Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

Preface
In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

the classroom became industrialized.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. the raising of hands. Technologies are any technique. or “reader. Learning became standardized and linear. The modern classroom. They are. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. fire for warmth and cooking.” Starting in the first century AD. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. With these reforms. still used in many institutions of higher education. class periods. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. for example. with rows. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. We tend to forget. and recess. and language for communication. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. as books were scarce. Medieval universities followed the same practice. to quote Donald Norman (1993).” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. material. or device that extends human abilities. that lecturing. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. “things that make us smart. Do Not Reproduce 1 . marks and other techniques for signaling direction. But learning technologies have a much longer history. is a 2000 year old “technology. detentions. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing.

The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words.” In 1970. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Students in these schools learned by reading.just the ability to follow an example. When a new technology is introduced. At the same time. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. in 1876 someone at Western Union. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars).” Similarly. in fact. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. chairman of IBM. moving pictures (films). it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . Brandon Hall Research . most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. Schools were started to teach accounting. even if the originator of the words is not present. For example. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. changing the practice of teaching. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Eventually. Like all new technologies. many different ways to learn. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. 2 © 2006. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. memorizing. Thomas Watson. When a new technology first comes into use. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. There are. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. linear teaching techniques online. and reciting. A third way to learn is by seeing. Sadly.

The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. mashups can only be done using computer technology. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. as this is a non-technical guide. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. and standards. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira.24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. Rather than pages. 2006). To realize these advantages. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Do Not Reproduce 3 . sometimes referred to as a mashup. frameworks. However. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. 2006). it needs to adhere to architectures. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). sometimes gathered from multiple sources.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Rather than pages.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done.

decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid.php). 2005. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. January. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Brandon Hall Research .E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. Number 3. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.grid.fr/publicatio n. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.free. 4 © 2006. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.

aicc. and education administration.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. In Europe.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. At the same time.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. In particular.elframework. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. presentation and interactive environments. At the same time.accessgrid. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. http://www.adlnet.oclc. http://www.org) has a number of published documents that. interactive learning components. Major specifications for e-learning.org). could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. http://sourceforge. and makes extensive use of XML. taken together.imsglobal.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. research. http://ltsc. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://purl.ieee. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. http://imsproject. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. enabling the search for content. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. Do Not Reproduce 5 .

“[a] pull economy . 6 © 2006.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. Instead. They noted that “…in education. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . Bollier says. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. reinforces this theme. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. Instead of just providing courses. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. For example. As Anderson (2004. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. This is especially true for adult education. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). Moreover. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. 2006) has argued. Brandon Hall Research . In business. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. 2004).is based on open. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. Rather.” In late 2005. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Instead. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. While packaged courses still have a place. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.

(2005). Chris (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China... http://arxiv. Zanichelli. R. Ali. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.. UK. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. along with selected examples.ntnu. New York: Hyperion. http://www. From this. the reader can approach any topic in any order. F. Umer. Reggiani. R.. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Five years ago. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Thus. March/April 2006. M. Odeh. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. Bertolazzi.html Anderson. 10/tail.no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. online resources.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. Ahmad. 2005). Milan. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.com/wired/archive/12.idi. http://www. and wearable computers. http://www.. G. October. Italy.educause. M. Wired Magazine.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Cardiff. Chris (2006). perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. User-created content. 41(2). Web 2. McClatchey. and Conte..pdf Anderson.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Do Not Reproduce 7 .amazon. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. mobile devices. M. and a bibliography. M. http://www.org/abs/cs. Z. June 2005. Wales. Bibliography Abbas. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. I hope you will find it useful. ambient networks.. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. Bryan (2006). A.wired. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.DC/0502051 Alexander. The Long Tail. is becoming commonplace. F. 12(10). often placed in repositories as open source content or software. those learners are now keeping their own records. In the last chapter.

org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. Weiss.gmu.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. Portugal. http://www. American Jrnl. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).org/celda2005/index. Jagadish (2004). Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. http://www. 13-16. Lausanne. http://www.. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. M.. T. of Distance Education 10.pdf Bogonikolos. Madison.. Montreal.. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments..htm l 8 © 2006. 2004. Upper Saddle River. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Friesen. Sept.a sp Chatarji. C. Online. http://www. http://ewic. http://www. (2002).. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .athabascau.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. R.cancore. G.virtual.cti. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. (2001).ca/softeval/report s/R110203. N.amazon. C.Dev Shed. 4-36. Triantafillou. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Web Services ..ICALT 2001.pdf Erl. 16. Porto. Switzerland..gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. (2002). M. 2004. Athabasca University. 13.iadis.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Tsiatsos. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology.org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. http://www. 2002. T. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. 6-8. Aug. S. 2. N. 19.ca/protocols_en.aspeninstitute. and Votis. Hornig. http://cde. Giotopoulos.pdf Cerri. Stefano (2005). Chrysostalis. March 2002. Oct. WI. http://www.cscsi. David (2005).. V. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Centre for Distance Ed. 2001. Norm (2006). Thomas (2004).edu/pdf/ajde. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. 14-16. USA. Likothanassis.bcs. http://ru6. Nov.devshed. and McGinnis (2004). and McGreal. K. (1996). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Dec. K.htm Bollier. International E-Learning Specifications.

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There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. and a bibliography for each section. Included are related terms. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. online resources to learn more about each technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Do Not Reproduce 11 . selected elearning related examples. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.

For example. in Italy. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. too.. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. gestures. posture. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. confused. understand. privacy. and react to human emotions. keystroke patterns. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. emotional design. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states.” (Anolli. security. Brandon Hall Research . Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. In online therapy.sricbi. and to respond to them effectively. 12 © 2006. SRI Consulting (http://www. 2005). Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. Without the ability to understand emotions. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. 2005). or sad.. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. and react to human emotions. facial recognition. emotions. et al. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. understand.

org.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.informatik.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. China. Dr. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. 2005. Hatfield. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. University of Hertfordshire. UK. listing many links to interesting resources.bham.bartneck.myself-proj.de/link/affective_p ortal.cs.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states.aisb. See: http://www.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research. with many resources. See the links at: http://emotion.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.arizona.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. 2005.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. Access it from: http://www. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.mit.ac. Do Not Reproduce 13 . maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic.edu/emotion.media. Check it out at: http://www.unige. and legality.convo. UK. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Affective Computing. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.html In Germany. bibliographies. accuracy.nsma. April 12-15. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.co.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. are available online: http://www. October 22-24.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.unitrier. including studies of emotions in computers. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.

Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. and Morishima. Portland. A. CHI 2005 conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar. N.sics. David (2003). Agliati. J.. 2005 http://www. Realdon. April 2-7. NJ.. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. P.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye. Oregon.pdf 14 © 2006. Isbister. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. I Like It . L.. O. Brave. M.. Portland. J...se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. B.. Nakajima. D.. I.. April 2-7. Portland. Rocchi. The Love Machine: building computers that care. http://www. Vermersch.. CHI 2005 conference. and Laaksolahti. and Zouinar. (2005).sics.it/~lhci/009. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. http://www. Mantovani.stanford. Portland. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. J. K. F. Iwamura. R. Vescovo. Issue 11/12. Pachoud.sics. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. A.1 2/love.. Brassac. Oregon. C. Z.. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Nortillaro. April 2-7.sics. April 2-7. http://www. (2005).com/wired/archive/11. Wired Magazine. 2005.. Oregon. Oregon. CHI 2005 conference.uniroma1. and Waterworth. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. and Zancanaro. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. CHI 2005. http://www. Salembier. Joseph (2005). M.pdf Diamond. Zurloni.sics. Oregon.doc Chateau. P. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour.pdf Cahour. April 2-7. September 13. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Balestra.. Nass. (2005). Y.. Portland. D.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. and Confalonieri (2005)..wired. (2005). F. Lee. Graziola. Pianesi. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. K... J.pdf Maldonado. (2005).. S.doc Hook. CHI 2005 conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. Portland. K. H. Brandon Hall Research . CHI 2005. O. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau.. Yamada. http://www... H. (2005).. December. Stock.pdf Kaye.dis. Erlbaum. http://www. L. Bouraoui. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 2-7. 2005. B.html Fallman. Oregon. and Merisol. V.. C.pdf Goren-Bar.sics. C.

M. Rosalind (1997). MA: MIT. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Portland. http://www. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. Miami. http://www. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. Donald A. http://www.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.com/gp/product/3 http://www.t.miv. 35(2). and Daily. May 26. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 22. Helena (2005). OR. April 2-7. http://www. (2005).ruebenstrunk. ACII 2005. S.amazon.pdf Masum. Regan (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. E-book http://www. CHI 2005.htm Tao. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. China. Oregon.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. 2005.pdf Mentis. Affective Springer. New York: Basic. (2005).pdf Norman.. 2002. CHI 2005. (2004). Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk.sics. J. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. R. 2005. April 2-7. http://www. J.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 .elearningreviews.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. Dec. and Ishizuka. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Picard. T. Paper for WEBIST 2005. http://www.de/emeocom p/content. Computing.sics. October 22-24. Tan. and Steele. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. http://www.sics. (2002).se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. (2005). Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. R.iste. M.ac.utokyo. Beijing. Cambridge.HTM Steele. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.amazon. 2005. Oregon. Gerd (1998). S. Portland.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final. CHI 2005 conference. Berlin: Picard.

University of Birmingham.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg. April 2-7. CHI 2005 conference. Charlotte (2005).cs.uk/research/cog aff/Wright. http://www.bham.thesis. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Affective Computing vs. Brandon Hall Research . Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.sics.doc Wright. http://www. Oregon.Affective Computing Wiberg.ac.pdf 16 © 2006. Ian (1997). Emotional Agents. Portland. 2005. Doctoral Dissertation.

htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. and both may be found in the same program (for example. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. and many of them can actually learn. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Third. learning/adaptation. proactive (goal directed). veracity. autonomous agents. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Fourth. and. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. 1999). Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology.gu. see the paper by Far et al. rationality. Dick Stenmark. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. 1999). These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Do Not Reproduce 17 .. First. 2004). In this context. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). avatars. For example. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears.informatik.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. benevolence. Second.

a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. but also about other agents. useful in educational simulations. 2005. (1998) developed a conversational agent. 18 © 2006. In such situations. A second agent in the simulation. Viswanath. and the students had to continue to teach her. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. et al. Mentor.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. However. acting against other teams of agents. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Baldi. 2004) and are. Brandon Hall Research . they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Even though each agent acts independently. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. therefore. 2005). A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Massaro et al. Therefore. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Agents have beliefs. 2000). Katzlberger. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. not only about environments. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. She made mistakes.

A. For details see: www. go to: http://ritl. (2004): http://www.org/index.ac.codebaby. but also about other agents.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Do Not Reproduce 19 .redwoodelearning. expert role-players. & Ebbers. (2003).uka. See: http://liinwww. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.extempo.de/bibliography/Ai /agents. See the article by Williams et al. See a demo at: http://www.stanford.fsu.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.org/index. Therefore.editlib.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.liv.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.editlib. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.. not only about environments. Go to: http://www.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. S.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California.isi. and expert guides. They are available as adaptive coaches. See: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. See: http://www.csc. For details of this research: http://www.ira. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. Hypermedia.com/ CodeBaby Corp. 459462. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. and Telecommunications 2003.netobjectdays. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.old. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. go to: http://ldt.

S. http://www.editlib. 306-311). E. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp..pdf Clarebout. In Richards. Koono. http://www.pdf Guessoum. No. (2002). Erfurt.. (2002). Large Complex Systems. J.org/index. J.editlib.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL).computer.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Jrnl. Ali (2002). 75-80.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. 275-285. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. & Bengu..ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. L. Y. & Johnson. Y. Z.educause. and Tsang. (2005).org/index. W. Inter-active Learning Res. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. B. C. 10 (3). and Palopoli. Zahia (2004). VA: AACE. G. M.editlib. http://www. G. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments.org/index. 1503-1506.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. Norfolk. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Educause Quarterly.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. (2003). International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.org/index. & Lin. 267-286 http://www. http://www. G.pdf Jafari. e-Learning 2005. Elan.editlib.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. (1999).cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. July. Germany. http://www. L..educause.cfm?fusea ction=Reader. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 2005. & Kim. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). http://www. A...cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Ng.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao.aace. 11(3). A. (Ed. Clarebout.. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. 1353-1356.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004... S. S. & El-Khouly.Agents Baylor. G.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. Paper presented. Educause Quarterly.org/index.). Sun. (2002). In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. http://www. In Proceedings. 3. W.. http://csdl. Hypermedia. ELearning 2003. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. (2000). Brandon Hall Research . 5(7)..netobjectdays.old.. Johnson.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235.org/newdl/index. http://www. G. 28(2). Proceedings. (2005). Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.pdf Kao.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. and Shaw.

cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Nashville. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Vanderbilt University.ogi.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. http://www. http://dl. Fuhua Oscar (2005). http://www. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. In Proceedings.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. http://www. 17(2). and Ferneley. V. Hershey. http://cslu. of California. 1632. W. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. U. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Nashville. August.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood.. http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. 4(1). C. Krittaya (2005). and Winikoff. Y.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. R. Doctoral Dissertation.5 .amazon.org/index. Toulouse.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. 16591666.editlib.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98.amazon. France. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.. 143-162.editlib.aifb. and Ho. Tennessee.edu/fil/ Padgham.pdf Lin.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . Learning by Teaching Agents.K. and Cole.teachableagents.org/index..de/BIK/vpa/109.indiana. ED-MEDIA.unikarlsruhe. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. E.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay.pdf Kim. L. (1999).teachableagents. IFIP WG12. A. D.. (2005). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Cohen. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Beskow. Daniel.org/index. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.. E-Learning 2003. J. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. www. S. P.pdf Luengo.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. and Stucky. Vanderbilt University.editlib. (2003). (2006). M. www.pdf Menczer. Thomas (2005). In Proceedings.. V.ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation. www. 1999. Doctoral Dissertation.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Sandel.informatics. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.aace. Doctoral dissertation.cse. http://www.org/16948 Leelawong. TN. O. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. M. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. http://www. (2004). 21-38. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.

