0502051 Alexander. Umer. Italy. (2005).educause. along with selected examples. Wired Magazine. 10/tail. User-created content. The Long Tail. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. Milan.

International E-Learning Specifications..cancore.athabascau.. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.ca/protocols_en. C. (2002). and McGreal. 13-16.pdf Bogonikolos.cti. 16. Madison.iadis..org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. Switzerland. Centre for Distance Ed. http://www. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.htm Bollier. American Jrnl. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). M. 14-16. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Brandon Hall Research . 2004. David (2005). 2002.virtual. (2002).cscsi.ca/softeval/report s/R110203. Giotopoulos. (1996).amazon. Dec. March 2002. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2004.edu/pdf/ajde. Triantafillou. Weiss. 13. http://www. and Votis. T. C. and McGinnis (2004). 6-8. Aug. Upper Saddle River. Thomas (2004). K.. K. Sept. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. S.pdf Erl. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. Chrysostalis. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. http://ru6. of Distance Education 10.. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Online. Tsiatsos. V. Likothanassis.a sp Chatarji..aspeninstitute. 2001. R.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. Porto.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. http://www.. http://www. Web Services . T.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti. http://www. Montreal.htm l 8 © 2006.devshed.gmu. 2. Nov. Hornig. http://cde. Stefano (2005). 19. WI. N.Dev Shed.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. G. Norm (2006). Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.pdf Cerri.pdf Friesen. USA. http://www. Jagadish (2004). 4-36. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . Lausanne. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005)... Oct. http://ewic. Portugal. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Athabasca University. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. N.ICALT 2001. (2001).gr/ru6/publications/95795 23.org/celda2005/index. http://www.bcs. M.

bcs. D. and Albert.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. http://www. J.infoworld. A field guide to software as a service. T.. and Putland. Donald (1993). (2005). and Brown. and Zhang. J. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment..com. Cambridge.ascilite.computer. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Luo. http://www. 30.c om/docs/SOA_World.200 5. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.pdf Knorr. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Australia. http://www. Germany.unikarlsruhe. for the Australian Dept. MA: Perseus.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/ci t/&toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432 /00/2432toc.au Limited. http://www. F.com/gp/product/02 01626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. Infoworld.gov.org.amazon. (2002). http://ewic.com/paper_pushpull . 2002 http://ewic.html Kong. 1026-1032. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGEWG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. V. (2003).28 April 2004. http://csdl2. J.htm Hohpe. (2005). of Education and Training.pdf Millea. Education. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .xml&DOI=10. Switzerland.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen _e-learninggrids. (2005). Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. and Vossen. I. 2003. Erlanger. ThoughtWorks White paper.1109/CIT. Green. Sept. Perth. 2005. W. J. http://www. Stuttgart.bcs. G. http://www. http://www.html Hockemeyer.aifb. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. SCORM and the Learning Grid. Working paper. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/ 30/soa.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. Gregor (2005).56 Marshall. J. (2005).pdf Neumann. Lausanne. 27 . R. and Borck.johnhagel.pdf Norman.act.org/conferences/2004/4 thlege/session3/paper2.com/article/05/04/ 18/16FEsasdirect_1. and Geys. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. Hao (2003). Stephen (2004).au/conferences/p erth04/procs/pdf/marshall.xml. April 18.pdf Do Not Reproduce 9 . From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.det. G.pdf He. L.S.org/conferences/2002/1st lege/session2/paper1.au/publicat/pdf/ emergingtechnologies.xml..Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Hagel. Sept. E. http://www.. C. January 2005. Proceedings. (2004).

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. selected elearning related examples. Do Not Reproduce 11 . and a bibliography for each section. online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. Included are related terms.

Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. security. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. SRI Consulting (http://www.” (Anolli. Without the ability to understand emotions. In online therapy. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. emotional design. in Italy. gestures. keystroke patterns.. or sad. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. and react to human emotions. and react to human emotions. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. understand. facial recognition. 2005). Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. and to respond to them effectively. et al..” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. privacy. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. too. emotions. Brandon Hall Research .Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. 2005). it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. posture.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. understand. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.sricbi. confused. For example.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. 12 © 2006.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling.

it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic.mit.myself-proj. 2005.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. UK. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.informatik. 2005.unige. University of Hertfordshire.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX.org. See the links at: http://emotion. China.media. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.html In Germany. Do Not Reproduce 13 . April 12-15. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research. UK. See: http://www. with many resources.unitrier. Check it out at: http://www.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. Access it from: http://www.ac.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.convo.” Meet Ditto at: http://www. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Affective Computing. Dr.aisb.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.nsma. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. listing many links to interesting resources. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.cs.co. Hatfield. are available online: http://www. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.bartneck. and legality. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.edu/emotion.bham. October 22-24. bibliographies. accuracy.de/link/affective_p ortal.arizona. including studies of emotions in computers.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.

.. April 2-7. (2005). April 2-7. K. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Wired Magazine.. Nakajima. I.. Portland. Brave. Oregon. Stock.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour. L. D.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook.. Portland. and Waterworth. CHI 2005 conference. H.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado.. 2005. Pachoud. December..uniroma1. Rocchi. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye.pdf Kaye. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach..sics. Vermersch. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. F. David (2003). V.. Nass. The Love Machine: building computers that care. April 2-7. Balestra. Oregon.. http://www... R. http://www. Oregon. D.com/wired/archive/11. M. Y..sics. K. Nortillaro. M.sics. Zurloni. P.pdf 14 © 2006. 2005 http://www.. P. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Iwamura. Erlbaum.. M. C. Isbister. Vescovo. Oregon.doc Hook.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. J..doc Chateau. Agliati.pdf Cahour. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar.pdf Maldonado. September 13.stanford. Salembier. April 2-7. http://www.sics. Pianesi.. A. Oregon. Brandon Hall Research . C. Portland. Portland. Realdon. K. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. 2005. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. http://www.. and Laaksolahti. 2005.sics. and Zouinar.dis. CHI 2005.wired. B. O. Lee. and Merisol. F.pdf Diamond. Z. (2005). N. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. (2005). I Like It . April 2-7. Portland. and Zancanaro. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. H. J.1 2/love. Issue 11/12. http://www. Yamada.it/~lhci/009. B. NJ. April 2-7. Brassac.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. http://www. (2005). Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2005). Joseph (2005). and Morishima. Oregon. A. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli.. L. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. J. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. C. J.pdf Goren-Bar. O. CHI 2005. (2005). CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. Bouraoui. S..html Fallman.. M. CHI 2005 conference. Mantovani. and Confalonieri (2005). CHI 2005 conference. Graziola...

se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Cambridge. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. and Picard. Berlin: Picard.de/emeocom p/content.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk.ruebenstrunk. Affective Springer.sics.com/gp/product/3 http://www. J.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. M. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.miv.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.HTM Steele. M.iste.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. Portland. http://www. Rosalind (1997). (2005).ac. May 26. J. Beijing.utokyo. Dec. http://www.htm Tao. (2005). Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. New York: Basic. Portland. CHI 2005.sics. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. T.sics. (2004). 2005. and Daily. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. 22. Regan (2005). S.amazon. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.amazon.t. Gerd (1998). China.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Miami. http://www. http://www. CHI 2005. http://www. Helena (2005). 2005. Donald A.pdf Ruebenstrunk. October 22-24.pdf Mentis. (2002). 2002. CHI 2005 conference. ACII 2005. 35(2). R. Tan. Computing. and Ishizuka.pdf Norman. April 2-7.pdf Masum.elearningreviews. R. http://www. and Steele. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 2-7. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland.. S. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. MA: MIT.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. (2005). Paper for WEBIST 2005. OR. Oregon. E-book http://www. http://www. Oregon.

thesis. April 2-7.cs.Affective Computing Wiberg. Emotional Agents. Oregon.sics. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.ac. CHI 2005 conference.pdf 16 © 2006. Doctoral Dissertation. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005. http://www. Charlotte (2005).doc Wright. Ian (1997).se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg.bham. Affective Computing vs. http://www. University of Birmingham. Portland.uk/research/cog aff/Wright. Brandon Hall Research .

see the paper by Far et al. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. For example. Fourth.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.gu. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions.informatik. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). 1999). benevolence. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. rationality. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Third. Dick Stenmark. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. 1999). Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. Do Not Reproduce 17 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. avatars. Second. autonomous agents. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. First. In this context. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. and. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming.. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. proactive (goal directed). 2004). and both may be found in the same program (for example. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. learning/adaptation. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). and many of them can actually learn. veracity. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.

(2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. She made mistakes. Massaro et al. Viswanath. 2005. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Agents have beliefs. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. A second agent in the simulation. useful in educational simulations. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. Even though each agent acts independently. and the students had to continue to teach her. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. et al. In such situations. Katzlberger. but also about other agents. However. acting against other teams of agents. not only about environments. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. 2004) and are. Baldi. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. 2005). Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. (1998) developed a conversational agent.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Therefore. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. 18 © 2006. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. 2000). therefore. Brandon Hall Research . Mentor. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment.

liv. S.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. See: http://liinwww. A.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.com/ CodeBaby Corp. See: http://www.redwoodelearning. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ac.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs. go to: http://ritl. (2004): http://www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Do Not Reproduce 19 . Hypermedia.editlib.csc. but also about other agents. See: http://www. expert role-players. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent.netobjectdays. http://www. Therefore.org/index.codebaby. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.de/bibliography/Ai /agents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.uka.fsu. 459462.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623. They are available as adaptive coaches.extempo.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. & Ebbers.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. not only about environments.ira. and Telecommunications 2003. Go to: http://www. go to: http://ldt. For details see: www.editlib. See the article by Williams et al. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. and expert guides.stanford.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. See a demo at: http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.old. For details of this research: http://www.isi.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/index.

10 (3).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader... Johnson. G..edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. (2003).cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Koono. ELearning 2003.cfm?fusea ction=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Sun. Ali (2002). S. 2005. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006.org/index. Germany. Z..editlib. S. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA.educause.old. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. A. 306-311).cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.editlib. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far.org/index. Erfurt... Proceedings. J. e-Learning 2005. (1999). Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Brandon Hall Research . International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. & El-Khouly. & Kim. B. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. In Richards. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.computer. M. Norfolk.netobjectdays.editlib. (2005). and Tsang. (2002). Hypermedia.org/newdl/index. http://csdl. Elan.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623.editlib. Paper presented. http://www.. 267-286 http://www. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao. & Bengu. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. G. Educause Quarterly. & Lin. http://www. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. 3. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.educause. http://www. 75-80. In Proceedings. & Johnson. 275-285. A. Zahia (2004). An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. (2005)..org/index. (Ed. July. E.. Jrnl.Agents Baylor. 1353-1356. 5(7). http://www. 11(3). (2002).pdf Jafari. Ng. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. G.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Large Complex Systems. C. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.aace. L. Educause Quarterly.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.pdf Clarebout. J. L.. G. (2002). VA: AACE. W. G.org/index.). Inter-active Learning Res. Y. and Shaw..org/index. 28(2).ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002)..editlib.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004. Y. and Palopoli. W. Clarebout. No. (2000). and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.pdf Guessoum. 1503-1506.pdf Kao. http://www.

.teachableagents.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. M. J. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. Learning by Teaching Agents.unikarlsruhe. Daniel. Nashville.edu/fil/ Padgham.teachableagents. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. (1999). International Journal on E-Learning.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. ED-MEDIA. and Ferneley. In Proceedings.K.amazon. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Vanderbilt University.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). (2003). Sandel. http://www. P.5 . Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.editlib.informatics.indiana.ogi. Vanderbilt University. U. 143-162. (2005). http://cslu. Krittaya (2005).. In Proceedings. 1999.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. www. 21-38. W.aace. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro.org/index. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Toulouse. France. M. Cohen.pdf Menczer. Beskow. and Cole... www. http://www. R. http://dl. Doctoral Dissertation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. 16591666. and Winikoff. E.pdf Lin. http://www. IFIP WG12. Doctoral Dissertation. Hershey. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. 1632. www.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. http://www.org/index. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98.aifb. Doctoral dissertation..editlib. D. Tennessee.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.editlib.. and Stucky.pdf Kim. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. 17(2). (2004).cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. A.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. August. TN. S. C. http://www. Y. 4(1). L.org/16948 Leelawong. New York: John Wiley & Sons.de/BIK/vpa/109. of California. Nashville. E-Learning 2003. O.org/index.amazon. (2006).pdf Luengo. http://www. Fuhua Oscar (2005). and Ho. V.cse.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . Thomas (2005). V.

). http://www. 47-59. N. (Ed. M. 10 (3). & Lim. J.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Atreya. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Peter (1998). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. (2005). G. http://citeseer. 30003002.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. Proceedings. D. 321-333.editlib. 194-201. L.editlib. Kommers & G.org/index.. Biswas.pdf Williams.ist. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation.psu. http://www.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.. R. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. H. (2005).editlib.org/papers/ 158bis.org/newdl/index. Healthcare. S. S. & Leelawong. M.html Shim.. Finland.. June 1-4. K. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Petersburg. Carnegie Mellon University. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. (1999). http://www. http://www. R. Richards (Eds.org/index. (2004). Wesley. EDMedia 2005. G. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. and Núñeza. 1999.lib. and Higher Education 2004.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. 14(1). ED-MEDIA 2004. Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. St. and Solomon.vt. PA. M.). Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. In Proceedings. Proceedings. http://www. ED-MEDIA 2005.cs. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. Adebiyi. B. Gilbert.org/16968 Sahin.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. In P. Government.. http://www. 14151420.aace.Agents Perez.org/index.teachableagents. (1999). (2004). (2004). 3169-3176.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.aace.utexas. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). & Booth..cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://dl. K.. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno. In Richards.. G. J. Ferat (2000). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Pittsburgh. Russia.edu/565321. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. & Madsen. http://scholar. 61-65.

http://ca. Chicago. Paper at CLAG2004. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning.upc.ac. (2004). April 18-21.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. http://research.html Yan. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. 2004.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 . Chun. New York: John Wiley & Sons.wiley. Michael (2002).com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce

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(2003). They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. gestures. rather than using a single type of knowledge.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.e. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. Talking Head Tutor vs.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. While many systems purport to be personalized.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. objects. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. Do Not Reproduce 30 . (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. concepts. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. 2002).Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. etc) and how they are interrelated. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.

cs...colorado.di.uic.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.cs. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Do Not Reproduce 31 . http://lsa. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.” http://www.” http://www.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. (2005a. including student monitoring.” http://www.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.unito.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04.uregina. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://www.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.iit. and multiagents.colorado. see: http://lsa. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.cs. ecommerce.

edu.pdf Oguejiofor et al.gast.ht ml To achieve their goals.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.pact.unsw.cmu. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. Brandon Hall Research . http://bach.it. http://quantumsimulations.cs.infrature. As a result. http://www.sinica.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.iis. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.library. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.” http://www.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.com/doi/pdf/10. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. question answering (QA) techniques.com/index.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.uc3m. http://www. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. 32 © 2006. http://www. and INFOMAP.leaonline. http://ariic.ucalgary.” http://ctat. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.kicinger. Infrature.enel.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.edu. http://www.

Inc. without programming.virtuelage. and an interactive intelligent tutor. Aurora .com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.gemini.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. Do Not Reproduce 33 .ke-corp. http://www. see: http://www. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.usyd.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic . taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. http://www.com/s10. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. skill gaps.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.pact.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. Find out more at: http://ctat.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.cmu.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.cs. Stottler Henke Associates. and engaging. and learning style. http://pact.edu. preferred cadence.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.it.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.cs. challenging.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. an adaptive testing algorithm.stottlerhenke.” http://www.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . The reality is that. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. Task Tutor Toolkit .au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. intelligent conflict resolution. so that these systems become more realistic. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.cmu.

org/AITopics/html/tutor.cs.org/2000/fe b2000/ong. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.ac. Read it at: http://www.ed. with the next one in 2007.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.teluq.org/cfp. See: http://www.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.com/printer _friendly_article. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. China.inf. http://www.ucalgary.uk/aiedsoc.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. Brandon Hall Research .htm Marvin Minsky.aaai.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. The AIED conferences are held every two years.learningcircuits. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. Find it at: http://www.inf.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. For more info: http://www2.ac.wpi.masternewmedia. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.” Learn more at: http://www. Taiwan. For more information. http://aied.autotutor.technologyreview.its2006.ca/eng/in dex. http://www. go to: http://aied.uquebec.licef.ed. 34 © 2006. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.enel.

. C.). B.sbg. ITS 2004. Paraguaçu (Eds.. M.html Barker. 482-487. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). V. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. In Proceedings. and Picard. Maceió. Brazil.cmu. and Read. Vicari. C.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. Lester.pdf Aleven. V. http://www. In J. (2004). K. R. Hermann (2002). Reilly.ri. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. E.2005.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. M. K. Eshaa (Ed. Mostow. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. McLaren. and Penstein Rosé. http://lingcog. http://www.ht ml Aleven..eurodl.iit. C.1109/ITCC. Roll. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. and Douglas. (2004).edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit.) (2006). http://www.amazon.82 Bhatt. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. J. R.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist.edu/pubs/pub_4073.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . Argamon. M.di.. http://dx. G. http://www. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04. Chicago. 6(1). V.unito.doi. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . and Koedinger. and Patti. http://nth. (2004). Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems. and Evens.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read. & F. Artificial Intelligence Review.pitt. S. PA: Idea. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.org/10..ac. S.Volume I. Kort. http://www.pdf Barcena. R. Hershey. 22: 3–39. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. Baroglio.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. I. http://www. (2002). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.wpi. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. (2004). (2005). (2004). P. T.. B.pdf Baldoni..pdf Alkhalifa.

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Masters Thesis. VA: AACE. L. (2004).Artificial Intelligence Thornton. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Devedzic. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer.amazon. http://www.cs. Jay A.pdf Yusko. Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial.. Brandon Hall Research .ppt Ureel. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.wpi. Maceió.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Jason (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. MA: MIT Press.edu/~circsim/document s/jaydiss. http://www. Peter (2004). In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense. Brazil.pdf Yang. Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Maomi (2000).editlib.iit. NZ. Maceió.org/index. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000). (2004). (2005). Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Terrence (2005).edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Doctoral Dissertation. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning.wpi. http://www. 15 (4). http://nth.edu/~circsim/document s/yzdiss.wpi. pp. http://nth. Chicago. Illinois Institute of Technology.wpi. Feng-Jen (2001).iit.pdf Ueno.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.cs.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available /etd-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski.ieee. Kinshuk. 299-318.cs. Chris (2000). and Pedrycz. a second-generation dialog-based tutor. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. Masters Thesis. The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor. http://www. T.pdf Vasilakos. http://www. Worchester Polytechnic Institute. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1889 5 Walonoski.org/iwalt2000/slides/mao mi_uno. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://www. http://lttf.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/ etd-011106070108/unrestricted/turnert. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. Norfolk.edu/~circsim/document s/fydiss.pdf Wiemer-Hastings. Cambridge.com/gp/product/02 62700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner. Yujian (2000).iit. Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago. W. Chicago.pdf 44 © 2006. Palmerston North.. V.pdf Zhou. Brazil.

computer based assessment (CBA). in the near future. online assessment. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. quizzes. When combined into a “360° evaluation. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. aptitudes. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Do Not Reproduce 45 . the automated scoring of essays. self-evaluation. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. computer mediated assessment (CMA). rubrics. evaluation. and documents for assessors to use. for example. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. More sophisticated forms of automated. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. affective. are already available. eassessment. We can expect that. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). In a business situation. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. quizzes. 1956). Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. Assessment software can generate templates. once only done by a human assessor. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. quizzes. or performance samples. making it hard to escape assess-ment. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. For example. computer-based assessment tools. and psychomotor. and output. or performance samples. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. samples.

htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. 46 © 2006. Find them at: http://www.horizonwimba.com/redinq/html/inde x. See: http://www. abilities.com/evaluator Testcraft.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer.. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. has recently won awards for its performance. and (4) computer marking. personality.0.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. For details. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. a completely customizable report engine. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.” Bateson’s four levels of learning.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.testcraft.brainbench.com/news_ performance_analyzer2.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. However.xstreamsoftware. Try it at: http://nt. skills. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.redinq. and past work behaviors. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. Diploma.K. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. See the site at: http://www. multilingual support. and adaptive question branching. a customizable look and feel. http://www. see: http://www.com The Evaluator.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy.learningandteaching.info/lear ning/solo.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment. from Resources Management Services in the U. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.rmsuk. Review it at: http://www. preview pages for all question types. Brandon Hall Research .questionmark.

respondus. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.org/ ETS. See: http://www.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.com/wwwtools/magazin es.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays.pedagogue.dialang.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.epistema.ets.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. learning tools. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. and self-study.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.vantagelearning. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. once only done by a human assessor.operitel. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. and adminis-tration features.” See their offerings at: http://www. Try it at: http://www. reporting.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. and services useful for outcomes assessment.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. on its Web site. http://www.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. institutional evaluation. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 .” organized by academic discipline.org/english/index. http://www. http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. check out the Dialang web site.uc. See more at: http://www. http://www.flaguide.fasfind.colorado. surveys. For information on latent semantic analysis. see: http://lsa. http://www.

com/029. http://www.uiuc.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. http://cba.unimelb.scit.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.ac.htm 48 © 2006.org/research/ reviews/10_01.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.thinkinggear.tasainstitute.cshe.uk/home. Explore the links at: http://www.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too. with over 1.health.learnflex.edu.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.000 different tests from its database.ac.com/useguide/as sessme/online.umuc.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.wlv.com/tools/rubric s. http://www.ac.economicsnetwork.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ulster.” http://www.uka.200 references.com/schrockguid e/assess.discovery. http://www.rmcdenver.oir. http://www.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment. is available from: http://liinwww. Obtain a copy at: http://www.au/assessi nglearning/03/online.heacademy.uk/cticomp/CAA. Check them out at: http://school.nestafuturelab.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. http://www. with a list of 34 strategies.ira. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.ac.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.

Online paper. A. 8 (3). http://www. L. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/career_asse ssment..pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . http://www. Louis. (2004). D.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. J. and O'Hagan. K.htm#2..amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. & Rodríguez. (2001). Carro.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. (1956). (1982). G. New York: McKay. J.iltaonline. http://www.info/journals/8_3/6.amazon. T.pdf Biggs. and Collis.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. E. http://www.tcet.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. R.amazon. Freire..1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.learningandteaching. M. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.iltaonline. and Hirschman. Online paper.ict4lt. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. St. Iwashita. (2001).html Bibliography Alfonseca. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. A. McNamara. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Ortigosa. M. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. Missouri.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. (2005).htm Atkinson. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. http://www. http://www.3 Bateson. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.ifets.info/learn ing/solo.quintcareers..com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. James (2005). http://www. Pérez. New York: Academic Press. http://www. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. B. T. London: Paladin.pdf Atherton.. http://www. Educational Technology & Society..org/en/en_mod41. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. 53-65. and Davies. S. http://www. N. S. Gregory (1973).. P.unt.

http://www. D. Burstein. Burstein (Eds.amazon. (2002). The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. and Knight. New York. June 22. Robert (2005). J. (1989). Kay (1999). Jill.assess. K. In R.com/Books/b39739. Acapulco.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.Assessment Tools Brown J.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive.assess. Shermis and J. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Shermis and J. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.amazon. Kaplan (Ed. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence... NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Rethink testing for future success. http://www.eschoolnews. Educational Measurement. In M.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Marcu. and Chodorow.htm 50 © 2006.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Mexico.org/intelligent/archives. NY: Macmillan. 3rd Edition. V. C.pdf. Martin.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. 2005.com/news/sho wStoryts. (2003). Burstein (Eds. C. http://www. Inouye. M.. & Olsen. J. Jill. http://llt. Burstein. Harabagiu and F. www. Chodorow. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. New York: Oxford. (2003). "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".). In the R. http://www. http://www. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. In S. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. eSchool News. Jill.amazon.com/Books/b39739. 1. August 2003. In M.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. Daniel. Ciravegna (Eds. Jill C. Langu-age Learning and Technology. and Marcu.. (2003).ht m. B.msu. Daniel. Hillsdale. IEEE Intelligent Systems. L. Hillsdale. Arlington Heights. IL: Skylight. & Leacock.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. (1997). Linn (Ed.ets.htm Burstein. How to Assess Authentic Learning. Kevin (2003).computer. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield.

nap. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.msu.hlc.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). O’Reilly. D..ac. W. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. (2001). Language Learning and Technology. Language testing and technology: past and future. Micheline.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. http://eprints. The Student Assessment Handbook. (Ed. v. Y. S.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. E.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. H. Online newsletter. http://www. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. (2004).msu. 2.utas. Millard..com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Howard. 5. Micheline.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. and Sclater. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (1998).nmsu. Writing assessment: a position statement. http://www. www. Online newsletter. n.Proceedings from a Workshop.ncte. C. http://wwwpsych.html Chalhoub-Deville. http://llt. (2005).edu. B. and Grellett. http://llt.htm Cebrian. (1999).html Do Not Reproduce 51 .) (1999). N.. (1999). http://www. Morgan. P. St.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. (2001). Nathan. C. Board on Testing and Assessment.. Loughborough.amazon.pdf Dunkel P. EdMedia '99. T. Chalhoub-Deville. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Foltz. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". W.. University of Tasmania. http://www. D. London: Falmer. M.iltaonline. & Landauer. 2: 77-93. Louis. M.soton. March 9. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. College Composition and Communication Online. http://www.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. and Parry. Davis.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).ecs. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -.html Davies. L.unimelb..com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. K.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Language Learning & Technology 2. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. National Research Council. Laham.au/worldcall/str5. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. In Proceedings. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion.edu. (2004).doc. May. P.

A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. S. 5(2). Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. http://llt. Compiegne.amazon. R (2002).colorado. 259284.. Weller. M. International Journal on E-Learning.amazon. and Ward. M. http://www.kent.edu/papers/dp1. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones.. J. Discourse Processes. France. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Lawrence. (2002). Y. T. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments.amazon. Fremer. K. http://www.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. M. http://llt. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. http://lsa. No. n. http://www. Hardas.pd f Kenyon.msu. and Watt. New York: Basic Books.) (2002). Patrick (2000). 4. http://www. http://www.. PA: Information Science.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. and Malabonga.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. 5. and Howell. v. (2001).pdf MacDonlad.softwaresecure. Howard (1993). (Eds.msu. Potenza. (1998). V.html Khan. (Eds.pdf Hricko. and Ma.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.com/pdf/Pap erTests.. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. C. Howell. M. (2001)..org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. W. Robert. J. http://www. J.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. W.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase. Language Learning and Technology.Hershey. 2. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. & Laham. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Foltz. May.htm. Gardner.) (2005).proexam. http://mason.. 25. (2005). D. & Mason. Hillsdale.medianet.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. H.pdf Landauer. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. May. D. http://www. Online paper. N.LSAi ntro.gmu.html. (1999).. Seven technologies for assessment.amazon. P.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones. Language Learning and Technology.

National Center for Education Statistics.ed. Burstein. 4(6).S. Information Science Publishing. (Ed. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. http://www. 403-416. DC: U. D.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Tim (2006). (2006). A. http://www. Self. (2006). Mahwah. NY: Guilford Press.. D.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. J.operitel. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (Eds. G.amazon. and Writing. B.. and Gifford. Howard. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. http://nces.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. McArthur. Government. Online Assessment. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.bc.amazon. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. http://www. (2000).. S. and Hricko.com Do Not Reproduce 53 . http://escholarship. M. pdf Weiner. Hershey. (1979).ed. Howell. pp. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Learning. Operitel white paper. and Assessment. & Leacock. K.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.amazon.. http://eric. Fitzgerald. PA: Information Science.) (2000). Washington. In C. Problem Solving. M. M. & J. http://www. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. C. Measurement and Evaluations.edu/cgi/viewconten t. Reports from the Institute of Education.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. and Skinner.) (2005). (2005). University of Gothenburg. S. R.amazon.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. New York. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. Journal of Technol. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. http://www.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. Handbook of writing research. Graham.

compared with even a few years ago. is podcasting. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history.5 megabytes. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. (i. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. Brandon Hall Research . podcasting. or by “streaming. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. while it is playing. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. According to Crofts et al. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. For example..e. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. One audio application of interest to educators. the rest of the file has time to arrive.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. which is gaining in popularity. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. (2005). The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. depending on the file size). including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming.

http://www. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. http://sourceforge. It is available to download for Mac OS X. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. open source software for recording and editing sounds. and other operating systems..com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.apple. http://www. to personalized media). http://www. such as those for iPods.e. http://www.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.com/blogs/doug/index.envision. Provides feedback to learners. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. Provides another channel for material review. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.rds. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file.scientificcomputing. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 55 .p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. You can’t add your own notes. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. Assists non-native speakers. GNU/Linux. This frag-mentation is being fueled. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. in part. (i. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners.purdue.thepodcastnetwork. Microsoft Windows. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.

playback.ltd.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.audiotoolsdirect. http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. freeware.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. http://www. which is gaining in popularity. http://www.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.com/lipsync/in dex.automaticsync.htm RECAP Ltd.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. http://www.48. Audio and video software. phrases.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://recap. and utilities for conversion. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.ibritt. including software to record and play podcasts. is podcasting. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://64. http://epnweb. go to: http://www.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.uk/podcasting/index.masternewmedia. including podcasting. enhancing.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.elearningcentre.com/resources/dc_medi a. http://www.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. tools. http://www. http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. and broadcasting are all found on this site.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound.co. 56 © 2006.com/AudioTools/in dex.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. sound editing.com. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. shareware.podcasting-tools. recording. CD audio extraction. DJ mixing.71.edupodder.htm For a list of podcasting tools.avsmedia. or sentences from audio Web sites. Brandon Hall Research .