Adebiyi.html Shim. Doctoral Dissertation.ist. 30003002. (2004).org/index.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. (2005).. Petersburg.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Government. (1999). http://scholar. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno.teachableagents. June 1-4. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.aace. http://www. K. (2005). EDMedia 2005.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. In P.cs. 47-59. 3169-3176.editlib. (Ed. L. & Leelawong. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. G. 10 (3). and Núñeza. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). Proceedings.. St.psu. http://www. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.org/papers/ 158bis.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Proceedings. & Booth. D. and Solomon. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). In Proceedings.. G. Pittsburgh. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Brandon Hall Research .. M.. Russia.).. Healthcare.edu/565321. & Madsen. (2004). ED-MEDIA 2005.org/index. 321-333. K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. G. Biswas.. 194-201. H.pdf Williams.editlib. and Higher Education 2004. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (1999). Peter (1998).ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.org/index.utexas. PA. M. Wesley.editlib.org/newdl/index.org/16968 Sahin. Doctoral Dissertation. M. R. Carnegie Mellon University. ED-MEDIA 2004. Richards (Eds. R.aace.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath. & Lim. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. J. S. Ferat (2000).lib. http://www. 14(1). J. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. 1999.org/index.editlib..cfm?fu seaction=Reader.vt. http://www. 14151420. Finland. B. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Atreya. http://citeseer. Kommers & G. (2004). L.). http://dl. S. 61-65. http://www. Gilbert. http://www. In Richards.Agents Perez.edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. N. http://www.

ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 .edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. Michael (2002). Chicago. Chun. (2004). Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning.wiley. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge.html Yan.ac. http://research. Paper at CLAG2004. http://ca. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.upc. 2004. New York: John Wiley & Sons.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X. April 18-21.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.

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Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce

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Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”

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Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”

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Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce

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computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. rather than using a single type of knowledge. gestures. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.e. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. 2002). a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Talking Head Tutor vs. Do Not Reproduce 30 . They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. etc) and how they are interrelated. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. concepts. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. objects. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. While many systems purport to be personalized. (2003). intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.

pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.” http://www.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. Do Not Reproduce 31 . using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.uic.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. including student monitoring.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.” http://www. ecommerce.cs.unito.colorado. http://lsa. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.cs.. and multiagents.iit.colorado. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.uregina.cs. (2005a.di.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. see: http://lsa. http://www.

htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Brandon Hall Research .cmu.enel.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.edu.com/index.ht ml To achieve their goals. and INFOMAP.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. question answering (QA) techniques. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. http://www. Infrature. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. http://quantumsimulations.ucalgary.edu.it.iis. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.kicinger.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. http://www.pact. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.leaonline.unsw.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. 32 © 2006.” http://www.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.cs. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.uc3m.infrature. http://www. http://www.pdf Oguejiofor et al. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.sinica.com/doi/pdf/10. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. http://bach.library. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.” http://ctat. http://ariic.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.gast. As a result.

virtuelage.” http://www. intelligent conflict resolution. Find out more at: http://ctat.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. challenging. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. an adaptive testing algorithm.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. Aurora . The reality is that. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. and engaging.edu. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.usyd. preferred cadence.cmu.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .com/s10.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. http://pact. skill gaps.ke-corp. so that these systems become more realistic.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.stottlerhenke.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. Inc.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.it.cs.gemini. Task Tutor Toolkit . and an interactive intelligent tutor. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic . Do Not Reproduce 33 .cs. see: http://www.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.cmu. Stottler Henke Associates. http://www. and learning style.pact. http://www. without programming. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

learningcircuits. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.uquebec.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. http://aied.com/printer _friendly_article. For more information.” Learn more at: http://www. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. http://www.teluq.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). See: http://www.cs.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. go to: http://aied.licef. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.ac.aaai.ca/eng/in dex.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. http://www.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. Read it at: http://www.enel. Taiwan. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. For more info: http://www2. Find it at: http://www.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.inf.uk/aiedsoc. China. Brandon Hall Research .ac.org/AITopics/html/tutor.org/cfp. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.ed.wpi. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. 34 © 2006.ucalgary. with the next one in 2007.autotutor.technologyreview.its2006. The AIED conferences are held every two years.htm Marvin Minsky.ed.org/2000/fe b2000/ong.masternewmedia.inf.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.

and Douglas. In J. Lester.wpi. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Paraguaçu (Eds.. (2004). Reilly.html Barker.di. http://www.pdf Baldoni. & F. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). McLaren. M. R. (2005). K. http://dx. and Evens. Baroglio. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. B. 482-487.amazon. (2004). Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.Volume I.sbg. S. and Patti.eurodl. (2004). Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. and Picard. S. http://www. K.pdf Barcena. http://lingcog. M.. In Proceedings.pdf Alkhalifa. V. Maceió.. http://www.pdf Aleven. Mostow. C. Argamon. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.. G.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Roll.. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . Artificial Intelligence Review. R.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit. V. R. and Penstein Rosé. and Koedinger.) (2006).com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. 6(1).pitt.cmu. http://nth. PA: Idea. C.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. Hershey. I. M. (2002). V. http://www. Eshaa (Ed.1109/ITCC.doi.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. 22: 3–39. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems. P... ITS 2004. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.org/10. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. J. and Read.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04.unito.iit. Vicari. Hermann (2002). (2004).pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 . T. Chicago. B. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Brazil.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read. http://www.2005.). Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.ht ml Aleven. http://www. E. C.at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.ac.edu/pubs/pub_4073. Kort. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.ri.82 Bhatt. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. (2004)..

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rubrics. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. the automated scoring of essays. aptitudes. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. affective. or performance samples.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). computer mediated assessment (CMA). For example. or performance samples. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. quizzes. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. In a business situation. We can expect that. quizzes. once only done by a human assessor.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. self-evaluation. and documents for assessors to use. When combined into a “360° evaluation. evaluation. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. eassessment. quizzes. computer-based assessment tools. More sophisticated forms of automated. in the near future. for example. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. computer based assessment (CBA). Do Not Reproduce 45 . and output. are already available. and psychomotor. online assessment. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. Assessment software can generate templates. making it hard to escape assess-ment. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. 1956). ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. samples.

com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. skills. and past work behaviors. a customizable look and feel.0. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. For details. Diploma. Find them at: http://www.redinq. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.brainbench. Review it at: http://www. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. multilingual support. which is usually much more reliable than human marking.rmsuk. 46 © 2006. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.horizonwimba. personality. http://www. See: http://www.testcraft.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. Brandon Hall Research .com/news_ performance_analyzer2. preview pages for all question types. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. see: http://www.learningandteaching.com/redinq/html/inde x.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.com The Evaluator. has recently won awards for its performance. and (4) computer marking. a completely customizable report engine.K.xstreamsoftware.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. from Resources Management Services in the U. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.. and adaptive question branching. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy.questionmark. Try it at: http://nt.com/evaluator Testcraft.info/lear ning/solo.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. However. See the site at: http://www. abilities.

cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays. and adminis-tration features.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. See more at: http://www.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. and self-study. http://www. reporting.” organized by academic discipline. http://www. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.org/ ETS. surveys.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.” See their offerings at: http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). For information on latent semantic analysis. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.dialang.org/english/index.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.flaguide. learning tools.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.operitel.epistema. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 .com/wwwtools/magazin es. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.vantagelearning. http://www. and services useful for outcomes assessment.ets. once only done by a human assessor.respondus. see: http://lsa. http://www. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. See: http://www.colorado. check out the Dialang web site. http://www. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. on its Web site. Try it at: http://www.uc.fasfind.pedagogue. institutional evaluation.

uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. http://cba. http://www.thinkinggear.com/schrockguid e/assess. is available from: http://liinwww.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.ac.nestafuturelab.cshe. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.htm 48 © 2006.000 different tests from its database. http://www.uiuc.tasainstitute. http://www.economicsnetwork.wlv. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.learnflex.health.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. http://www. Obtain a copy at: http://www.edu.ira.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.discovery.ac.” http://www.oir.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.ac.heacademy. with a list of 34 strategies.ulster. Explore the links at: http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.unimelb.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.com/029.uka.uk/home.scit. Brandon Hall Research .com/useguide/as sessme/online.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. http://www.rmcdenver.200 references.com/tools/rubric s.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.au/assessi nglearning/03/online. http://www. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.ac.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80. Check them out at: http://school.umuc. with over 1.org/research/ reviews/10_01.uk/cticomp/CAA.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.

Freire. & Rodríguez. D. http://www. B. G. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment. M. Pérez.amazon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. P.htm Atkinson. J.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. J. and Davies. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.ict4lt. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . R. St. L.tcet. http://www. London: Paladin. http://www. A.ifets. and Hirschman.iltaonline.info/journals/8_3/6. and Collis.amazon. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Carro. http://www.3 Bateson. S.pdf Atherton. Missouri.iltaonline. New York: McKay.com/career_asse ssment. (2005).quintcareers. James (2005). Online paper. Louis. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www. http://www.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. McNamara.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.. Online paper. 53-65.... T. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.info/learn ing/solo. N. M. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.html Bibliography Alfonseca. http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. http://www. Gregory (1973). (2001). and O'Hagan.. Iwashita.. (2001).edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.htm#2. K.. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.pdf Biggs. http://www. T. http://www. New York: Academic Press.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. A. E.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. S.amazon. (1982).unt. (1956). (2004). the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Ortigosa. 8 (3).1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.learningandteaching. Educational Technology & Society. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.org/en/en_mod41.

Harabagiu and F. http://www. Kevin (2003). C.pdf.htm 50 © 2006.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield.amazon. Arlington Heights. http://www. Marcu. NY: Macmillan. 1.ht m.assess. 3rd Edition. Inouye. Burstein. New York.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Jill.com/Books/b39739.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. Ciravegna (Eds.. M. Kaplan (Ed. & Olsen. J. Hillsdale. Jill. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". Educational Measurement. In S. Martin. Langu-age Learning and Technology. & Leacock. Mexico. and Marcu. K.. Burstein (Eds.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj.. http://www. (1989). In M. (2003).amazon.org/intelligent/archives.assess. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Burstein. Kay (1999). August 2003.Assessment Tools Brown J. Chodorow. http://llt. Daniel. B. C. Brandon Hall Research .) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. How to Assess Authentic Learning. V. New York: Oxford. Burstein (Eds. http://www. (2003). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Knight. Hillsdale. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. and Chodorow. In the R.amazon. IL: Skylight.).) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.. J. http://www. In M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Robert (2005). Shermis and J.eschoolnews. (2002). eSchool News.ets. D. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. June 22. (1997).com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. In R. L.computer.com/Books/b39739. 2005. Shermis and J. (2003).) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.com/news/sho wStoryts. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. IEEE Intelligent Systems. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. www. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. http://www. Jill C. Daniel.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.htm Burstein. Linn (Ed. Jill. Acapulco.msu. Rethink testing for future success. http://www.

S. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. May. T. March 9. (2004). Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Writing assessment: a position statement. 2. Language Learning & Technology 2.amazon.utas. Laham.au/worldcall/str5.ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002).. Foltz. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.iltaonline. L. O’Reilly. Davis.soton. P. Louis. (2004).) (1999). C.edu. (1998).pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Micheline. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. N.nap.html Davies.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. and Parry. (Ed.htm Cebrian. Chalhoub-Deville. D.ncte. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.html Do Not Reproduce 51 . Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Howard. St.. Nathan.pdf Dunkel P. C. E. (2005).edu. (1999). http://wwwpsych. and Sclater. 5. http://www. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.msu. M. (2001). Online newsletter.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. 2: 77-93. Loughborough.ecs. n.. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.. http://llt. W.doc. http://www.nmsu. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -.. Language testing and technology: past and future. Morgan. http://www. v.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion. & Landauer. W. M.hlc. In Proceedings. K. National Research Council. Language Learning and Technology. Micheline. http://llt. Online newsletter. The Student Assessment Handbook. P. B. and Grellett.unimelb. College Composition and Communication Online. London: Falmer. Board on Testing and Assessment.msu. Millard. http://eprints. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. (2001). EdMedia '99. Y. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". http://www.. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. www.ac.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. (1999). D.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr. University of Tasmania. H.html Chalhoub-Deville.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.Proceedings from a Workshop.