VA: AACE. B. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).cakewalk. Dave (2005). July 2005.uk/articles/podguide.html Curtis. L. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. Chesapeake.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. http://recap. Brenda (2001).unl.com/home. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. (2005).editlib.html Canali De Rossi. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www.sonicfoundry. April 2005.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts. J. http://www. S.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.ltd.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 .com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.masternewmedia. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.org/index. and Swenson. September. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Ray (2005). and Williams. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Fox. May 20. 45-50.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. Doctoral Dissertation.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. http://www.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://dl.org/3455 Girvan. Richards (Ed.aace. In G.audiolink. 2005. http://firstmonday. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. A. Sound Sense. Healthcare.. Retsema. http://digitalcommons.bias-inc. http://www. First Monday. Scientific Computing World.htm Jobbings. 417-419). Dilley.scientificcomputing.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www..com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.adobe.multitrackstudio.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index.com/products/audition/ main. Robin Good’s Blog. M. (2003). Dion Cory (1999). Government. Luigi (2005). P. University of Nebraska. http://www. 10(9)..) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).html Bibliography Buhman.

Podcasts. June 2005. Learning Circuits. http://www.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. http://www. and Lomas. Eva (2005). Peter (2005).Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.learningcircuits. C.apple.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. http://edmarketing.educause. N. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Podcasting and Vodcasting.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Noakes.

content development. either directly or with third party tools. Implementation. rapid e-learning. Do Not Reproduce 59 . There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. see: http://www.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Design.microsoft. and. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. and Evaluation) processes. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. simulations. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. please see http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. shtml). many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Further.brandonhall. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. No authoring tool does everything. either directly or with third party tools. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. (For details. in the end. In this vein. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Further. 2005). Development. As well.

Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.com Agile .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. http://www.com Anark .Designer’s Edge. Do Not Reproduce 60 . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.thinkingcap.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product.com/ Acroservices .anark. and marketing applications.articulateglobal.Media – Import 3-D Models.com/presenter. video.accordent. music.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia.info/ Allen Communications .Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.activeslide. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.allencomm. http://www. http://www. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.Capture Station 2. http://www.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. http://www. www. go to: http://www. video.acroservices. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www. and images and turn them into 3-D training.Thinkcap Studio .adobe. visualization. XML.com/products/ Articulate .htm ActiveSlide.

com/in dex_eng. CD Rom.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . such as the following: Web. video. http://www.com/eng/index. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.php e2train . http://www.htm Composica .elearningpowertools.composica. and PowerPoint slides. pointers.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. Flash.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly.co.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www. audio. http://www.htm Bernard D&G .lersus. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.e2train. . DVD-video. http://presentation. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. Do Not Reproduce 61 .ht m Brainshark Inc.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop . http://www.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming.Composica Enterprise .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. http://www. or Macromedia Flash media presentations. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. hotspots.com/product s/Pro.com/ Counterpoint .Content Point .copycatsoftware.brainshark.turbodemo.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. http://www.com/ Business Performance Technology . pop-up messages. http://www. and animation.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.com/power point-presentations-index. rich text.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. video.bridge-pt.digitalworkshop. http://www.shtml Dynamic Media . buttons.co. Builds quizzes. stand alone .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.atlanticlink.exe files. http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .uk/contentpoint. Integrates various media.dynamicpowertrainer.com/inde x.ilessons. http://www.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.

Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.com/products/forceten.eedo. in the end.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.gen21.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation .Development Kits – Create Flash courses.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. Import rich media and customize graphics.eclipsys.sculptoris.horizonwimba.com/Solutions/Elear ning. and installation files. and.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www. http://www. http://www. 62 © 2006. http://www. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. http://www.elicitus.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . http://www. http://www.com Element K .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.elementk.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. html E-Learning Consulting .com/index. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . http://www. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. http://www. without programming knowledge.com Imaira Digital Media . Brandon Hall Research . http://www.hunterstone. http://www.com/ka.com No authoring tool does everything.com/ Hunter Stone . graphics. HTML courses.e-learningconsulting.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.epistema.experiencebuilders. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. Post the characters on any Web site.

and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www. centralized knowledge base. http://www. Built-in testing engine.intecllc. with no programming and no plugins.com/home/home.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons. combining multimedia content like video.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .knowledgequest.co. and animations with tests and interactivity.ie/software/publisher. Do Not Reproduce 63 .ipsinc.elearninginabox.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. http://www.EasyProf . http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG .com/ KnowledgeXtensions . http://www.knowledgeplanet.WTDS-Web Training Development System . http://www. http://www.easyprof. Has its own built-in learning management system.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.com/ Information Transfer . audio.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. http://www.com/pro dserv. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.pdf Intuition .impatica.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. http://www. http://www.knowledgepresenter.js p Knowledge Planet .Used to create presentations without programming skills.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. Word.uk/ INTEC . from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.com/flashh ome.de/ Impatica .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.lecturnity.asp Knowledge Quest . shtml Itaca .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.seminar.knowledgextensions.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.intuition.

Ready-made button and navigation aids. http://www.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .mohive.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. and other online presentations for play back to students.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. PowerPoint slides. with a built-in learning management system. graphics.co.ph p MindOnSite .percepsys. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.learn. Works with SAP Learning Solution.com/index. http://www. http://www.com/coursegen. . http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.com/tbt/dac/index.maxit.LEARNERLand – Text.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. course publisher. http://www. http://www. and course player all in one software package.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.mindiq. http://www.mckinnonmulherin.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. 64 © 2006.maxit.com/ Percepsys .mindonsite. http://www.customcourse.uk/ MindIQ .com/ OPTX International .ch/eLearning/EN /index.com . http://www.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.instant-demo.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.htm MediaMaker .com/ NetPlay Software .screenwatch.com/learncenter.Authoring Tools Learn.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.learnerland.com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.

http://www. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.sensalearning.respondus. customizable flashcards.In minutes.shtml Reusable Objects . image labeling. Courses can be posted. crosswords. popups.reusableobjects.com/Products/elear ning_objects.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems.com/ Qarbon . http://www.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.net ReadyGo . and assessments. When content is developed.teknical. Audio. http://www.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia . Microsoft PowerPoint.pointecast.scribestudio.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. http://www.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. http://www. http://www. http://nuvvo. GIFs. http://www.com/ Scribe Studio . and Flash. http://www. http://www.Nuvvo .htm Suddenly Smart .com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.qarbon. http://www. a customizable.or SCORMcompliant.cfm Serco (technical) . Do Not Reproduce 65 . turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.com/products/stud ymate.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.net/ PointeCast . password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.podia. without knowing code.suddenlysmart.com Respondus .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.com/ Savvica .ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.readygo.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. http://www. matching games.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.Publisher Professional .softchalk.rapidintake.com Rapid Intake . image hotspot activities. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.com/common/a ffiliateRefer. interactive Flash presentations and online training.podiaOnDemand . JPEGs.E-Learning Objects .com/sensasol ution.

Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.com/camtasia.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author .Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.asp TrainVision .Authoring Tools SumTotal .Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.westcliffdata.funeducation.techsmith.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.2conformant objects and assessments. or Spanish.uk/index.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.com/products/lc. http://www.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. http://www.com/learn_assistant . video. and highly interactive e-learning content. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. and text.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.com/product_sa.com/Technology.trainvision.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.com/learn_assistant .ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. content conversion.toolbook.dol.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.com/ US Government . htm Techsmith . French.com/services/webpresentation-svc.co. http://www. templates. http://www. audio. CD.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8. or Network. http://www.php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.webex. http://www. and rapid simulation. http://www. http://www.php?from=menu SumTotal .teds. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .gov/ Webex . kiosks.php?from=menu SyberWorks . and wizards.time4you.Presentation Studio . http://workforceconnections. http://www.asp TEDS .lectora.toolbook. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.syberworks.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start. 66 © 2006.htm time4you GmbH . Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. images. http://www.

www.pdf Murray. Vancouver. Evanston.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. and host online discussions. Northwestern University. October 24-28. E. and Pahl..oswego. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. BC.tue. (2003). McMullen.cs. C. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. C.. (2005). Montreal. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. June 2005. P.pdf Ramp.htm Zapatec . (2005). Healthcare. Berlin: Springer. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. right in their browser with no additional software required.brandonhall. L. interactive and intelligent educational software. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA).ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. and Brusilovsky. De Bra. http://www. Illinois. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. http://www.xplana. Melia.bloki. (2005). T.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.com/downloa d_rb40eval. http://www. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Do Not Reproduce 67 .nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. 2005. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. publish blogs. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). See: http://www.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.org/index.amazon... Blessing. S. Canada.com/products/products _xwb. D.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. Lin (2005).com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.oswego. http://www.win. S. P.editlib.xstreamsoftware. and Ainsworth. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.cs. www. http://www. E. M. AACE.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana . and Riesbeck. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. Government.

pitt. Eindhoven. http://www2. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. The myth about tools. (2005). http://www.brandonhall. Learning Circuits. Technical Univ.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.. Sunnyvale.learningcircuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Masters Thesis.sis. 2004.learningcircuits.Authoring Tools Ramp.htm Tozman. E.edu/~paws/publicatio ns. A. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Reuben (2005).htm Tozman.htm Woodill. http://www. June 2005. Brandon Hall Research . Reuben (2004). Gary (2005). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Learning Circuits. NL.com/publications/emerging/emerging. shtml 68 © 2006. Nov. http://www. W.

is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.” Maldonado et al. and generally simulates human activity. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. Similarly. Do Not Reproduce 69 . games. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. In some situations. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. but in e-learning. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. especially in gamebased learning activities. in the broadest sense. the avatar may represent an actual human being. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. for example. In the area of psychotherapy. In the context of elearning.

http://www.typepad. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. 70 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .co. http://www.exodus.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.daden.html Online Resources In Europe. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. in cooperation with a number of groups.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. users are represent-ed as avatars. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.oddcast.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. http://blogoehlert.co.vcom3d.sculptoris.” which are avatars that teach. In the toolkit.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www. http://www. http://www. Inc.codebaby. Try them at: http://www. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. modular application.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio.tmmy.knowledgeenvironments.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.telsim.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.redwoodelearning. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. offering a large number of supportive functions. http://www.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. See them in action at: http://www. See: http://www. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.

. Suthers.. and Morishima.. 2003. R. C.elearningguild. Lee..naccq. In T. (2005).. M.. A. S. New Zealand. C.pdf Seth.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. K. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. (2004). We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.stanford. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Y. B. and T. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Nakajima. Yamada. www. Nexus Media. Nass.pdf Jung.pdf Maldonado. (2005). and Weber. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.. H. D.. and Nodder.W. Ahad. H. 25.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. Chan (Eds. Koschmann. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado. 2005. www. Iwamura.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.. http://www.ac. Brave. Aug. Raj (2003).pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 .Training Education & Education International Conference. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . http://isnm. J. S.

Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Brandon Hall Research . thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. if any. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. or they can be open to the general public. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.” The Catalyst Group. education. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. 72 © 2006. Clyde adds. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. Nevertheless. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are used for marketing. video blogging. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. who wrote. Similarly.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan.” As well. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. For teachers. as the following examples show. in a note of caution. Blogs are used for communication. A form of online publishing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. However. screencasting. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Few. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments.

Do Not Reproduce 73 .com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.g.2megapixel blogging phone.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network.ca/gems/matrix2 . other than simple word searching. if they have subscribed to the blog. President of an instructional design firm.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. see: http://structuredblogging.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.org/ http://carapace.sonyericsson. Find it at: http://www. It’s found at: http://www. http://www. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.html http://radio.com/spg.edtechpost. Canada. elearnspace. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997).blogburst. an applications company.com/ Jenna Sweeny.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. When someone the user knows arrives.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. In this approach.weblogs.us/archives/026 753. http://www.com/wordpress/ http://informl. http://www. with a wide range of writing styles. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. For more information. is a great resource.wavemarket.weblogs. Most blog writing is unstructured.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. movie reviews look different than recipes. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket.cramersweeney. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. His blog.elearnspace. http://www.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg. http://www.internettime.

essdack. In March 2006.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies.com/index.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.71.pdf 74 © 2006. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919. http://www.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. Teresa A. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib. a librarian. Brandon Hall Research . These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.blogcatalog.com.google.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Get the guide at: http://www.anecdote.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.elearningcentre. http://www.co.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog. http://blogpulse. including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog.blogspot. there were 891 educational blogs listed. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress.postgenomic. check out this site: http://www3.48.metaxucafe.mkbergman.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs. View them at: http://video.pewinternet. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.org/socialstudies/ blogs. “blogs are cool. http://www.

http://www. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia.lo w. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia. AI3 White Paper. Luigi (2005).org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.educause. Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter.12. Blogs: a global conversation.htm#feature Coursey.pdf Clyde. EduBlog Insights. 39(5). A. Syracuse. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise.htm Catalyst Group (2005). Syracuse University. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.pdf A form of online publishing.com/news/sho wStoryts.ca/cgibin/page.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450.mkbergman.downes. New York.teachesme. David (2005).eweek. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example.everyhuman. Panelists: blogs are changing education. Educational Blogging. Michael (2005). 5. 14-26.00.asp Davis. or they can be open to the general public. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes. http://www.waypath. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community.fasfind. No.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes.com. http://www. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. Robin Good Blog. EDUCAUSE Review. and Fox. http://www. Laurel (2005). 2006. go to: http://m. 29. July 11.catalystgroupdesign. Ways to use Weblogs in education. Anne (2004). http://www.com/issues/130105 .com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. 2006. http://www.174. www.freepint.asp Lenhart. http://anne2. http://www. 2005. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. July 19.pewinternet.com/article2/0. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.1895.pdf Pierce. Oct.com/work/theses8. Master’s Thesis. September 2005. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Luigi (2004). http://www.eschoolnews. Do Not Reproduce 75 . (2006). James (2005). S.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. March 24.com/wwwtools/m/10171. Dennis (2006). January 13. eSchool News Online. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.htm Canali De Rossi. 1837604. July 14. eWeek.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006.pdf Canali De Rossi. September/October.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. Stephen (2004).com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. Sept.com Bibliography Bergman. May 16. http://www. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.

com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. and “themes. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. the defeat of the Netscape browser.mozilla.mozilla. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. (http://www.mozilla.activeworlds. For example. Flock was launched in October 2005. Webtops Description For many.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. 76 © 2006. bookmarking. Netscape. while Opera.omnigroup.flock. Like all technology innovation curves.opera. where many applications interact with each other automatically.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. a browser that has been around for a long time.com/firefox/). This is especially true for business-to-business commerce.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox).” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. and photo sharing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. (http://www. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. http://www. http://www. thin clients. search engines. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. has a small following. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. they may not be necessary as navigational devices.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. which owned the rights to Netscape. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. or at least their influence is decreasing. 2001). Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. blogs. http://www. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. http://www. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. America Online. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons. Brandon Hall Research . What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Internet Explorer.

http://www. Adam (2004). Network World.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi.typepad.com.39218173.wikipedia. Opera Browser.com/desi gn/browsers_list.2000061733.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. Renai (2005). across several articles.wikipedia. (2002). 29. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’.washingtonpost.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006. W. WashingtonPost. http://www. Malik.html http://blogoehlert.html Engst. 2004.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.pdf LeMay. Brandon Hall Research . 2006. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2. Oct. CO. 21.com.php3 Bibliography Cox. ZDNet Australia. 2005.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton. TidBits. Boulder. http://www.evolt. E. 742. and Horton.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. called “Webtops.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.00.0: The Powerful Web Browser.tidbits. 2002. Aug. O. K. 2001. http://www.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. Michael (2006). http://www. John (2001).wikipedia.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. William Horton Consulting. July 30. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0.com. http://db.bestdegree.com/getbits.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.cnn. 16.networkworld. CNN Money.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o. and Copeland.zdnet. Still Perfecting its Pitch.0.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. Jan. No.typepad.. http://money.webdevelopersnotes. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en. OmniWeb 5. May 16.

Brandon Hall Research . giving almost instant feedback. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. classroom communication systems. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. costs can be an issue. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. or clickers. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. clickers. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. display. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. 78 © 2006. increasing their motivation to learn. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. integrated with other types of learning technologies. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. The devices keep students alert and involved. Beatty. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. The use of clickers has several advantages. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. However. management. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. 2006.

allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.h-itt. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.” In spite of the costs.gtcocalcomp.com/Default.qwizdom. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom.optiontechnologies.umass. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. training the faculty member to use the software. http://www.com/products_int erwrite.pearsonncs.physics.com/index.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. and military settings. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.pearsoned.einstruction.com/index.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12.com/audi ence-response-systems/index. http://www. http://www. http://www.” http://www.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. corporate.com.com/cps/index. http://www. http://www. the costs and headaches multiply. Do Not Reproduce 79 . higher education.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook. http://umperg.learnstar. http://www.smartroom.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs.

Tom (2004).cua.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns.pdf Mazur. Ian (2004).utexas.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Melbourne. http://inside.utexas.active-learning-site. Brandon Hall Research . 2006. including material on the use of classroom response systems. integrated with other types of learning technologies. and Lederman. http://www. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty. http://www. http://www. ELearning Dialogue.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. Research Bulletin. (2003). http://www. Anne (2006). NJ: Prentice Hall.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. Eric (1997). Q. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.amazon.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Upper Saddle River. 3.ubc.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002.jmu.elearning.educause. Inside CUA.edu. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Educause Learning Initiative. 41(5). The Physics Teacher.campustechnology.cisat.aclearn. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.pdf Cassidy. No. R. 2004. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. 272-275.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).edu/articleprinter1. July 7. https://sharepoint.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.net/display. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. March 3.pdf Burnstein.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. http://www. 3.com/news_issue.itee. Volume 2004. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. Australia.uq. 80 © 2006.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. http://www. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. Feb.

This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. many respond.g. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. and consensus building.. e.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. evaluation. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. through brainstorming). clarification. it requires skill and experience. doing. reduction. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. and collaborating.. Do Not Reproduce 81 . The Institute for the Future. organization. social bookmarking.g..g.

Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.inteam.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. and information technology adoption.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .backpackit.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. with templates and workflows for product development.com/virtualoffice/index. intellectual property management.com/product s/index.bantu. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.com/ Blenks – In-team .com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . 82 © 2006. http://www. http://www.w3. jot down notes.avecomm. and instant messaging.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. http://www.bluetie.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. collaborative file management.teamspace. http://www. calendar.com/services/faq_basi cs.advancedreality. contacts.brightidea. Brandon Hall Research . and bookmarks. http://www. http://www.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. voice and data collaboration.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). and upload photos. collaborate. share files.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .com There are many different ways to collaborate. http://www. and communication.html?ad-main Annotea . http://www.zoho. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. http://www. Presence (see who’s online). http://www. organize. expert location.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Collaboration Tools

Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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documents.Instant setup. discussions.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. newsgroup server. http://www.projectdox. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. assign tasks. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www.yahoo. expertise. calendars.Processes email. set user permissions.tomoye. and share documents. or use it to build a Web application.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. http://www.writely.nexprise.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.webcrossing. feedback. e-mail server. and business relationships.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator .com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 .com/project. http://www. Use it out of the box.25.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . chat server. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. simple.Intuitive project management software for work teams.com/ onProject – myonProject .webasyst. and data into a single storage area. project. http://www.opmcreator. affordable.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. Works with Microsoft Project. connects peers. Share multiple projects with multiple users.brevient. online management for projects of any size and scope.com/company/news/pres s/2005. and other business communications.axista. FTP server. scaleable.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. interact. http://groups. http://www.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. and share.tacit. files. and e-mails. XML-RPC server. and more.onproject.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. http://www.04.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. stimulates idea generation.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .

http://www. http://www. http://www. and communicate with their project teams. print icon. and text chat. private whiteboards for each participant. http://www. and collaboration to timesheet management. project planning.com Nagarro .Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. scheduling solutions. content. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. Brandon Hall Research . and asynchronous group meetings http://care.teamdynamix." virtual collaboration. whiteboard pages. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. content button. http://www. attendee list.com/ HP .com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . navigation.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. applaud and meter. data.nagarro. breakout rooms.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting .0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. http://www. form to submit questions.photoninfotech.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. shared desktop.com/index. URL sharing. Access to the tool is also given to clients. exit and help. video. custom stamps.hp.peoplecube.Projistics .caucus.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.saba.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. shared whiteboard and presentation. and payments.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. invoicing. and save to disk icon.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products. review button.0 .Web event calendaring.HP Virtual Classroom . http://www. identify and resolve potential problems.Features include Hands up. and human performance management applications. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. annotation tools.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . integrated content management system. private/group chat.project-open. project tracking.elluminate. and Web pages. visual. http://education.

http://www. and Webconferencing specialists. how often. video. online classes. http://www. meeting management.Delivers unlimited voice.horizonwimba. http://www.intralinks. guest lectures.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . http://www.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . learning. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. sales presentations.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. http://www. virtual office hours. http://www.adobe. session reports. application sharing.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . and videoconferencing. instant messaging.com/ Intralinks . and content display. Web. and meetings.batipi.elluminate.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. http://www. Allows holding live.communiqueconferencing. and by whom. and phone use. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .com /internet_conferencing. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.glance. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. Webcasts. video. For example.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.net/site/getglance/ex amples.mixmeeting.0 . and more. synchronous online lectures.genesys.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. http://www. and collaboration features. http://www. http://www. office hours. http://www.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. and Web conferencing with WebEx.convenos. and collaborative content-building sessions. e-mail invites.interwise.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Record classes or Webcasts. Features include shared documents.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.A secure.Synchronous Webconferencing software.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.

Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.liveoffice. Brandon Hall Research . attendee lists.Web and audio conferencing services.com/ Linktivity Division. and real-time videoconferencing. annotations. and a change presenter ability. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. and desktop videoconferencing services. notes. the Internet. hand raising. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/bridgepoint. teleconferencing. http://www. http://www.linktivity. http://www. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.To support large deployments. e-learning classrooms.asp 92 © 2006. http://www.LiveOffice provides Web-based. pre-recorded broadcasts. audio. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.asp Meeting One – Click&Share. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. http://www. any application. online seminars. instant messaging.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . and into the enterprise. keyboard and voice chat. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.meetingone.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. transparency tools. Multilingual. http://www. http://www. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.com/rndc/services /services.raindance.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .netspoke. remote control. or an entire desktop.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. polling and quizzes. broadcasts files. live demos. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. desktop sharing.ivocalize.com/website2/even ts_imc. toll-free conference calling. record and playback.telnetz. including Web conferencing.com/action.Collaboration Tools iVocalize .radvision.

Powers online meetings. http://www.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. surveys. send text messages. e-learning. set up labs and conduct quizzes. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. The suite manages the creation. Requires only a browser and a phone.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .ctcevents. and document collaboration. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. Webinars.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. Solutions include Web meetings.webtrain.vodium.cudenver.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. http://www. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities.com/home/s_vmps. http://carbon. http://www.voxwire. teleconferencing.collabtech. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). http://www. or meeting.wave3software. Web conferencing. present PowerPoint slideshows. Japan on July 13-14.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. conference calling. editing.webex.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. text messaging.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . course. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. http://www. show rich multimedia content and documents. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.edufolio. and moderation of Webcasts. share other applications. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. discussion forums.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . remote support.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. publishing. tour Web sites. http://www.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . 2006. and system management.

http://cde. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. Sign up for free at: http://www. http://www.com/groupware/ index.1:100250. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. http://www.1 Bibliography Alexander.com/View. also has a great list of collaboration tools.educause. scientific.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.globalschoolnet.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.org/index.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.thinkofit. http://www. communities. http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://collaboration.mitre.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. also known as “groupware.athabascau.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.writely.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.springerlink. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.collaborationloop. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 41(2).kolabora.org/collab/in dex. Web 2. http://www. March/April 2006.” http://www.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.criticalmethods.usabilityfirst.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006.htm Mitre Corporation.com/webconf/works paces. http://www.org/tools. Bryan (2006).edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.

Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Potter. http://www.. January 21.N. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. http://www.. http://www. Findlay. Collaborative Strategies.masternewmedia. Luigi (2005).collaborate.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Robin Good Blog.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. CMS Watch. Luigi (2003b). http://www. Live ELearning. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia.. D. J. Brazil. K. Luigi (2003a). (2004). Nov.. Creating an eCommunity.pdf Bonk.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.ac.htm Canali De Rossi.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise.clomedia.htm Canali De Rossi. A. http://www. and Tate. Q2Learning White Paper. Robin Good Blog. Robin Good Blog.com/Feature/109 Elliot.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Curtis (2002). Nov. http://www.. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Bill (2004). Sept. 2003. 2003. Eisenstadt.soton. Shadbolt.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.uk/12081/ Beshears. J. and Forster. J. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. A.. http://www.masternewmedia.cfm/files/pa per_12386. http://www. 2002.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. 4. June 5.ecs. Luigi (2004b). D.. http://www. Collaboration First. June 22. June 30. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck.bruck. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Komzak. ChenBurger. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. http://eprints. Robin Good Blog. Page.masternewmedia. M. J. Buckingham Shum. May 2. A.. 2565-2569.masternewmedia.org/index. (2003). Fitzgerald..editlib.html Canali De Rossi. (2004).htm# Clapp. Then Knowledge Management. Proceedings.. Fred (2002). N.cmswatch. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. http://www. De Roure. 3. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). R. 2002. 2004. D.. Models of collaboration. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. S. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. Matthew (2004).com/writings. S.htm Butler. Michaelides. and Coleman.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Chief Learning Officer.diglib.. Maceió. M.htm Canali De Rossi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. Dalton. T. September. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Luigi (2004a).

(2002).cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. J.html Hurst.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. R. and Miller. http://www. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. I. Innovation and Development. August 2002. Carlsen. D. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Palo Alto. & Weber.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Callan.. Norwell. G.au/include/getdoc. (Eds. http://www. R.. Learning Circuits.) (2004). (2004).) (2003). 24. Soren (2002). MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1(2). CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.org/index. (Eds. K. J... A.cqu.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.editlib. (2002).amazon. 5(1).pdf Kaplan. University of Athabasca... Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Aavani. J. Technologies of Cooperation.ca/online_book/c h8.. J. Chesapeake. 5(1). Studies in Learning. C. K. Bjorn (Ed. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.edu. D. e-Book. Kirschner.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. A.athabascau. Educational Technology & Society.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. D.).. Gibson. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Evaluation. http://www.amazon. Kirschner.pdf Strijbos. and Martens. http://wscg.Collaboration Tools Elliott.ieee. Institute for the Future White Paper. (2002). 827-829). and Sharifi. Brandon Hall Research . (2005).com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Price.zcu. http://sleid. R. J.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan.html Kreijns. Educational Technology & Society.html Institute for the Future (2005). London: Springer-Verlag. and Jochems. M. January 2005.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation. (2004).. K. CA. In Crawford. http://www.. P.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. P... Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. VA: AACE. & Purnell.learningcircuits.rheingold. http://www. J. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. W. Nov. http://ifets. http://cde. and Thomas.html Munkvold. http://ifets. McFerrin. Willis.ieee.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.

(2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. whiteboards. Hegarty et al. VoIP.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. http://www. discussion groups. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. It is being developed into a transportable. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. Do Not Reproduce 97 . including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. and yet tailored and flexible. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.janison. instant messaging.jisc. messaging.ac. discussion forums.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. labs. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.uk/deletacademictalk. a process referred to as “text mentoring. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. UK. re-usable. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire.com. html The Learning Place in Queensland. For Laurillard. telephony. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.au/eq/default.” http://goldenswamp. blogs. For example.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. telepresence. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. chat. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.

Find her work at: http://64. and Bortolozzi. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. http://www. F.co. (2004).php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.com/wwwtools/m/2645.. and Cerri.elearningcentre.com/webconf/hostsi tes.editlib. International Journal on E-Learning.htm 98 © 2006. and telephony tools. http://www.elearningcentre.co.ngfl.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. 13-20.org/ Online Resources Teresa A.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. http://m. University of Warwick. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. http://www.warwick.fasfind.elearningcentre.editlib. http://www. J. (2005).co.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.71. 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. chat.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. Komzak.conversate. http://ewic.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.org/index. CAP e-Guide.google. M.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6.pdf Eleuterio.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at. M. including communications tools.htm http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. JulySept.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. http://www2. Brandon Hall Research .thinkofit. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.48.org/index. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. Computer Mediated Communication.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook. Mark (2004). Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. developed in Brazil. http://www. S.gov.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.uk/schools/docum ent.ac.bcs. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. http://safety.

Diana (1993). and Wales.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. and Briggs. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. E-Learning 1.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool. 2005 http://www. June.jisc. A. 2002. http://cde. e-Book. (Mlearn 2002). 2002. VoIP. D. Sven (2002). S. 31 (3).) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. 199-212. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. CharityVillage. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. 20-21. I.edu/item.. J. J. http://dircweb. and Elliott. London: Routledge. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. 2002. Working Knowledge Newsletter.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. September 23. and Collins.athabascau. (2004). whiteboards. http://www. (2002). Technologies of Online Learning. James (2005).ca/online_book/c h5. (2000).. Nick (2002).com Library. M. Aug. Bostock. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. British Journal of Educational Technology. Pattie (2005).king.amazon.com/cv/research /rmed35. 19. http://www.html Morgan. R. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Hegarty. Francis.pdf Kadirire. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.pdf LaCroix.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 31.formatex.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. J.ac. Learning Circuits. discussion forums. June.charityvillage.ac. Jan.learningcircuits.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. distance-learning course at Keele University. UK. http://hbswk. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.hbs.org/micte2005/4. (2002).uk/papers/Stone_ A. http://www. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. University of Birmingham.html Laurillard.html Laurik. University of Athabasca. chat. J.” Do Not Reproduce 99 . 20-21.

Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. W. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001).imsproject. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. see below) and performance or talent management systems.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. Edwards Deming. skills. organizational and personal goals are tied together. skills verification. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.” it started in 1950 with Dr. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. In 1973. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. David McClelland. competency-based training. performance appraisal.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs.org/competencies /index. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. 2005). The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. 2000). a Harvard psychologist. 100 © 2006. skills inventory. entering defined competencies into a matrix. Brandon Hall Research . The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended.

org.. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. diagnose symptoms. For a large list of competencies for physicians. For example.ncrel.com/article16.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.desire2learn. measurement. http://www.htm Many companies have their own competency models.edu/paprog/clin_events . Read their white paper at: http://www.learnflex. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. go to: www. and development interventions. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies.cpgvision. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.html The U.learningcircuits. Do Not Reproduce 101 .com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. http://www.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. See the list of competencies at: http://www.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.wmich.S. https://launchpad.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.itsc. objectives.ibm.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. and carry out proper procedures.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. activities.

htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. Competency and competency frameworks. 2005. Express Computer. and Neathy.php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. New York: AMACOM.amazon. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (1982). London: IDS. New York: David McKay.com/ 20050425/technologylife01. Ken (2000). pp.syberworks. F. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. regardless of industry or sector. http://www. (1973).Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www.amazon.ca/index. http://www.” http://www. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. (2001). Brandon Hall Research . Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.cipd. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom.oracle.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. N. http://www. http://www. Study 706.hrsg.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. Competency Frameworks.co. London: Wiley.28. Building a skills inventory.shtml Hogg.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning.E..clomedia. David.amazon.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Chief Learning Officer. April. Josh (2006). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (2001). The competent manager: a model for effective performance. v. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. L. April 25.amazon.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. R.com/skillsman.co.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.cipd. a Canadian company.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. American Psychologist. http://www. 1-14. Clare (2005).htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. 102 © 2006. Sudipta (2005). Benjamin (1956).ht m Online Resources HRSG. Rankin.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.expresscomputeronline. http://www. http://www. http://www. Miller.

(2005).amazon.operitel.blogspot. White paper. http://www. http://www. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867.html Sternberg. (2004). E. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. Rankin. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. G.com Woodill. Gary (2004). and Hollyforde.amazon. P. N.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. Learning Circuits. http://www. Competencies. http://www. 2005. Johanna.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . 2nd ed. Master's thesis.html Radsma.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.learningcircuits. S. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. and Cahorn. http://www.1/features/e wette. (2003).amazon.com/2.p df Rankin. London: IRS.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. http://parkinslot.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. (1999). April 30. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. Parkin’s Lot. Operitel Corporation. and Grigorenko.) (2003). (2001). March 2001. S. and Expertise. (Eds. P. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. University of Toronto. http://www. R. and Epstein. Sanders. Creating a Culture of Competence. Fall 2000. E-Learning Competencies.operitel.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. http://www.htm Whiddett. Ellen (2000).linezine. Michael. (2000). The Psychology of Abilities. UK: Cambridge University Press.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm. White paper from Operitel Corporation. http://www. Godfrey (2005). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Competency based learning management. London: IRS. New York: John Wiley. Cambridge.collectionscanada. Ethan (2001). N. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™.

manage. 2006). such as registering users. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. and “topic maps. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. in fact. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. LCMS. First. Today. displaying a course catalogue. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. the standardized railway system still works while private. and reporting. Repositories. I feel that closed. With the advent of learning objects.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. launching courses. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). If you could afford it. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. manage. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. you could hire a company to build a private. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop.” As well. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Do Not Reproduce 104 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Learning objects.

blogspot. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. rather than complementary.co. functionality to an ECM. http://www. Curtis (2005). Chief Learning Officer Magazine.cisco.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.atutor. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. reuse in many places. http://sakaiproject. San Jose. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.html Cisco Corp.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.topicmaps. http://www. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. Strategies for managing scalable content. March 2005.clomedia.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. and publish to multiple outputs. 18.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.uk Bibliography Bonk. According to its official Web site. http://travelinedman.pdf Cohen.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper. They have designed competitive.” http://drupal.” Web services and “topic maps. http://www.cmsmatrix. Cisco Corporation White Paper.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. http://www. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately. 2005. Ed. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. (2004). They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.e-learningcentre. http://plone.topicmap. TravelinEdMan blog.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.author-it. Dec. (2005).org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.” Do Not Reproduce 105 .asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. http://www.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.com http://www. http://www.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. to date.

Educause Review. http://www. (2003). May/June.htm Simon. January 23. S. PA: Idea Group.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms. http://www. elearnspace blog. (2006). http://www. http://www. 2003. McGovern. and Brantner. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.gerrymcgovern. March 3. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy.softlab.ca/mt/archive/00 0689. 2003.pdf Weigel. Learning Solutions. EdTechPost blog. 40(3).. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. June 9. “Monoliths.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster. New Thinking Blog. Budapest. A. Mashups. G.. P. Retalis. Gerry (2003). C. Content Management: our organized future. Van (2005). (Eds.html McGee.elearnspace.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. S. and Oliveira. B. Jafari.com/publications.educause.htm Siemens. http://www.asp Woodill. Hershey.edtechpost.operitel. Why content management software hasn’t worked. George (2003). 2003. http://www. and Carmean. Scott (2005). 2006.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. C. 2005. May 15.ntua. 2005.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 .) (2005).

2000.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. 2001). Luan and Willett. delivery models and infrastructure investment. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. knowledge discovery. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Do Not Reproduce 107 . more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. As data mining tools and techniques evolve.

http://www. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. http://imej. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.soul.wfu.uwaterloo. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.reeltwo. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. http://www. http://www. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.hkuspace. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. Do Not Reproduce 108 .icosystem. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. by applying fuzzy logic. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. http://pami.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.com/index. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.

Grigoriev. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. School Business Affairs. S. http://www.cs.. M Fayyad. 2006.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. Data Mining in e-Learning. Innsbruck. text mining.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. P. What’s Not. Porto. New York: Springer.html Hammouda.pdf Fayyad. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf Loo. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Smyth.. Piatetsky.kent. (cited in Luan and Willett. Data Mining: What’s New. 68(8). Thalheim. U. Lange. http://pami.. and Cheung. P. B. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. 1--34. and Web mining. Samuel (Ed. New York: Springer.edu. In Proceedings. and Kamel. 13-16 http://asbointl. and Tschiedel. http://www.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. edited U.cs. 238-241. Learning by doing and learning when doing . Feb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Both products are from Convera. Portugal. http://www. G. Uthurusamy. Long Beach. 1316. Piatetsky-Shapiro.kdnuggets..2004. and R. 2001) http://www. http://www. B. (2006).convera. Feb.pdf Jantke. Australia. B. http://www. pp.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. In Pierre. Austria.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.kdnuggets.ac.uwaterloo. California. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.com/PaperInfo..pdf Iskander. (1996). P. Grieser. AAAI Press/MIT Press.actapress. knowledge discovery.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 .com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. (2006). Robert (2002)..pdf Freitas. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. K.is. G.informatik. M.unikiel.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.html Bibliography De Veaux. 1996. K. K. and Smyth.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages. Alex (2002). G. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. http://www. (2000). (2004). Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. R.usyd.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.amstatonline.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.

pdf Merceron. http://csdl2. http://wwwjime. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. T.unisb. C. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. A. J. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).pdf Pahl. and K. Data Mining in e-Learning. NYC. Advances in Management Information. 41-54. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. C.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef.ejel. 15(4). Oliveira. 7(1). Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.ags.pdf Merceron. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). Yacef (2004).pdf Monk. (2004).pdf McCalla. Scholl.open.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. Claus (2004).ccsd.asp Merceron. Yacef (2005).-Dec.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. Hiroshima. http://www. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. (2004). 39-40. M. (2004). http://www2004. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. store. C. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. and Minguillon.cnrs. S. E. 319-346.aace. and Ullrich. RP Conference Presentation. analyze for more adaptive teaching. A.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. 3(4). Vol 4. http://archiveedutice.computer. 52-59.editlib.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. J. Train. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www.org/index.org/16915 Romero.ac. 2004 (7).. http://www.wfu. Gord (2004). K.compmech. A. David (2005). Journal of Interactive Media in Education.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Oct. May 17-22. A. Electronic Journal of e-Learning.. 47-55. Brandon Hall Research . Billerica. Maomi (2004). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). and Willett.pdf 110 © 2006.com/acatalog/18 45641523. http://imej. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. (2006). and Yacef. Japan. and Ventura.Data Mining Luan. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.html Ueno.cabrillo. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. http://dl. 3(1).. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. http://www. MA: WIT Press. (2001).pdf Mor. and K. http://www.

edu. 3) vote/prioritize.decisionarium.une.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. For example. 2) categorize. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. 5) carry out a survey. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. http://www.com/ Facilitate. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. http://www.bnhexpertsoft. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.facilitate. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. in their case study of medical education. 4) develop an action plan. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). and 6) document results.tkk.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. Do Not Reproduce 111 .

Clinical and Investigative Medicine. http://www. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Raimo (2003). http://www. 12(2-3).com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.pdf Ehtamo.com/index.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. For newsletters.. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Brandon Hall Research . and Frasson.Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.hut.” http://dmoz. http://www.edu.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.meetingworks. http://science. books.hut.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril.html Hamalainen.pdf Frize. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.sal.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.uniserve. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. White paper from BNH Expert Software. and information on this area. (2004). http://www. http://www. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. and Koskinen. Kankana (2005). An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. V.bnhexpertsoft. M. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.sal. (2000).net/index. http://www. http://www. C. H.uottawa.site. Hamalainen.p df Chakrabarty. Jay (2004). Online manuscript.sal. 112 © 2006.hut. see: http://www.dssresources. 101-110.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.utoronto.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. August. R. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. 23(4).whichbook.

asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 .com/books/details. B. 9.siggraph. (2004). Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Rostanin. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. CAL-laborate. B.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. In Proceedings. Portugal. Theresa (1998). http://damit.html Rhyne.. Aachen. Grieser. Jan. 2004. 2005.mc.com/PaperInfo. Hawaii.html Shimizu.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. SIGGRAPH publication.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. Learning by doing and learning when doing . http://www. P. B.ac. Jim (2002). Gerhard (2003). de Carvaho. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. Vol.. Oct. (2006).au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. http://dssresources.com/history/dsshist ory. and Laurindo.is. and Tschiedel. Hawaii. T. http://www. http://www.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.pdf Ounapuu. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Hershey.actapress. B..ideagroup. August 16-18. Porto. 6-9.pdf Jantke. Memmel. Germany.unikiel. Thalheim. http://science. Lange.. Grigoriev.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. 238-241. http://www. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site..manchester. Enn (2004). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.html Scott.uniserve. M. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. Enn (2005). Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. (2003).dfki. June 20-24. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. S. http://www.. Information Systems for a Connected Society. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings.2004. and Tschiedel. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. Kauai.pdf Power. 2002. M..de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.hawaii. USA. K. F.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. http://www. G.edu. K.hicss. Manchester. Dan (2003). O.. Thalheim. PA: Idea Publishing. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf Knolmayer.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.informatik. 317-328.

uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. This can be a holographic image.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. electronic paper. Do Not Reproduce 114 . A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.” Selected Examples Samsung. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels.theregister. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. monitors. In the near future. big enough to be projected on large walls. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. projectors. digital paper. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. For air displays. http://www.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. Electronic paper could change that some day. in cooperation with Sony. In regards to digital paper. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. head mounted displays. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.co. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. By stacking a second projector. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.co. lighting up theater size screens. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video.theregister. Finally.

and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.com/about.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Inc. http://killer.io2technology.firstmonday.html Promera is a hand-held computer. http://thejournal.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. In 2005. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.edu/design/Camera.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. still/video camera. http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. intelligent interfaces. See a demo at: http://www.com/technology /overview NTERA.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies.siliconlight.ices. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. see: http://ad.unifreiburg.cmu.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.technorati.H.provisionentertainment. http://www.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.E. see: http://www.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.ntera.fogscreen. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. http://www. To access the articles.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T. Projector.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons. Do Not Reproduce 115 .informatik.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. For a list of his publications.

Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.acm.ac. W. http://blog. Oct. http://www. Richards (Ed. M. In G.informatik. 3.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Garrett. A. 2005. Tim (2005). E.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. http://ad.. Healthcare. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. London: Springer. and Pizer. Pisano. and Ottmann. State.jisc.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. H. Vancouver.. G. Government. Germany.com/timwang/index. 2005.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. Hamburg. M. http://portal.. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Canada. S.loaz..org/citation... Hirota. pages 3053-3068.unifreiburg. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.uk/index. (1996). and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). Livingston. Whitton.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Dec. T. Largest LCD and video projection. (2005).pdf Wang. K.). Brandon Hall Research .

http://www. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.paisley. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. http://www.iwebfolio. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.osportfolio.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios.pupilpages. maximum flexibility. 2005). This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. Do Not Reproduce 117 . reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.com/college/portfoli os.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www.foliotek.elearningcentre.co.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. My first report in this series.ac. http://www. and simple usability.com/products/e portfolio/default. http://www.chalkandwire. http://isle.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.pebblelearning. open source electronic portfolio.co. http://www. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. evaluation.htm Educause.livetext. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.educause. http://www.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www. http://www.angellearning.com/eportfolio/i ndex.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.uk/default.

Trent (2002).org/Articles/epor tfolios.pdf Batson. B.imsglobal.criticalmethods.ch/dyn/9.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper.educause. Brandon Hall Research . Graham (2005).pdf Conway. http://www2.campustechnology.cfm 118 © 2006.. an online resource on collaboration.educa. (2002).educause. March. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.org/collab/v. http://elgg. Frederick (2005).com/magazine/va ult/A5260. http://www.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. with many links. helping to transform education and training.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.amazon.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. http://www. http://connect. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. College of Education http://www. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.htm IMS. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.thejournal.elearnspace.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. FD Learning White Paper.becta. 2004 http://www.com/article. thus. Dec. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.asp?id=6984 Cohn. http://www. Vol 27 No 4. E. Educause Quarterly. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. J.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. http://www. (2004).org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0. Bob (2004).edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.org.ac. THE Journal Online. http://ferl. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. Online Paper. and Hibbitts. has a section on eportfolios. http://www.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.doc Banks. University of Iowa.nottingham. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.

Love. B.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. 2(2). G. & Figgins. Aalderink. (Focus on Teaching). informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Reflective learning. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. and Haywood.amazon. D. Feijen.educause. Dec. http://www. Fleming.pdf Lorenzo. T. 144-169. elearnspace. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.educause. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. 16. (2003)..A.htm Tosh. (2005). Fall. future thinking: digital repositories. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. J.pdf Greenberg. 2005.. Educause Review. (2002).ca/content/vol31.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. Lee. W. G. V. B. http://www..com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. 28–37. http://www.. and Ittelson. 31(3).. M. Educause Quarterly.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh.. Online paper. 39.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 .educause. S. K. George (2004)..alt.A. e-portfolios. research. ePortfolios.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1. An Overview of e-Portfolios. no. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. (2005). D. Cook. July/ August 2004.citejournal. Light.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. http://www.ac. and Wade. (2002).eradc. 4. Gary (2004). Online. Bryde. and portfolios. Harvey.elearnspace. (2004). http://www. G.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens... Dublin. and Werdmuller.. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. April 1. D.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224. J.3/tosh. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. P.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. M. C. and McKean. 37(2). Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. http://www.cjlt.org/papers/Learning_l andscape. J. (2005). J. vol. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Trinity College. J.. http://www. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. http://www... Business Communication Quarterly. html Young.

com/ http://www.facebook. http://www. Marc Prensky (2003).com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. Examples include Hive7.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. serious games. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. games.secondlife. simulations. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. and learning (Amory.myspace. 2003). play. 2005). Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. as such.com/ http://www. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.cyworld.hive7.” says that “in the mod world. Brandon Hall Research . 120 © 2006. For a brief review of these tools.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. and Second Life.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.com/ http://www.freescale. complex problem solving. from the University of Wisconsin. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. Try them out at: http://www. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. writing about “first person shooter games.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Constance Steinkuehler. Facebook. Cyworld.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. Dr. identity work. MySpace. see: http://news. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.com http://us. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.

http://www. Review them at: http://esub.com/solutions/gam es/default. There is a free 30-day trial version.com/ Thiagi. Started in North America. implementation.nasaga.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.mpjgaB KQdAe. produces educational games for training.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. allows members of a game development team to work together.siggraph. dubbed XNA Studio. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.com/ In 2005. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.com/news/548 http://www. edit. Do Not Reproduce 121 . Canada.clickteam. Inc. See the selection of games at: http://www. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. along with their Web sites.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools.com/xna/ Softimage.” http://www.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. http://www. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.org/?14@33. http://www. has game development tools for the Xbox.softimage.ucalgary. Many of their learning games resources are free.pluginz. You can read about them at Pluginz. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. http://www.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. This game allows users to play. create. http://www.magnetargames. For example. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. http://www.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.microsoft.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. helping speed up the game creation process. The toolset.thinkingworlds.muzzylane.

futureplay. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. Honolulu.gdconf. Hawaii.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.htm Dr.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.seriousgames.ac.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.pdf 122 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.coe.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. http://www. researchers.org/index2.education.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. http://www. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.digiplay.htm Dr. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.com/zo ne8/index.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.itc. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference.uk/index2.” Read her research at: http://website. June 25-28. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. http://www.seriousgamessummit. http://www.uga. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.programmersheaven.dk/people/sen/public. 2003. http://it.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. Alan (2003). http://www.ukzn.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. Sign up at: http://www.org.wisc.

2006. Xplanazine. Jan. 2003.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. S.pdf Guetl.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.itc. Xplanazine.php Reynolds. SRI-BI. Learning on Demand Bulletin. March 10.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Simon (2005).uwf. (2005). Technology Trends for the Year.com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. and Michael. Montreal. Bob (2005). http://www. Rob (2006b).marcprensky. 17-22. and Chen. S. Bryan (2006).edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.pd f Prensky. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. simulations and microworlds.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol.msu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron.amazon. Rob (2006a). C.pdf Reynolds. http://llt. Oct. 9(1).iicm. In Richard E. 549-567. http://www. and Maurer. 19. (2005). Emerging Technologies: Messaging. http://www. (2005). 2005. Clifton Park. June. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Dreher. Train. http://www. http://www. http://www. Gamasutra.xplanazine. H. Serious Games: Games That Educate. R. Gaming.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. D. http://www. Mayer (Ed. Williams.xplanazine.amazon. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Marc (2003). http://www. H. and Inform. see: http://www.pdf Michael.uwf. January 2.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. Lloyd (2005).pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.pdf Godwin-Jones.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt.cambridge. http://www.php Rieber. 2006. 2005. New York: Cambridge University Press. IT-University Copenhagen. Chapter 33.. Language Learning and Technology. D. Multimedia learning in games.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Fourth Quarter. Developing Serious Games.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 .

http://jason. and Swamy.. G. C. Gupta. Beers. Constance (2005).teachableagents..Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler. http://woz. Masters Thesis. Doctoral dissertation.pdf 124 © 2006. (2006). Clifton Park. 2004. and Biswas.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. R.commtechlab. Jason (2004). 2005. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.pdf Swamy. N. University of Wisconsin . Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. http://website.wisc. Brandon Hall Research .Madison.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. (2005). Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.msu. http://www. N.amazon. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure.p df Tye. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. J. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.education.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis. Michigan State University.

Maja Pantic of Imperial College.fg2006. looking for particular sequences.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. FG2008. was held in Southampton. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. artificial intelligence. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.com/~ccohen/gest ure. http://www. London.tudelft.html Research by Dr. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. haptics. affective computing. April 10-12 2006. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. at the University of California. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.ucsd.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. FG2006. including identifying commercial products. Do Not Reproduce 125 .” http://mplab. UK. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.ecs. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.cybernet. Artificial intelligence techniques.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. For a list of papers: http://www. 2008. and robotics in elearning. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. http://www.ac. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. such as Markov models.soton.fg2008.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.

IEEE Transactions. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.org/reports/Report -NR-03.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. March. http://www. 2003.stat. Wesson. 2000.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman. and Cohen. (2004). Deller.pdf Ebert.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.smartkom. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces.TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference... (2000). M.2000. eLearning Developers’ Journal. (2002). and Bender.cse.pdf Borghi. 191-196.fsu.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci.. http://cbcl.actapress. Michael (2003). and Ma. PA. http://www.org/10. In Proceedings. P. Pittsburg. Geiger. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Las Vegas.. 57-64. Aug. Nicole (2001).. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). W. and Poggio. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.884693 Chen. http://doi.ogi.com/PaperInfo.mit. M. Korea. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication. Munich.elearningguild. J. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. 18. T. Ludwig-Maximilians University..ercim. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. October 14-16. Lombardi. http://www. J. T. July 1997. 19(7). Nevada.pdf Corradini. M.11 09/CMPSAC.pdf Beringer. F. A. Y. (2005).pdf 126 © 2006. http://www. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Visualization. R. Gao. Shi-Kuo (2000).Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. L. (1997).edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini. July 2227.iscslp2006. (2005). http://www.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02. 3. G. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Brandon Hall Research . Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. Porta.html Chang.. http://www.pdf Daugman. 675 676 http://lcv.ieeecomputersociety. A. Report No.

Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. (1997). In Proceedings. 27-30. Y. Chen. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. Michael (2004). S. Computer vision in the interface. C. Setlock.1109/ICALT.xml&DOI=10. Sept. http://interact. C. (2002).com/PaperInfo. Proceedings.rutgers. Fussell. http://www.. 884 – 900.actapress.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk. Lai. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).org/citation.pdf Wilson.recveb.com/GetPDF. Canada http://cims. J. H.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.pdf Ou.. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.ucsb. http://www.. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.. (2005). http://www. and Carreira. Lee..edu/mas963/en hencedwall.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. J. J. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. and Koike. S.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Y.pdf Peixoto. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. Wong. IEEE Transactions..150 Nakanishi.clayton. and Kim. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Vancouver.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. Communications of the ACM. C. X.D. and Bobick.computer. C.mit. M. (2005). Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. A. and Wong. (2003). http://www. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. January. British Columbia.media.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . A. http://csdl2. D. P. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. 21(9). Y. 47(1). J. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. 2004:16. Park. 2004.F (1999).pdf Loi. L. Robust face image matching under illumination variations. (2004).. 442-446.research. 2533–2543.20 05.. and Yang. Sato.hindawi. L. 1999. and Chang. September 2002. http://portal. 242-245.acm.

html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Designing WebBased Training. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.techillustrator. In acquiring Macromedia. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. and in his recent 2006 book.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.adobe.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.avs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.com/TechIllustrator.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.autodesk. e-Learning By Design. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design.

Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models.ibm.smartdraw.0.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. http://www. http://www.broderbund.com/index. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.co.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.3dlinks.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.siggraph.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.acdamerica. In acquiring Macromedia. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.google. The most listings are for 3-D software. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.blender3d.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. post-production.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.com/E/1335.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.corel. interactive creation.uk/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . animation. Download a copy: http://www. http://esub.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.org/cms/Home.com. http://virtuality3d. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.itedo. and playback.com SmartDraw http://www.xaraxtreme.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.uk/index.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.microsoft.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306. Do Not Reproduce 129 . Nevertheless.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.elearningcentre.co.co.2. rendering.

org/index. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Proceedings. http://www. http://www.ucs. Tools Usage Survey Results. and Uyar. CT: Graphics Press.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.amazon. Germany. STC. http://www. A. William (1991). (2005). Brandon Hall Research . Cheshire.indiana.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. 2nd Ed. Edward (2001).editlib. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Potsdam. June 1-3.pdf Qiu.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.amazon. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press.amazon.amazon.amazon.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Cheshire. Japan · Sept 7-10. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. William (2000).com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. NY: John Wiley. CT: Graphics.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. Fu-Kwan (2004). New York: John Wiley.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Evidence and Narrative . ED-Media Conference.carto. (2004). http://www. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. In P. e-Learning by Design.pdf McConnell. Gloria (2004).stcphoenix. S. Pallickara. Tokyo.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton. http://www. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. X. Designing WebBased Training. A. http://grids.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. William (2006). http://www.). ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. http://www. Edward (1997).com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton.. Kommers & G.amazon. Richards (Eds.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. http://www. Envisioning Information.pdf Tufte. Pheonix.stc. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Frances (2004). Edward (1990). Carolina Chapter.

0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.miralab. Finally.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. and force-feedback mice.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). gloves. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.sssup. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.it/projects/pureform. Haptic devices come in many forms.pureform. http://www.mpbtechnologies.forcedimension. Read the press release at: http://www.” http://www.unige.html http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. including pens.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching. When used appropriately. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.handshakeinteractive. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. joysticks/ joypads. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. Do Not Reproduce 131 . who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. http://haptex. http://wwwpercro.

2003. J. July 31.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). http://www.se/index. (2005). NJ: Prentice-Hall.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom. 2005.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.informatik.sensegraphics. 2005.1_release-public. David (2003). not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://csdl2. Proceedings. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. suits.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.unitrier.1109/ICAL T. Report delivered January 15. http://www.1.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue.roblesdelatorre. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.2005. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation..phptr.miralab. McLaughlin.pdf Hespanha.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.isfh. http://www. Italy in March.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.” http://www. Deliverable D4.unige.haptics-e. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects..au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138. M.xml&DOI=10.piaggio.unipi..” http://www. Iwane.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4. New York Times (Online). Brandon Hall Research .sensable.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. http://www. (2002). and Sukhatume. Nakamura.306 Kushner. M. Reality bytes.. http://www. 132 © 2006.com.smh. G. M.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc. Y. Matsubara.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. M.computer. http://www.immersion. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. professional. http://haptex.asp Body-based devices include gloves. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). 917-921. http://www.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. N. Upper Saddle River. and Ichitsubo.ccii.

http://www. K.S.net/article-7304. http://www. C..ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. The Haptic Museum..media. S. 22. and Essl.cim. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. 2003. CA.ethz.mit.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres. M. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.pdf McLaughlin.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. Shahabi. July 3.html O’Malley. http://www. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.pdf Rowell.. M.informit. Laurie (2004). Santa Clara. Haptics Laboratory.mcgill. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. G. http://web. (2003). and Rusbridge. (2000). Oct.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.com/articles/printerf riendly.pdf Ó hAnluain.pdf O’Modhrain. D. Journal of Vision. Technology and Haptics. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Chapter on Haptics.matr. http://www. Y. Research report. http://www.computer.. Wired News. McHugh. G. 2004. A. Dobreva. (2005).digicult. M. M. 3-5 June 2004.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 . G.usc. Vincent (2005). 250a. & Uchikawa.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.ra. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Kaneko. Medioni. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. M.. Sukhatme.. http://www.asp?p=345621 Sakano. Japan.pd f O’Modhrain. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. M. Abbott. Reaching through the net to touch.journalofvision. and Jaskowiak. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). Daithí (2003). H.. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. Prentice Hall online article. http://csdl. J. Donnelly.B... 1(3). L. and Gillespie. and Hughes. (2001).S. McGill University.. Blindness. Proceedings. A. S.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. R.html Ross. (1997). April.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. (2004).

flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. whiteboards Description devices. Philips.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. Writing will require special digital pens. human-computer interaction. see: http://www. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. projectors.buffalo. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. haptics. tangible computing.html Sony. head mounted displays. gesture recognition. For humans to use a computer. For a review. and some.dottocomu. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. they must interact with it through an interface device. digital paper. However. experience computing. handwriting recognition. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . wearable computing.com/b/archives/ 002571. like digital ink and paper. they must interact with it through an interface device. electronic paper. input devices. Now in the research and development phase. Called Librié.html For humans to use a computer. display technologies. monitors. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.

http://www.html In 2005. 4) bend.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.com/technology/howitwor ks. http://www. it is constantly being improved and updated.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/. textures. http://www. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Although this technology has been around for a few years. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. see: http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.cs.sony.edu/design/Foldable Display. consisting of a pen and a charger. 3) throw.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. and 5) build.cfm Now in the research and development phase.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home. http://www. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.media. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 135 .” http://www.logitech. These methods are 1) touch. http://www.cmu.ac. http://www.channelnewsasia.html http://killer. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.edu/design/Digitalin k. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. http://killer.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards.mit.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.fujitsu. http://www.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.lifehacker. Writing will require special digital pens.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.com/index. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. 2) roll. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.cmu. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.smarttech.swan.ices.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.ices." http://web.eink.wacom.

thewirelessdirectory.au/edna/page458 8.com/wired/archive/9.elearningcentre.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. See their advice and resources at: http://www. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. http://www.devx.edu.com/wired/archive/8. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.anoto.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.0 4/anoto.co.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.com/wired/archive/5.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.html http://www.wired.thegrid. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.0 8/epapers. human computer interaction. with its use of digital ink. is described in a 2002 press release.net/display.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. Following are three such articles: http://www.wired. http://www. http://www. http://whiteboards.aclearn.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking. Brandon Hall Research .shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.org.wired.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.html http://www.edna.cs. http://www.becta.usask. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. and graphic.mspx 136 © 2006. http://www.microsoft.org. http://www.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). A.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. Sam (2005). Incorporated Subversion. http://www.pdf Tsinakos. Avgoustos (2004).org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. Report published by UCISA. James (2003). E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Jan. http://www. M. 2006.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. University of Birmingham. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. R..eun. Czech Republic.ucisa. ICALT2002 Conference. June 20-21. Jan.pdf Morrison. T.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Ed.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 . http://www.zcu. Building educational virtual environments.melcoe. T.nxtbook.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). 21. Proceedings.ac.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo.ieee. Chief Learning Officer.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.pdf Dalziel.pdf Cohen.building new education strategies for schools. 2005. Ronchetti.ac. http://incsub. October.bath. Browne. J. M (2005). Un-Managing Learning Management Systems ..uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005.anadolu. 5(2). Molinari.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .mq. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . http://www. http://www. Virtual Learning Environments. L. and Walker. Exeter.org/eun. and Sharifi.pdf Sadeghi. August. (2006). A. April. 2005.. M.PDF Farmer. http://tojde. Learning Circuits. WSCG Conference 2005. (Online edition). and Trifonova.learningcircuits. James (2005).tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. Proceedings of ALT-C.A possible future for online learning. UK. http://www.. November 2004. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. http://wscg. and Tsiatsos.unitn. Pierre (2000). (2002). 31-Feb. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Aavani. (2005).htm Bouras.. Derek (2004). Workshop on virtual learning environments. Proceedings. (2002). Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.edu. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Plzen. http://lttf. 4. http://www.pdf Dillenbourg.edu. C. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.science.