25.medianet. PA: Information Science. Robert. Language Learning and Technology. http://mason.pd f Kenyon. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . http://www. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.html Khan.. M. Foltz.. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. D.amazon. 5.softwaresecure. Weller.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. and Ward. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. http://www. http://www. v. (2005). Lawrence. and Ma. Fremer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase.. (1999). and Watt. http://www. J. May. M.amazon. http://www.LSAi ntro.. T. S. D.msu. (Eds.html.com/pdf/Pap erTests. (1998). (2001). W. Discourse Processes. http://llt. 4. J. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. International Journal on E-Learning.amazon. 2. Patrick (2000). http://lsa.Hershey. & Laham. Seven technologies for assessment. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. (2002).pdf MacDonlad.) (2002). Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. J. Howell. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. n. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Hricko.colorado. and Howell. H. K. V.htm. Gardner. C. France. May. Y. W. N.edu/papers/dp1.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase. M. Potenza.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones..amazon.proexam. 5(2). http://llt. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.gmu. No.kent. Online paper. Hardas.. R (2002). Howard (1993).edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault. (Eds.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones. http://www. 259284..pdf Landauer. (2001). Hillsdale. and Malabonga. New York: Basic Books. Compiegne. & Mason.msu.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. http://www.) (2005). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. P. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.

University of Gothenburg. and Writing. National Center for Education Statistics.com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. In C.. pdf Weiner. McArthur. D. G. Howell. http://eric. New York. Washington.ed.ed. 403-416. & J.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Hershey.amazon. M. http://nces. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer.. B. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. (Eds. Measurement and Evaluations.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. http://www. and Gifford. http://www. (2006). Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.operitel. C. PA: Information Science.amazon. S. R. and Skinner. D. S. Burstein. Online Assessment. A. M. K. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.amazon. Problem Solving. Learning. http://escholarship.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. Operitel white paper. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. and Hricko. & Leacock. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Information Science Publishing.) (2005). Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. Fitzgerald. Mahwah.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. (2005). J.edu/cgi/viewconten t. 4(6). Tim (2006). (1979).com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.S. Government. Journal of Technol.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. (2006).bc.com Do Not Reproduce 53 . (2000). M.) (2000). (Ed. Graham. DC: U. pp. Self. http://www.amazon. Handbook of writing research. http://www.. and Assessment. http://www.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. Reports from the Institute of Education.gov/pubs2000/2000195.. NY: Guilford Press. Howard.

. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. The quality of online audio depends on many factors.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. One audio application of interest to educators. According to Crofts et al. which is gaining in popularity. compared with even a few years ago. podcasting. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . depending on the file size). Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history.e. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. For example. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. (2005). including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. (i. is podcasting. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. Brandon Hall Research .Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. or by “streaming. while it is playing.5 megabytes. the rest of the file has time to arrive. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes.

.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. Do Not Reproduce 55 . http://www.e. (i.envision. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. such as those for iPods.rds.com/blogs/doug/index.thepodcastnetwork. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. to personalized media). Assists non-native speakers. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n. http://www. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. and other operating systems. It is available to download for Mac OS X. Provides another channel for material review. This frag-mentation is being fueled.scientificcomputing. Provides feedback to learners. GNU/Linux. http://www. in part. http://www. open source software for recording and editing sounds.apple. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. http://sourceforge. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.purdue. Microsoft Windows.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. You can’t add your own notes.

com/resources/dc_medi a. 56 © 2006.elearningcentre. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.ibritt. http://www.uk/podcasting/index. DJ mixing.htm For a list of podcasting tools.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound. http://www. enhancing.podcasting-tools.71.htm RECAP Ltd.avsmedia.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. phrases.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. including podcasting. playback.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://recap. Brandon Hall Research . Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.co. CD audio extraction.edupodder.automaticsync. which is gaining in popularity. http://www. http://www. shareware. and broadcasting are all found on this site.audiotoolsdirect.com.com/lipsync/in dex.ltd.com/AudioTools/in dex. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. http://64. or sentences from audio Web sites.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. recording.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. including software to record and play podcasts.masternewmedia. Audio and video software.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. sound editing. http://www. freeware. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators. http://www. and utilities for conversion. http://www.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. is podcasting. http://epnweb.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web.48. go to: http://www. tools.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.

VA: AACE.sonicfoundry.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.multitrackstudio.scientificcomputing.masternewmedia. Chesapeake.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. A. http://www. 417-419). Dilley. http://www.ltd.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. Fox.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Brenda (2001). and Williams. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Doctoral Dissertation. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Robin Good’s Blog. and Swenson.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index.html Bibliography Buhman.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. Dave (2005). Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).html Curtis.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 . http://dl. Scientific Computing World. In G. First Monday. September. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information..htm Jobbings.. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. 2005. Sound Sense.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts. L. S. University of Nebraska.org/3455 Girvan. http://digitalcommons. July 2005.unl. Dion Cory (1999).adobe. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Richards (Ed. Luigi (2005). May 20.audiolink. http://www. (2005).com/products/audition/ main.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.com/home. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth.editlib. http://recap. Ray (2005).bias-inc.uk/articles/podguide. B. J.cakewalk. http://www. Retsema. http://firstmonday. M. Healthcare. P. April 2005. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models..org/index. Government.aace. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). 45-50. 10(9).html Canali De Rossi.

and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Brandon Hall Research .apple. Peter (2005).pdf Noakes.Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson. Podcasts. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. June 2005. C. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Eva (2005).com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er. Podcasting and Vodcasting.educause. Learning Circuits.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng.learningcircuits. and Lomas. N. http://edmarketing. http://www. http://www.

The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects. either directly or with third party tools. Do Not Reproduce 59 . rapid e-learning. in the end. Design. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. No authoring tool does everything.com/publications/emerging/emerging. 2005). all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. content development. either directly or with third party tools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Implementation. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. simulations. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Further. As well. In this vein. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. and Evaluation) processes. please see http://www. (For details. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. Further. and. Development.brandonhall.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. see: http://www. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.microsoft. shtml). most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill.

com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain. www.com/ Acroservices .anark.html Since its acquisition of Macromedia. video.allencomm. and marketing applications. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia.thinkingcap. http://www.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.accordent. and images and turn them into 3-D training.Capture Station 2. http://www.acroservices.com/presenter.Media – Import 3-D Models. http://www. visualization. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. XML. http://www.com Anark .Thinkcap Studio . Do Not Reproduce 60 . go to: http://www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.articulateglobal.Designer’s Edge. http://www.activeslide.info/ Allen Communications .adobe. video.com Agile .htm ActiveSlide.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.com/products/ Articulate . http://www.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. music.

Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. rich text.co. stand alone . video.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.digitalworkshop.ilessons.exe files. Builds quizzes.php e2train . http://www.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.composica.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. http://www.htm Composica . http://presentation.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.htm Bernard D&G .Composica Enterprise . pop-up messages.com/eng/index.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www. CD Rom.com/inde x.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . and animation.turbodemo. Do Not Reproduce 61 .co. http://www.com/in dex_eng.com/ Business Performance Technology .com/product s/Pro.copycatsoftware. audio.ht m Brainshark Inc.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. http://www. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.atlanticlink. http://www. .Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .com/power point-presentations-index. DVD-video.com/ Counterpoint .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.elearningpowertools. http://www. http://www. hotspots.e2train.Content Point . Integrates various media.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. video.uk/contentpoint.brainshark.shtml Dynamic Media . pointers.bridge-pt. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. http://www.dynamicpowertrainer. http://www. and PowerPoint slides. such as the following: Web. buttons. http://www.lersus. Flash.

http://www. http://www.experiencebuilders.com/ka.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. graphics.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.elementk. http://www. without programming knowledge.elicitus. html E-Learning Consulting .EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.horizonwimba.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. HTML courses. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. and installation files.com Imaira Digital Media . http://www.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation .gen21.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. and.e-learningconsulting. http://www. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.com/Solutions/Elear ning.epistema. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.com No authoring tool does everything.eclipsys.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .eedo.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . http://www. Post the characters on any Web site. http://www.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema . Import rich media and customize graphics.com/products/forceten. http://www.hunterstone. in the end.com/ Hunter Stone .com/index. Brandon Hall Research . all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. http://www. 62 © 2006. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www.com Element K .sculptoris.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.

com/flashh ome.intuition. http://www. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 63 .com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.com/home/home. http://www.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.de/ Impatica . from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. Word.knowledgextensions. centralized knowledge base.easyprof.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons.impatica.knowledgequest. with no programming and no plugins. and animations with tests and interactivity.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates.com/pro dserv.co. http://www.knowledgeplanet. http://www. shtml Itaca . Has its own built-in learning management system.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.ipsinc. http://www.seminar.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. Built-in testing engine.knowledgepresenter. http://www.pdf Intuition . http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .uk/ INTEC .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.Used to create presentations without programming skills.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG . audio.js p Knowledge Planet . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.com/ Information Transfer .com/ Integrated Performance Systems .LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www.lecturnity.ie/software/publisher.EasyProf .intecllc.elearninginabox. combining multimedia content like video. http://www.

http://www.screenwatch.mindonsite.instant-demo.customcourse.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. Works with SAP Learning Solution.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.com/ Percepsys .ch/eLearning/EN /index. PowerPoint slides.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.ph p MindOnSite .com/ NetPlay Software .maxit.maxit. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. Ready-made button and navigation aids. Brandon Hall Research .mindiq.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.com . graphics.com/index.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. http://www. with a built-in learning management system. http://www.co.com/learncenter.com/coursegen. 64 © 2006.percepsys. http://www.com/ OPTX International . course publisher.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.com/tbt/dac/index. and course player all in one software package. http://www.com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www. http://www. http://www. . http://www. and other online presentations for play back to students.learn.mohive. http://www.Authoring Tools Learn.htm MediaMaker .Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.uk/ MindIQ .asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.mckinnonmulherin.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. http://www.LEARNERLand – Text.learnerland.

com/common/a ffiliateRefer.Publisher Professional . When content is developed.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games.softchalk. crosswords.scribestudio.podia. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. popups.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.pointecast.net ReadyGo . http://www.com/sensasol ution.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. image hotspot activities. Courses can be posted.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. and assessments.readygo. http://www.com/Products/elear ning_objects. http://www. without knowing code. and Flash.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. http://www.com Rapid Intake .com Respondus . image labeling.com/products/stud ymate. http://www.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://nuvvo.reusableobjects.respondus. matching games.rapidintake. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.net/ PointeCast . http://www.sensalearning.htm Suddenly Smart .teknical. http://www.cfm Serco (technical) . http://www. a customizable.shtml Reusable Objects . Audio.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.qarbon.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.or SCORMcompliant.In minutes. customizable flashcards.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia . JPEGs. http://www. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.com/ Savvica .com/ Qarbon .E-Learning Objects . interactive Flash presentations and online training. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. Do Not Reproduce 65 . Microsoft PowerPoint.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author. http://www.podiaOnDemand .Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.com/ Scribe Studio .com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems. GIFs. http://www.Nuvvo .suddenlysmart.

http://www. http://www.Authoring Tools SumTotal . http://www.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. and text. French.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. CD.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.asp TrainVision .co.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author . and highly interactive e-learning content. http://www. templates.toolbook.com/product_sa.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.com/Technology.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.time4you.php?from=menu SyberWorks .lectora.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.syberworks. audio. or Spanish.webex. video. http://www.htm time4you GmbH .westcliffdata.com/camtasia.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. and wizards.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.php?from=menu SumTotal .asp TEDS . Brandon Hall Research .com/services/webpresentation-svc.Presentation Studio . images.techsmith. http://workforceconnections. or Network. http://www.php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. kiosks.trainvision.com/learn_assistant . http://www. and rapid simulation. http://www. http://www.toolbook. 66 © 2006.funeducation.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.dol.2conformant objects and assessments.com/learn_assistant .teds.gov/ Webex . htm Techsmith .com/ US Government . content conversion.com/products/lc.uk/index. http://www.

McMullen. BC. M. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Illinois.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. See: http://www. http://www. L. Evanston. P. P. publish blogs.xplana.editlib. Government. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. Blessing. and Ainsworth. http://www. Lin (2005).com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. De Bra. Melia.oswego.pdf Murray. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA). and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.. right in their browser with no additional software required. Canada. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference..com/downloa d_rb40eval.bloki.org/index. Berlin: Springer.pdf Ramp. http://www. interactive and intelligent educational software. (2003). http://www. and host online discussions. and Brusilovsky. 2005. S.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. Montreal.cs. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. S.htm Zapatec . www.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. E. (2005). Northwestern University.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. E.com/products/products _xwb.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.amazon.win.brandonhall. AACE. October 24-28. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. T.oswego. www. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. June 2005. Vancouver..cs. (2005).tue. (2005). C. http://www.. and Riesbeck. http://www. C.xstreamsoftware. D. Healthcare.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana . Do Not Reproduce 67 . Doctoral Dissertation. and Pahl.

June 2005.sis. Another new paradigm for instructional design. http://www. Learning Circuits. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Learning Circuits. http://www2.com/publications/emerging/emerging. NL.learningcircuits. Gary (2005). http://www. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Technical Univ.Authoring Tools Ramp. Reuben (2004).pitt.. http://www. Sunnyvale.brandonhall. A.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.htm Tozman. E. Masters Thesis. Reuben (2005). (2005). CA: Brandon Hall Research.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. shtml 68 © 2006. W. The myth about tools.htm Tozman. Eindhoven. 2004. Brandon Hall Research .learningcircuits.edu/~paws/publicatio ns. Nov.htm Woodill.

” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. games.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. In the area of psychotherapy. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. In the context of elearning. the avatar may represent an actual human being. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. for example. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Similarly. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. but in e-learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. In some situations. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. and generally simulates human activity. especially in gamebased learning activities. Do Not Reproduce 69 . simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.” Maldonado et al. in the broadest sense.

modular application. http://www. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. 70 © 2006. in cooperation with a number of groups. Try them at: http://www. http://www.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.telsim.exodus.knowledgeenvironments. http://blogoehlert.oddcast.tmmy.daden.typepad. http://www.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.html Online Resources In Europe.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. http://www.co.vcom3d.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.” which are avatars that teach.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. users are represent-ed as avatars.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.redwoodelearning. In the toolkit. See them in action at: http://www.co.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio. offering a large number of supportive functions.sculptoris.codebaby. Inc.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. http://www. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. See: http://www. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.