Vancouver.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. 40(3). From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Van (2005). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Report for the Melbourne. Maomi (2005). May 2006 http://www. (2006). Brandon Hall Research . Healthcare.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.pdf Wise. L. LMS Governance Project Report.org/newdl/index. and Quealy. J.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. May-June. October 2005.edu.unimelb. http://www.pdf 144 © 2006. 2005.aace.Learning Management Systems Ueno.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. http://www.educause.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. and Higher Education 2005. Government. Educause Review.infodiv.

Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. reusable learning objects (RLOs).” such as a graph. Rather. As online educational materials are produced. 2006). However. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. The acronym SCORM. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. They are emulations of “software objects.” To facilitate searching and retrieval.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). Learning objects have several uses. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. Do Not Reproduce 145 . rapid learning. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. intelligent tutoring. sharable content objects (SCOs).” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. learning object repository (LOR). it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments. 2004. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. At the simplest level. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Beyond that. SCORM. a well-known standard for learning objects.” This use has been more successful. learning object model (LOM).” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. Wiley. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations.

curriculum. and distributes digital research material. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. http://dspace. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. http://www.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings.arizona. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. http://www. stores. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.uwaterloo.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. This idea is based on older. and they can be general or subject specific.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://www.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. http://dlist. culture.org/index. http://www.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).uvic. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.downes. indexes. computer-use practices. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. http://learnware.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. http://web.sir. preserves.fedora.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.cdlib. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. Brandon Hall Research . What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.educanext.

http://www.profetic. http://www. http://www.thegateway.lrc3.000 items.edu/DesktopDefault.unsw. http://www.cisco.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.utoronto.unesco. http://www.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.rice. http://nsdl.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. http://mlor. with almost 15.koha.publiclibraryofscience. http://www. http://www.merlot.dist.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://www.edu.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://portal.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.net/project.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 .org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://www.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://ideas.mcli.goenc.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.llearn. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. http://lester.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.maricopa.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.wisconsin.oise.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.org/Home. http://www. with a focus on information literacy.org/ci/en/ev.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.lolaexchange.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.

http://www. and Alderman. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.it/~lhci/002. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.org/eng/scientifiques. http://www.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt.uis. C.org/blog/archives/ 002089. (2004).nmc. EdTechPost.doc Christiansen.jcdl.ca/implementing_proje cts.ca/mt/archive/000 681.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. http://www. http://www.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. (2004). T.itdl. J.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.lornet.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. is available at: http://www. March.edtechpost. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. Celentano. M. http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects. http://www. M.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. 1(3).L.uniroma1. and Anderson.org/guidelines/index.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. And Longo.dis.amazon. Online paper.uwm. http://www.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. CANCORE. (2004).shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . http://www. http://www.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.dicole.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.. http://www.elearnspace. authored by Rachel Smith.uwm.cancore. F. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. A.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. Anderson. Online. http://www. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. http://www.aace. Norm (2005).cancore.. 2004. http://www. Norm (2006). The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. J.itdl. Software Architecture Document.amazon.html Friesen.org/14190 Downes. M. T.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. 1 (3).. http://www. G.. http://www. R. Rachel (2006). (2003). London: Falmer. A.. and Morales. Rory (Ed.pdf Krauss.eduserv. Warren (2000).. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. D. S. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. G.ca/protocols_en.html Leeder.. Online Education Using Learning Objects. Babin. Roberts. T.learningcircuits. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.cfm/files/pap er_11841. Hatala.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.9%2015-11-03. Paquette. Jan. MacLeod. M.edusource. G. R. http://dl.doc Fiaidhi.1/downes.blogs.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. Richards. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. http://www. K. 1(3). Friesen. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.9. Online paper. Downes. A Primer on Learning Objects. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.. & Strijker. March.itdl..cancore. March. March. Fredinand (2004). Stephen. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.org/content/v2.editlib. Research Report. 14. N.. Mattson. and Mohammed. Version . 2(4). 5-16. and Schafer. (2004). http://www..html Heery. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. html Edusource (2003). (2004). http://ideas. S.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.ca/implementing_projec ts.) (2004). Learning Circuits. (2004). D.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. International Journal on E-Learning.org.html McGreal. Harrigan.htm Friesen. B.org/mar2000/ primer..com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal.irrodl. (2000). S.org/index. 2(1).. http://www..htm Do Not Reproduce 149 . http://www. Online document.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.

April 2002.). R. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Aug.ac. http://www. http://www. Govinda.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Brandon Hall Research . and Freisen. Online. Elizabeth (2004).org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. M. Rossano. T.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.kth. Wolfgang (2004). Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. (2002). G. http://www. Paper presented. Objects of Interest. INTERACT 2005. Doctoral dissertation.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. (2000).pdf Santally. http://opencontent.. Learning Material Repositories . and Pragnell.. M.pdf Richards. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.. (2006). A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. 2004.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. InSITE conference. Lori (2002).Rafts or Battleships? . David A. 12. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. (2000).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. http://www. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. : http://reusability. 9.itdl.Part 2. July 14. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. 2004. V. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. http://proceedings. Learning Circuits. 1(7).co. Clive.Part 1. Jan.htm Shepherd.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. (2004). Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. http://www.htm Nejdl.org/read/ Wiley.org/docs/dissertation.uniroma1.learningcircuits. March.. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.dis.informingscience.bath. Brigham Young University. David A.html Murphy. Derek (2004a).bath. A.htm Wiley.fastrakconsulting.learninglab.usq. (2005).p df Wiley. Derek (2004b). June. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. (2002). http://www. (Ed.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. pdf Roselli.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. Iterating Toward Openness. David A.edu.pdf http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. and Senteni. Learning Material Repositories . http://opencontent.it/~lhci/rossanopres. http://www. Final Project Report.dis. M. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.ac.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).uniroma1. 7(1).Rafts or Battleships? . McGreal. http://www.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. N.

The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). and security issues. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. proximity tools. including privacy concerns. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. galleries.S. navigation. users will be able to use a variety of devices. However. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. geocaching. laptops. Department of Defense. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. PDAs. personal media players. including cell phones. more demands for a person’s attention. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. and wearable computers. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. Do Not Reproduce 151 . or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. location-based systems are found in museums. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. findability. gaming consoles. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. galleries. and exhibits for a variety of purposes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. as with any new technology.

Brandon Hall Research .com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.com/ Geographic Information System. http://local.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .clarklabs. and to learn about them using a phones. earth. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp .org/ http://www. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www. http://earth.google. http://www.biogeomancer.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. experiences that people.intergraph. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile.http://www.state. information.http://www. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.frappr.http://www. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.com/ Intergraph .http://www.mapinfo.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. See how this direction.org/ consoles.google.berkeley. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work.google.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices. it is a great tool for teaching science. PDAs. gaming http://www. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.live.greatestplaces.esri.us/research/G ESRI.smm. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006. to model the climate in any place in the world. laptops. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players.http://www. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.000 archaeological sites in the state. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.museum. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www. to what a GIS system uses. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.com/ mapping service.google.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40. http://www. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.com able to use a http://www. Clark Labs .com/ location and biodiversity around the world.il.edu/ the globe.cadcorp.org/ educational of Mars.pangonetworks.

at: http://www.bham. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. http://www.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.chimer. http://www. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.bc.ac.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. See their complete range of products.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.edu/sco/gis/hi story.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.edu. http://www.fi/english/page.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. http://pngis.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.ac.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 . and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.com/gis4mt/index.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.ordnancesurvey.esri.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. http://www.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.wisc. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.eoscenter.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.5372.geography.ac. http://platial.org/index.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.gees.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. see: http://www.geog. http://portal. as well as papers on trends in GIS.asp?path=5 00.co.” http://www. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. http://www.confluence.com/index. create.cetadl.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. Earth.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.opensourcegis.leeds.

JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. IEEE Report..com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. A. M. 2005.info/index. J. and visualize spatial information.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. Donnelly. and Rusbridge. Dobreva. http://education.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.. G. Koutsoudis.geocomm.htm McLean..uk/elearning/ story/0. 15. (2005). Arnaoutoglou.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags. Pavlidis.ibm.1642288.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www. J. Eva (2004).info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. and students. http://www.com http://geotags. and Borriello.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Abbott. http://www. A.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. CAD.directionsmag. Steve (2005).research. S.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. McHugh. 2003.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 .html Ross.digicult. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. http://www. 2005. Learning Circuits. Dec. (2001). January. http://geotags. Jan 2004.jisc. http://www.pdf Cardinali. and Location-Based industry professionals. Nov. http://www.. 1999. http://www. D.digicult. http://www. DigiCULT Newsletter. http://elearningeuropa.. IBM Systems Journal.com/ Bibliography Benford.pdf Spohrer.ac. F.C. manipulate. Part II.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.pdf Tsirliganis. G.. enthusiasts. 38(4).. N. Information in places. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.00. Future LocationBased Experiences.learningcircuits.. Guardian Unlimited.co.. Online article. Mapping.intelresearch. and Chamzas.guardian. A. (1999).uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. http://www. M. C. (2003). Heather (2005).com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. We learning: social software and e-learning. Fabrizio (2005). GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Issue 6.intergraph. Chapter on Location Based Devices. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile.

will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. or protocol. also called “object learners and interoperability. tag clouds. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Mashups are constructed in several ways. of how to communicate with each other. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. integration. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. to a lesser extent. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. composite applications. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. run all by themselves.” that is. hybrid applications. in schools and universities. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. E-learning in the workplace and. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. A “mashup. all expressed in binary code.” instructors. Programs can be “stand alone. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. For example. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. in schools and universities.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. personalized. Using SOAP. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . API clouds. provides access to the API of another Web site. Many of these objects are software programs. Similarly. the rules for sending files across the Internet.” then. or through “Web services. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. to a lesser extent.

http://www. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. communications.com/ http://www. http://www.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.mashupfeed. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.deitel.icio. Brandon Hall Research . 2004).us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006.businessweek. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.” It has many examples of mashups.emilychang. http://en. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.wikipedia. providing an informal collaborative environment..htmlhttp://www.0 APIs. etc.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. http://blogs.programmableweb. http://www. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. at the same time.deitel.html Rob Hof. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. As Warlick (2006) has noted.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. document management. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. a writer for Business Week. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.us. http://del.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.programmableweb. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. such as those for collaboration. Many have educational value. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.icio.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter.Mashups.

http://www. Enterprise mashups.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. and mutate.org/resources/webs ervices. (2006).html Woodill.htm Siviter. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.com/publications. David (2006).techlearning.htm Torres. Curriculum as Mashup. Elearnspace.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. C. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.ieee. Learning Technology newsletter. Issue 1.ieee.html Hof. C. 2006. http://www. Dec. Infoworld. Paul (2002). SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.operitel.businessweek.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1. J. Dodero.pdf Stacey. http://www.elearnspace.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. match. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. http://ww6. July 25.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. 2006. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 157 . 2006.pdf Seimens. Learning Solutions.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Douglas (2004).. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. George (undated). Mix.infoworld. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. 6. and Padron. and Oliveira. http://www. techLEARNING. 2005. July 28. Vol. SOAP.com/products/print_fri endly. Web Services. January 2004 http://lttf. J. Robert (2005). January 2004 http://lttf. Learning Technology newsletter. Vol. 6. Galen (2006).bctechnology. March 6. 2002. Business Week Online. Mashups.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Issue 1. May 15. G.html Warlick. (2004). 6.

org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. repositories. An ontology.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.mit.cancore. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). http://www. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. pervasive computing. http://iiscs. http://dublincore.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. http://simile. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. community. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index.do?tm= O4E. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.ac. and services. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.educause. in the context of information technology. and artificial intelligence are being developed. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. search engines. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy.edu/content. http://metadata. metadata. and institutional stores.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.wssu.mit. http://www. http://libraries.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. Do Not Reproduce 158 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. to develop metadata standards.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.cetis.edu/o4e/viewhome. http://www. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Ohio. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.imsglobal.

The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. (2004). Presentation to Tag Camp. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. http://www. and Poulymenakou. Thomas (2005a). 7(4). tags into a BoxesAndArrows. 2003. A. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. N. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.greenchameleon. Delphi Group report... 7(4). B. Boston.ifets. June 2004.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Defining “taxonomy”.php?id=25 Kroski.edu/get/a/publication/ 105. MA.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. P. Barry.delphigroup. and Joshi. Dec. M. 7. http://www. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider. 82-97. http://www.ca/editors. Adam (2004). Online article.boxesandarrows..htm Gruber. Pouloudi. http://www. http://infotangle.pdf Henze.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. D. (2004).. University of Illinois graduate paper.php?id=25 Chen. 98-111. April 18. Lenne. B.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. (2002). 2005. and Mosoiu.ifets.cancore. http://tomgruber. ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras.. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. A. http://www.. Moulin.info/issues.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. T.adammathes. Norm (2005)..org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). October 29.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . C. Green Chameleon.umbc.html Gruber. International Journal on E-Learning. 2006. October-December. Patrick (2006). SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Benayache. November. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel.pdf Delphi Group (2004). H. Thomas (2005b). Infotangle.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. and Chaput. sometimes A. 2002. Dolog.org/. April 21. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web..aace. http://www. A. http://dl. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. (2003). Ellyssa (2005). C. http://ebiquity. TagOntology . In Proceedings. http://www. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.info/issues. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.. http://www. A. W. Perich. Finin. M.blogsome.tagcamp. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.com/view/buil database as they enter data. (2004)..pdf Friesen.org/10614 Mathes. http://tomgruber. F. and Nejdl.

M.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.. 11(7/8). http://www.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.php?id=25 160 © 2006. and Godby. BoxesAndArrows.boxesandarrows. Norway. 2002. N.ifets.ecdl2003.. 26-28.ppt Ricci. BoxesAndArrows. May 22. Lytras. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building.php?id=25 Tozman. Christian (2004). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.ifets. http://www.html Wodtke. (2004). P.boxesandarrows. April 9.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. http://www. Stuart (2005). J. NISO Press. July/August.learningcircuits. Understanding Metadata. Learning Circuits.info/issues. Christina (2002). S.info/issues. 2004.pdf Oin. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Another new paradigm for instructional design. http://www. http://www. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). http://www. Chen. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. 7(4). 2004.niso. and Shao.htm Weibel. G. Brandon Hall Research . 70-81.dlib. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.Metadata. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Trondheim. http://www. Reuben (2004). and Diaz. I. http://www. D-Lib Magazine. D. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 2005. Nov.. (2004). Wagner. (2003). 7(4). J.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. rich players. conversational learning. in mobile computing (McLean. tablets.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. time and space. and mentoring. strong search capabilities. using ambient intelligence. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. personalization. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. 2003). there were estimated to be 1. it is predicted that there will be 2. location-dependence. learning architecture [that] will support creation. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. 2004). Essentially. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. personalization. improved identity creation. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . communicative skills and community interaction. and wearable computers in teaching and learning.” The Mobilearn However. learning. wearable computing. pervasive computing. multimedia. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).6 billion units in operation by that year. video) and distributed databases. such telephones. cell phones. you are. personal digital assistants (PDA). tablet PCs. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. location based technologies. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). mLearning. instant messaging (text. and building. laptops. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. brokerage. laptops. cellular telephones. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. MP3 players.” Two years ago. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. podcasting. powerful support for effective tablet PCs. times the number of personal computers (PCs). assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time.

mobilearn. Australia. movies.net/ 162 © 2006.edu.” http://www.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.pdf http://www. 2004).” a “butterfly-watching learning system.harvard. audio. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Users can access and create location-specific text. pictures. http://gseacademic.co. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.” and a “bird watching learning system.stockholmchallenge.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.cs. US. Cited in Prensky. and pre-service teachers. http://csdl2. http://www.Mobile Devices Two years ago.pdf http://www. or a combination of media.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.computer.ccu. compared to only 50 percent of computer users.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.edu. http://news. Israel. (2004). http://www. http://urbantapestries. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.cs.ccu.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.ccu. in Japan.” They have a “firefly watching system.bbc.edu. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs).pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.se/projectd ata. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird.cs. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. Brandon Hall Research .5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. there were estimated to be 1.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.

Ireland.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/8907.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. Gaming.bham.beta80group.fasfind.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 .fasfind.eee. of the University of Oulu in Finland.fasfind. Learn more at: http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning. http://www. links.telus.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.232. resources.135/ipodined/news.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. http://213.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.mobilelearning. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. For example. http://www3.com/wwwtools/m/2737.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.ac.uk/handler/publi cations. http://www. http://www. and a glossary.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.iadis.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. applications.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.knowledgepulse. 2006 in Dublin.com/wwwtools/m/2717.msu.” http://m. http://spotlight-mobile.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. http://www.htm Jari Laru.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. activities.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.com/home_en.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.elearningcentre. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://llt.co. including issues. technologies.94. http://urbantapestries.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.

(2004). Molinari.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www. Language Learning and Technology. Y. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Bob (2005).pdf Geddes.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. http://mobile.ac. E. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 39.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. http://www.html Kadirire. 2(9). A.idi. L. Gaming. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.pdf Anderson. http://www. Kao.msu. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Paul (2005). January 2005.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. and Sharma.jisc. and Trifonova. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://www.ntnu.m-learning. 347-359.pdf Jasola. 9(1). (2005). of Birmingham http://www.J. T.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. (2002). Jill (2005). 17-22 http://llt. S.science.6. http://www. Univ.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Bryan (2004).pdf Colazzo.educause. No.ccu. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. (2005). Report. B. September 2005. No.pdf Chen. http://www.pdf Attewell.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.org/micte2005/4.net. R. http://www..formatex. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.kaywa. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. http://knowledgetree.jisc.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. and Sheu. M. 19.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.html Grew.html Bibliography Alexander.ac.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). and Pagani. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.edu. A. P. Vol. James (2005).. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.unitn.uk/eli_practice. JISC Guide. J. EDUCAUSE Review.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.a u/edition06/download/geddes. (2003).itdl.cs. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. http://www. Sept. Ronchetti.htm JISC (2005). 5. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.flexiblelearning.

J. D. M. Brisbane. H. Australia. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Donnelly.pdf Metcalf.com/news/article2 490. M.. (2004). 2002. T. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. F.innovateonline. L..acm. A.digicult. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. Galasso. (2002). http://www. 1(5).ieeecomputersociety. Romagnoli.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 .org. http://www.ac. J. M.ox. (2005). Amherst. Sweden.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Glyfada.info/index. and Yang. Feb.1039222 McLean. MA: HRD Press. and Cultural Heritage. UsabilityNews. Conference on Virtual reality. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile... Chan. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. and Sforza. Vecchietti.org/10. http://doi. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. Proceedings. June 27. David (2006).pdf Scagliarini. Proceedings. T. http://www.phil-inst. June/July 2005. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Coralini.. multimedia-based learning application. http://www.2002.2. http://21st. Archeology. (2001). A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light. 2005. and Nischelwitzer. T.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Liang.. http://www.ascilite. S.pdf Mellow. 2004. Växjö University. Neil (2003). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.usabilitynews. S. E. Malavasi. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.org/citation.amazon. Roffia. Ann (2005).fhjoanneum.. Kristóf (2002). ASCILITE2005 Conference.. computer-aided. http://www..au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Teleborg Campus. http://drei. http://portal.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Cinotti.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Växjö. Presented at WMTE 2002.asp Liu.oucs. E. Peter (2005).1109 /WMTE. M. Pigozzi. Marc (2004). M. August 29-30. and Dobreva. Wang. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.. Greece..century.doc Meisenberger.htm#Implications Prensky.

pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Michael (2005).clomedia. http://www. http://www.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. http://education.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298.uk/public/getfile. Taylor. and. Hungary.pdf Sharples.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Ellen (2005).co.ac.pdf Thomas. May/June 2005. Enabling Mobile Learning. EDUCAUSE Review.educause. 40-53. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_article.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. (2005). Draft paper submitted for publication. http://www. http://kn. 2005. M.ac. Guardian Unlimited. Christopher (2005). May 23. April 2005. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.00. J.eee.. and Vavoula. Mike (2005). 40(3).bham.1490476.uk/elearning/ comment/0. Budapest. Feb. G.fil.html von Koschembahr. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Learning in the Mobile Age. Understanding. E-Learning on the move..open. Chief Learning Officer. 2005.guardian.

york. http://wwwusers.translating one natural language into another. machine translation. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. i.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. speech synthesis. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. speech recognition.. (2005a. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001).itc. rather than just returning Web pages.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. natural language generation.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. (2004).” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. http://dmoz. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 167 . and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.cs. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.e.” See also Jordan et al. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.it/index.ac.lexxe. natural language understanding. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.uk/~silvia/litReview. et al. Kim (2000). Di Eugenio.. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. Lee et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://tcc. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. (2004).

Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing.org/Voice/Activity. Volume 1. D. and Glass. http://www.cs. http://www. and Vrettaros. M.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . Online.upenn.elsnet. Fossati.cstr. Paul (1994).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. (2005a).pdf Coxhead. S. B. Language Learning and Technology.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. tools. http://llt. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Peter (2001).ldc.. Makatchev.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.aaai. M. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP).html Bibliography Bagshaw. Haller. S. Paper presented at ACL2005.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon. P.bham. Fossati. 62-76.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. D.ac. Haller. 2(2). http://www.pdf Di Eugenio. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.pdf Drigas. University of Edinburgh. Yu.msu.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. M. http://www. and Glass.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. (2004).. http://eduforge. January. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries.w3.. Doctoral Dissertation.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.html#fn1 Di Eugenio.demokritos.pdf Eskenazi.uic. A. Cambridge. research. http://www.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. pdf Jacquemin.org/softwaremap/trove_list . http://www. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications.. K..edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. D. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching.ed. B. Issue 5. (2005b).. Maxine (1999).ac. and standards. November 2004 http://imm. D.cs. (2004).uic.org/aitopics/html/natlang.cs. http://www. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. MA: MIT Press. http://www. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Christian (2001). Yu. http://www. J. and VanLehn.amazon. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems.

). (Eds. and Glass.cs. Chicago. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Vicari. M. computational linguistics and speech recognition. (2004).pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 .iit. A. D. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. A. (2004). Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference.iit.pdf Jurafsky. and Martin. K. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. http://www.pdf Ram.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.) (1999). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis... Cambridge. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. http://www.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram. (Eds. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss. and Moorman. http://www. and Meinel. C. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. J. Upper Saddle River.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. Doctoral dissertation. Illinois Institute of Technology. (2005).iit. http://www. Evens. Lester. and Rusbridge. NJ: Prentice Hall. M. Feng-Jen (2001). M. http://www. http://www. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.colorado. Doctoral Dissertation. A.pdf Zhou. http://www. http://www. M. http://www.H.pdf Steinhart. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems.linckels. Univ.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. M. of Colorado.amazon. and F. S.amazon. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. In J.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross. Donnelly.pitt. Chicago. R. David (2001).) (1999). Maceió.cs. 435-439.cs.cs.pdf Linckels. C. K. C. MA: MIT Press. (2000).pdf Lee. Paraguaçu (Eds. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. McHugh. Brazil. Cambridge.amazon.. MA: MIT Press. and Moorman.. Chicago. Abbott. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Illinois Institute of Technology. S. http://lsa.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. Dobreva. Jung Hee (2000). A.digicult.iit. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System.pdf Yang. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. Illinois Institute of Technology. Doctoral Dissertation. D. Yujian (2000). August 31. Doctoral Dissertation..

170 © 2006.seti. thus bypassing a central server. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. or e-learning environments. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. movies. In the future. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. thus bypassing a central server. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. As personal computers become more powerful.ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. and games. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. whose research is based on activity theory. Jokela (2003). Brandon Hall Research . Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. instant messaging. http://www. memory. chat rooms. and storage. Collaborative Peer Relationships . 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music.org/science/setiathome. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker.

com/ eduCommons .The eduCommons is an open system for creating.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.mit. http://edutella.cs. each with its own data schema. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.jxta. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks. http://oceanstore. http://wwws.usu.stanford.campusmoviefest.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://picto. sharing.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.cs.berkeley. http://data. http://p2p.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. where students meet to share and exchange their productions.edu/info/ove rview.md3.cs.pdos. http://www.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers. Do Not Reproduce 171 . http://lockss. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Any computer can join the infrastructure. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money.washington.edu/piazza. encyclopedia. http://www.sun. http://cosl. http://www. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary. http://www.weblogger. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation.lcs.ucsb.cdt. and translation servers throughout the Web.groove. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. http://publius.

php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet. for a small fee. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.stockholmchallenge. http://www. http://lionshare.net/index. and videomakers. Mac.html MoveDigital. http://www.limewire.com/ Overnet is an open source. musicians. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide.fastrakconsulting. no adware.se/proje ctdata.com/english/content/ho me.llearn.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www. http://www.bdaweb. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe.elearningcentre. data. http://www.” It also says that there is “no spyware.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op.advancedreality. http://www.com/products/in dex.its.movedigital. http://www.overnet.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists. allows anyone.psu.edu/apps_list. headquartered at Penn State University.co. cross platform application (Win.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .net/freescience_learnmo re_it. http://p2p.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.co.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.internet2.” http://www.bdaweb.

A. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher.masternewmedia. January 17. http://voyager.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. and Higher Education 2003. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. (2002). University of Texas. Paivi (2003). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.cfm?fuseaction =Reader. H.htm Cross. June 1. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. P2P and its impact on the enterprise.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. January 2002. http://www.. significance and impact. Jay (2001).utexas. Susan (2003). AACE Journal 12(3).kbs.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . Applications.learningcircuits. July 2001. Luigi (2005).html Fletcher. Wolfgang (2002).de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.ac.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. Jennifer (2002).editlib. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. http://www. 2005. http://www. http://www. D.campustechnology. Julita (2004).org/index. In Cunningham. 2006. Bokma. and Guergachi. pp.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.htm Farago-Walker.. K. How P2P will change collaborative learning. Intranet Journal. eLearning and future trends. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Miriam (Eds. Healthcare. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Government. Online article.intranetjournal.pdf Vassileva. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues. Case Studies. pp 1051-1058. and Koumpis. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. Learning Circuits.pdf Ratti. Campus Technology. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl.sunderland. Online paper. Robin Good Blog. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://www.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. Tektonidis. (2004). A.pdf Farges. Judith (2006). http://julita. Paul & Cunningham..ca/Texte/ITS2004camera. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. 301-313.usask.com/article. Austin.edb. Ginty.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. http://www.editlib. N.unihannover. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises.). http://www. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. 1624-1631.learningcircuits. R.org/index. Martin (2004).html Jokela.

work places. blogs. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous.). for the learner. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. and. 174 © 2006. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. To practice real-world situations. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. social environments. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Secondly. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. whiteboard). In many cases. as learners move between institutions. amongst institutions. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). there can be no electronic interaction. This requires support over time. (Cortlett et al. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. Technology needs to be situated. without an offline client to the LMS. chat. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. learners need to be in real-world situations. A PLE is structured by the learner. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. etc. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. and through a variety of technologies. Brandon Hall Research . Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. e-portfolios. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. libraries. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. such as search engines. wikis. and social bookmarking sites.. but these are only available to members of the course. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. A PLE must support lifelong learning. often only for the purposes of the course. Individualization in an LMS is weak. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. discussion forums. learning management systems. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content.

bham.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett. http://www. Terry (2006).za/CD/papers/Corl ett. Running on the learner's PC.ac. http://elgg. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook. http://www. Ting.cetadl. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. http://www.ac. Chan.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. Jan. O..jisc.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. http://terrya.uk/ilogbook/de fault.bath. Incorporated Subversion.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan.uk/index. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.mlearn. Las Vegas.ac. 22-27 July 2005. Online case study paper. UK.org. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.ac. http://portal. January 9. Edinburgh. manage. M. D. Sharples. http://www. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. Colin (2005). http://www. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. it helps the user plan. PLE Reference Model. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. Nevada. T.cetis. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. 11.pdf Farmer.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. track. and Westmancott. (2005).jisc.elearning. J.ac. 2006. http://incsub. James (2006).uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK..edublogs.. http://www. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Do Not Reproduce 175 . and review his or her learning activity.ac.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). 2006.

it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop. rule-based filtering. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. collaborative filtering. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.. artificial intelligence.). Furthermore. (Filippini-Fantoni. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. etc. Do Not Reproduce 176 . At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. 2005). based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. However. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. through a questionnaire). Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). learning environments.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. picture. However. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Keenoy et al. etc. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. colour. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. or it can be an implicit model.g. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.g. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. Often. These techniques include content-based filtering..

ac. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. http://www.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www. PDAs).html (handheld PCs.virtualmuseum. http://www.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. objects leave “trails” .directa.elenaproject.calimera.org/default.pdf kaleidoscope. navigation.noech.beta80group.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.g. The trails can useomarmo.org/en/index..uk/ilex/final. and/or presentation of materials. Do Not Reproduce 177 . and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites. dynamic user profiling techniques. A demo is available at: http://www. http://www.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.time-ordered http://www.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.net/home.firstmonday.ed. the personalization can be applied to content.nl/publications/papers/M traits. chc021 http://www.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. http://www. wireless networks.ecdc. http://www. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user.hcrc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.ca/English/Per sonal/index. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.emarcon.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.