In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . http://isnm. Raj (2003). H. In T. Yamada. C. www.. (2005). (2004).de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI. A. and Morishima. R. 2005. J.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. Koschmann. C. Nass. K.. H.. Ahad. M. Nexus Media.pdf Maldonado. Iwamura. eLearning Developers’ Journal.pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 . Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. S. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. Suthers. http://www. 2003. and T.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Y. Chan (Eds. (2005). Nakajima. 25. and Weber. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Brave. and Nodder.W.Training Education & Education International Conference.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.. Aug.. www.naccq.. New Zealand.. B...elearningguild.pdf Jung. D. S. Lee. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.pdf Seth.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.stanford.

Few. Clyde adds. education. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. 72 © 2006. in a note of caution.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. video blogging. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. Blogs are used for marketing. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. as the following examples show. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. However. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Blogs are used for communication. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation.” As well. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Brandon Hall Research . cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. Similarly. or they can be open to the general public. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.” The Catalyst Group. hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. if any. Nevertheless. screencasting. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. For teachers. who wrote. A form of online publishing.

com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.html http://radio.us/archives/026 753. When someone the user knows arrives.com/ Jenna Sweeny. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Canada.weblogs. http://www. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.com/spg.blogburst. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.weblogs. Find it at: http://www. see: http://structuredblogging. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. For more information.elearnspace.ca/gems/matrix2 .edtechpost. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals.2megapixel blogging phone.internettime. is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket. Most blog writing is unstructured. is a great resource. Do Not Reproduce 73 .html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. http://www. an applications company.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg.g. elearnspace.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www. http://www.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.wavemarket.cramersweeney. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e. It’s found at: http://www. if they have subscribed to the blog.org/ http://carapace. movie reviews look different than recipes.sonyericsson.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space.com/wordpress/ http://informl. In this approach. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. with a wide range of writing styles.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). President of an instructional design firm. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3. http://www. other than simple word searching.

com. check out this site: http://www3.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.pdf 74 © 2006. there were 891 educational blogs listed. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.blogspot. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib. Find her work at: http://64.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.google.postgenomic. http://www.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www. Get the guide at: http://www.anecdote. a librarian. http://www.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies.com/index.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types.co. In March 2006. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.essdack. Brandon Hall Research .48.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919. View them at: http://video.metaxucafe.blogcatalog.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.71. http://www. http://www. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006. “blogs are cool.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing.pewinternet. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. http://blogpulse. Teresa A. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.org/socialstudies/ blogs. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent.mkbergman.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. including educational blogging.

go to: http://m.htm#feature Coursey.12. A.pdf Pierce. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/10171. March 24. Ways to use Weblogs in education. 2006.fasfind.mkbergman. Educational Blogging.catalystgroupdesign. Robin Good Blog. 1837604. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.pewinternet. http://www. EduBlog Insights.com. May 16. http://www.masternewmedia.lo w.educause. 2005. and Fox. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. FreePint Newsletter. Oct.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.com/work/theses8.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms. Luigi (2004). January 13.pdf Clyde. has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog.teachesme. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes.pdf Canali De Rossi.eweek.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. July 19. Enterprise blogging.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.htm Canali De Rossi.com/article2/0. Do Not Reproduce 75 . (2006). Michael (2005). Laurel (2005).174. September 2005.eschoolnews. http://anne2.1895.everyhuman. http://www.freepint.pdf A form of online publishing.ca/cgibin/page.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450. Syracuse. Master’s Thesis. David (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. EDUCAUSE Review. S.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. http://www. eSchool News Online. James (2005). or they can be open to the general public. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.com/issues/130105 . Panelists: blogs are changing education. 2006. http://www.asp Lenhart.downes. AI3 White Paper. Dennis (2006). Robin Good Blog. July 14. 29. 5. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. July 11. Luigi (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique.masternewmedia. 14-26. eWeek.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. Syracuse University. http://www. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. Blogs: a global conversation. Pew Internet and American Life Project.00. No. September/October.asp Davis. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. 39(5). http://www. http://www.com/news/sho wStoryts. Stephen (2004).htm Catalyst Group (2005). http://www. Sept. Anne (2004).waypath.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. www. New York.com Bibliography Bergman. http://www.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006.

com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. bookmarking.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. or at least their influence is decreasing. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser.opera.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. Like all technology innovation curves. (http://www. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. Brandon Hall Research . 76 © 2006.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. thin clients. while Opera.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). and photo sharing.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base.com/firefox/). which owned the rights to Netscape. and “themes. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools.activeworlds.omnigroup.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds. http://www. search engines.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. http://www. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons.mozilla.mozilla. Webtops Description For many. Netscape. Flock was launched in October 2005. America Online. Internet Explorer. http://www. a browser that has been around for a long time. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. (http://www. blogs. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. For example. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. 2001).” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers. http://www. has a small following.flock. the defeat of the Netscape browser.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser).

Network World.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Michael (2006). across several articles.tidbits.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. http://db.evolt.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0. William Horton Consulting. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.com/getbits. Jan. K. OmniWeb 5.com. M. Boulder. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop.html Engst.” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton. 21.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.php3 Bibliography Cox.com. W.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. CNN Money.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o. called “Webtops.2000061733. and Horton.html http://blogoehlert. 16. http://money.00. Oct.0. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.com. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. CO.cnn.com/desi gn/browsers_list. O.wikipedia. 2005.com/news/2001 /0129browserless. and Copeland. Opera Browser.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers. 29.networkworld.. 2002. E. Adam (2004). These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en.webdevelopersnotes. Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. May 16.washingtonpost.typepad. John (2001).org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.0: The Powerful Web Browser. http://www. July 30.zdnet. ZDNet Australia.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006. http://www.pdf LeMay. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. TidBits.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. 2004. Still Perfecting its Pitch. Malik. Renai (2005). Aug.bestdegree. http://www. (2002).com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser. 742.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. http://www. 2001. WashingtonPost. No.typepad.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi.39218173. Brandon Hall Research .com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038. 2006.

including the following (summarized from Cassidy. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. 78 © 2006. classroom communication systems. The use of clickers has several advantages. Beatty. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. management.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. clickers. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. giving almost instant feedback. However. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. Brandon Hall Research . as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. costs can be an issue. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. The devices keep students alert and involved. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. or clickers. increasing their motivation to learn. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. 2006. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. integrated with other types of learning technologies. display. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer.

As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.com/cps/index. http://umperg. training the faculty member to use the software. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.qwizdom.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.com/products_int erwrite.com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.physics.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.learnstar.h-itt.smartroom.optiontechnologies.umass. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.com.” http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. http://www. http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.” In spite of the costs.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. higher education.com/index.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. corporate.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. http://www. http://www.com/audi ence-response-systems/index.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs. the costs and headaches multiply.pearsoned. Do Not Reproduce 79 .pearsonncs. and military settings. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.com/Default. http://www.einstruction.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. http://www. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook.com/index.gtcocalcomp. http://www.

March 3.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.pdf Mazur. 272-275. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.amazon.itee. integrated with other types of learning technologies. http://www. http://www. Educause Learning Initiative. Upper Saddle River.elearning.edu. R.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. http://www.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. 2004. 3.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. (2003).ubc. http://www. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. 2006.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Research Bulletin. Ian (2004). and Lederman. Australia.active-learning-site. Eric (1997).com/news_issue. http://inside.utexas. including material on the use of classroom response systems. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.campustechnology. Tom (2004). 7 things you should know about…Clickers.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.edu/articleprinter1.aclearn. https://sharepoint. 3.cisat. http://www. July 7.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Anne (2006). Volume 2004. http://www. Melbourne. Brandon Hall Research . ELearning Dialogue. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).jmu.utexas.educause.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty.pdf Cassidy. Feb.uq. http://www. No. 41(5).edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns. The Physics Teacher. Q.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. 80 © 2006. Inside CUA.cua.pdf Burnstein.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.net/display. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. clarification. reduction.g. it requires skill and experience. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate.. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. e. The Institute for the Future.g.. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. and collaborating. social bookmarking. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. and consensus building.g. evaluation. doing. through brainstorming). a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. organization. many respond. Do Not Reproduce 81 . in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e..

and bookmarks. and instant messaging. http://www. expert location.com/services/faq_basi cs. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).html?ad-main Annotea .com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .backpackit.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. http://www.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.inteam.zoho.com/virtualoffice/index.teamspace.bluetie. collaborative file management. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.advancedreality.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . 82 © 2006.com/ Blenks – In-team . It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.com There are many different ways to collaborate.w3. intellectual property management. http://www. http://www. http://www.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. voice and data collaboration.avecomm.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. jot down notes.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. and information technology adoption. calendar.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. contacts. and upload photos. http://www.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. collaborate.com/product s/index. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www.brightidea. http://www. with templates and workflows for product development. share files.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.bantu.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. Presence (see who’s online). http://www. organize. and communication.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/

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Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html

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writely. connects peers. calendars. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.Instant setup. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. chat server. e-mail server. set user permissions.projectdox.Processes email.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 .htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software. discussions.yahoo.brevient. and other business communications.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. http://www.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .com/project. and share. and more. and share documents. XML-RPC server.webcrossing.onproject. http://www. http://www.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . simple. stimulates idea generation. affordable. FTP server.axista. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. scaleable.25. http://www.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. and data into a single storage area. Works with Microsoft Project. http://www.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. and e-mails. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. http://www. and business relationships. Use it out of the box. http://www.com/company/news/pres s/2005. interact.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .nexprise. documents. files. http://www.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. assign tasks.04.Intuitive project management software for work teams. http://www. Share multiple projects with multiple users. or use it to build a Web application.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . newsgroup server.opmcreator. expertise. feedback.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.webasyst.com/ onProject – myonProject .tomoye. project.tacit. http://www. http://groups.

Projistics . Brandon Hall Research . http://www. review button.peoplecube. project tracking.saba.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK .caucus.com/index. shared whiteboard and presentation.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. and communicate with their project teams.hp. annotation tools.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.project-open. http://education. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. invoicing. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. form to submit questions.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.Features include Hands up.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .Web event calendaring. http://www. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. URL sharing.teamdynamix. Access to the tool is also given to clients. content. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. and collaboration to timesheet management.photoninfotech.0 . and Web pages. whiteboard pages. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. attendee list. http://www. and save to disk icon.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment.elluminate. http://www. applaud and meter. http://www.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www. breakout rooms.HP Virtual Classroom ." virtual collaboration. content button.aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . and payments.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com/ HP . visual.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. shared desktop. data.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting . video. project planning.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006. private whiteboards for each participant. and text chat. exit and help. http://www. and human performance management applications. integrated content management system. private/group chat.com Nagarro . print icon. navigation.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. identify and resolve potential problems.nagarro. scheduling solutions. custom stamps.

horizonwimba. Web. virtual office hours.Synchronous Webconferencing software.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 .com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. Record classes or Webcasts.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . and Web conferencing with WebEx. http://www. and content display. and Webconferencing specialists.A secure.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . instant messaging. and phone use.adobe.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.communiqueconferencing. and videoconferencing. session reports. office hours.com/ Intralinks . Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. online classes.net/site/getglance/ex amples.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www. how often.mixmeeting. http://www. http://www. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. Features include shared documents. http://www. http://www.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.batipi. http://www. and collaborative content-building sessions. synchronous online lectures. learning. Allows holding live.interwise.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. Webcasts. sales presentations. and collaboration features. video.glance. guest lectures. and more. http://www.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.Delivers unlimited voice. and meetings. http://www.0 . and by whom. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. meeting management. http://www.com /internet_conferencing. e-mail invites. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. video.intralinks.elluminate.convenos.genesys. http://www.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . application sharing. For example.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.

http://www. or an entire desktop. notes. instant messaging.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. the Internet.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .com/rndc/services /services. and desktop videoconferencing services. and into the enterprise.com/action. http://www. http://www. attendee lists.com/bridgepoint.Collaboration Tools iVocalize . online seminars. http://www.Web and audio conferencing services. including Web conferencing. Brandon Hall Research . audio. any application.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .com/ Linktivity Division. pre-recorded broadcasts.liveoffice. transparency tools. remote control. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. live demos. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www. keyboard and voice chat. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. broadcasts files.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke .iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.raindance.asp 92 © 2006. http://www. desktop sharing. toll-free conference calling. http://www. polling and quizzes. teleconferencing. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. and a change presenter ability.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.To support large deployments. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.asp Meeting One – Click&Share. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. annotations.netspoke. hand raising. record and playback. Multilingual. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.linktivity.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . e-learning classrooms.telnetz.com/website2/even ts_imc. http://www.meetingone.radvision.ivocalize. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.LiveOffice provides Web-based.

com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. 2006.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. present PowerPoint slideshows.cudenver. text messaging. http://www.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. or meeting. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. discussion forums. set up labs and conduct quizzes. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.Powers online meetings.edufolio. http://www. e-learning.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). The suite manages the creation. editing. surveys.wave3software. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. http://carbon. http://www. publishing. http://www. and moderation of Webcasts.ctcevents. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. conference calling. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.org Do Not Reproduce 93 . share other applications. and instant messaging capabilities. send text messages. show rich multimedia content and documents. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . http://www. http://www.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.webex. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.voxwire. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.collabtech.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. teleconferencing.webtrain.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . tour Web sites. Requires only a browser and a phone.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. course.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . Web conferencing. Solutions include Web meetings. Japan on July 13-14.com/home/s_vmps. remote support. and document collaboration. and system management.vodium. Webinars.

htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.htm Mitre Corporation.com/groupware/ index.criticalmethods.com/webconf/works paces. Web 2. http://collaboration.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.thinkofit. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.collaborationloop. also has a great list of collaboration tools. http://www.kolabora.educause. scientific. http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://www.writely.org/collab/in dex. also known as “groupware.usabilityfirst. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.globalschoolnet.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. communities. Bryan (2006).com/View.org/index.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.1 Bibliography Alexander.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. http://www. http://www. http://cde.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://www.1:100250. Brandon Hall Research .org/tools.mitre. Sign up for free at: http://www. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.springerlink. March/April 2006.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. http://www. 41(2).” http://www.athabascau.

Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 . Robin Good Blog.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise.org/index. De Roure. Collaborative Strategies. June 5. R.com/writings. Robin Good Blog..masternewmedia. (2004). Live ELearning. http://www.html Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. Shadbolt. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. J.htm# Clapp.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.N..pdf?fuseaction=Reader. http://www.ac. 2004. Creating an eCommunity. Luigi (2003b). Luigi (2005).com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. Luigi (2004b). Luigi (2003a). J. January 21. ChenBurger. Potter. Eisenstadt. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Maceió.. 2003. Then Knowledge Management. Sept.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools. May 2.diglib. September. The State Of Collaboration Technologies.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies.pdf Bonk. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. http://www. S. and Forster.bruck. Robin Good Blog.. http://www. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. http://www. Fred (2002).masternewmedia. http://eprints. Buckingham Shum. Matthew (2004).org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). http://www.. http://www. CMS Watch. http://www. June 22. S. Michaelides.collaborate. June 30. A. Bill (2004). N.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. Proceedings. (2003). Models of collaboration. Nov. Komzak. and Tate. 2002.. (2004).clomedia. Brazil. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005.htm Canali De Rossi. 2003.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler.editlib. Page.. Findlay. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. K. Dalton... 2565-2569. A. http://www. and Coleman. 2002.. Fitzgerald. Chief Learning Officer. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. 3. Luigi (2004a). Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.. 4.soton.uk/12081/ Beshears. T.htm Canali De Rossi.htm Butler. J. D. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.cmswatch. J.htm Canali De Rossi. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. Q2Learning White Paper.ecs. Collaboration First.masternewmedia.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog.cfm/files/pa per_12386. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. A. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.com/Feature/109 Elliot. Curtis (2002). D. Nov. D. M. Robin Good Blog.. M. http://www.

University of Athabasca. http://www. A.html Hurst.rheingold. Gibson. G. J. (2002).html Kreijns. Palo Alto.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. K. Studies in Learning.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing.zcu. W.. Kirschner. Educational Technology & Society.. K. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. London: Springer-Verlag. Educational Technology & Society.edu. VA: AACE..editlib. J. & Weber. I.athabascau. http://ifets. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Learning Circuits. Technologies of Cooperation.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. http://ifets.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.html Munkvold.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns.org/index. Price. (Eds. (2002). Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. P. http://www. (2004). In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.au/include/getdoc. & Purnell. http://www.amazon. and Martens. 5(1).html Institute for the Future (2005).... D.amazon.Collaboration Tools Elliott. D. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. In Crawford. R. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.. Bjorn (Ed. K.) (2003). http://sleid. Soren (2002). Chesapeake. 1(2).ieee.cqu.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.learningcircuits. and Miller.) (2004). J. J. 827-829). (Eds. Carlsen. and Sharifi. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and Jochems.. A. Callan. McFerrin. January 2005. 24. Innovation and Development. Institute for the Future White Paper. (2002).) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Norwell. and Thomas. D. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. (2005). e-Book.. Willis. C. August 2002. R. M.. CA.. P. Evaluation.ca/online_book/c h8. http://cde. Aavani. Nov. R.pdf Kaplan.ieee.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan. J.. (2004).. 5(1). Kirschner.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.). http://wscg. J.pdf Strijbos. http://www.

” http://goldenswamp. blogs. Do Not Reproduce 97 . Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.janison. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student.com. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. instant messaging. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.ac. a process referred to as “text mentoring. For example. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. messaging. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. html The Learning Place in Queensland. discussion forums. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. VoIP.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. chat. re-usable. whiteboards. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.uk/deletacademictalk. telephony.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. discussion groups. Hegarty et al. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. It is being developed into a transportable.jisc. For Laurillard. UK. and yet tailored and flexible. labs. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. http://www.au/eq/default. telepresence.

cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. http://www.editlib.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Computer Mediated Communication. http://safety. M.elearningcentre.gov.pdf Eleuterio. Brandon Hall Research . (2004).elearningcentre.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.uk/schools/docum ent.bcs. JulySept. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. Komzak. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. Mark (2004). CAP e-Guide.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.elearningcentre.com/webconf/hostsi tes.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.fasfind. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. developed in Brazil. International Journal on E-Learning. http://m. (2005).htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. and telephony tools. M. chat.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. University of Warwick.google.org/index.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at.71.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.warwick.ngfl. 13-20.conversate. 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.co.co.org/ Online Resources Teresa A.htm http://www. J.thinkofit. including communications tools. Find her work at: http://64. http://www2.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. http://www. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.. http://ewic. and Bortolozzi.com/wwwtools/m/2645. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.ac. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.48.editlib.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.htm 98 © 2006. S. http://www.co.org/index. F. http://www.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. and Cerri.

king. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.. Francis. 2005 http://www. 31 (3). A. (2002). Technologies of Online Learning. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review.org/micte2005/4.. September 23. June. James (2005). University of Birmingham. http://www. British Journal of Educational Technology.jisc.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn.ca/online_book/c h5.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. I. D. and Collins. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Nick (2002). whiteboards.com/cv/research /rmed35.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone. Bostock.html Laurillard. J. Learning Circuits. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. June. and Briggs. distance-learning course at Keele University. Pattie (2005). J. (Mlearn 2002). Hegarty.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. VoIP. Working Knowledge Newsletter. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). 20-21. 20-21. 199-212. Sven (2002). 19. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. London: Routledge.uk/papers/Stone_ A.pdf LaCroix.formatex.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. 2002. M. (2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. http://hbswk.edu/item. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email. and Elliott. Aug.com Library. Jan. 31.learningcircuits. S. 2002. chat. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.pdf Kadirire. University of Athabasca.ac.charityvillage.html Laurik. http://www.amazon.hbs. discussion forums. CharityVillage.uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool. E-Learning 1. UK. R. e-Book. and Wales.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. J. J. http://cde. Diana (1993). 2002. (2004).” Do Not Reproduce 99 . http://www. (2000).ac.html Morgan.athabascau. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. http://dircweb.

html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. skills. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. skills inventory.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. performance appraisal. 100 © 2006. In 1973.imsproject. W. competency-based training.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. Edwards Deming. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. David McClelland. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. entering defined competencies into a matrix. organizational and personal goals are tied together. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. 2005). Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Known in the early days as the “quality movement.” it started in 1950 with Dr. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). see below) and performance or talent management systems. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. 2000).org/competencies /index.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. skills verification. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. a Harvard psychologist.

Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.cpgvision.com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended.itsc.edu/paprog/clin_events .learningcircuits.learnflex. For example.ncrel.com/article16.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.ibm. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.wmich.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies. http://www.html The U.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. https://launchpad.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. and development interventions.htm Many companies have their own competency models. objectives. measurement. go to: www. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. See the list of competencies at: http://www. diagnose symptoms.org..sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies. Read their white paper at: http://www. http://www. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. and carry out proper procedures. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. Do Not Reproduce 101 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. activities. For a large list of competencies for physicians.S.desire2learn. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.

php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. http://www.ca/index.amazon. Ken (2000). (2001). Clare (2005). American Psychologist.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. David.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.co. N. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.syberworks.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. pp. April 25. Benjamin (1956). R.com/ 20050425/technologylife01. New York: David McKay. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. London: Wiley. Chief Learning Officer. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees..expresscomputeronline.amazon. http://www.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. and Neathy.amazon. Miller. (1982). Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www. http://www. 102 © 2006. v. http://www. 1-14. Rankin. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. Sudipta (2005).clomedia.hrsg. Study 706.html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.com/skillsman. http://www.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. London: IDS.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. (1973). Express Computer.” http://www.E.co. Brandon Hall Research . Building a skills inventory. April. Josh (2006). Competency and competency frameworks. (2001). http://www. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.28. New York: AMACOM.cipd. a Canadian company.cipd. L.shtml Hogg.amazon. Competency Frameworks. http://www.ht m Online Resources HRSG. http://www. regardless of industry or sector.com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. 2005.oracle. F.

Emerging technology trends in e-learning. (Eds. White paper from Operitel Corporation. P. http://www. Ellen (2000). Competencies. Ethan (2001). (1999).html Sternberg. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.1/features/e wette. Johanna. Godfrey (2005). N.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. G.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . http://www. http://www.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. March 2001. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. 2005.htm Whiddett. and Cahorn. Competency based learning management.operitel. E-Learning Competencies. E. Rankin. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. University of Toronto. http://parkinslot. and Hollyforde. Creating a Culture of Competence. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.blogspot.learningcircuits.operitel.) (2003). The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Gary (2004). http://www. Operitel Corporation. April 30. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.html Radsma. (2005). S. Cambridge. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. Master's thesis. and Epstein. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™.collectionscanada.amazon. S.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. White paper.linezine.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. N. Sanders. http://www. (2000). London: IRS. http://www. and Expertise.amazon.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. 2nd ed. Learning Circuits.amazon. Michael. The Psychology of Abilities.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. R. New York: John Wiley.p df Rankin.com/2. London: IRS. (2001). Parkin’s Lot. http://www. (2004).com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. and Grigorenko. Fall 2000. http://www.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm. P. (2003). UK: Cambridge University Press. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005.com Woodill.

simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. First.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. launching courses. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Today. and reporting. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. and “topic maps. Repositories. If you could afford it. 2006). Learning objects.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.” As well.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. I feel that closed. manage. manage. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. such as registering users. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. you could hire a company to build a private. in fact. With the advent of learning objects. Do Not Reproduce 104 . and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. LCMS. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. the standardized railway system still works while private. displaying a course catalogue.

(2004). (2005).atutor. http://www.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. 2005. Curtis (2005). March 2005.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.topicmap. functionality to an ECM.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. http://travelinedman.clomedia.” http://drupal. http://www. Strategies for managing scalable content. http://www. Dec.uk Bibliography Bonk. http://www.” Do Not Reproduce 105 . According to its official Web site. http://sakaiproject. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. San Jose. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.cmsmatrix.co.” Web services and “topic maps.e-learningcentre.html Cisco Corp.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.blogspot. http://www. http://www.pdf Cohen. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper. 18.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. to date.author-it. They have designed competitive. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. reuse in many places.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. rather than complementary. Cisco Corporation White Paper. http://www.cisco. Ed.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. TravelinEdMan blog.topicmaps. http://plone. and publish to multiple outputs.com http://www.

March 3. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.) (2005).edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. S. http://www. 2005. http://www. May 15.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. PA: Idea Group. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. Mashups.ntua.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster. C. Retalis. Scott (2005). Learning Solutions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. New Thinking Blog.html McGee. June 9.com/publications. 2003. A. 40(3). Content Management: our organized future. Gerry (2003). Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.. 2005. “Monoliths.htm Simon. McGovern. (2006).softlab. 2003.gerrymcgovern. Hershey.ca/mt/archive/00 0689. 2003. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.educause. Why content management software hasn’t worked. G. B. Van (2005). and Oliveira. Educause Review. http://www.pdf Weigel. January 23. and Carmean.htm Siemens.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. elearnspace blog. May/June.elearnspace.. C. http://www. http://www.operitel. 2006. George (2003). (Eds. Budapest. Jafari. (2003). http://www.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . S.asp Woodill. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. and Brantner. EdTechPost blog. P.edtechpost.

more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. 2001). Luan and Willett. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. delivery models and infrastructure investment. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. Do Not Reproduce 107 . personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. knowledge discovery. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software.

http://imej.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. http://www.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.reeltwo. Do Not Reproduce 108 . http://pami.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.hkuspace. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.icosystem.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart.uwaterloo. http://www. http://www. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.com/index.soul. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. by applying fuzzy logic.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.

and Web mining. Piatetsky-Shapiro.convera. California.com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. S.html Hammouda. 1996. http://pami.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . G. http://www.unikiel. G..de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. G.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages. K.amstatonline. Thalheim. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. Data Mining in e-Learning. P. Alex (2002).. 2006. text mining.informatik. Feb.kent.is. pp. 1--34.actapress.usyd. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Learning by doing and learning when doing . K. and Cheung. Grigoriev. In Pierre. and R.. Austria. (cited in Luan and Willett. (2006). M Fayyad. In Proceedings.2004.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. http://www. and Tschiedel.uwaterloo. and Kamel. Australia. edited U. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://www. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. Grieser. (2006).pdf Loo. knowledge discovery. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.pdf Fayyad. B. U. http://www. Both products are from Convera.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc.. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. New York: Springer. http://www. B. Samuel (Ed. What’s Not. Long Beach.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.com/PaperInfo. (2004). (2000). School Business Affairs.kdnuggets. R. Innsbruck.cs. P. K.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Piatetsky. Portugal. Data Mining: What’s New. Smyth. Lange. Uthurusamy.cs. 13-16 http://asbointl. Robert (2002). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. 238-241. Porto. Feb.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. New York: Springer.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. B..pdf Freitas. and Smyth. 68(8).html Bibliography De Veaux. (1996). Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. 2001) http://www. M.ac. http://www. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.kdnuggets.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. 1316. P.pdf Jantke.edu. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools..pdf Iskander.