C.unimagdeburg. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. S.(2001).. A. PowerPoint presentation. (2004). 2004. and Nuguid.pdf Callaway. http://www.metmuseum.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. K. (2005).gla. A.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. William Niu.di. Cozzolongo.. http://adiret. and Cook J.arces. http://www.arts. May 25.pdf 178 © 2006. and Verdaguer. Brandon Hall Research . Online paper. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Borda.calimera. A. https://www.uniba.pdf Bright. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. S.org/ Bibliography Abbott. http://www.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. May 25. and FilippiniFantoni. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. http://arxiv. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Calimera Project (2005). New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. with a particular focus on the museum sector. (2004).org/pdf/cs. Pizzutilo. Gallipoli..umuai. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.. (2004).au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.pd f Cavalluzzi. J. The Future of Access (or. Bowen. D. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.. Ngo.org/mymetmuse um/index. G. http://www. Gallipoli..ascilite. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). Italy.CY/0409055 Boyle T. Melbourne. J. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. University of Glasgow. Online paper. B. W.. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Italy. http://www. http://tmtfactory. Daisy (2002). Ler. T. http://smart. HATII.Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.pdf Ceccaroni. 2004. (AVI 2004)..org. A.ac.cs. (AVI 2004). Magical Mirror: multimedia. Kay. interactive services in home automation.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406.hatii.pdf Beler. (2005).unibo. L. X.. De Carolis. A. and Kuflik.

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instructorled. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. collaborative environment. vendors. which form a dynamic user profile. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. In the business world. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. Knowledge Management. Brandon Hall Research . content management. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. learning management systems.Portals Related terms Collaboration. 2001). The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.

http://www. the portal offered information on more than 20.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. http://h20219. and shared lists for tasks. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.microsoft. e-mail distribution lists. school administrators.000 publishers worldwide http://www.hp.executrain.proquest. news and announce-ments.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo.trainingregistry.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.000 lesson plans http://www. document management information.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.cyberu.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.300 online courses http://www.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. administrators.www2.saba.asp Element K – Access to over 2.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.teach-nology. http://www.elementk.worldwidelearn. As of early 2006.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. go to: http://www.000 online courses http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.microsoft. instructor-led.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. Do Not Reproduce 185 . instructors. audio and/or video. students. interactive discussion groups.700 online courses http://www.fathom. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. instant messaging.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. calendars. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. and universities. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. and schedules. collaborative environment.elearningeuropa.com/home. online meetings with text. http://www.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. museums.

com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.asp?id=9028 Barron.learningcircuits. http://www. http://www. 2004. May 2000. http://www. Cornelia (2000).asp Terra.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. and Sheehan.educause. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. and Sheehan. M. A Portrait of Learning Portals. New York: AMACOM. http://www.) (2003).. Campus Technology Magazine. http://www. Hershey..com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. R. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.amazon. New York: AMACOM.htm Brockbank. baby! E-learning portals. http://www. category. Ron (2004).amazon. A. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. You’ve come a long way. PA: Information Science Publishing. March 1. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. (2003).com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. including educational uses. Heidi (2001).org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. Learning Circuits.amazon. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. Reviewed at: http://www. (Eds.nl/mart/CategoryView. A. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. Hershey. Heidi (2003). Richard & Associates (2002). http://blogs. (Eds.educause.ittoolbox. September 2000. (2003). and Aucoin. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. http://www. Campbell. Tom (2000). J.Education. http://knowledgemanagement. In Jafari.campustechnology. C.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari.tamtam. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. PA: Information Science Publishing.learningcircuits.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. K.amazon.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Bray (2001).com/article.asp Katz. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . and Gordon.

Experience them at: http://www. Online presentations can be very boring. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.macromedia.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. http://www. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. In fact.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. webcasting. Skypecasting. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. Consequently. virtual classrooms.com/site/index. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. the word “lecturing” means “to read. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. web conferencing. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.lsc. However.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. In fact. Do Not Reproduce 187 . the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. the word “lecturing” means “to read.replayhq. when experts are not readily available.” In the Middle Ages. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.” In the Middle Ages.

org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. http://www.humanresourceWebinars.masternewmedia.kolabora.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing. http://www. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. videoconferencing.com/cxoextra/0.htm http://www.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.adelaide. http://www.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.infoworld. http://www. a columnist at InfoWorld.com/webconf/index. groupware. and e-learning.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.html#a1185 http://weblog.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.edu.elluminate. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. forums and message boards. social software for online collaboration.athabascau.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution. http://www.acue. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. http://cde.thinkofit. although many are trying to change this practice. See the TEAL Project at MIT. in partnership with Dreamworks.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. http://icampus. online communities. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.mit.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.kolabora.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.htm http://www.380000 5416. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. intranets. independent listing of Webinars. http://www. videoconferencing.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.hp. http://www.39155030.edu/TEAL). there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.com Hewlett-Packard. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. online meetings.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.brandonhall. http://weblog. virtual teams.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .ccimeet.com/news_radars/we b_presentations. While it is expensive.silicon. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. instant messaging. Webcasts.com/udell/2005/0 2/25.infoworld. http://www.00.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. http://ajax. and Web presentations.com/publications/lel/lel.

eweek. virtual meetings. http://www.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/live.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe. http://www. and Flash. Coursebuilder.elearningcentre.timelyweb.com/eweek/webc onferencing.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. virtual classrooms.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.filesland.co. http://www.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . http://www.elearningcentre.com/presentatio ns/index.com/downloads/sea rch.lsc.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. Captivate.apreso.co.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.” http://www.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. presentation and streaming presentation tools. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. Breeze.elearningcentre. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.html Using Apreso software.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. Authorware. Web seminars. brain.com/software/presen tation.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.e-learningcentre. and whiteboarding. Web conferencing.co. and kidneys.co. http://www. http://buyersguide. htm http://www. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations. Dreamweaver.programjunction. although it does not have to be.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.presentations. http://www. http://www.co. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.

Luigi (2003a). Luigi (2003b). (in two parts) http://www.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. 3. 2004. Live ELearning.blogspot.aln.com/wwwtools/m/21593. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. May 15. http://www. Jennifer (2004). http://www.amazon.. Armit (2005). 2005.russellmcnally. http://www.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. Sept. 2003.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. Learning Circuits.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.learningcircuits. Robin Good Blog. http://www.pdf http://www. July 8. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.russellmcnally.pdf McFerrin.aace.htm Hofman. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. and Furr. (2002). Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.htm Duckworth. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.masternewmedia. http://m. http://www.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. Christine (2001). Robin Good Blog. Belinda (2003).com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. http://www.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. Live and Online!: tips. 2003. 2003. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. April 30.htm Canali De Rossi.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 ..masterviews.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.com/product /software/795/index.downloadjunction. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze. http://www. Digital Inspiration.masternewmedia. 7(3). Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).fasfind. P. Russ (2004).org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth.01.htm Canali De Rossi.com/BreezePart 2. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. K. Luigi (2003c).com/BreezePart 1. Sept. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.html Canali De Rossi. July 26.asp McNally. July. http://www. http://labnol.

and Equipment. L.pdf Spielman.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . 11. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. Choices are great.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1. InfoWorld. http://www. but… Presentations Magazine. http://www.amazon. (2003). P.infoworld. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.com/presentation s/delivery/article_display.presentations. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.open. and Quick. Feb. Choose the Right Vendors. (2004). K. http://kmi. Start Saving Time and Money Today. Choose your presentation tools carefully. and Winfield. S. Dave (2002).html Zielinski.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. Dec. http://www.. 2005.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.ac. Software. AMACOM.

or where the online information frequently changes. It can refer to learning something quickly. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. graphics. tests. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. In the first case.automatically assures that all navigation works. In the second sense of the term. It is best suited to textbased materials. by necessity. 2003).does not require any plug-ins. Instructional design built in. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Do Not Reproduce 192 . and drill down pages. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Navigation built in . Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. such as creating links. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. simple. extreme e-learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. glossary. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. For example. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. According to Ready Go!. Advanced features. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. but not always good for you. FAQ. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. programming. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. just-intime e-learning. Standardize approaches. including tools and templates. learning objects. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. a demand to produce online content very quickly. are built in. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. E-learning produced this way can be very boring.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. Does not require any advanced skills. and clip art is straight forward and supported . usually when it is needed (Brodsky. Deploys easily . This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. It can refer to learning something quickly. easy to use. or HTML knowledge.

which contains information on resources. See a demo at: http://www. manage the content and the users. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. http://www. 2003). Assign SMEs who are committed.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. virtual classroom. January 23. Learning Solutions. http://www.co.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.raptivity. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. 2004).amazon.e. Do Not Reproduce 193 . Kendrick (2006). http://www.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Edit. Clark (2005).masie. Templates. schedule and due dates.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. and communicate deliverable expectations. http://www. a demand to produce online content very quickly. and Publish.htm Bibliography Abell. http://www.readygo. See sample templates at: http://www. Enhance.. low.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. centrally located files.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. computer games. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.elearningcentre.articulate. http://www. conferences. Future-Proofing.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. To be effective.pdf Aldrich. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. or where the online information frequently changes.versus high-interaction).com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. 2006.com/studio.elearningguild. Reusability.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.microlearning.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. Reduce the number of development vendors. version control protocols.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. and other good stuff.scate. San Francisco: Pfieffer.org Web site. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.” Find out more: http://www. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources.

LTI Newsline.jsp?id=150619 Hess. and Bersin. July 2004.pdf Jimenez. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning.ltimagazine. Larstan Business Reports. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. http://www. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. http://www.pdf Crosman.asp Bersin.elearningguild. 10. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. http://www. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work.learningcircuits. http://www. Jennifer (2004).com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Rapid Intake White Paper. Bill (2005). Ray (2006).com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. http://www.adobe. tools. http://www. http://www.pdf Gustafson.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Chief Learning Officer.elearningguru.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. June.bersin. Jan. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Mar.pdf Jimenez. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. http://www. http://www. Vignettes for Training White Paper.ltimagazine. April. June 30. http://www.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. J. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Chief Learning Officer. Making rapid elearning work.htm Bersin. Penny (2004). e-Learning Crop Circles. http://vftraining.clomedia.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. http://www. August 2004.com/showArticle. Mark (2003). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. July 2.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Kevin (2002). Josh (2004).com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Jay (2005). LTI Newsline.transformmag.com/articles/ab stracts/index. Tips and Techniques.pdf Brodsky.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. Josh (2005).com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. J.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. http://www.elearningmag. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Garin (2004). LTI Newsline. E-Learning for short attention spans. 2004.meetingone.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald. Paper. Learning Circuits. 9. Joe (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article. Nov.clomedia.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.clomedia. Ray (2005). Learning Solutions. (2004). techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks. Transform Magazine.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. January. 2006. Dianne (2005).elearningguild. Lane (2002). 2006.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Chief Learning Officer. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. 2002.

trainingfoundation. Eric (2003).asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. January 16. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Press release. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.elearningguild. Clive (2006). http://www. February 2005. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 . Stephanie (2006).pdf Shepherd. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.com/articles/ default.pdf Macromedia Inc. Learning Solutions.macromedia.learningcircuits. Macromedia White Paper. June 2004. http://www. January 2003. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Mobile and Device Based Learning.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms. 2006. Learning Circuits. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.pdf Mayberry. http://www. April 20.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.com/news story. http://www.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Macromedia White Paper. The Training Foundation online article. Nick (2005).trainingpressreleases.clomedia.clomedia. Ed (2004). (2004b).htm Masie Center (2005). Chief Learning Officer. Simulation. 2005.com/content/templat es/clo_article.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. http://download.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry. http://www. (2004a).macromedia. http://download.

com/ http://www. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. http://robotics. engineering. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://mindstorms. http://www. for underwater exploration. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. engineering.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.nasa. Inc.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.aad.whmsi.botball.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.gov. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.org/aboutbotball/overview. and mathematics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. Do Not Reproduce 196 .ife. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. and math. technology. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. technology.active-robots. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. http://www.lego. http://www.

brooklyn.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://www. links. http://www. It features news. lip movements.atr. http://www.ri.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.osaka-u.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. http://robotics. Do Not Reproduce 197 .eng.profetic.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.edu/~sklar/e r/edu. engineering.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.sci. and other information on robotics. By donning motion sensors.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. http://www.rec. technology. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. go to: http://www.cmu. particularly robotics.jp/ See also: http://www.euron.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.net/ Run by NASA.ed.kipr. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. and mathematics. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.cuny.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.microworlds.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.edurobot.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.gov/rcc/index. Find out more about this group at: http://www. one child at a time. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.irc.com/r_home.org/article.nasa. Mr. and vocal tics. http://www. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.ams.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.evolution.ac.edu/index. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. http://robothaven.

New York.tools for accessible education. http://www. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. and Hempel. Mindstorms: Children. (2004). D.. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. (2005). and Yanco. http://www. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Miller. D. June.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education..de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. Sept. and Loose. (1980).. Dobreva. Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2004). Paper at the American Assoc.pdf Blank. (2004). November. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.. M. L. and Powerful Ideas.uml.. Basic Books. M.cs. (2001). Robots in the classroom ..edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. L. Ontario.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics.pdf Stewart. M. D.amazon. W. and Dautenhahn.andrew. Ferrari. A.pdf Papert. and Rusbridge. S. D. Kumar. Keating. K. M. Kumar. Sept. (2004).pdf http://www. McHugh. I. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. and Wagner.. http://www. New York: Syngress Publishing.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er.pdf Nourbakhsh.. P. H.amazon. 28-30. http://www. and Meeden. Computers.brynmawr. Lathan. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Harwin.pdf Boersch. D. (1999). Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. (2001). and Mataric.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . T. M. and West.. http://zeus. A. D. J.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. B. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education..digicult..com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. http://www.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.fhbrandenburg. Yanco. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.wtec.. I. Donnelly.ccmlab.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.. H. R. H. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Abbott. Germany. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. (2005). Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. Heinsohn. Hohmann. G.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.pdf Cooper..cmu.. AAATE Conference 1999. R. Proceedings. http://rob.pdf Ferrari. Düsseldorf. Ottawa.l3s.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. D. Germany. http://dangermouse. U. C. http://www.l3s. S. Meeden. http://www.

Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. While search engines have improved over the past several years. meta-search engines. Ezzy (2006a. Meta–search engines. Do Not Reproduce 199 . collective intelligence. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. resource discovery. data mining. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines.com and Alta Vista. But. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. dependable information. Search is probably the most used elearning application. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Examples are Google and Overture.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. as this section of the report shows. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models.examples are early yahoo. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search.so they take the structure of the Web into account. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. which submit queries. Web directories. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. such as Yahoo. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. search engine optimization. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. federated search. collaboration. in parallel. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . each with their own defining feature sets. One is the problem of finding relevant. They bring into the equation user preferences. information retrieval. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. such as Google and Altavista. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. a rich user experience. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines.

especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. video. http://www. for a variety of reasons.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.aol.com Gada. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. http://www. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.faganfinder. http://www. http://www.about. and text.com’s search service http://a9. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.answers.convera. http://www. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. http://www. get answers http://www.gigablast.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).ask.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.com About.com/ Answers.gada.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. http://www. http://www. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.altavista. http://www.com/ 200 © 2006.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.aeiwi.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.alltheweb. 2004). then fill in the search box. http://search. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.alexa.

edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www. http://search.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.grokker.netscape.qelix. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages.google.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.umich.msn.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://qube. http://rollyo. http://www.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.lexxe.hotbot. blogs. http://getoutfoxed. http://www.gravee.com/ Gravee . http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://oaister.gnod.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://www. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.mooter.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.squidoo.com/search/def ault.pubsub.icerocket. http://www.com/ 201 © 2006.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www.otavo. http://channels. and the Web. http://www. http://search.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. http://dmoz.com/v2/index. http://www. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.umdl.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.jookster.looksmart.

edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/v2a/flash. http://www.yahoo. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.ist.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . http://www. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.wink. http://tagjag. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.healthfinder. books.google. http://www. Wink then diplays the results.com/ 202 © 2006. http://www. http://vivisimo. Brandon Hall Research .com Google Book Search – Search just for books.google. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://swicki.ai.sri.blinkx. http://firstgov. http://www.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://scholar. http://citeseer.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://froogle.gnoosic.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.google.imdb.Clusters results.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.gpoaccess.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.eurekster. http://www.psu.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.stumbleupon. http://books. and movies.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. Much of this information is hidden from view. http://www.govmine. http://icerocket.gov/ http://www.acronymfinder.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://www.ucr.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. reviews.ujiko. http://infomine.com/ Wink – Using social networking.

com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. http://www. http://www.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes. http://www. http://portal.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.krugle.nih. http://kids.org/ Omgili . http://lawcrawler. Brandon Hall Research .findlaw.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.gov/entrez/query.acm. ArtKIDSRule.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.almaden.merl.ibm.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. AolKIDS. http://www. http://www.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. Yahooligans.koders.org/citation. http://wwwqbic. & KidsClick!.ncbi. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. http://www.com/ LitLinker .convera.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www.omgili.rrzn.fm/ LawCrawler . http://www.cfm?doid=105 6808. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.f cgi QBIC .last.scirus.rawsugar.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www. FactMonster.nlm.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.pandora.com/ Last.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).uni-hannover.liveplasma.A legal search engine. AwesomeLibrary.imdb.ithaki. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.com/ MediaFinder . reviews. http://www.

ee. http://www.cs. Known as “meta-search” engines. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www.truveo. http://a9.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.psu.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://www. http://wang16.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. bookmarks.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.nyu.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www.ee.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.ee.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.soundspotter. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ist.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. and notes. http://www.psu. as of this writing.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www. companies. and tracks a user's search history. http://nlp.columbia.searchedu. http://www.cmp. and their relationships. http://smealsearch1.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.seekport.zoominfo. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.4 billion links.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. http://techsearch.xcavator.com 204 © 2006.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ. http://www. or federated searching.columbia.technorati. http://www.” Content-based search engines for pictures.columbia.searchking.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. http://www.

searchtools. audio. greeting cards. and Web mail for the topic entered.ac. news sources.net/indexu. yellow pages. video. maps/directions.inria. apartment rentals.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.com/ 205 © 2006. movies.com/ Info – Searches reference works.kartoo. http://clusty. including a set of international telephone directories. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www.copernic. http://www.researchbuzz.intute. http://www. hotels. health information sources.ixquick. dating and personals.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and links the clusters. http://www.info.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://vivisimo.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.ithaki. http://www. city guides.search.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.dogpile. http://www. http://www. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. tickets. pictures.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. flights. classifieds.zapmeta. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www-rocq. http://www. lottery results.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. therefore. shopping sites. weather. http://www. http://www. white pages. eBay.uk/ SearchTools.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. jobs. games. produces a visual display of the clusters.trovando. is a valuable resource for researchers.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. http://www.

gpoaccess. http://infomine. http://swicki. Y. http://www.co. 10(12).. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.html 206 © 2006. Frank. Users can also browse by subject category. A. http://www.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. December.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.citysearch. http://www. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.just as a search engine is used for text. can be published on the user's site. This search engine. and Shoham. Brandon Hall Research .org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.ac. http://searchenginewatch.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.downes. phrase.searchenginecolossus. S.netmasters. (2005). First Monday. http://www.com/ Stephen Downes.eurekster. http://www.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. or topic . With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. http://www. is against the idea of federated searches. focused searches on topics they care about. For example. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. Unlike other search engines.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.ac.gov/ http://www.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.tveyes.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.bolton. or swicki. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. http://firstgov. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site.firstmonday.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.ucr.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. the user's community has total control over the results.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.elearning. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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eLearning based on the Semantic Web.inria. USA. and Studer. 2004. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. http://www. and Stumme. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. G.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Davis.amazon. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Lytras. (2004).asp Udell.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. (2001). 7.bcs.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. 2003.pdf Shirky. E.ac. InfoWorld.pdf Updegrove. A.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Worldview. Karenos. May 17–22. http://www2004. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. http://www.unikarlsruhe.. G. Woukeu. L. http://www. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.pdf Tao. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference.info/journals/7_4/5. http://www. F.dcs. http://ewic. F. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. D. http://www. 2004. Andy (2005). The Semantic Web. New York. 7 (4).org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.infoworld. December 3.shirky.pdf Tao. P.pdf Samaras.soton. L. http://eprints. Greenwich.. and Gouarderes.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. A. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. Thomas (2004).ecs.pdf Sampson.. (2004). Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. K.html Do Not Reproduce 213 .ifets. http://www. CT: Manning.. http://wwwsop. M. Millard. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. and Woukeu. H.. Schmitz. C.html Stojanovic.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. (2003). (2005). R. Paper presented at the GLS conference.uk/selene/reports/D el3. August 2. Staab. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. 2005.. D. Marketing Profs.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. Millard.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.com/login/sign up.pdf Tane. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. http://www.aifb. D. John (2004).. Economics and Culture. Syllogism.bbk. H. and Diaz. S. Nov. New York. Wagner.ac. J. (2004). 26-28. (2005). Clay (2003). and Davis.. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. and Christodoulou.marketingprofs.. G. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. G. Networks.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.

uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).uk/elearning/ story/0.co. http://education. Scott’s Workblog.981948. http://www.ac. (2003). 2002. Online article.cetis. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. Scott (2002). Who said that? Metadata. and Miller. http://www. Peter (2003). http://www.ac.guardian. 2005. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.00. Online article. trust.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. June 21. and the Semantic Web. http://poorbuthappy.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck.com/read/swiftkick /column. David (2002).darwinmag. Scott (2005).org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . http://www.w3. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. 2003.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. June 14.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. L. Darwin. Semantic Web.10577.html Wilson. B.cetis. January 17. CETIS Online article.

i. games. It was decommissioned in 2005. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.icherubini. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. 2005). Do Not Reproduce 215 . participants will be motivated to evaluate. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.noaa. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. http://sos.” My first report in this series. http://cave. http://www.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. microworlds. especially ones set by themselves. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. According to High (2004).edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. reviewed simulations as an online content format.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. learn. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. role-playing. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.e.ncsa.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.calt. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.insead. http://www.insead. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).gov/ Winters et al.calt. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. but information about it remains on the Web.uiuc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.

html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.insead.dc.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. and murmurs. heart sounds. with many examples to try.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.calt.insead.edcenter. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.net/celestia/index.making-history.edcenter.calt.calt.lsa.sdsu.calt. However. Linux.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.med.umich. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. Mass.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. pulse rate.insead. http://geowall. http://www. and Mac OS X.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 216 . http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.. http://www.insead. http://www. http://thinkertools." http://www.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.edu/harvey_about. http://www. http://crme. It runs on Windows.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.fsl.edu/ http://um3d. breathing.noaa. http://www.geo. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. they are only available for Macintosh computers.edu/geowall/ind ex.sdsu.soe. http://www." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.umich.shatters.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.berkeley.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.miami.

http://www. http://www. http://www.Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second.adobe.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.maxit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.intermezzon. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .virtualfishtank.experiencebuilders.com/ MaxIT .Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.knowledge-director. http://www. http://www. Integrates with many media types.com/ MaxIT .Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. For example.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .stt-global.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.ISLE .assima. to play in a virtual fishtank.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. http://www.atghome. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.com/broadcastoverview.com/ Kookaburra Studios .knowledgeplanet.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/ Forio .ht m Intermezzon .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.adobe.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser. http://www.biographix. go to: http://www.knowledgequest. http://www.com/product s/firefly.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. http://www.com/ Knowledge Planet .net/ Biographix .knowledgepresenter. http://www. without programming knowledge.maxit.forio. http://www.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www.

including simulations.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www. http://www.reusableobjects. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.com/portal/index. which can then be used to build simulations.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. http://www.xstreamsoftware.virtualcontrolroom.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com/product_r pe.co.elearningcentre.percepsys.outstart.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.teds.stottlerhenke. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.com/products/sim. http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.nexlearn.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .learning2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.” http://www. http://www.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.sdsu.stagecast.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.com/3dTraining.qarbon. http://www. http://coe.icherubini.

computer games. and McCloughlin. Jennifer (2004). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Learning Circuits. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.com/content/template s/clo_feature. p.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). September.amazon.PDF Blikstein. 2004. Simjour. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.learningcircuits. 8. J. 2004.. http://www. http://www. http://www. M. and Bostan. Utrecht. Gash. International Workshop. http://www.bbk. http://www. http://www.ft. and Wilensky. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 219 .htm High. Sept.science..ac.uva.bc.htm Aldrich. How playing power drives lessons home. H. http://www.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Feb.uk/ccs/elearn/resources.htm eSchool News (2004). B. 2002. 12. Clark (2004).org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. http://www. A. Six criteria of an educational simulation. Paper presented at Robocup conference. San Francisco: Pfieffer.com/news/showS tory.jibc. html Bibliography Aldrich..nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.eschoolnews. F.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. October 2004. Clark (2005).medialabeurope.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. Aug.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training. http://www. (2004).pdf DeVries. A.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. (2002). Learning Circuits. eSchool News.learningcircuits. Taghiyareh.pdf Cherubini. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Bjorn (2004).. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.learningcircuits. A. Learning Circuits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. Holland. U. http://www. 2004. In Interaction Design and Children. The promise of online simulations. Making the most of software simulations.blikstein. Shannon (2004). June. 4. Chief Learning Officer. P. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Kamau (2004).com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. http://www. Rasmussen.clomedia. (2005). Financial Times.. Mazloumian. T.

N.projects. Implementation and Evaluation. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.html Lunce. J.html Winters. Computer simulations in distance education. http://www. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Sherry (1997). USA.case studies. and Hou. http://www. October.. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.pdf Tjaden.pdf Swaak. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . http://www. T. 17. Cherubini.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . Online report. July.cs. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.bham. Department of Computer Science. J. Les (2004).prospect. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge.learningcircuits. (2001).. Aaron (2005). Montréal. 284-294. L. (2004). Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.ac.simplay.. Laser.ncassr.dei.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. & de Jong.. and Strohecker. Florida.net/papers/ELearning. A. A. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer.. http://itdl.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.icherubini. http://www. R. (2003). and Sund Martin.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. October 15-19. AACE conference. Mar.for Philosophers and Engineers.html Sobeih. A. A. September. 8(31). 1997. http://www. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. Fort Lauderdale. (2001). In Association for Computing Machinery.pdf Turkle.-Apr.ht m Sloman. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. M. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. M. Gary (2003). Learning Circuits.html Linser. http://www. Viswanathan. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. The American Prospect.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Online paper at: http://lsm.protonmedia. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466..org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. and Ip. C. 1(10). http://www. April.uc. (2002). Simulation levels in software training.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper.

Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. grease. optical tags. http://www. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. easily changed.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. They are programmable and. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. RFID technology is developing rapidly. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.ala. especially in museums and for outdoor education. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. which transmits over short distances. While controversial.. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. therefore. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. especially for tagging retail items in stores. For a full discussion of this issue. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. 2005). this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). or water.org/Template. infrared (IR) tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. Do Not Reproduce 221 .

com/monthly/articl e.ac. & Richards. S. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. T.. symbology tags. http://www.csmonitor.edu/102605_meal. http://www.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.iu.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.org/newdl/index. K.digicult.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. A.com/default .. K. & Kondo.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.cfm?fus http://www. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader.open..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. (Eds.org/ Bibliography Borck. 2005.. Noma.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. http://www. James (2006).. http://www. 2004. Osawa. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.). http://www.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal. Noda. (2004). Shibuya. G. in a 2005 online article.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. http://cnm. especially for tagging retail items in stores.. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. N. (2005).html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly.html (Online). http://uitspress.checkpointsystems. http://www. 5. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.aace.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. In Kommers. Oct. P. June 27.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.iu.” http://vis. Ando.toydirectory. and Case.msu.edu/index. http://www.infoworld. Infoworld. C. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 .html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant.aace.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.rfidnews. April 13.. Tsukagoshi. A.