A. http://wwwjime. and K. 41-54. http://www. C.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. http://www. 3(4).asp Merceron. Scholl. and K.wfu. 319-346. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. http://www. MA: WIT Press. Vol 4. M. 3(1). Oliveira.Data Mining Luan. Yacef (2005).pdf McCalla.pdf 110 © 2006. K.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. and Minguillon. http://csdl2.org/index. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. A. T. 2004 (7).editlib. International Journal on E-Learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Brandon Hall Research .fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef.pdf Merceron. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. C. Electronic Journal of e-Learning.ac. (2001).ags. Claus (2004). http://www. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems.com/acatalog/18 45641523.ccsd. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. and Willett.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. May 17-22.pdf Mor.pdf Pahl. analyze for more adaptive teaching.cnrs. store..org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. and Yacef. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. NYC. http://imej. J. RP Conference Presentation.html Ueno. A..cabrillo. 52-59. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Advances in Management Information. (2004). http://dl. (2006). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).aace.pdf Merceron.org/16915 Romero. Gord (2004). Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.unisb. 7(1).edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. Maomi (2004). (2004).computer. Japan. 15(4).. and Ventura. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Billerica. http://www2004. J. Train. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). TADAEd for Educational Data Mining. Hiroshima.ejel. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. C.-Dec. Yacef (2004). Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. David (2005). http://archiveedutice. http://www. A. 39-40. E. and Ullrich. (2004).pdf Monk.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Data Mining in e-Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.open. 47-55. Oct. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. S.compmech.

in their case study of medical education.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. 5) carry out a survey.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time.bnhexpertsoft.edu. http://www. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. and 6) document results.facilitate. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004).tkk. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).une. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www.com/ Facilitate. 4) develop an action plan. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.decisionarium. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. 3) vote/prioritize.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. For example. 2) categorize. Do Not Reproduce 111 . which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.

dssresources. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. August. White paper from BNH Expert Software.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. R.uottawa.sal. http://www. http://www.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. For newsletters. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril.uniserve. http://www.com/index.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. http://www. 101-110.pdf Frize. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. M. Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. Kankana (2005). 112 © 2006.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. http://www. and information on this area. Hamalainen. Brandon Hall Research .hut.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.site. Raimo (2003).Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. see: http://www.whichbook.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.net/index. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.” http://dmoz. http://www. and Frasson.pdf Ehtamo.bnhexpertsoft. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. http://science.utoronto. 23(4). (2004). http://www.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.. books.sal.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.sal. 12(2-3).html Hamalainen. Jay (2004).fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.hut. H.hut.p df Chakrabarty. and Koskinen.edu. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. Online manuscript. C. (2000). V.meetingworks.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.

Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. 2002. (2003). http://www. 2005.com/PaperInfo. August 16-18.uniserve. F. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).is. PA: Idea Publishing. Aachen.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. O. Oct.. Porto. B.html Rhyne..ac. Thalheim. Gerhard (2003). Jim (2002).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke.com/history/dsshist ory.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.pdf Power. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. CAL-laborate.asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. Manchester. Grigoriev. 317-328. http://science.pdf Ounapuu. K. http://damit. Vol. T.actapress.dfki.hawaii.edu.de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. Hawaii..pdf Knolmayer. In Proceedings.html Scott. http://www. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. S. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Enn (2005). http://dssresources. Thalheim. de Carvaho. http://www. Portugal. Theresa (1998). Dan (2003). P.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.hicss..html Shimizu. M.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. 2004. 238-241. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. M..uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. B. Learning by doing and learning when doing .ideagroup. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.informatik. Hawaii. Jan.com/books/details.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Enn (2004). Information Systems for a Connected Society.2004. B. (2006). 9.unikiel. (2004). Germany.pdf Jantke. 6-9. June 20-24. Lange. USA. and Tschiedel. and Tschiedel....mc. http://www. B.manchester. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Hershey. Memmel. SIGGRAPH publication. http://www. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Grieser. Rostanin. G.siggraph. Kauai. K. and Laurindo. http://www. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.

New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.” Selected Examples Samsung. Finally. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. Electronic paper could change that some day. http://www. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. monitors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink. projectors. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. By stacking a second projector. Do Not Reproduce 114 . a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video. in cooperation with Sony.co. electronic paper.theregister.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). For air displays. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.co. big enough to be projected on large walls. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. In regards to digital paper.uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. digital paper. head mounted displays. lighting up theater size screens.theregister. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. This can be a holographic image. In the near future. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard.

com/about.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.com/technology /overview NTERA.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.ntera. In 2005. See a demo at: http://www.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.firstmonday.unifreiburg.technorati. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. see: http://ad.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.provisionentertainment.siliconlight. For a list of his publications.cmu.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies. http://thejournal. http://killer. http://www. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. http://www.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.html Promera is a hand-held computer. http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.ices.edu/design/Camera. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.io2technology.H. intelligent interfaces. Do Not Reproduce 115 .de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons.informatik. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. see: http://www. To access the articles. Projector. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. still/video camera. Inc.E.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.fogscreen.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T.

Whitton.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006. A... Germany. 2005.. K. http://www. and Pizer. http://ad. W. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). M. S.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. http://blog. Canada.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. Vancouver. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. Dec. (2005).. 3.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Oct.jisc.ac. M. pages 3053-3068. 2005.pdf Wang. Hamburg.). and Ottmann. Pisano.loaz. http://portal.acm. Healthcare. Tim (2005). Garrett. T. H. London: Springer. Largest LCD and video projection. Brandon Hall Research . Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.com/timwang/index. (1996).org/citation. E. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. Government. State. Livingston. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference..Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.uk/index.. In G. Richards (Ed. JISC Technology Watch White Paper.informatik. Hirota. G.

maximum flexibility. Do Not Reproduce 117 .html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.com/eportfolio/i ndex.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.angellearning.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.com/college/portfoli os. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www.co. open source electronic portfolio.uk/default.osportfolio. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.paisley. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. http://www. http://www.htm Educause. My first report in this series. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.elearningcentre.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. evaluation. http://www.pebblelearning. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.co.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.foliotek. and simple usability.educause. http://www. http://www. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. http://www. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://isle.ac.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www.livetext.iwebfolio.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios. http://www.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.chalkandwire.com/products/e portfolio/default. 2005).pupilpages.

http://www. http://www. Trent (2002). helping to transform education and training.educause. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. (2002).com/magazine/va ult/A5260.criticalmethods.educause.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. Graham (2005). Online Paper. http://ferl. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. http://www.thejournal.org/collab/v.educa. has a section on eportfolios.nottingham.imsglobal.org. (2004). http://elgg. Bob (2004). FD Learning White Paper.amazon. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download.pdf Conway. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. B. Educause Quarterly.com/article. an online resource on collaboration.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. E. thus. University of Iowa. Dec. Frederick (2005).ac.org/Articles/epor tfolios. http://www.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. J.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.becta.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper.ch/dyn/9. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.. http://www. http://connect.cfm 118 © 2006.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Vol 27 No 4.campustechnology.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. with many links. March. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. College of Education http://www.uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. http://www2. THE Journal Online.htm IMS.elearnspace. 2004 http://www.pdf Batson. http://www. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. Brandon Hall Research . and Hibbitts.doc Banks.

.A. An Overview of e-Portfolios. Online. 31(3). J.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1.pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Gary (2004).. Harvey.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. Feijen. 4. P. C.cjlt. B.pdf Greenberg. Business Communication Quarterly. http://www. Educause Review. http://www.cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 .. S. J. http://www. 2(2).edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224. (Focus on Teaching). Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.org/papers/Learning_l andscape.educause. J.eradc. April 1. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. http://www. Fleming. July/ August 2004. (2005).. (2005).pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. 37(2). G.ca/content/vol31. http://www. no. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.. http://www. Aalderink.. 39.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.citejournal. http://www. 144-169. 28–37. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.pdf Lorenzo.alt.htm Tosh. Cook. Bryde. ePortfolios.educause. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. and Ittelson. and portfolios. Trinity College.. G. Dec. Lee.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal..Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. B.A. The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. J. elearnspace. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. (2002). G. 2005. (2005). D. and Haywood.. & Figgins. (2004).. D. vol. T. V.. Educause Quarterly.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. D.. and Wade. and Werdmuller. (2002). Dublin. html Young. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. future thinking: digital repositories. W.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005. George (2004). M. Online paper. e-portfolios.3/tosh.elearnspace.amazon.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. Fall. 16. M. J. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. http://www. Love. Light. Reflective learning..educause.ac. K. and McKean. http://www. (2003). research.

MySpace. serious games. 2003).myspace. play. Cyworld.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. identity work. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. Examples include Hive7. Dr. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. from the University of Wisconsin. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam.com/ http://www. and Second Life.” says that “in the mod world. as such. Try them out at: http://www. simulations.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments.” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.com.com/ http://www. For a brief review of these tools. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). Facebook. writing about “first person shooter games.secondlife. complex problem solving. games.com/ http://www. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. 120 © 2006. 2005).html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning.hive7. Marc Prensky (2003). virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.com http://us. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. and learning (Amory. Brandon Hall Research . Making such changes is part of what modding is about.cyworld.freescale.facebook. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. see: http://news.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. Constance Steinkuehler.

and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).org/?14@33. The toolset.microsoft. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. http://www. See the selection of games at: http://www. This game allows users to play.softimage.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver. http://www. Many of their learning games resources are free. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. along with their Web sites.nasaga.magnetargames.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. create.mpjgaB KQdAe. implementation.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.” http://www. For example.clickteam.pluginz. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. Review them at: http://esub.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. edit. You can read about them at Pluginz. has game development tools for the Xbox.com/solutions/gam es/default. helping speed up the game creation process. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. Inc. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 121 . produces educational games for training.ucalgary.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. http://www. dubbed XNA Studio.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.siggraph. http://www. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. allows members of a game development team to work together. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.com/news/548 http://www.com/ Thiagi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. Started in North America. There is a free 30-day trial version.com/xna/ Softimage.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. http://www.com/ In 2005.thinkingworlds. Canada.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.muzzylane.

htm Dr.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.programmersheaven.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.education. Sign up at: http://www.uga. http://it.seriousgamessummit. http://www. http://www.uk/index2. http://www. 2003. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. Brandon Hall Research . Honolulu.org/index2. http://www.futureplay.org.” Read her research at: http://website.gdconf. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.wisc.pdf 122 © 2006. Hawaii.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. researchers.digiplay. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.htm Dr. Alan (2003). http://www. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference. and speakers on all aspects of gaming.com/zo ne8/index.dk/people/sen/public.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.ukzn.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.coe.itc. June 25-28.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.ac.seriousgames.

Technology Trends for the Year. Learning on Demand Bulletin. R. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. S. http://www.msu. Gamasutra. Simon (2005). (2005). http://llt. Rob (2006b). 549-567.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. http://www. Xplanazine. 2003. Oct. Lloyd (2005).dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. 2005. 19. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR.cambridge. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.pd f Prensky. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Fourth Quarter.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.uwf. Language Learning and Technology. simulations and microworlds. 2006. January 2. http://www. http://www.php Reynolds. Multimedia learning in games.uwf..pdf Michael.amazon. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. S. Clifton Park.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. Bryan (2006).xplanazine.php Rieber. In Richard E. and Maurer. June. 9(1).iicm.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue.marcprensky. Xplanazine.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. http://www. Chapter 33. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Developing Serious Games. 2006. Rob (2006a). SRI-BI.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt..pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.itc.pdf Reynolds. 2005. http://www. Mayer (Ed. Gaming. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Dreher. (2005).com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. Jan. Marc (2003). http://www. Montreal. (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron. D.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. http://www. Train.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 .com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. D.amazon. and Michael. C. and Inform. H. IT-University Copenhagen. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://www. and Chen. 17-22. March 10. H.pdf Guetl.pdf Godwin-Jones. Emerging Technologies: Messaging.xplanazine. Bob (2005). see: http://www. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Williams. Serious Games: Games That Educate. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.

2004. Constance (2005).amazon. and Swamy. http://www. http://woz. http://website.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. University of Wisconsin .commtechlab.p df Tye. (2006). N.pdf 124 © 2006.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. R.education. http://jason.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Gupta. Beers.msu. Doctoral dissertation. Brandon Hall Research . Michigan State University.Madison. N.wisc. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.teachableagents. Masters Thesis.. G.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Clifton Park. 2005. and Biswas.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler.pdf Swamy. C. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (2005).. J. Jason (2004).

tudelft. For a list of papers: http://www.soton. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. such as Markov models. including identifying commercial products. affective computing.html Research by Dr. London.nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. Do Not Reproduce 125 .ac.” http://mplab. FG2008. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Artificial intelligence techniques. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. and robotics in elearning. 2008. http://www.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. UK. haptics.cybernet. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing.fg2008. was held in Southampton. looking for particular sequences.ecs.com/~ccohen/gest ure. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. April 10-12 2006. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. http://www. artificial intelligence.fg2006. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. FG2006.ucsd. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. at the University of California.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video.

TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference.. F.elearningguild. (2005). 675 676 http://lcv. IEEE Transactions. Shi-Kuo (2000). L.. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.smartkom. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication... Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Wesson. G. http://www. Visualization. 18. and Ma. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. 57-64. (2002). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.ieeecomputersociety. October 14-16.mit.com/PaperInfo. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces.pdf Ebert. 3.iscslp2006. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. M. M. http://www. Pittsburg. Brandon Hall Research . March..cse.actapress.pdf Corradini. http://www..884693 Chen.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Porta. Aug. July 1997. Korea.pdf Beringer. (2004). http://www. July 2227. 2000. Nevada. and Bender. Geiger. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Gao. A. http://www.. A. Nicole (2001). R. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman. Y. PA. and Poggio.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES.ogi.pdf Daugman.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. http://cbcl. Munich. J.html Chang.2000.fsu. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. J. T. Face and gesture recognition: overview. W. P.asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat. Report No. (1997).org/10. Lombardi. and Cohen. 191-196. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. http://doi. T.pdf 126 © 2006. 2003. Ludwig-Maximilians University. http://www.11 09/CMPSAC. Michael (2003).org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. 19(7).Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen. (2000). Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. Deller.stat. In Proceedings.pdf Borghi.ercim. M. (2005). In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).org/reports/Report -NR-03. Las Vegas.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini.

and Koike. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). 442-446. X. http://portal. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. A.hindawi. A. Communications of the ACM. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. http://csdl2. Michael (2004).. J. Lai. and Carreira.150 Nakanishi. (2005). 2004. (2002).. and Bobick.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. http://www. 47(1). January. Vancouver.edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004.acm.actapress. http://www. In Proceedings.media. 2004:16. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. 21(9). and Wong. Robust face image matching under illumination variations. Y.. Y. S.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. British Columbia. Wong. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.clayton.pdf Ou. J. C. 884 – 900. M.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.rutgers.pdf Wilson. Canada http://cims.com/GetPDF. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.mit.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk. P. and Kim.. and Chang. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. http://www.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . 2533–2543... Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Y. (2005). Fussell. Sato. S. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. (2004).1109/ICALT. Sept. L. Park.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. D.com/PaperInfo.pdf Peixoto. IEEE Transactions. 242-245. (2003). Lee. Setlock. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).org/persagen/DLAb sToc. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. http://interact..research. L.D. C. 1999. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.computer. C. Chen. J.edu/mas963/en hencedwall.xml&DOI=10.ucsb.F (1999).recveb.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.pdf Loi.20 05.. J. Proceedings. Computer vision in the interface. C. (1997). September 2002. H. 27-30.org/citation. and Yang. http://www.

Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.adobe. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.avs.autodesk. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . and in his recent 2006 book. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.com/TechIllustrator.techillustrator. Designing WebBased Training. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. In acquiring Macromedia. e-Learning By Design.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.

com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. The most listings are for 3-D software.uk/index.com.acdamerica. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks.corel.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.itedo.co.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.com SmartDraw http://www. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www. http://virtuality3d.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. rendering.uk/index.com/E/1335.co.com/index.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.co.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender . animation.siggraph.xaraxtreme.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://esub.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. post-production. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.3dlinks. Do Not Reproduce 129 . interactive creation. Nevertheless.elearningcentre. In acquiring Macromedia.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www. http://www.0.2. Download a copy: http://www.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.broderbund.org/cms/Home.ibm.microsoft. http://www. and playback.smartdraw.google. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www.blender3d.

NY: John Wiley. http://www. Edward (1990). Germany. William (2000). Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).pdf McConnell. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .amazon.amazon. Gloria (2004).com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. A. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon.amazon. A. CT: Graphics. Japan · Sept 7-10.net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. STC. Pallickara. http://www. (2005).com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. Cheshire. Frances (2004).pdf Qiu. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.stcphoenix. http://www.pdf Tufte.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. William (2006). http://grids..carto.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. e-Learning by Design.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton. Evidence and Narrative . 2nd Ed. http://www. Tools Usage Survey Results. X. Tokyo. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Pheonix. Richards (Eds. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.editlib. In P. and Uyar. CT: Graphics Press.). http://www.org/index.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.amazon. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Edward (2001). Envisioning Information. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Edward (1997).stc. Proceedings. Designing WebBased Training. Carolina Chapter.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Fu-Kwan (2004).org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow. (2004). http://www. S.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. New York: John Wiley. http://www. Cheshire.indiana. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Potsdam.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. http://www. http://www.amazon. ED-Media Conference. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. William (1991).ucs. Brandon Hall Research . Cheshire. Kommers & G. CT: Graphics Press. June 1-3.

especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.forcedimension. When used appropriately.it/projects/pureform.sssup.unige.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching. Do Not Reproduce 131 . Finally. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. including pens. Haptic devices come in many forms.org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. gloves.html http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. http://wwwpercro.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. and force-feedback mice.miralab. joysticks/ joypads. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.” http://www.mpbtechnologies. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.handshakeinteractive. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. http://www.pureform. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. http://haptex. Read the press release at: http://www.

Iwane.1109/ICAL T. Nakamura.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. Reality bytes..computer.pdf Hespanha. http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves.phptr.haptics-e. G. Italy in March.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue.unitrier. Deliverable D4.xml&DOI=10.com.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. N.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. http://www.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS. (2005).sensable. J.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.immersion. Proceedings.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. (2002).. McLaughlin.piaggio.1_release-public.1. Matsubara. 132 © 2006.unige. Report delivered January 15. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. http://haptex. http://csdl2.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. July 31. suits. 917-921.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. Brandon Hall Research .ccii.miralab.unipi. http://www. and Ichitsubo..se/index. and Sukhatume.2005. Y. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). M. http://www.” http://www. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.” http://www. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).306 Kushner.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138. http://www. professional. 2003. 2005.html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.sensegraphics.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. M.smh. David (2003). 2005.isfh. http://www. New York Times (Online).roblesdelatorre. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. M.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.informatik.. Upper Saddle River. http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. M.

1(3). Reaching through the net to touch. Laurie (2004).S.. The Haptic Museum. (2000). G. Sukhatme. http://www. M.asp?p=345621 Sakano. S. J. & Uchikawa.pdf McLaughlin. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. Santa Clara. Haptics Laboratory. (2004). G.usc. M. G. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). 2003.matr. A.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239. Japan.ra. Research report. http://csdl. (2003).mit.B. Prentice Hall online article.S. H. July 3. Wired News.. http://www.pdf Ó hAnluain. Proceedings.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. 3-5 June 2004. http://www.. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. McGill University. and Hughes. Journal of Vision.pdf O’Modhrain. Donnelly. S. L.. A. 250a. Oct.computer.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 .pdf Rowell.digicult. (2001). and Rusbridge. C.com/articles/printerf riendly. Shahabi.cim. Chapter on Haptics.html Ross. Technology and Haptics. M. Vincent (2005).media. R. K. Blindness. Dobreva.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres.. Y. http://www. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. (2005). Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. 2004.org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. M.mcgill.html O’Malley.net/article-7304..informit. McHugh.ethz. Abbott.. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. D. April. http://web. Daithí (2003).. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. 22. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Medioni.journalofvision. CA. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.. and Gillespie. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. and Jaskowiak. http://www.pd f O’Modhrain. Kaneko. Centre for Intelligent Machines. and Essl. (1997). M.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.

html Sony. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. haptics. head mounted displays. For a review. For humans to use a computer. digital paper. Called Librié. tangible computing. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences. Now in the research and development phase. gesture recognition. they must interact with it through an interface device. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. electronic paper. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. wearable computing. and some.buffalo.html For humans to use a computer. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. input devices. display technologies. human-computer interaction. http://www. projectors. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 . whiteboards Description devices.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. Writing will require special digital pens. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). However. monitors. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. Philips. like digital ink and paper. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.com/b/archives/ 002571.dottocomu. experience computing. they must interact with it through an interface device. see: http://www.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. handwriting recognition.

Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.html In 2005.edu/design/Digitalin k.edfacilities.com/technology/howitwor ks. 3) throw.sony.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. http://www. see: http://www.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/. http://www.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.media. it is constantly being improved and updated.ices.eink.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. Do Not Reproduce 135 . flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. These methods are 1) touch. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.com/index. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. http://www.swan. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.fujitsu. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.smarttech.mit.ices. http://killer.ac.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. http://www.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.wacom. 4) bend.cs. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. 2) roll.cmu. consisting of a pen and a charger.” http://www.edu/design/Foldable Display. http://www.channelnewsasia. http://www.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.cmu. Although this technology has been around for a few years. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. and 5) build." http://web.cfm Now in the research and development phase. textures.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.html http://killer.lifehacker.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. http://www.logitech. Writing will require special digital pens.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.

au/edna/page458 8.com/wired/archive/8.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.html http://www.becta.wired.com/wired/archive/9.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.anoto.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.com/wired/archive/5. http://www.elearningcentre.wired. http://www.org.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. and graphic.thewirelessdirectory. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.aclearn.cs. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. human computer interaction.co.net/display.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.edu.wired. is described in a 2002 press release.devx. Following are three such articles: http://www.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. http://www. http://www. http://www.Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.html http://www.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.0 8/epapers.0 4/anoto. See their advice and resources at: http://www.usask.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years.mspx 136 © 2006. http://whiteboards.org. with its use of digital ink. Brandon Hall Research .thegrid.microsoft. http://www.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.edna.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.

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Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

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LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

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LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webhea ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206

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Report published by UCISA. Building educational virtual environments. http://lttf. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. http://wscg. ICALT2002 Conference.building new education strategies for schools. 4. http://www. Pierre (2000). Avgoustos (2004). Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . T. 21. 2005. and Trifonova. Czech Republic. http://www. 2006.edu. Proceedings of ALT-C. 2005.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). Workshop on virtual learning environments. April. Learning Circuits.pdf Morrison.melcoe. 5(2). Jan. (2005).. Sam (2005). Derek (2004).edu. October. 31-Feb. Plzen. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Incorporated Subversion.pdf Dillenbourg.unitn.. Ronchetti. and Walker. R. Browne.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. J. Chief Learning Officer.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). November 2004. James (2003).uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.eun. (Online edition). T.pdf Sadeghi. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Exeter.. June 20-21. M. (2006).what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). http://www.mq.. James (2005). VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. L. A.anadolu. http://www.bath.PDF Farmer. http://www. UK.htm Bouras.org/eun.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. http://www.zcu.ieee. http://tojde. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Proceedings.au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.learningcircuits..cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Cohen.science. M (2005).ucisa. M. and Tsiatsos. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Virtual Learning Environments.ac. August. A.pdf Dalziel. (2002).A possible future for online learning.ac. C.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo. Molinari.pdf Tsinakos. http://incsub.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos.nxtbook.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 . and Sharifi. (2002). WSCG Conference 2005. Aavani. Jan. University of Birmingham. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . Ed. Proceedings. A. http://www.

Brandon Hall Research . Healthcare. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. and Higher Education 2005.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport.pdf 144 © 2006.org/newdl/index.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533.pdf Wise. May-June. (2006). May 2006 http://www. Maomi (2005). 40(3). Vancouver. LMS Governance Project Report. J.educause. http://www.infodiv. and Quealy. Van (2005).unimelb. October 2005. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.Learning Management Systems Ueno. Report for the Melbourne. http://www. Government. L. Educause Review. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel.aace. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.edu.

the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Beyond that. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. SCORM. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. 2006). it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Learning objects have several uses. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Rather.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. learning object repository (LOR). a well-known standard for learning objects.” such as a graph. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. rapid learning. 2004. However. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. At the simplest level. Do Not Reproduce 145 . Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. learning object model (LOM).” This use has been more successful. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. intelligent tutoring. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. They are emulations of “software objects. reusable learning objects (RLOs). Wiley. The acronym SCORM. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. As online educational materials are produced. sharable content objects (SCOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.

ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). http://dspace. http://www. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.downes.educanext. http://www. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. curriculum. http://web. and they can be general or subject specific.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. computer-use practices. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.fedora. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.cdlib. This idea is based on older. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. http://dlist. stores. http://learnware.sir. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. Brandon Hall Research .ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. and distributes digital research material.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. http://www. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.arizona. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. indexes. preserves.org/index. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.uvic. http://www.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. culture. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.uwaterloo.

http://ideas.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.koha.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.unesco.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.maricopa.profetic.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.cisco. http://www.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.org/Home.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www.goenc.edu.edu/DesktopDefault.oise.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. with almost 15.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://mlor.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://nsdl. http://www. http://www.publiclibraryofscience.unsw.merlot.rice. http://www. http://www. http://portal.org/ci/en/ev.lolaexchange.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.thegateway.000 items.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.llearn.lrc3. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 . http://www. with a focus on information literacy.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.utoronto.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.net/project. http://lester.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.mcli. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).dist.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.wisconsin.

March. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.dis. http://www.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.it/~lhci/002. http://www.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.ca/mt/archive/000 681. and Alderman.jcdl.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt.uis.doc Christiansen.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. and Anderson. (2004). EdTechPost.uniroma1. 1(3). http://www.dicole. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. http://www.edtechpost.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . http://www.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. F. Celentano.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories..cancore. M. T. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.org/guidelines/index.L. (2004). http://www. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects.ca/implementing_proje cts.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. http://www.uwm.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. J. Online paper. (2004).itdl.amazon.elearnspace. http://www. A. authored by Rachel Smith. http://www.uwm.lornet. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.nmc. C. is available at: http://www.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.org/eng/scientifiques. http://www. And Longo.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. CANCORE.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.org/blog/archives/ 002089.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.