Masters Thesis. RFID: frequency.computer..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray. and Backhouse.pdf Robinton. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc. (2003). and Dobreva.jisc. standards. Ogata.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.toydirectory.digicult. http://www. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.msu. R. Y. http://www. H.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. 2004. adoption and innovation.1109/WMTE. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).com/monthly/article .ac. Aparna (2004). http://www. March. S. 261-263. January 1.2005. and Yano. eSchool News Online. TD Monthly. R. http://www. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. M. Proceedings. (2006). Andrew (2005). 4(3).info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. (2005).eschoolnews.66 Ward. Corey (2004).xml&DOI=10. G. http://csdl2.asp?id=1222 Ross.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran..org/news/showstor y.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. van Kranenburg.. Donnelly.pdf Salcedo. M. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Michigan State University. M.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 .

and Web links. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Students.icio. no matter their location or timing.us) post their favorite Web sites. metadata. As of April 2006. as each member can upload resources discovered. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. in turn. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. Fourth. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. or distributed in emails. music. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. ontologies. Flickr held over 100 million images. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.First. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. researchers at all levels (students. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. while users of the del. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. they act as an “outboard memory. tagging. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. For example. Do Not Reproduce 224 . printouts.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. faculty.icio. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. Fifth. For instance. Second. search. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms.us Web site (http://del. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. and books.” However. Third. The result is something called a tag cloud.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress.

com/ Flickr – Store.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. the users decide. They can save references.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers.clipmarks. get inspired.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. connect with others. share references with colleagues.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. Do Not Reproduce 225 . and/or books and find them again. users submit stories for review.com Clipmarks .furl.blinklist.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. search.com/ Blinklist . store. music. http://blogmarks. http://consumating. but.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.metafilter.eventful. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.net/ CiteULike . http://del.digg.com/ Furl . blogging.citeulike.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. share their stories.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. With digg.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.us/ Digg .org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. Also.com/ Del. search others’ references. and non-hierarchical editorial control. or check out what everyone wants to do.A free service to help academics share.org/ Consumating . and share photos with others. and to share them. RSS.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. Blink also provides tools to sort. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.feedmarker. http://www. http://ask.icio. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community.us .43things. http://blog. http://www. sort. http://flickr. http://www.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. http://www. Also retrieve it easily. http://www. and organize the academic papers they are reading. describe.com/archives/beta_up date/index.connotea. http://www.icio. http://www. users can see what others are Blinking. and search for a specific user's Blinks. http://www.

http://www. Tags can be shared or kept private.shadows.kaboodle. based on what is happening in the news media. and discover relevant links.edu/ppad2 /index.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.netscape. http://www. http://www. http://www.yahoo.simpy. http://www.memeorandum.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.org/news. or enter new items and tag them.com/ Magnolia .com/ Simpy – Search tags.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.networkltd.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.spurl. http://jots.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster . http://www. http://www.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . http://myweb2. share.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.northwestern.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.jookster.search.smugmug.A free. http://www. http://ma.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. similar to Digg. http://www.pageflakes.com/ Kaboodle .html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. http://www.gnolia.netvouz.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. updated in near real time.eu/products/networ k_menus.com/ Jots . http://projectpad. http://www.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.linkroll.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.rojo. http://www.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.html Linkroll .Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.com/ Project Pad .

com/ SWiK .educause. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del. and social bookmarking.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .” http://www. http://www.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell. http://www. http://www. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.zvents.us. http://www.infoworld. and Digg. http://www.html http://atomiq. and share it with others.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.icio.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.quickonlinetips.com/archives/00055 8. If a city is not there.S.veotag.html http://tagsonomy.wists. http://www. http://unalog. http://tabblo.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001. with contributions from users. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.quickonlinetips. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.us.peterme.yelp.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.icio. http://upcoming.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.A.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. Flickr.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.tagzania. tags. http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. http://weblog. http://swik.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. http://www.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.html http://www.wink.com Wists – A social shopping site.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.com/index.suprglu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu .quickonlinetips.com/udell/gems/d elicious.

How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. and Scott.ascc.sid19_gci1195182.educause. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.com.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Adam (2004). Tom (2005). and Hannay. (2005).fasfind. Sept. J. 2005.adammathes.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. B.ht ml Mejias.pbs. http://many. Ulises (2004).Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).pdf Gurber. B.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. T. April 2005.corante. T.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing. S.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.hpl.com/originalCo ntent/0. D-Lib Magazine. Web 2.com/wwwtools/m /6350. 2006.plasticbag. Andy (2006). http://searchcio. 11(4).” http://magazines.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. Hannay.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.html Coates. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Brandon Hall Research .html McGillicuddy. http://tomgruber. 2005. http://www.org/teachersource/learning . Online paper. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. Hammond..php Lund.hp. 11(4). June 21. April 2005. http://ideant..shtml Golder.html Lawley. Lund. Liz (2005).. Tom. Jan. Bryan (2006).. (2005).pdf 228 © 2006.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. D-Lib Magazine.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. http://www.dlib.com/wwwtools/m /7172. 41(2). http://dlib.techtarget.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. and Huberman. T. March/April 2006. http://www. http://www. B. http://www. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. 20. Many2Many. T. May 5. Plasticbag.00. Shamus (2006). Flack.ejournal.htm Hammond. Keynote address. 2006. HP Labs Report.org. (2005). http://www. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. M.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.fasfind.289142.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. 2. SearchCIO. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Social consequences of social tagging.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.. (2005).html Mathes.typepad.

Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. Tags vs.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. Nicholas (2004). Ulises (2005). May 20.isi. http://ideant. Jon (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 229 . Trusted Sources. 2004.typepad. Aug. http://www. Tag mania sweeps the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Collaborative knowledge gardening. InfoWorld. Will (2005). 2005. July 20.html Udell.weblogged. Ideant. Online Paper.pdf Richardson.infoworld. http://www. InfoWorld.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. August 20. 2005. The New School of Ontologies. http://www. Webblogg-ed.infoworld. http://www. Jon (2005). 2005.html Mote. 2.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th.

They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.icio. Friendster.” that is.al. communities of practice.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration.) Relationship Management (Orkut.com. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. 2005). family. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. photo sharing sites. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. photo albums. dating sites. etc. etc.us. e-mail. shared links.com. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration.) Experience Sharing (blogs. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. e-mail. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. social networking sites such as Friendster. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. tagging.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. My first report in this series. etc. Do Not Reproduce 230 . shared link libraries such as del. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et. SMS. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. online personals such as Match. social software. reviewed social networking as an online content format. etc. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals.

which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. http://www. http://www.com/ Live Journal .jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks.faceparty. and the military. Do Not Reproduce 231 .” http://www.orkut. audio. http://www.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. https://www.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.diaryland. work. Facebook has networks for colleges.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.esnips.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. documents. http://www. http://www. http://www. which is then open to other readers.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.myspace.freeopendiary. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. http://www.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.my-diary.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. and files and then make them available to others. as a blog. http://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know. https://www.com/signin/index.com/introNetwor ks.facebook.last. http://www. photos.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. The sites are places to meet people with common interests.html Last.livejournal. high schools.codeville.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. workplaces.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.linkedin. http://www. and geographic regions. or as a social network.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. and within “communities of interest. in associations.com/ Orkut . Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.friendster.classmates.intronetworks.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. Share it with others if desired.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. video. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.

http://www.com/index. see the JNthWeb Wiki.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.analytictech.orgnet.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.netminer.yahoo. http://ideant. Users share their writings and meet each other. http://www.com/reg/sample. http://www.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.” http://www. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that.stumbleupon. http://www. http://360.analytictech. http://www.xanga. http://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.pbs. http://www. http://jnthweb.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.S.com/hijackers.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software.orgnet. http://platial. coupled with NetDraw.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.com/index. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.typepad. http://www.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/ucinet. It costs several thousand dollars.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. upload photos.html Org. Brandon Hall Research . with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. check out the map at org.pbwiki.com/inflow3.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.spartasocialnetworks.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. Columbia University. This software produces great graphs of social networks. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. intelligence (1993-2001).orgnet.html 232 © 2006. http://www.

uva.elearningcentre.com/xq/asp/sid.jsp SocioSite: Networks. Life with Alacrity. Educational Social Overlay Networks.ucr.org. http://www.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. Virtual Canuck. KM and the Social Network. http://faculty. http://en.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web.usemod. Verna (2004). Oct. http://www.net/ssa/index. 13. Nov. Christopher (2004). Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. 2005.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites.lifewithalacrity.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. 2004.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets. http://www.fmg.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 . Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.com/cgibin/mb.odnetwork.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking.co. OD Practitioner.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. http://www2.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. http://www. see the list in Wikipedia. Groups.socialtext. Patti (2003).wikipedia.html Allen.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction. http://www. http://www.pdf Bibliography Allee. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.insna.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. http://terrya.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites. Knowledge Management Magazine. 32(4).html Anderson. http://www.theworkfoundation.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display. http://www.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software.analytictech.edublogs. May 2003. http://www1.. http://www. Terry (2005)..futurelab. but. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu.elsevier. 28.kmmagazine. http://www.

July 12.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. 2. J. Stowe (2004).jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard.darwinmag.com/mr/hbsp. Research Report. No. 2005. Business Networking Systems. http://www.amazon.htm Davies.1759. January 2004. (2004).theworkfoundation. (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks. http://www.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard. Borgatti. http://www. http://www. (2002).ca/files/osn. Christian (2006). Liedtka. Stowe (2003b).. R.html Dvorak.. Stowe (2003a). A. MA. Stephen’s Web.jsp Downes. Dead Already? PC World. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems.darwinmag. L. The Semantic Social Network.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. John (2004).com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.1225/R0503H Cross. Distance and E-Learning.pcmag. Darwin.html Boyd. Cambridge. Darwin. European Journal of Open. (2005). 44. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.harvard . Winter 2002.contentdirections.hbsp. Stephen (2005).edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. June 2002.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd.00.pdf Cross. R. S. 11.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main. and Weiss. http://www.downes.. Harvard Business Review. Perseus Publishing. 2004 http://www. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. The Barriers of Content and Context.com/read/010104/ context. http://www. http://harvardbusinessonline.com/read/050103/ social. Social Capital & Social Software. A. September 2003.html Cross. Cambridge. California Management Review.ca/cgibin/page.downes. and Prusak. Vol.hbsp.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.analytictech. http://www.darwinmag. http://www. Cracking the social code. The Work Foundation.1 648185. http://harvardbusinessonline. September 20. You Don't Know Me. http://www.j sp?doi=10. and Parker.com/article2/0.. but. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Feb. A. March 2005.. R. L.eurodl. Are you ready for social software? Darwin. 14. (2002).asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . Feb. http://doi. R. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. MA: Harvard Business School Press. and Parker. May 2003. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.com/read/090103/ social. L. William (2003). Stephen (2004). Harvard Business Review. OLDaily.harvard .html Boyd.

K. http://cogdogblog. (2006).html Do Not Reproduce 235 . 21. CA: University of California.ac..netform. Art (2003). (in 2 parts) http://www.h tml (Review) Gladwell. 15. Bristol. http://www. Caroline (2005). (2004). Social Software and Learning. Ulrike.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite.. No. M. Research Report. (Eds.planetwork. Malcolm. Grant. New York: Little.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. K. Lanham. (2005).edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. and Foster. UK: Futurelab. Institute for Social Science Research.org. http://www.net/AugmentedSocial Network. J.ucr. and Brewer (1994). http://asn. http://www..learningcircuits. 2006.pdf Pollard. August. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. (2000). (2003). and Facer.htm Kleiner. Online paper. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference.).. Seven Principles of Social Networking.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te.htm http://www. Social software in action (No real software required). April 15. Social Networks. & Barney. Brown. R. Sayers. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. S. and Riddle.learningcircuits. http://blogs. July 14. Hauser.pdf Levine. A. Southhampton. http://www. Feb. A.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen.amazon. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. Allan (2006). J. 2005.uiuc. M. Research Report. Oliver.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet.salon. D. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. http://repositories. 8(8).cdlib.futurelab. Learning Circuits.ed.wun. Riverside.. Zucker. David (2005a). Eva (2003). S. L.. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice.org/cgi/viewconte nt. (Online book). 29.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. http://faculty. 2005. Dec.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. (2001). CogDogBlog.pdf Jordan. L. First Monday.net/ir/reviews/revs163. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. How to Save the World Blog. http://lrs.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel.

341-358.Organization.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. 2.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe. http://informatics. David (2005d). Teaching. 23. June 16.shirky. Molly (2005). 2005. http://www. September. Connectivism: learning as network creation. (2004).salon. The social networking landscape.1895. D. 11. and Werdmuller.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. 2005. http://elgg. pp. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online).net/csessums/weblog/13748.html Pollard. http://elgg.com/writings/group_poli tics.asp Wood.00.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. G.h tml Shirky. Nov.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens. Rescuing social networking.pdf Ulanoff. Aug.salon. Christopher (2006b). Christopher (2006a). Aug.sagepub.salon. Thousand Oaks. Nov. (2005). Van de Vijver.cnet. March 9. and Raefali S.html Do Not Reproduce 236 . Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. 2006.html Pollard. First Monday. http://blogs. Delpos (eds. 2006. http://www. G.). http://blogs. Social Software presentation.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. Elgg: Community Learning Space. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks.indiana. 9(9). Jan. Luis M. http://www. http://www. Clay (2003). CA: Sage Publications. Kluwer Academic Publishers.html Ravid.edu/rocha/ises. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet. Draft paper online. 2005. 2003.com/article2/0. Learning Circuits.com/booksProdDesc. May 5. How to Save the World Blog. David (2005c). http://www.h tml.htm Tosh. http://blogs. Social software and the politics of groups.net/csessums/weblog/6238. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. Scott. How to Save the World Blog.html Siemens. (1998).ht ml Sessums. and M. John (2000). Social network analysis: what to map. June 2. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. 8. David (2005b).n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. http://www. How to Save the World Blog.firstmonday. George (2005).com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. B. 2005.com/4520-6033_16240543-1. CNET. Lance (2005). http://eradc. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. In: S. Learning and Computing. Social Network Analysis. Salthe.pcmag. 2005. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.1 842806.learningcircuits.

presence.hp. are also available.g. http://www. retrieving. cameras.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding.com/halo/index. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. another person while communicating via the Web.” but other more elaborate technologies. In 2000.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. presentation tools. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV). as if they were in the same room. share files and documents. 2001. 2001). There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. "online" or "offline") of other users. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. just like during a real meeting. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. 11. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.hp. Do Not Reproduce 237 . transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. and shout over each other to try to be heard. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. and the sense of contact with..html http://www. When it is fully successful.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.

strath.yahoo. http://www.' http://cnm. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.live.uk/ind ex. secure.fakespace.sourceforge.ebuddy. the CAVE.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://messenger. http://get. BSD. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. http://laimuz.aim. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .jabber. http://www.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.advanced. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. MacOS X.ac.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www.advanced.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.net/ Jabber – An open. in every sense. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence. http://www.ibm.org/teleimmersion2.percro.ac. http://telepresence.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.com/index. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers." http://www. at a physically remote real world site. The driver sits in a box.ht ml http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. http://www-142.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. and Windows.dmem.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.org/teleimmersion.open. http://gaim. http://www.unizar.

Ins and outs of teledildonics. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www.html Goldberg..hig.amazon.kth. Alberta. C. Network Working Group (2000).digicult. W. Davide... A. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Calgary.wired.berkeley.ieor.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. and Rusbridge. John (2004). 44-49.. F.) (2003). M.pdf Knudsen. 2002. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. S. Banff. A. Ken (Ed. Nils (2000).kth. J. A. MA: MIT Press. Do Not Reproduce 239 .. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. Presence applications poised for takeoff. http://kmr. London: Routledge. Abbott. http://www. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. http://www2.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. On the Internet.org/rfc/rfc2779. Wired News.txt Knudsen. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). In Soldek. and Handberg. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.acs. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. Cambridge.networkworld. http://cid. http://www. M. (2005).org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. Online memo. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic..se/pdf/CID-206. Dobreva. June 1.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. http://www. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. history. McHugh. J. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Network World. Being There: Concepts.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.nada.virtual-presence.65 064-0. and Pejas. and Naeve. (Eds. 6.org Bibliography Dreyfus. http://www. A. G. 2004. L. September 24.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Naeve.) (2000). January 2005.nada. (Eds.html Riva. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.amazon. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.pdf Fontana. D. http://www. as well as news. C. http://www. Regina (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. (2002).no/at/nmm/enlund. Sept. Donnelly.pdf Lynn.pdf When it is fully successful. http://www. (2001). Hubert (2001).ietf. and IJsselsteijn.com/news/culture/0.

C. H. In Hoyer. InfoWorld. (2001). Jon (2005). and Handberg.swedishlearninglab. 28.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1.modes.. (Eds.infoworld. L.pdf Udell.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg.org/docum ents/Sponberg. Jan. Knudsen.html Do Not Reproduce 240 . When time-shifting and telepresence collide. et al. H. http://www. Germany: Hagen. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.Learning.

IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. reviewed video as an online content format. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. telepresence. However. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). vlog Description Video. amateur and professional video cameras. 2002). even a video plug-in for Skype. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. streaming video. screencasting. video blogging. in all its formats. videocasting. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. the largest Internet telephone service. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. 2005). My first report in this series. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. PDAs. A new version of television. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. bandwidth becomes an issue. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Once video goes on the Internet. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. in all its formats. Video. television. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). tlearning. cell phones. vodcasting. IPTV. Video blogging has become common. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. Do Not Reproduce 241 .

http://participatoryculture. cell phones. even a video plug-in for Skype. BT. http://www. see Rocketboom.dmeurope. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. or students through a high quality.google. according to Foroohar (2006). See samples at: http://www. As the following examples show. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. a three-minute videoblog.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .medialogic. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. video.brightcove. amateur and professional video cameras. voice. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. employees. and maintains loyalty. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world.com.uk/index. low bandwidth video stream.axor. with IPTV. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. It is still going strong at: http://www.html Dialcom Networks.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. partners. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. PDAs.rocketboom. http://www. http://www. improves the satisfaction of the client. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. the “triple play” of video.com For an example of a video blog. http://www.rocketboom.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.com/default. Britain's largest telecom firm.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://video. and multimedia content to customers.co.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. In spite of the limitations.org/ In 1999.ar/iptv_en. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams.apple.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further. http://www.on2.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. the Internet telephone service. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem.com/index_about. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.dfilm. http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. the largest Internet telephone service. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines.

ourmedia. tag them. and visual resources.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.dvguru.co.concord. http://www.com/seeds/index.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. http://www. desktop.org/ At YouTube.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.veoh. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://eduscapes. whether dial-up.xstreamengine.veotag. and divide them into chapters or segments. read “Ten video sharing services compared.bittorrent. PDA.mil/index.com Do Not Reproduce 243 . https://www. http://vpb. or set-top box. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.bittorrent.com/nara. For example.” Users can upload video clips for free. cellular.google.youtube.hpc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. See the current selection at: http://video.com/pressreleas es. http://www.spider.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.addictingclips.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. http://www. http://www.elearningcentre.com/ BitTorrent.” http://www.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. See examples at: http://www.navy.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. video.

Pradeep (2004). http://www.thinkofit.iptv-industry.com/webconf/video.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.pdf Bardia. and Bates.edu/articl e.masternewmedia. and by tags.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. which users can submit.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. http://www. http://www.org/doing/media.” http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.com/article.org.masternewmedia.500 vlogs organized by popularity.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere. Online article at: http://www. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. The site already contains nearly 6. D.masternewmedia.upenn. http://www.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.elearnspace.” http://www.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019. but business models are fuzzy. (2003). termed “mobile television.co.uk/tlearning/contents.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 .” http://www. P.lsda.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. http://www.educause.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. Peter (2003).pjb.uk/files/pdf/1443. http://www. t-learning Study .streamingmedia.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.mefeedia.wharton. www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.” http://knowledge.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. by alphabet.

) (2002). NC: Duke University. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. Newsweek (International Ed.com/id/8018601/si 8. April 26. P. Networking Pipeline. Changing Channels..edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. Campus Technology. http://www. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Matthew (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi.pdf tough road deploying IPTV.networkingpipeline. and Swenson. 2005. http://www. In Richards.amazon. (Ed.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. Goldfarb.masternewmedia. IBM Institute for Business Value study. Robin Good Blog.umist. (2005). 7.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.ibm.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Online paper. Telcos face http://www-rcf. Feb. June 6. Asensio. http://edmarketing. implications. Wi-Max.pdf ction=Reader. http://www.msnbc. Luigi (2005b).aace.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. Manchester. and Young.pdf http://www. Wi-Fi.bcr. 2005. L. The IPTV Revolution. Dec. Tom (2005). Rana (2005). Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.ac.org/newdl/index. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp.usc. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.pdf Klass. G. 417-419).campustechnology. http://www1. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2005a).). M. Video Streaming: a guide for icle. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. Peter (2005). Nov. Brian (2005). 2005.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.masternewmedia. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. Robin Good Blog.). Brian (2002). UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. http://www. S. Beyond Wireless Broadband. 2005. 2005.htm IBM (2006). Durham.asp?id=7769 Meng. Dec.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development.msn.com/article. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Foroohar. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.cfm?fusea . 2005. 2. (Eds. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Friedman. C. University of Missouri. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. 1.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle.apple. discussions and Curtis.com/showArt Thornhill. Mon. 8-9. (2003). Jonathan.

The space is persistent.columbia. designers. desktop virtual reality. By using aspects of game play. http://www1.kahootz.arts. http://ancient. interaction. augmented virtuality.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. Creed. Videoconferencing is not required. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. and the aim of the virtual experience.netofpeers.ubc. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. http://www. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. http://www. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.ca/index. Exploration and discovery are enabled.cs.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. and storytellers. Near Eastern. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.net/wiki2/index. inventors. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. exchange enabling. To do this. distributed virtual environments. and re-experiencing or re-using past events.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties.futurelab. and Religious Studies department. Do Not Reproduce 246 . Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. skin color. simulation.org. mixed reality. Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. http://solipsis.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.

virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.ahds.html The U.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. Do Not Reproduce 247 . Shape has developed the augurscope.ac. http://www.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.ergonetz.mil/index.opencroquet. http://www.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.com http://www. http://www. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany. http://www. http://www. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).hpc.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.ahds.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). http://www. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.html http://vads.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved. and the aim of the virtual experience.spider.shapedc.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.org/index.epfl. https://www.org/highlights/augur. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.informationinplace.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. including education.ch/About/about_index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.S.healthdatamanagement. For example.activeworlds. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.com/edu/index. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.secondlife. http://www.ac.equator. http://vrlab.navy.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex. http://vads.ac.

Virtual teaching aids become a reality. (2001). and Hicks.ecu. http://www..pdf Hoare. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. 27.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.com/article.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.campustechnology.cti.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. C. Luigi (2004). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. http://www. 175-199. 2004.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. J. Sept. http://ru6. 28. Sept. C. and Tsiatsos. http://ru6.intuition-eunetwork. and Tsiatsos.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.. http://www. V. Campus Technology. A.unt.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. August 9. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.cti. http://www. East Carolina University. C.edu/vrel.uk/elearning/ story/0.htm Dickey. Research report. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. 2004.pdf Bouras.10577.cti.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. http://www. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.coe. Trend: augmented reality check.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.co. Guardian Unlimited. Dec. Technology Area . Stephen (2004). (2004). http://ru6. http://education. Hornig.oln.pdf Bouras. (2006). G. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. 2004. http://vr.. Robin Good Blog.html Jones. G. 24. T.learningcircuits. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. T. (2001).htm Bibliography Bouras.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . Paper presented at ICALT 2001.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends.masternewmedia. T. 2006. http://courseweb. Triantafillou.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). Philopoulos. Learning Circuits.1314022.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4. and Tsiatsos. Michelle (2003).guardian. Eva (2004).00. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.

html Liarokapis.aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. (2005).edu. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. July 9-16. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.com/PaperInfo. Ekaterina (2005).au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.. F..it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen.org/htmleng/english. and White. Petridis.icc2005.pdf Katterfeld. 1(2). No.. Web-based Education 2005 conference.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Abbott. E. La Coruna/Spain. M.digicult. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. (Section on Virtual Reality). G.tcd.. (2002). and Sester. C.p df Prasolova-Førland. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Istanbul. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Proceedings.pdf Ross. Dobreva. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.pdf McArdle.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. Lister.. Vol. http://www. S.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen. 2004.. M. T. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . International Archives of Photogrammetry. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.cs. McHugh. Conlan. Monahan. A.actapress. O. January 2005. Bertolotto. D. and Rusbridge. http://www. Web Based Education 2005 conference. (2005). F. and Mangina. R.unihannover. & Sester.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 2005. 35. 1. http://www.monash.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. M. Donnelly. (2004). M.eng. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. http://www.. (2005). M.actapress.elearning. A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld. http://www.. M. ISPRS. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Gerard (2002). C. https://www.ikg.unibo..actapress. http://www. (2005). P. and Seyedarabi. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.com/PaperInfo. P.ie/Owen.com/Reference. Proceedings.

mapping. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. Finally. See some amazing demos at: http://www. allowing for innovation or new understandings. Flash. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. et al. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. cognitive collage. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. cybercartography. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. visualization can represent alternative points of view.ucar. 2005). dynamic displays. Do Not Reproduce 250 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. GIS. My first report in this series.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps.inxight. The educational advantages of visualization are many. 2003). graphics. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. images. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. On the other hand. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. location based systems. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. data mapping.dpc. geographical information systems. data filtering. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. pattern recognition. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. and data rendering. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. reviewed visualization as an online content format. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously.

ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.com/solutions. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. Museum Edition.zoomclouds. allowing 2-D image stitcher. http://www.ontopia.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. See: to education. http://www. http://www.cs.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.0 as an approach authoring system. http://www. http://www. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. http://www.nih.edu/index.ddd. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub. delivery.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.bham.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography.semagix.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. and will require visualization applications. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.nlm.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. see ZoomClouds.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human. such as a blog.tmm.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 . Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. http://www.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.” http://richie.html http://www.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. and display (without glasses!).com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. For an example.vrco.typorganism. http://www. VR.esrin. whatsoever.idc.ul.alice.pdf tracking. which showcases their potential. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.ubc. Free demo at: ew_68. http://www.unifiedfield.net/omnigator/models/i ndex. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.ac.utexas.esa.vista.

See his list of resources at: http://www.vrvis.gsfc.net/omnigator/models /index.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://www. April 7th. 2004.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. http://www. Sample the collection at: http://svs. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.medtropolis.edu/postcartoaag06.indiana. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. a young graphic designer.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.co.in English or Spanish.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com/VBody.”’ BBC News. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. http://www.owu.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.” http://www.lecielestbleu. http://chatcircles.html For a practical application of visualization.org/timeformations/ intro.html 252 © 2006.marumushi. It has images of space and the earth from space. http://www.media.gov/index.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.semagix. Sample their efforts at: http://www. http://www.nasa. See their tool set and examples of their work. Brandon Hall Research . http://news.ontopia.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. http://www.com/solutions.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.com/index.mit.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.bbc. http://www.feedtank. http://makingmaps.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.skyscraper.at/home.medibolt.edu/ Paul Nixon.com Web site in Tokyo.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385. Be sure to explore the “zoo.nixlog.cs.

org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.nih. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.html How do users visualize very large data sets.xcelsius.com/index.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.S.http://www.unifiedfield.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.noaa. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.arcscience.cs.com/applicatio n. See this technology in action.com/omni. for example.com/cat/dashb oard/index. one million items. http://www.ambientdevices.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. anatomically detailed.microsoft. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.org/about.gfdl. and information presentation.mccrackendesign.spotfire.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.umd. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.com WorkPlace . including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://research.ibm.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. retrieval.http://www.amnh. http://www.com CenterView . in the U. http://www. at the University of Maryland.htm Using time as an added dimension.vicodi. http://www. http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 . http://www.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.nlm.corda.html XCelsius .idashboards.com http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.html Top Tier http://www. http://clustrmaps.

They have worked with the U. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.visualanalytics. MapViewer. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://www. and. and anomalies in data. trends. associations. for thematic and analytical mapping.com/mam/mam.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://www.oziexplorer. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. http://www.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. http://www. http://www. http://www.esri. Didger.musanim.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. http://research. networks.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. http://www. for 3-D data visualization.S.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. for 2D and 3-D graphing.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.timemap.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.media. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www. including the following: Voxler.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.mit. http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .intergraph.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. Grapher.mapinfo. Strater.topozone.golden. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.advizorsolutions. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. http://tangible.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.softill. http://www.microsoft.

and rendering. together with their estimated depth of influence. many of which are unique.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.stanford. http://www.visualthesaurus.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. Following are two: http://graphics.cs. for 3-D modeling. and rendering software.agocg. http://www.accurender. is available online.com Pixologic is 2. http://www.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www.ubc. modeling.ac.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. P. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. http://www.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. animation.iu. for 3-D landscaping and animation.com/vc/index.liveplasma.formz.edu/index. http://www.pixologic.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.daz3d.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 . and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. Carrara.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www.5-D modeling and rendering software.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. Clicking a related term extends the process. http://coe.sdsu. including the following: Bryce.edu/eet/ Ell.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. http://www.visualcomplexity.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces..uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey.” http://vis.” http://www. http://www.okino. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.topicmap. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.masternewmedia.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. Try a demo at: http://www.

He finished his PhD.infovis.complexityandeducation. Working Paper.gvu.media. 3149 http://www. pp. Mackinlay. Sherman (2003). in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.edu/research/resea rch. Proceedings. les réseaux. and Woodill. G. M. Madison: University of Wisconsin. and Resetarits.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.fakespace. Jacques (1967). Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.editlib.) (1999). http://acg. both visualization companies.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. J. 1-34.gatech. J.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. http://www.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. Paier.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.pdf Bertin. http://www. http://www.amazon.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.net/printRec. Switzerland: University of Lugano. http://www. B. A. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. http://www. http://acg. les cartes.media. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. and Shneiderman. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.. Luca (2003). http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.usilu. http://www.com/ http://www.gatech.com/ Bibliography Alpert.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. 14(1). to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. K. Jacques (1983).ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.mit. (2003). Lugano. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Paris: La Haye.vrco. http://www.org/index. EXYSTENCE network.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.pdf Bergmann.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 .ualber ta. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. J.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.istituti.topicmaps.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. The Semiology of Graphics.mit. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. (Eds.edwardtufte. http://www.htm http://www..complexityscience. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.gvu.

http://www.K. 42.campustechnology. January 2005. Educational Media International. K. 41(3). More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. G. Abbott.fr/CanJ/CanJ. Dobreva.. M.com/article.ht m O'Regan. Vol. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. J. (2005). Arns. M.com/publications. (1998). 17-30. Donnelly.amazon. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. (Section on Visualization).org/Journal/jan_06/article02.asp?id=11222 Metros.siggraph. Brian (2002).html Madhavan. http://www. EDUCAUSE Review. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.ac. (2005). (2005). A. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. 46: 461-488.digicult. 3(1).DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark. http://www.asp Mittal. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.com/articles/abst racts/index..edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. (2006). Campus Technology. McHugh. K.editlib.agocg.. NC: Duke University. http://www. D. 329-351. and Woolsey. C. A.html Rhyne.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones. (1992). September. 2005. http://itdl. J. A. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. L. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.org/dl/index. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. and Bertoline.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. K.. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Durham. http://www. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. International Journal on E-Learning.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. http://www. S.pdf Goldfarb. Theresa (1998).. and Rusbridge.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell. P. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Brent (2006).aace. 16(4).html Ross.educause. June 1.cfm/files/paper _5994. No.univparis5.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . 3. http://www.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. (2005). 69-82. http://www. Canadian Journal of Psychology. and Knezek. S. G. May/June.elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal. available online at http://www. and Pagalthivarthi.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Morales.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Luca (2005). Siggraph. Ruth (2003).psycho. August 11. 4(1). http://createdrealities. http://nivea.org/index.

edwardtufte.edwardtufte. Brandon Hall Research . pp. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. http://www.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. No.amazon. 2. 2nd Ed. (2004).E. M.com/tufte/index Tufte. Mike and Rogers. evidence and narrative. Vol. Yvonne (1996). Cheshire. Edward (1997). (2004). New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Edward (2001).com/tufte/index Tufte. CT: Graphics Press. Colin. Matt (2002).Visualization Technologies Scaife.pdf Shneiderman. Edward (1990). http://www. B. David (2005). Harlow. Fall.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. Robert. CT: Graphics Press.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. Reading.ciconline. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.slis. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. England: AddisonWesley. http://www. Amsterdam: Elsevier.edwardtufte. http://www.amazon. 2nd Edition. http://www.amazon. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Cheshire. 4th Edition. Spence. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Information Visualization: perception for design.amazon. 45.org/threshold Tufte. http://www. Information Visualization. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Envisioning Information. http://www.com/tufte/index Ware. Visualization. From multimedia to multisensory education. Sharpe. August.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman. Cheshire. (2001). Digital Information Graphics. Threshold. Computers. 185–213 http://www. CT: Graphics Press. David (2002).indiana.

http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.jajah. Internet telephony. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. 1996). and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. communications tools. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. http://www. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.envisioninc. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. requiring an Internet hookup. Do Not Reproduce 259 . An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. and a microphone. in remote communities. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.skype.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.co. Using VoIP.elearningcentre. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. but it is rapidly improving.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. headphones or speakers. In the near future.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. http://www. http://www.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. http://www. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Internet telephony is relatively simple.avaya.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. http://www. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning.infoworld.

S. Join the discussion at: http://voip. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Language Learning and Technology. Robert (2005). Stojanov.ac. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. and O’Droma. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. September.org/xpl/freeabs_all. (2005). Steven (2005). A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Brandon Hall Research .susx. http://ieeexplore.weblogsinc. Meredith (1996). M. http://www.ieee. http://www. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. 260 © 2006.ieee.cogs. but it is rapidly improving.msu. http://www.pdf Ganchev. http://www.spectrum.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. http://llt. Mobile distributed e-learning center. IEEE Spectrum Online..js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.pdf Ottoson.org Bibliography Cherry. 9(3). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. March 2005.nald. Geraldine (2005). I.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.voipreview. 9-12.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .

hubuska.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.bris. Selected Examples In Europe.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. http://news. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. including batteries.co.ppt In January 2006. anytime. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. including wearable computing.p df http://www. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.edu/design/Ion.learnexact. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.checkpointelearning. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. The entire system. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. managing. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.bbc.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. like a wristband or jewelry. For example. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. http://wearables. Do Not Reproduce 261 . http://killer.cmu.ac. http://www. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. http://www.cs.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.ices. weighs less than three pounds.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. training to do their jobs.

edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006. and other organizations involved in inspecting. http://www. training. http://www.eyetap. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. Mmoma (2006).ac.com/Home/Home. 2004. especially for comercial airlines. March 24.wearable.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. or repairing complex machines.ices.eecg. Wearable Computing for the Commons. Technology Review (Online). is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.media.wired.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. and Lupisella. like a wristband or jewelry. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.jisc.gsfc. http://about. S.eee. 2006.uk/index.com/news/culture/0.com/news/culture/0. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).wired.org is a rich source of references.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. http://killer. M. Brandon Hall Research . M. http://isd.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. http://www. (2004).cmu. http://www.html http://www. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. http://www. and Levene. http://www.eecg. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. C.uoregon.cs.com/read_art icle.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.nasa.html Garfinkel. http://www. What you’ll wear in 10 years.edu/research/wear ables/index.org/index. http://www.ac.sportbrain.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.edu/design/VuMan.org/index_graphical.toronto.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.ethz. http://www.toronto. especially in the area of wearable cameras.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. the automotive industry.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. Simson (2004).” including computers built into underwear.bham. Wired News. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications.704 81-0. (2003).uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.technologyreview.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.html The design of “smart clothing.edu/ http://wearcam. Dec. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. See: http://genesis.mit. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. 1.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.70 481-0.

Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. H.amazon. Fairfax. ICWC98. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Business Week Online. (2002).html Do Not Reproduce 263 . http://www. Toronto: Anchor Books. http://wearcam. May 12-13. 2005.businessweek. March 8.org/icwckeynote. http://www.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Steve (1998). Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. htm Mann. VA. Wearable computers that you can slip into.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. and Niedzviecki. Olga (2005). S.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS). with all the potential for viruses and spam. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. listings of the latest books. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. and course offerings. blogs. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.” as its content is changed by the author. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. social bookmarking. TV guides. basic text format for quick review. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). podcasts. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. and electronics. To read content from a Web feed. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom.0 format). Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. CDs. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. Do Not Reproduce 264 . When changes are made to a Web site. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. and laptops. Instead of having items emailed to you. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. PDAs. job searches. including cell phones. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. photo collections. and Atom is the second. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. feeds.

com/today/ http://www. FeedForAll .com/ 5.com/ .sharpreader. Reader http://usablelabs.rss-to. Rojo . Syndirella . RSS Orbit . RSS Bandit http://www.html http://www. StepNewz .brightcove.awasu.newsisfree.com/rss/ http://www.http://www.com/ http://www.http://www. RSS-to-Javascript .mozdev.topix.feedroll. each http://www. Do Not Reproduce 265 .com/ 9.com/ http://www. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).org/Aggie.com/ http://www. FeedPublish http://www.http://www.net/ .com/feedscout.com/ Attensa .com/ 0.com 9.com/ Awasu .projectdu. FeedScout 4.com/ 3. Here is a list of 48: ml 7. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.ht with its own features.hexamail.com/myrsstoolbar.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www.http://www.http://www.com/amphetadesk http://www. Feedtier .com/ Brightcove .videora.feedforall.bytescout.http://www.feedster.U.feedjavascript.pubsub.http://www.net/ http://www.com/ 6.com 2.onfolio. Videora .http://www.shtml . Pluck .disobey.bloglet.rssreader.6.com/ 8.com/thunderbird/ .http://gregarius.puremis.org/ shtml .http://www. and Atom is the second.rsscalendar.http://www.somee.htm http://www.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.rssbandit. RSS Software .bloglines.http://www. Sage .com/ 0.http://www. Feedster .com/ . FeedBurner http://www.net/dl.rojo.com directory.rssreader.com/ http://www. Edu_RSS 0.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.feedpublish.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .com/ BlogExpress 1. Fuzzy Duck http://yole.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .h http://www.com tml 2. Feedroll . RSSReader http://www. Protopage Bloglet .com/ Selected Examples 5.mozilla.org/ . 6.http://www.pluck. FeedReader 1.com/productBlogExpress.http://www.com/ http://www.2 7.newsgator.http://feedbeep. RSS2Exchange http://www. LearningFeeds 8.http://www.uk/rssreader/ 7. RSSCalendar . EaZy RSS reader 5.attensa.co.html http://www.com 4. PubSub .com/produ http://neosmart. Newsgator Aggie . Thunderbird .com/ 3.ca/edurss02. OnFolio .http://feedtier.feedzilla. Project D.downes.com Amphetadesk 8.feedburner.com/v2 BlogLines .http://www. Gregarius .learningfeeds.http://bitworking.fuzzyd. Feed-Directory .protopage.http://www. feedbeep . SharpReader http://bytescout.http://sage. NewsIsFree http://www.feedreader.com/rss2exchange/ .net/index.blogplanet.

Robin Good Blog. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. http://timyang.vccs.pdf Canali De Rossi. including listings for various electronic devices.maricopa.teachinghacks. http://www.mcli. http://www. Aug. 3. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. maintains a long list of RSS resources. eSchool News.redjupiter.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. 31. To have a blog aggregated.ca/edu_rss.php Online Resources Stephen Downes.ca/cgibin/wiki.wcc. see: http://www. Read his article written specifically for educators.com/news/showS tory. http://careo.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. http://www.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. RSS could transform online communications. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.htm David. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. 2003.php.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.elearning.com/wiki/doku. Dan (2004).doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.ubc. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. http://www. Luigi (2004). http://www. 2004.downes.eschoolnews.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. Bill (2003).dist.downes. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 .htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. http://www.lo.ca/files/RSS_Educ. 2004.Possible Future Evolution.hebig. Brian Lamb.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. http://www. Brian Lamb.contentious. Oct. http://www. May 19. and D’Arcy Norman.masternewmedia.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. a blog by Alan Levine.

html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Jenny (2005). http://googlereader. (2003).htm Levine. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.learningcircuits.html MediaThink (2004).. Shelly (2005). Sept.Web Feeds Downes. T.theshiftedlibrarian. http://www.org/2004/jun20 04/downes. University of North Carolina. March 23. 2005. http://www. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Lamb. Online paper.htm D’Sousa. http://www. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.htm Downes. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Mary (2003). Google Reader Blog.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. O’Reilly Network.mediathink. Aug. http://www. Mihai (2006). 13. Quentin (2006). 2005. Aug.htm Harrsch.blogspot. 2005. Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.html?page=1 Udell. 1. http://www.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine.oreillynet.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends. Alexandra (2005).pdf Parparita. 2006.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. BC. Online paper.teachinghacks. June 18. 2006. http://www.ca/files/RSS_Educ. http://www. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.pdf Gannett.1. The Shifted Librarian. RSS: the next big thing online. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. and Webb. USA Today (online). Using RSS for data integration. 3. and Norman. May 2004. Jon (2005). RSS: a learning technology. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. Stephen (2004). 2005. Anh (2005).xml.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Aug. (2006). A. http://www.infoworld. RSS Ideas for Educators. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Otherwise Engaged. July 7. Vancouver.maricopa. Version 1.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. Stephen (2002). 2003.mcli.html Powers.alexandrasamuel. http://technologysource. Namespaced extensions in feeds. July/August 2003. Eva (2004). InfoWorld.dist. http://www. MediaThink White Paper. June 2004.oreilly.downes. RSS: the next killer app for education.usatoday. D. http://www.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. The Technology Source Archives.html Do Not Reproduce 267 .com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. B.html Samuel. http://www. 5-8.learningcircuits.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x. M.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big.

and never finished. time-less. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. http://www. and email notification. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. See the progress at: http://edu. 2. approaches. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. can be used by a team for joint writing. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. There are now over 1. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. an image gallery. features. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.org/tiki-index.sourceforge. is available for other applications.org/index.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.sourcewatch. With some basic instructions.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. the software used to run Wikipedia.tikiwiki. Content is ego-less.300. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. http://www.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. Do Not Reproduce 268 . RSS.usemod. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Anyone can add to it.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. it is important to have several contributors.net/features.com/cgibin/wiki. custom permissions. 4. and projects.com/ For wikis to work.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. 2005). My first report in this series. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.schtuff. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.wikipedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. http://wikipedia. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. 3. http://www. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. http://www.

wikibooks.socialtext.com/artpdf/GR12.” Essentially. Swiki.com/cgibin/mb.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.Weblogs. http://www. http://www.” is projects.learningwiki.usemod.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. “Quickiwiki. http://www.com/ Jon Udell. of the University of British Columbia. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. an archivist with the British systems.10.seedwiki.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. http://www. http://radio.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.gilbane.ubc.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16. http://www.shtml Brian Lamb.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. His article.dicole.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. http://flosse. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. features. Columbia Archives.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.html Do Not Reproduce 269 . maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison. http://en. http://www.infoworld.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. Twiki. http://careo.jot. A free trial is available.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://kairosnews.elearning. http://www.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. a rich source of information on wikis.infotoday. See why it is different. http://weblog. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work.

Operation of a Large Scale. http://www.se/wikipaper. Renée (2005). Profetic: dossiers pratiques.” http://writingwiki.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. 5-8.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki. http://m. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. (2004). (2002). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.ascilite. Nov. Perth.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.ikiw. http://www.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. R. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. http://www. Andrea (2003). an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.html Augar.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. L.pbwiki. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://www. and Zhou.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.. First Monday.com/wwwtools/m/25242. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.elearningcentre.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.48. http://64. http://container.zkm. 8(12). cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Australia. W.71. 2. Dec.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. Phantom authority.pdf Fountain.fasfind. Wiki pedagogy.co. Online paper. including wikis.educause. Anja (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. International Journal of Information Ethics.html Ciffolilli. that she updates regularly. Dec.org. including a section on wiki tools. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Raitman. http://www.ucalgary. http://firstmonday.nu’s first nine months in service.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .profetic. http://aronsson.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 .de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. N. http://whiplash.” http://tlc.org has lots of resources on wikis. July.

T. Cossarin. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Swiki. http://www. Lauren (2005).com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. http://www. Online article. http://www. http://www.usemod. 12(10).1/technote _xxvii.com/udell/2004/ 10/19. 2004. Neil (2003).html Tomkin.org/content/v5. April 2004. Bo & Cunnin. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.com/article2/0.com.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . 2006. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .irrodl.infoworld.Oct. and Webb. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. 2005. W.4149. Online article. http://www. January. Online article at: http://www. and Rudolph. http://c2. Educause Review. Quickiwiki. April 2003. 36-48..edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.infotoday.00. Online article at PCMag. http://www.. Twiki.html Stafford.10.ac. David (2004). Emma (2005). (2001).asp Schmitt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.educause. Richard (2003).14 02872. Jon (2004). The wiki way. Ariadne. J. 19..com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.com/cgibin/mb.amazon. http://gilbane. Why Wikis Work Not.oreillynet. Sept. L. O’Reilly Network. Making the case for a wiki. July 7. Oct.pcmag.shtml Rubenking.. (2004). The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. M. S. Clark.pdf Leuf. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.com/artpdf/GR12. M. InfoWorld. UniversityWiki. David (2003). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. http://Weblog. Searcher.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Issue 42.html Wood. (2006). Brian (2004). Wiki Tools.uk/issue42/ Udell.ariadne.

Do Not Reproduce 272 . After a product has been successfully launched. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. However. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. which. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which can then lead to inventions. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. floppy disks. CD-ROMS. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. in turn.

many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. some will never leave the development stage. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. this approach is now rapidly changing. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. in both formal and informal settings. This is due. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. to the complex. However. both in classrooms and online. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. Further. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. In any field. This is due. Do Not Reproduce 273 . peak. However. change itself seems to be inevitable. mature.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. while others will last for decades. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. change itself seems to be inevitable. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. ascend the curve. in part. But not all technologies will travel this road. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. Ontologies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. For a variety of reasons. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. or may never become commercially viable. Some will die quickly. and decline. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. to the complex. in part. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. In any field.

mobile phones. the space race. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. The experience of younger learners with television. the baby boomers. terrorism. video games. global warming. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. ecological disasters. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. generally went to work earlier. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. mind-altering drugs. the civil rights movement. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. Brandon Hall Research . For the older generation. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. born in the 1970s. p. In North America. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. television. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. Because of this.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. means that they actually think differently. 1994). Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. movie theaters. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. electronic media tends to be on the surface. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. The speed of change increases with each passing year. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Once we master the art of reading. 2003). 28). Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. 2002. and personal digital assistants. In contrast. video games. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. 274 © 2006. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The children of the baby boomers. gaming consoles. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. and computers. libraries. The technology of e-learning.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Their children.

are usually ing paths. With feedback. in a back-and-forth exchange. commercials. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. creative products. But they are usually disappointed. Likewise. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Generally. technologies. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. shortly. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. However. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). portfolios. touch and taste. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. In approaching electronic educational media. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. Two hundred years ago.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. or violence is needed to keep our attention. huge data wall displays. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. Do Not Reproduce 275 . the computer.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. digitization of smell. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. whereby the action of one participant. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. For example. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. the learner. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. designers of Sesame Street. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. and digital ink and electronic paper. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. that is all about to change. Guides are optional. results in an action by the other participant. sex. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. surprise. wearable computers. we will see the restructuring of education and training. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. and the mapping of everything.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. In the next wave.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. It works for a time. Then even more movement. In approaching electronic educational media. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. until we become habituated. Within the next five years. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life.

Digital Game-based Learning.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. Marc. Douglas (2005).amazon. May 2006. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. Clayton (1997). http://www. Gary (2006). (2001). http://www.com 276 © 2006. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Brandon Hall Research . Bob (2006). Texas.amazon.amazon. Dallas. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content.amazon. New York: Collins.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler.amazon. http://www. http://www. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. James (1994). technologies and services for the next 5 years. http://www. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail.operitel. http://www.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.

uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.mit.51. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.O.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Den Dolech 2 P. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.bham.bartneck.cs.ac. Box 513.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.informatik. New York.unige. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.de/link/affective_portal .myself-proj. 1515 Broadway.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. Marc Schröder.nngroup.umu. 17th Floor.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.se/~muse/ho me.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.media.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.

ac.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. Building 5. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Edmonton. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.computer.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 1900 East Tenth St. N. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. #1910.auburn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av.csc. UK http://www.informatics. Manuel I.educause. 10004-104 Avenue. Suite 206 Boulder. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal .org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.Portugal Tel.ailive.extempo.isi. D.com Do Not Reproduce 278 .indiana. 27A 2º esq. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. 3400 Hillview Avenue. Bloomington.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.codebaby.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.liv. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. O.W. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. CA 94304 USA http://www. Inc. Palo Alto.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .edu Extempo Systems.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.rit. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. Washington. P.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.org/ AiLive Inc. Box 2124 Menlo Park. L69 7ZF.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. L69 7ZF.agentlink.webist.

Secretariat.avid.apple.com Alchemy Mindworks P.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Huntsville.mindworkshop.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.com/home. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Burlington. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.ascension-tech.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.org/ Apple Computer.O.O.adobe.autodesk. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. PO Box 24478. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. W Toronto.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 .php/Main _Page Autodesk.catoolkit. Box 527.au/index. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.ascilite.animats.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. One Park West Tewksbury. Avid Technology Park. Box 5200. Inc.org. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.animationfactory. Inc. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.com/ Avid Technology. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. Wellington.redwoodelearning.

ucsb.aaai.aclweb.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. 190th Street.autotutor.org Do Not Reproduce 280 . 5131 Beckwith Blvd. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.460. San Antonio.massivesoftware. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab. Santa Barbara.viewpoint.com/index. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.org/home.html Ulead Systems 970 W.htm Macromedia.com Pty Ltd The Basement.org/ SWiSHzone.com/ NewTek.818. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. Suite #480 Torrance.newtek. Inc.swishzone. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Tel: +1.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .psych.6450 http://www. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.macromedia.eitechnologygroup. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.siggraph.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.A.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/pub/index. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Inc. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. TN 38152 USA http://www.S. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.

org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.it.cs.W.com/index. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.cmu.edu Quantum Simulations. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.ke-corp. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.pact.eden-online.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.ca/eng/ind ex.usyd. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.licef.iit.10th Street S. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.cs. Calgary.org/eden. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.gemini.edu. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.cs. Egry J.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.uquebec. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.com Do Not Reproduce 281 .htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cmu. 1. u. West Montreal. Inc.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.cognitivesciencesociety. H-1111 Budapest. 100 Sherbrooke St.teluq.

of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.W.ulster. Antrim BT37 OQB N.stottlerhenke.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.unimelb. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba..edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.cshe.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.wlv. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.edu. Alberta.ac.virtuelage.brainbench. Newtownabbey. Calgary.uk/home.ucalgary.enel.scit.uk/cticomp/CAA.unisa.cis. Chantilly.html Do Not Reproduce 282 .com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.umuc.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. East Adelphi. Suite 1500 Montreal. Suite 360 San Mateo.ac. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Suite K.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.cs.edu. CA . Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www. Co.wpi.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.

colorado.flaguide. FL 32720 USA http://www.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.ets. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.O.pedagogue. Suite 2300 New York.ingeniousgroup.tcet. Box 317 New Hartford.redinq.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.questionmark.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.com/redinq/html/index.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.operitel. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.unt. Norwalk.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.quintcareers.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.O.rmsuk.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 . Suite 753 Madison. Suite 105 Princeton. Johnson Street. Suite 100. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www. Box 305280 Denton.S.horizonwimba.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough. Boulder. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.

K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. Inc.adobe.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com AudioLink. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.com/home. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. Suite 100 Newtown.com XStream Software.bias-inc. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.automaticsync. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.oir.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.cakewalk.com/lipsync/ind ex.multitrackstudio. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www. Inc. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.com/AudioTools/ind ex. Ontario.uiuc. 2280 St. Suite 200 Ottawa.epnweb.audiolink.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. 50 Hunt St.avsmedia.aspx BIAS. Laurent Blvd. Watertown...html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.vantagelearning. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .

com Accordent Technologies 300 N.O.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue..brainshark. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Continental Blvd.sonicfoundry. Waltham.trainvision. Suite 200 Boulder.com Brainshark. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www.com/index. West Perrysburg. Inc.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www. Inc.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.anark.purdue. 860 Sandalwood Road. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.co.com/power point-presentations-index.bloki. Cooper Buildings.envision. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley.edu iTunes Apple Computer. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall.com AcroServices c/o L. Sheffield Technology Parks. Suite 200 El Segundo. Grime and Associates.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.accordent. Sheffield. Suite A300 Salt Lake City. Arundel Street. San Jose.A. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www..com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison.adobe.apple. 136 South Main Street.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc. S1 2NS UK http://www.acroservices.e-learningcentre.mckinnonmulherin. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.

lifeboatdistribution. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.copycatsoftware. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. Italy http://www. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. UK Tel.com 286 © 2006.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.customcourse. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Austria http://www.co. NG8 6PE. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Brandon Hall Research .ciscolearning.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Ste. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.horizonwimba.bridge-pt.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com/Index.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.maxit.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. Nottingham.atlanticlink.uk/contentpoint. 20100 Milan.com. Inc.learn.dynamicpowertrainer. 200 South. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.allencomm.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.

Suite B Lehi.elearninginabox.eclipsys. 441 W Main St. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www..eedo.easyprof.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd .com Do Not Reproduce 287 . Suite 105 Chapel Hill.68 http://www. P.64. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.10 Fax: +34 93 490. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.com/Solutions/Elearnin g.64. Spain Tel: +34 93 490. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Box 2827 Redmond.mohive. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Suite 29A Nashua. O.edufolio.O.e-learningconsulting. 38-40.rapidintake.elicitus. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.knowledgeplanet. Inc. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil.experiencebuilders.knowledgequest.com ExpertAuthor.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive.com/products/forceten. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.

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. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. 55 South Market St. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp.daden. W Toronto. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.co.tmmy. Moseley.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.uk/chatbots.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.codebaby. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www..turbodemo. B13 9SG. Ste.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Birmingham.maxit.qarbon.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N... FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Inc.com DA Group The Lighthouse. 323 Newbury Street Boston.xplana.uk Do Not Reproduce 292 .com Oddcast 589 8th Ave. Suite 260 Orlando.telsim.knowledgeenvironments.redwoodelearning. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. Edmonton.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Inc.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.vcom3d.html Knowledge Environments. #1910. 11th Floor New York.com Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.oddcast. 219 Tampa. Dale Mabry Hwy.co. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Suite 1550 San Jose. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.

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Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.flypaper.digi-net.same-page.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. Inc. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.exactamerica.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.forumone. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.com 296 © 2006. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.facilitate.ezmeeting..com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.emc.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Engineering.digite.elluminate.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Inc.epam-pmc. 82 Pioneer Way. Ontario.W.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. 57th Street Gainesville. Brandon Hall Research .com LLP PO Box 325. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.edufolio. Lauderdale. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. 1034 N.engineering.com Digité. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Sanibel FL.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.

hp. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.net Groove Networks. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.gordano. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Suite 500 Markham. Ste.gotomeeting. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. El Camino Real.net GroupSupport.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. ON.com c/o Citrix Systems.4517 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. 395 Encinitas.hotcomm.com Do Not Reproduce 297 .com Groupwise c/o Novell. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.horizonwimba. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.groove.grapevinesoftware. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.com GoToMeeting. Inc.V.globalschoolnet.com B. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.com Glance Networks.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.glance. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.genesys.net Global School Net 132 N.novell. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. Clevedon. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Inc. Inc.groupsupport. Suite 2300 New York. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.

com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Inc.iceweb. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.hyperoffice. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.microsoft.ibm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. 11th floor New York. 25 First Street. #115 Rockville. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.interwise.ilinc.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Sunnyvale.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.interwoven.jdhtech.linktivity. Suite 100 Tucson.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 . MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. 44th St.intralinks. Suite 412 Cambridge.com Interwise. Phoenix. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.ivocalize.inquesttechnologies.

com/collabsuite/index. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.mayeticvillage. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. Riverside Plaza. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www..oracle.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.near-time.opmcreator.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Suite 1401 Denver.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Harbor.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . Inc. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice. 1289 N.org/tools.netspoke. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.parlano.com Near-Time. Fordham Blvd.onproject.mitre.com onProject.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.liveoffice. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.h tml Parlano 10 S.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.performancesolutionstech. Suite 6500 Woburn. Inc. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.meetingone. 3 Wing Drive.peoplecube.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.opentext. Suite 1450 Chicago. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Suite 300 Torrance. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.

com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.projectdox.O.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.com Selden Integrated Systems.stalker. Box 3325 York.com SpiderWeb Communications.q2learning.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.sharemethods. Suite 210 Maynard. 3679 Concord Road. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.nagarro. Suite 445 Scottsdale. Cactus Rd. New No.seldensystems. Suite B. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.project-open. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Suite 440 San Jose. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.raindance. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.microsoft. 35.com Raindance Communications. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. 1175 58th Avenue.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Inc. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com RADVISION Inc.photoninfotech.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. P.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. Inc. 51. 17-17 State Highway 208.radvision. Inc.cyber-grad.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.Adyar Chennai. Suite 200 Greeley.com/content/default.sitescape.

Suite 100 Austin.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Suite 950 Washington.vignette. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.tacit.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.trichys.webofficepoint.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.vodium.O. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.wave3software. Kierland Blvd. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.viack. Canada http://www.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.usabilityfirst. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.tomoye.com Do Not Reproduce 301 . Suite 100 Scottsdale..com Teamware P.sumtotalsystems.txl Viack 14811 N. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.teamspace.teamware.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8.teamdynamix.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. Suite 810 Toronto.com/groupware/in dex. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.

santacruznetworks.zoho.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www. George St.atutor.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. Inc.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.axista.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education. 5200 Franklin Dr.P. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.gov. CA 94588. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.webcrossing.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.. Toronto. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.webasyst. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Robarts Library. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. First Floor University of Toronto. Inc. P. 130 St. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.webex.webtrain.com Do Not Reproduce 302 .com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033.author-it.cpgvision. Inc. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.O. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing.qld. Suite 1050 Vancouver.net WebEx Communications.backpackit. Inc.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Suite 115 Pleasanton. Ontario.

com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd. Sheffield Technology Parks.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.syberworks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc. Suite 201 Peterborough.html Do Not Reproduce 303 .com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.bnhexpertsoft.co.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www. Prof. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.learnflex. QC. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Suite C215 Houston. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www. Arundel Street.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario.desire2learn. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.kdnuggets. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.facilitate. Sheffield.edu.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www. Cooper Buildings. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.convera. 4000 Steinberg Street St. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.oracle.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.e-learningcentre.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. Laurent.hrsg. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401. TX. S1 2NS UK http://www.une.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa..

Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. Inc. Suite 100 Indianapolis. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.foliotek. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www. Second Floor La Grange. La Grange Road.meetingworks. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.co. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.fogscreen.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia. Telford.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.provisionentertainment..com Do Not Reproduce 304 .com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.com/ LiveText 1 S.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www. Suite 606. Catherines.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow.chalkandwire.pebblepad.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco.ntera.angellearning. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www. West Conshohocken. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.io2technology. WA.siliconlight. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.

com Do Not Reproduce 305 . San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. SR6 0AN UK http://www. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham. 0445 La Jolla.com/solutions/game s/default.magnetargames. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.microsoft.seriousgames. NW Washington. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.adobe. Dept. Inc Avid Technology Park.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www..ucsd.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Puebla Lucia local 7. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.thinkingworlds. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.clickteam.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin. One Park West Tewksbury.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.avs.programmersheaven.softimage.freescale.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave.C.

Suite 300 Burlingame.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.mpb-technologies.forcedimension. 100 Pine Street.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.ch MPB Technologies Inc.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com SmartDraw.unige. Inc. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.immersion.broderbund. Unit 9 Waterloo.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.itedo.microsoft.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.corel. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .tech-illustrator. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.miralab.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www. Suite 300 San Diego.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk.autodesk. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa. Inc.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.ibm. Suite 1900 San Francisco.blender3d.handshakeinteractive.

com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.se SensAble Technologies.edfacilities.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc.smarttech. 2-56126 Pisa. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.C. 200 South. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www. 7677 Oakport Street.anotogroup. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www. NW Suite 700. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista.eink.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.sensegraphics. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku. D.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria.ccii. Inc.sensable. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.allencomm. 15 Constitution Way Woburn. 12th Floor Oakland. Ste.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.wacom. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi.com Do Not Reproduce 307 .unipi.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge.fujitsu. Suite 300 Calgary. Washington.logitech.piaggio.

NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Quebec. Inc.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. East Dundee. Inc.netdimensions. 4600 Westown Parkway.webraven. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. Suite 225 Golden.ibm.geolearning.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. Inc.gen21. 6947 University Blvd.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street.howtomaster.elementk.cornerstoneondemand. Suite 660 Longueuil.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning.strategia.ips-inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd.html?Ope n InfoSource. Suite 301 West Des Moines. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 308 . FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. Huntington Building. Suite 200 Cincinnati.redbooks. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F. Colfax Avenue Building 200.com/redbooks.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.trivantis.. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems. Suite #620 Santa Monica. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.intellinex.com DOTS .com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Winter Park.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. 111 Water St. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.

com LearnCenter c/o Learn. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.learnsomething. Inc.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen.knowledgeplanet. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.meridianksi.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc.learn.com Do Not Reproduce 309 . 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.compendiumcorp.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.maxit. Inc.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.isnewmedia.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. 1 West Front Street Red Bank. 550 Queen St.learnflex.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. Suite 260 Foxborough.websoft. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. East . FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Inc. Suite 201 Peterborough.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.wizdom. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com. 100 Foxborough Blvd. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. Chantilly.intralearn. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.mgen.

plateau.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. St.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.com. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Inc.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal.com Do Not Reproduce 310 . Suite 1280 San Francisco. LTD 671 N. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.oracle. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Glebe Road.sselearn.com TEDS Inc.teds. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.technomedia. Suite 700 Arlington. Louis.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. Suite 2200 Chicago.syntrio. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.sumtotalsystems. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.ssaglobal. 500 West Madison. West.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.sap.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. Fifth Floor Montreal. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.teralearn.saba.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.outstart. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.oracle.

SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.fldata.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. 2280 St. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Inc. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Laurent Blvd.com Tracker. Inc. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.gyrus.vuepoint.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Inc. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.xstreamsoftware.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. 240 Bay Street.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. Ontario.O. Suite # 105 Columbia. Suite 101 Houston.vbtrain. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. NY. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Victoria. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.edutools. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. 122 West Way. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.risc-inc. 17041 El Camino Real. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Inc.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.ttg-inc. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .info/index. 4 Expressway Plaza. Suite 200 Ottawa.wbtsystems. Box 9752 Boulder.avilar.trainingpartner.xtention.com Do Not Reproduce 311 .com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.

cdlib. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.sir. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. 4th Floor Oakland. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.arizona.ca ENC Learning Inc.uwm. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.goenc.netera.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .com Do Not Reproduce 312 . OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.

4464 Markham Street Victoria. Suite 1600 Tucson.llearn.edu. Fondren Library. ETRAC. Norton Road. Box 3000 Boulder. Suite 3100 San Francisco.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . MS 44. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.lrc3.cadcorp.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. AZ.rice.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. Rice University.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Hertfordshire.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.unsw. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.O.mcli.clarklabs. Stevenage. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.lornet.maricopa. SG1 2JY.dist. P. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. CT 06459 USA http://www. Sterling Court.merlot.edu/DesktopDefault.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. Box 1892.org/eng/scientifiques. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.O. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. 5151 East Broadway.thegateway.lolaexchange. Houston. AZ 85250 USA http://www.plos. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.

O. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.esri. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.cetis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.eoscenter. Dept. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. Inc. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.com/gis4mt/index.geocomm.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .fi/english/page.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.O.berkeley. Suite 100 Framingham.pangonetworks.intergraph.mapinfo.edu PanGo Networks.cf m ESRI Suite 300. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. P. 959 Concord Street.edu. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . of Geography. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.cancore.asp?path= 500.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.smm. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org Metadata.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.5372. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.ac. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.

Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.mobilearn.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. Austria http://www. Suite 501 Portland.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.aaai.org/ Spotlight Mobile. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.knowledgepulse. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.html ELSNET Trans 10. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.stockholmchallenge. Suite 100 Menlo Park. PMB #112 Lake Mary.upenn.lexxe. 19104-2653. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.org/aitopics/html/natlang .itc. PA.bham. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .advancedreality.ldc. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.elsnet.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.eee.ac. Italy http://tcc.imsglobal. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. Electrical and Computer Engineering.uk/handler/default . Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.

100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. 10010 USA http://www.lockss.movedigital. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Inc.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.ac.internet2.org 316 © 2006.overnet.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Whisman Road Mountain View.net internet2. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.asianart.cetis. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.llearn. Suite 300.com MoveDigital.groove. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.org/site/pp. Inc. Deane Rd. Inc.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.4464 Markham Street Victoria. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.stockholmchallenge. NY.sun.seti. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .

com ProQuest 789 E. Inc.saba. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.proquest.Project Coordinator CSI . Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.rmv. Eisenhower Parkway P. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.17th Avenue SW Calgary. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. 15-4-A Gatineau.cyberu.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.com Teachnology. 3333 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.teach-nology. 1st Floor A .1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.microsoft.elearningeuropa.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.executrain. Alberta.virtualmuseum. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.worldwidelearn.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. New York 10973 USA http://www. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.O.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .com Portals CyberU.trainingregistry. 3º 08021 Barcelona. Box 172 1039 .com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.elementk.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Suite 225 Santa Monica.elena-project.

com/halo/index.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.hp. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Alberta.apreso.presentations. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.elluminate. Minneapolis.genesys. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.saba. Redmond.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com 50 S.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Suite B Orion.scate. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.org Macromedia.com Presentations. Box 2827.com ReadyGo Inc. Ninth St.raptivity. 3016 5th Ave. CA 94040.mit.com Raptivity P.6526 http://www. Inc.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.macromedia. NE Calgary..lsc.333.articulate.com Do Not Reproduce 318 .jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Michigan. O.com/presentatio ns/index.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.readygo.

com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Lindsey Bldg.irc.ife.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Union St.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. SWEDEN. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.ac.eng.whmsi.atr. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.botball. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Centre for Autonmous Systems. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. D. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.org Euron c/o Prof. Pasadena. Ste. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Radstock Somerset.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.evolution.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.aad. Inc. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.generalrobotics. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 319 .ed.gov. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.euron. 130 W. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Chilcompton.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.ri. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.org Evolution Robotics.active-robots. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. 100 Norman.ams.rec.nasa. Inc. Henrik I Christensen.cmu.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.osaka-u.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.

Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.com excite. Inc.com Ask. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.O. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.com Google (including Froogle.excite. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.gigablast.6100 http://www.convera.google. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com Gnod.alexa. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.findlaw.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.net/ 320 © 2006. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. Suite 500 Oakland.about.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.copernic.ask. Brandon Hall Research .com Gada.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. Google.gnod.dogpile. Suite 60 Quebec. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com 229 West 43rd Street New York. 42nd Floor New York. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.

com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com Info.intute.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.ac. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.lexxe. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. Inc.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.healthfinder.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 .com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.looksmart.acm. Ltd. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.org/citation. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.icerocket. Chicago.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P. 601 108th Avenue NE.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.lalisio.msn.metacrawler.com LitLinker c/o ACM.mooter.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. 625 Second Street San Francisco. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Suite 1200 Bellevue. 17th Floor New York. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.O. Box 1133 Washington.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.koders. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.krugle.kartoo.cfm?doid=1 056808. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.net Koders Inc.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.info.1057022 LookSmart.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.ixquick.

columbia.qelix. Inc. 6th Flr. Mumbai 10.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC.W. 360 22nd Street.rawsugar. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.com SearchKing. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.nyu.pandora.technorati.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.seekport. Inc. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.ee. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.edu/ PubSub Concepts.netscape. INDIA. 7th floor. Mazgaon.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 .com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. Nesbit Rd.searchking.ibm. Suite 211 Palo Alto .com Pandora Media. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.82152 Martinsried http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Mary Apts.biz Truveo.W. Suite 207 San Francisco. Inc.. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. 23rd Floor San Francisco. 23rd Oklahoma City.pubsub.convera. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. Inc.cs.truveo.com/v2/index. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. NY 10003. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York. New York.. Seventh Floor New York.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. 2400 N. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway.almaden. 64 Fulton Street.

org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com Zoom Information Inc.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 . Inc.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.com Flash c/o Macromedia. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.alphaworks.O.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .experiencebuilders.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.macromedia. Inc.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. 1st Floor A . CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.com Assima Ltd. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.atghome. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Box 1558 New Canaan.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.seco. Yahoo http://www. Ontario.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.macromedia.zoominfo. EC4M 7NG London. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.personal-reader. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.assima. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.biographix. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.tkk.yahoo. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. 10 Old Bailey.ibm.elena-project.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.

Inc.forio.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.knowledgeplanet. Suite 300 Wichita.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.com MASIE Center. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. Newburyport. Suite 360 San Mateo.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.xstreamsoftware.cs. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Suite 200 Ottawa. England http://www.nexlearn. GreenPark Reading.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 . Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.learning2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. 2280 St. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.noaa.fsl. Laurent Blvd. Ontario.stottlerhenke.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.knowledgepresenter. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. B15 2TT.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.knowledgequest. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.bham.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder..muzzylane.stt-global. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. CA .com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.intermezzon.knowledge-director.com NexLearn. Inc. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.ac. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. LLC 100 South Main Street..

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.com Softsim Outstart Studio. Thorofare. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.edu/index.maxit. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Suite A-207 Brossard. Suite 240 Atlanta. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Inc. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.icio.com Stagecast Software.qarbon. Québec.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.icio. Morton Street.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Taschereau Ouest. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.assima.com/English/t6 essai. Light & Acoustics.iu. Suite 1550 San Jose. 101 Wolf Drive.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. 1821 Walden Office Square. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.com Do Not Reproduce 325 .checkpointsystems. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Suite 400. CA 94089 USA http://del.eduperformance.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.teds.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. Suite 224 Bloomington.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.stt-global.. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Schaumburg.stagecast. Inc.virtualcontrolroom.us Eventful c/o EVDB.outstart. 55 South Market St. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Suite 125 San Diego.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.

com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Brandon Hall Research . Inc.com Friendster.. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Box 920089 Needham. Inc. Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.tagzania. 2001 Lind Ave. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik...shadows. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.rojo.gnolia. Menlo Park.com Spurl ehf. SW. WA 98055 USA http://www. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.analytictech.O. First Floor San Francisco.eu Rojo Networks.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.classmates.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. 625 Second Street San Francisco.netscape.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.networkltd. Suite 900 Austin.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.com 326 © 2006. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.furl.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. 795 Folsom St. Suite 500 Renton. CA 94105 USA http://www.spurl. Ltd. Inc.friendster. CA. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.com Classmates Online.com/ mag.zvents.

net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.com/halo/index.socialtext.spartasocialnetworks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.jabber.com Brightcove. 655 High Street Palo Alto. Suite 900 San Francisco. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.fakespace.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.net Sparta Social Networks.O. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.apple. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.hp.brightcove. Cupertino. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.dfilm. CA 90028 USA http://www.percro. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.org Fakespace 11 E.com Jabber Software Foundation P.jabber.O. Box 1641 Denver.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.advanced. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .bittorrent. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.sociosite.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Church Street. Inc. 4th Floor Marshalltown. Box 1641 Denver. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. New York.html Do Not Reproduce 327 .org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.com Jabber Software Foundation P.

net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.percro. Inc.spider.xstreamengine. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.epfl.edu/vrel.futurelab.veoh. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . 95 Parker Street Newburyport. Suite 115 San Diego.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.hpc.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.org Veoh Networks. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. VA 23461-1924 https://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.com Intuition 9.activeworlds. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.navy. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . Suite 206 Bloomington. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.informationinplace. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.accurender.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.intuition-eunetwork.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. 7220 Trade Street.coe. CA 92121 USA http://www.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.ecu.org. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.ergonetz.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.

Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Danvers.com ESRI Suite 300. Suite 100 Lindon. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions. Inc.. Suite 317 San Diego.intergraph. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.feedtank.bham. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.umd. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville. 350 South 400 West. Draper. Inc. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Inc.V.advizorsolutions.daz3d.golden.corda.ambientdevices. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.O.vista. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Suite 110 Troy. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.esri. Troy.ac. 809 14th Street.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.mapinfo.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street. Williams Building College Park.idashboards.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Columbus.xcelsius.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com Golden Software.formz. 1333 Butterfield Rd.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Suite 280 Downers Grove.cs. Cambridge. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.com Do Not Reproduce 329 .com/ MapInfo One Global View. Golden.

MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. Box 884. Riga.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.okino.com Spotfire.unifiedfield. Inc. Suite 3A New York.mccrackendesign. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. Tracy.topozone.visualthesaurus.S. 9th floor New York.net Pixologic.visualanalytics. Inc.spotfire. 2nd Floor Poolesville. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. CA 94712 USA http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.nlm. U.softill. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Unified Field. RIDemo Brivibas 183.musanim.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . 212 Elm Street Somerville.O. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Ontario L4V 1T8. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. Inc.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. 155 Spring Street.pixologic. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 3 East 28th St. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Inc.nih. MA 01863 USA http://www. 73 Princeton Street.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.ontopia.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.microsoft.vicodi. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Unit # 1 Mississauga.

com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.attensa.com JAJAH Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. 2513 Charleston Road. Ltd.ethz. Valdeku 100. Tallinn. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. 869 97th Ave N. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. Inc.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.jajah. Suite 2260 Portland. Hanover.feedforall.brightcove. Inc.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. Inc. California. A-1220 Vienna. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. CA 95008 USA http://www. Unit A2 Naples.sportbrain.inxight. ETZ H Electronics Lab.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.feedreader. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .vrvis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.skype.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. Donau-City-Strasse 1. FL 34108 USA http://www.feedburner. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.com Web Feeds Attensa.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 11211.bloglines.com Brightcove. Suite 102 Mountain View. Estonia http://www. Suite 100 Campbell.wearable. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. 94043 USA http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.

com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. First Floor.rojo.mozilla. 795 Folsom St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.feedster. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.pluck. 64 Fulton Street.org JotSpot. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.com Rojo Networks. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.rssreader. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Inc.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.com PubSub Concepts.socialtext. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. 167 Hamilton Ave. Broadway. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Suite 605 San Francisco. Suite 381 Vancouver. Inc.pubsub. Seventh Floor New York.onfolio. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.715135858 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout..V. P. Building K Mountain View. Brandon Hall Research . San Francisco. Inc. 200 2nd Ave.com Feedster.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Nederland Tel: +31. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Petersburg.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. 116 New Montgomery Street. South #358 St. Coldbrook Business Corp. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www..microsoft.1001 W.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.. Switzerland http://www. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com 332 © 2006.feedzilla.jot. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Suite 900 Austin.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.

Brandon Hall Research .Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006.

29. 107. 226. 34. 22. 250 cognitive maps. 83. 60. 82. 198. 241. 14. 3. 89. 54. 56. 221. 129. 156. 89. 88. 250. 204. 161 Cooperation. 123. 259. 177. 117. 86. 87. 98. 109. 69. 120. 205. 236. 56. 19. 161. 4. 161. 253 Data mining. 44. 60. 60. 184. 26. 221 Bayesian probability. 163. 29. 251. 202. 266. 74. 246. 67. 51. 248. 46. 174. 25. 242. 250. 73. 82. 246. 188. 122. 264 Classroom response systems. 68. 261 Animation. 25. 221. 31. 31. 199. 156. 172. 33. 161. 26. 155. 235. 187. 91. 59. 269. 47. 156. 79. 160. 176. 120. 64. 52. 201. 284. 24. 185. 103 Complexity theory. 69. 270 Boolean searches. 230. 215. 252. 78. 96. 48. 91. 179. 45. 296. 241. 230. 110. 89. 174. 226. 66 AJAX. 177. 101. 218. 177. 88. 159. 64. 15. 194. 59. 105. 150. 64. 62. 100. 162. 255 Architectures. 66. 70. 250 Dashboards. 92. 94. 64. 67. 200. 230. educational. 146. 18. 20. 29. 37. 225. 77. 22. 93. 277 Agents. 26. 242. 264. 57. 138. 151. 87. 246. 241. 95. 78. 142. 247. 175. 118. 268. 28. 32. 7. 33. 85. 46. 111. 96. 289 Authorware. 154. 17. 3. 97. 190. 61. 155 Ambient computing. 3. 46. 26. 96. 138. 161. 230. 227. 93. 235. 21. 90. 61. 217. 128. 28. 176 assessment. 148. 90. 115. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 76. 28. 60. 88. 250. 60 Avatars. 161. 67. 40. 31. 27. 66. 3. 24. 12. 54. 25. 104. 18. 209 Air display. 92. 174. 63. 111. 85. 25. 91. 32. 2. 62. 25. 247. 101. 76. 97. 250. 184. 55. 255. 97. 118. 266 Augmented reality. 201. 108. 118. 67. 4. 164. 95. 53. 156. 275 Affective computing. 274 Communities of practice. 209. 111 Blogs. 105. 85. 245 Browsers. 61. 260. 81. 185. 65. 279. 33. 244. 46. 142. 120. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 268 Communications Tools. 78. 36. 45. 35. 224. 121. 34. 34. 110 Adobe. 37. 76. 75. 87. 39. 61. 91. 217. 49. 226. 47. 247. 143. 217. 183. 93. 29. 266. 251. 250 collaboration. 108. 246. 55. 209. 125. 275 Collaboration. 117 Assessment. 104. 285. 82. 45 Content management. 98. 243. 30. 259. 268 Broadband. 184. 13. 61. 138. 168. 87. 17. 201. 259. 21. 202. 186. 143. 70 barcodes. 84. 225. 67. 275 Computer based assessment. 162. 131. 106. 188. 113. 83. 224 Cell phones. 184 Conversational learning. 268. 84. 5. 230 Competency Tracking. 97. 80 Cognition. 242. Brandon Hall Research . 65. 86. 231. 140. 77. 244. 69. 266. 18. 43. 63.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 102. 154. 57. 116. 111. 220 Audio. 86. 48. 218. 28. 255. 35. 16. 258 cognitive collage. 139. 120. 94. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 80 Clickers. 157. 125. 231. 32. 209. 51. 228. 33. 9. 28. 199 334 © 2006. 105. 114 cybercartography. 165. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 217. 269. 72. 216. 173. 45. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 248 Authoring tools. 257 Adaptive systems. 232. 162. 254. 129. 148. 106. 244. 218. 87. 97. 51. 83. 149. 47. 17. 19. 251.

211 evaluation. 241. 126. 30. 121. 246. 246. 5. 4. 151. 247. 43. 5. 82. 12. 158 iPod. 92. 250. 179. 12. 219. 261. 168. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 125. 139. 152. 170. 92. 76. 136. 159. 251. 114. 104. 26. 15. 207. 184. 125. 117. 199 Informatics. 34. 199. 61. 254. 113 Deep Web. 114. 135. 152. 287. 104. 72. 73. 125. 97. 9. 250 e-Commerce. 174. 273 Interoperability. 256. 69. 98. 250 Immersive environments. 114. 128. 114. 109. 54. 7. 145. 186. 77. 40. 91. 258. 45. 275 Distributed systems. 24. 205 History. 104. 32. 25. 306 Individualization. 244. 111 Extreme learning. 106. 26. 84. 252. 96. 135. 113. 255. 203. 134. 19. 243. 151. 248. 30. 72. 8. 19. 59. 138. 18. 158. 129. 119. 158. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 221. 93. 246. 224. 115. 37. 209 Handwriting recognition. 154. 12. 215. 132. 171. 136. 115. 88. 241. 119. 250. 5. 153. 87. 30. 28. 223. 199. 31 Emotional design. 250 Graphics. 90. 208. 278 Infrared tags. 127. 257 Grid computing. 255. 153. 121. 231. 1. 73. 139. 169. 253. 134. 80. 174. 111. 18. 210. 167. 155. 33. 55. 236 e-Science. 66. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 156. 4. 24. 82. 63. 193 Facial recognition. 267 formative assessment. 155. 202. 233. 262 Hybrid systems. 135. 250. 29 e-Portfolios. 199. 62. 65. 46. 34. 323 Folksonomies. 91. 224. 31. 239. 94. 148. 131. 230. 6. 92. 5. 17. 257. 205. 115. 98. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 273 Human-centered computing. 84. 118. 17. 12. 228. 12. 222. 217. 135. 24. 250. 7. 276 Instant messaging. 56. 145. 192. 188. 3. 134 Haptics. 273 Informal learning. 196. 138. 267. 320 graphics. 32. 114. 10. 2. 28. 28. 118. 192. 111. 92. 122. 23. 227. 27. 155. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 192. 145. 201. 68. 161. 117 Experiential learning. 206 Findability. 251. 35. 33. 61. 15. 45. 237. 6. 200 Design. 215. 48. 120. 122. 151. 170. 70. 86. 222. 167. 128. 62. 247. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 60. 159. 242. 250. 43. 21. 60 Displays. 31. 10. 78. 112. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 216. 28. 54. 120. 254 Gesture recogntion. 152. 120. 30. 64. 83. 97. 126 GIF graphic format. 128. 31. 34. 21. 170. 155. 134. 194. 268 Knowledge management. 215. 115. 132. 176 Interface devices. 123. 65 Google. 48. 18. 29. 192. 45 Frameworks. 65. 80. 3. 62. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 134. 157 Hype in e-learning. 76 Flash. 252. 86. 260 Dreamweaver. 108. 70. e-learning. 3. 217. 305 Geocaching. 236. 77. 104. 238. 87. 205. 220. 39. 9. 161. 242. 246. 99. 257 FrontPage. 128. 134 Head mounted displays. 254. 13. 244 Games. 160. 259. 39. 275. 228. 203. 215 Expert systems. 102. 10. 32. 15. 193. 71. 198. 5. 211. 243. 78. 245. 60 dynamic displays. 151 FireFox. 44. 273. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 204. 25. 134 Healthcare applications. 132. 156. 275 Director. 177. 251. 170. 76. 3.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 110. 194. 139. 171. 133. 189. 217 Federated searches. 129. 33. 112. 218. 274. 191. 83. 185. 62. 276 images.

232. 227. 59. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 163. 59 Presentation tools. 184. 78. 147. 125 Ontologies. 145. 196. 63. 187. 159. 261 Macromedia. 104. 171. 193 Projectors. 290. 120. 197 Legacy materials. 84. 163. 171. 197. 99. 105. 222. 185. 147. 7. 22. 28. 64. 63. 189. 162. 245. 121. 215. 175. 159. 270. 192. 115. 238. 44. 267. 66. 175. 227. 102. 188. 158. 190. 62. 154. 201. 101. 224. 318 Privacy. 145 learning object repository. 217. 198. 73. 12. 305. 159. 78. 72. 273. 104. 162. 64. 230. 174. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 161. 161. 33. 241. 139. 317. 85. 59. 63. 3. 182. 250 Mashups. 131. 309. 179. 184. 24 Museums. 187. 146. 209. 241. 56. 8. 209. 118. 3. 260. 144. 159. 210 Pervasive computing. 161. 202. 2. 323 mapping. 79. 90. 108. 17. 6. 61. 139. 192 Networks. 222. 20. 45. 117. 227. 224. 203. 85. 209 pattern recognition. 332 Microworlds. 209 Microlearning. 189. 219. 234. 134 Proximity tools. 254. 100.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 52. 247. 186. 5. 142. 47. 186. 330. 82. 173. 190. 294. 311 Learning Management Systems. 179. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 200. 250. 55. 7. 230. 87. 5. 65. 32. 183 Navigation. 171. 210 PowerPoint. 209. 3. 89. 178. 65. 205. 89. 254. 138. 244. 151. 45. 129. 4. 83. 177. 221. 221. 308. 66. 148. 139. 5. 59. 185. 312 learning object model. 189. 54. 273. 170. 6. 76. 204. 176 Personalization. 261. 244. 166. 28. 177. 171. 59. 6. 161. 230. 223. 105. 162. 159. 128. 36. 221. 43. 24. 142. 289. 20. 31. 158. 151. 172. 57. 120. 177. 231. 38. 241. 177. 138. 156. 224. 306. 192 Libraries. 271. 193 Microsoft. 115. 178. 194. 45. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 151. 195. 55. 206 Microformats. 274. 60. 219. 42. 146. 60. 101. 161. 25. 171. 164. 268 latent semantic analysis. 246. 30. 5. 161 Podcasting. 287. 145. 110. 61. 146. 92. 156. 93 Radio. 298. 175. 234. 145. 111. 183. 235. 84. 163. 178. 17. 91. 90. 255 Neural networks. 100. 177. 58. 193. 221 Project management. 170. 201. 160. 64. 177. 136. 174. 315 Motion Graphics. 254. 192 Lecturing. 165. 148. 27. 164. 158. 154. 105. 244. 10. 152. 19. 40. 311. 179. 12. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 64. 62. 52. 141. 222. 221. 104. 97. 192. 199. 221. 186. 135. 223 Rapid e-learning. 179. 109. 5. 162. 55. 73. 123. 80. 91. 174. 172. 119. 184. 6. 191. 147. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 106. 140. 237. 195. 31. 210. 151 Quizzes. 32 Metadata. 145. 260. 65. 152. 250 Pedagogy. 47. 103. 138. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 166. 218 M-learning. 65. 187. 158. 144. 88. 27. 112. 145 Learning Objects. 135. 314 Meta-search engines. 321. 82. 228 Optical tags. 280. 83. 233. 273. 32. 54. 181. 242. 32. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 60. 151. 54. 174. 189. 62. 72. 47. 107. 211. 190. 55. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 31. 111. 32. 300. 82. 33. 143. 13. 155. 66. 165 Mobile computing. 61. 284 Portals. 151. 182. 18. 160. 79. 86. 3. 193. 262. 259. 155. 187. 152. 114. 218 Metacognition. 243. 141. 188. 157 Medical applications. 274. 5. 176. 158. 85. 7. 95. 318 Location based tools. 318. 230. 86. 164. 104. 151.

98. 112. 221. 252. 145. 115. 202. 215. 241 Vodcasting. 73. 142. 232 Speech recognition. 273. 49. 238. 240. 226. 201. 210. 46. 109. 161. 151. 46. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 59. 167. 38. 236. 114. 174. 233. 244 Tours (online). 242 Security. 155 Tagging. 46. 228. 217. 197. 332 Webcasting. 51. 45. 187. 220. 219. 275 Vlogs. 252. 157 Simulations. 26. 217. 63. 24. 221. 253. 255 Single-user wiki. 167. 120. 145 Repositories. 33. 247 Video. 137. 241 Search engines. 169 Streaming video. 152. 255 Turing Test. 188. 97. 97. 69. 228. 63. 66. 10. 81. 239. 190. 155. 243. 2. 241 virtual classroom. 76 T-Learning. 227. 224. 196. 222. 241. 213. 209. 147. 226. 187. 16. 216. 86. 222. 179.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 262. 260. 12. 250. 216. 242. 242. 145. 241. 187 Virtual classrooms. 146. 215. 230. 76. 275. 274 Tests. 57. 222 Tag clouds. 170. 255. 218 Science. 244 Tangible computing. 66. 160. 219. 171. 201. 7. 127. 134. 202. 227. 331 Wearable computing. 9. 85. 151. 50. 5. 190. 120. 267. 117 Reusability. 201. 62. 150. 120. 196. 268 Tags. 232. 169. 67. 88. 246 Visualization. 84 Telephony. 171. 45 Semantic Web. 165. 319 Role-playing. 45 Symbology tags. 263. 231. 261 Usability. 238. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 154. 146. 251 Serious games. 261. 244 summative assessment. 55. 52. 43. 27. 241. 212 reusable learning objects. 224. 9. 204. 51. 216. 75. 145. 203. 266. 7. 159. 12. 10. 331 Web conferencing. 244. 156. 19. 143. 62. 33. 226. 47. 159. 259. 226. 223. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 119. 62. 208. 261 Shockwave. 60. 148. 152. 192 Thin clients. 268. 214 résumés. 218. 209. 18. 69. 33. 268 Skypecasting. 52. 158. 97. 5. 76. 221 self-evaluation. 81. 139. 45. 218 Scenarios. 3. 5. 214. 12. 264. 104. 180. 246. 198. 160. 174 Virtual reality. 5. 33. 199. 206. 113. 156. 228. 176. 117. 237. 149. 128. 206. 138. 31. 187. 134. 158. 259. 224. 242. 189. 226. 63. 134. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 164. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 251. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 60. 244. 241. 241 Television. 209. 106. 260 Telepresence. 196. 119. 212. 187. 145 Screencasting. 215. 256. 281 SCORM. 202. 221 Social bookmarking. 159. 158. 230. 125. 97. 254 Taxonomies. 45. 195 Virtual learning environments. 4. 72. 205. 60. 203. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 121. 2. 45. 254. 327 Videocasting. 6. 48. 147. 247. 156 sharable content objects. 174. 225. 138. 98. 3. 15. 148. 231. 224. 4. 61. 245. 194. 76. 167. 100. 5. 158. 187 Smart labels and tags. 32. 224 Team management. 225. 122. 123. 8. 47. 193. 264 Social networking. 62. 227. 200. 158. 302. 6. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 65. 65. 243. 145 Robotics. 226. 275 Translation. 265. 143. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 119. 199. 273. 225. 10. 183. 211. 139. 155. 151. 221.

115. 137. 233. 68. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 268. 276 Word. 256. 80.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 233. 6. 267. 270 Wikis. 5. 307 Wikipedia. 157. 106. 90. 114. Gary. 103. 271. 174. 59. 269. 135. 104. 3. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 156. 332 Woodill. 168. 187 Whiteboards. 270. 272. 136. 266. 184. 82. 97. 77. 269. 268. 86. 53. 1. 134. 10. 209. 84. 116. 87. 232.

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