G.. Online. Anderson..ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. Hatala. 14.. 2004. Paquette. A Primer on Learning Objects.. Roberts. J. (2000).ca/protocols_en. & Strijker. London: Falmer. Norm (2006).amazon.itdl. http://www. T. 1(3). T.. and Schafer. Rachel (2006). Version . Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. html Edusource (2003). (2004). http://www. Babin. (2004). Research Report. S.org. M. (2004).org/14190 Downes. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.html McGreal. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. 2(4). G.1/downes. http://www..org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.cfm/files/pap er_11841. 2(1). International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. http://dl.org/index. Jan. Online Education Using Learning Objects.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. http://www. Software Architecture Document. March.edusource.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.eduserv. http://www.pdf Krauss. D. A. http://www. Warren (2000). G.doc Fiaidhi.html Friesen.org/content/v2. Fredinand (2004). Friesen. K. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.editlib.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. Norm (2005). D. Downes. 5-16. Online document. http://www.html Leeder. R. http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.learningcircuits.. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.cancore. S.9.blogs. (2003)..ca/implementing_projec ts. and Mohammed. http://www..9%2015-11-03.html Heery.itdl. and Morales.uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. Richards.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3. Mattson. Harrigan. March. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Online paper. S.) (2004). MacLeod. March. Rory (Ed.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Learning Circuits. http://www.. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. http://ideas.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. B.irrodl.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 .htm Friesen.cancore. N. 1 (3). Stephen. M.org/mar2000/ primer... Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. R.aace.

Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Govinda.org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. (2002). http://www.org/docs/dissertation.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.Rafts or Battleships? . Paper presented.informingscience. David A. and Pragnell. http://www. V. March.Part 1. Learning Material Repositories . April 2002.edu. and Senteni. 9. (Ed. http://www. Rossano. http://opencontent.dis. Brigham Young University. (2002). June. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.ac. and Freisen. David A. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Online. http://opencontent. pdf Roselli. 1(7).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.pdf Santally.usq. (2005). : http://reusability. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Derek (2004a).). 12. http://www.itdl. http://www. Objects of Interest.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.org/read/ Wiley.it/~lhci/rossanopres.uniroma1.bath. July 14. G.learninglab. 7(1). M. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.html Murphy. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. (2006).php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Jan.learningcircuits.pdf http://www.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. Doctoral dissertation. (2000).fastrakconsulting. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.kth.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. R. Derek (2004b).org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.co..htm Shepherd. Final Project Report. Aug. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. M. Elizabeth (2004). Wolfgang (2004).ac.bath. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. N. http://www. (2004). Brandon Hall Research . Iterating Toward Openness. Learning Material Repositories .org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.htm Nejdl.dis.. http://proceedings.pdf Richards. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. A. McGreal. 2004. 2004..htm Wiley.Rafts or Battleships? .Part 2. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. http://www. InSITE conference. http://www.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects. Clive. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Learning Circuits. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.uniroma1.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. David A. INTERACT 2005. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.. M. Lori (2002).p df Wiley. (2000). T.

proximity tools. Department of Defense. PDAs. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. geocaching. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). location-based systems are found in museums. and security issues. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. laptops. more demands for a person’s attention. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. and exhibits for a variety of purposes. gaming consoles. including privacy concerns. users will be able to use a variety of devices. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. personal media players. findability. navigation. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. as with any new technology. including cell phones.S. and wearable computers. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. galleries. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. galleries. Do Not Reproduce 151 . Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. However.

to what a GIS system uses. laptops. to model the climate in any place in the world. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. gaming http://www. http://earth.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo .org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices.http://www.edu/ the globe.http://www. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database.live.esri. and to learn about them using a phones.intergraph. PDAs.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery.http://www.google. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.google.state.google.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.org/ http://www. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth.com/ location and biodiversity around the world. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp .com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www.org/ consoles.000 archaeological sites in the state.cadcorp. earth. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.us/research/G ESRI. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.google.clarklabs.com/ mapping service.mapinfo.com able to use a http://www.pangonetworks.il.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.berkeley. experiences that people.org/ educational of Mars. information. http://www. it is a great tool for teaching science.http://www.com/ Geographic Information System. personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players. Brandon Hall Research . http://local.com/ Intergraph .biogeomancer. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www.museum. Clark Labs . and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details.frappr.http://www.smm.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work.greatestplaces. See how this direction. http://www. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.

” http://www. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.ac. http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.fi/english/page.wisc.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.esri.bham.cetadl.opensourcegis.gees.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.geography. http://portal. http://www.asp?path=5 00.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.com/index.5372.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. http://www.co. create. see: http://www.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.chimer.ordnancesurvey.edu/sco/gis/hi story. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. http://platial. as well as papers on trends in GIS.ac. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.geog. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.eoscenter.edu.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. Earth.confluence. See their complete range of products. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.leeds.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 .bc. http://www. http://www.com/gis4mt/index. http://pngis.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.org/index.ac. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. at: http://www.

pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 .00. Eva (2004).pdf Tsirliganis.learningcircuits. and Chamzas. A.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. http://www..htm McLean.ibm..com/ Bibliography Benford.pdf Cardinali. http://geotags.com http://geotags. http://www. N. http://www.. Chapter on Location Based Devices. A. Issue 6. We learning: social software and e-learning. 2003. D. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. G. Dobreva. G. Heather (2005). Dec.ac.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. January. Information in places. and Borriello.geocomm. IBM Systems Journal.pdf Spohrer. Learning Circuits. 1999. Steve (2005)..php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. http://education.. Donnelly.jisc. McHugh. S. and students. Nov..digicult.research. M. http://www. manipulate. Abbott. (2001)... Future LocationBased Experiences. M.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.guardian. Jan 2004. http://www. and Location-Based industry professionals.C. 38(4).1642288. Fabrizio (2005).com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. A.digicult. J. http://www. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. 2005. (1999). Mapping. Koutsoudis.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.co. and Rusbridge. and visualize spatial information. F. J. Online article. DigiCULT Newsletter. enthusiasts.uk/elearning/ story/0. (2005). Arnaoutoglou.html Ross. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Part II.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. 2005. C..intergraph. 15.intelresearch. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www. http://www. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. Pavlidis. http://www.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. CAD.directionsmag.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.info/index. Guardian Unlimited. http://elearningeuropa. IEEE Report.

personalized. A “mashup. composite applications. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. API clouds. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. provides access to the API of another Web site. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. hybrid applications. Many of these objects are software programs. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. to a lesser extent. of how to communicate with each other. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. to a lesser extent. The programs that do this are call “Web Services.” then. including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment.” instructors. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. E-learning in the workplace and. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. or through “Web services. in schools and universities.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . run all by themselves. also called “object learners and interoperability. or protocol. For example. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. For two or more programs to talk to each other. the rules for sending files across the Internet. Mashups are constructed in several ways. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. Similarly. all expressed in binary code. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. tag clouds.” that is. Programs can be “stand alone. integration. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. Using SOAP. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. in schools and universities.

com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter. http://www. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.programmableweb. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. etc.businessweek. http://www.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.0 APIs.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006.” It has many examples of mashups.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. Many have educational value. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. a writer for Business Week.deitel. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.icio.us. providing an informal collaborative environment.deitel. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.htmlhttp://www. at the same time. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. http://en. http://www. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.mashupfeed.. Brandon Hall Research . http://del. http://blogs. As Warlick (2006) has noted.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.html Rob Hof.com/ http://www. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. 2004).Mashups. communications. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.icio.emilychang.programmableweb.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. document management.wikipedia. such as those for collaboration.

htm Torres. Learning Technology newsletter. Galen (2006). Vol.businessweek. Issue 1. 2006. Dodero. Business Week Online.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.ieee. Do Not Reproduce 157 . C. Vol. http://www.com/products/print_fri endly. 6. G. 2005..html Woodill. Enterprise mashups. 2006. March 6. George (undated).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. Mashups. SOAP. http://www.org/resources/webs ervices. Web Services.htm Siviter. Curriculum as Mashup. match. Paul (2002).techlearning. http://www.infoworld. Dec. July 25. http://ww6. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. http://www. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. (2004). Infoworld. Learning Technology newsletter. http://www. 6. January 2004 http://lttf. techLEARNING. C. May 15. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Learning Solutions. January 2004 http://lttf.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. 6. SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.pdf Stacey.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. Elearnspace. Robert (2005).com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.ieee. Douglas (2004).pdf Seimens.com/publications. Mix. (2006). 2006. 2002.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Issue 1.bctechnology. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.html Warlick. July 28.html Hof.elearnspace. J. and Oliveira. and Padron. J. and mutate.operitel.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1. David (2006).

community. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. metadata.cetis.edu/o4e/viewhome.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index.wssu.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual.educause. http://www. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. http://libraries. http://www. search engines.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.do?tm= O4E. Ohio. http://metadata.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. and services. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. and institutional stores.ac.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects. http://iiscs. repositories. An ontology.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.cancore. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. and artificial intelligence are being developed. pervasive computing.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects.mit. http://www.imsglobal.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). http://simile. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Do Not Reproduce 158 .edu/content. in the context of information technology. http://dublincore. to develop metadata standards.mit. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.

cancore. B. 2006. N. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). April 18.aace.umbc.ifets.delphigroup. http://www. 2005.. Ellyssa (2005). Delphi Group report. Norm (2005). (2002).html Gruber.pdf Delphi Group (2004).. A. Online article. Perich. http://tomgruber. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. http://www. June 2004. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://www.. http://dl. tags into a BoxesAndArrows.php?id=25 Kroski. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.edu/get/a/publication/ 105.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.ca/editors.tagcamp. MA. 7.org/10614 Mathes. Patrick (2006). Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. Thomas (2005a).ifets.info/issues. 7(4). 98-111.greenchameleon. and Nejdl. Barry. Dec.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider.pdf Friesen.. (2004). (2004). 2002.adammathes. F. Adam (2004). http://www.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. M. http://www. Dolog. University of Illinois graduate paper. T. P. C. October-December. Green Chameleon. 7(4). Finin. Presentation to Tag Camp. Moulin. http://www.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. and Mosoiu. October 29.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP.htm Gruber.org/. Lenne... http://ebiquity.info/issues. A. In Proceedings. and Chaput.. and Poulymenakou.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. and Joshi. M. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. (2003). SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.. D.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. B. A. sometimes A..boxesandarrows. Boston. Pouloudi. International Journal on E-Learning. 82-97. http://infotangle. http://www.. Benayache. C. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Thomas (2005b). ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras. Infotangle. W.com/view/buil database as they enter data. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.php?id=25 Chen. November.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . http://tomgruber. Defining “taxonomy”.blogsome.pdf Henze. A. (2004).com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. http://www. 2003. April 21. TagOntology . Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy. H.

php?id=25 160 © 2006. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building.ecdl2003. (2004). (2003). BoxesAndArrows. 2002. I. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. and Godby. 2004.html Wodtke. D-Lib Magazine. Trondheim. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. BoxesAndArrows. S. Christian (2004). Chen.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.pdf Oin.dlib. and Shao.boxesandarrows. http://www.Metadata.ifets. D. G. 7(4).info/issues. http://www. NISO Press. Lytras.htm Weibel.ppt Ricci. N. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community.info/issues.learningcircuits.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel. J. Christina (2002). April 9.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Stuart (2005). 2004.. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).ifets.boxesandarrows. http://www. Understanding Metadata. http://www. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies.. http://www. J. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. Nov. 2005. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www. P. and Diaz. http://www.php?id=25 Tozman. (2004). 26-28. Brandon Hall Research . Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. 7(4). 70-81. July/August.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. May 22. M. Norway.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Learning Circuits.niso. Wagner. Reuben (2004). http://www..org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. 11(7/8).

2004). learning architecture [that] will support creation. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). rich players. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.” The Mobilearn However.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. Essentially. personalization. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . location based technologies. such telephones. communicative skills and community interaction. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. podcasting. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). improved identity creation. and building. MP3 players. conversational learning. instant messaging (text. and mentoring. tablet PCs. it is predicted that there will be 2. location-dependence. cell phones. cellular telephones.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. powerful support for effective tablet PCs. tablets. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. you are. multimedia. video) and distributed databases. time and space. in mobile computing (McLean. learning. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. wearable computing. 2003). cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. brokerage. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. times the number of personal computers (PCs). laptops. personal digital assistants (PDA). laptops. using ambient intelligence.” Two years ago. pervasive computing. mLearning. there were estimated to be 1. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. personalization. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. strong search capabilities. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners.6 billion units in operation by that year.

there were estimated to be 1. (2004). compared to only 50 percent of computer users. http://urbantapestries.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005.ccu. Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. audio. in Japan.computer. http://csdl2.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.bbc.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. 2004).stockholmchallenge.cs. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC. Israel.cs.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. and pre-service teachers.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. Users can access and create location-specific text.ccu.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://gseacademic. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.net/ 162 © 2006.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird. US. http://news.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. http://www. http://www.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.” a “butterfly-watching learning system. or a combination of media.mobilearn.edu.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). Cited in Prensky. movies.harvard.cs.co.pdf http://www.ccu.” http://www. Australia.pdf http://www.Mobile Devices Two years ago.se/projectd ata.” They have a “firefly watching system. Brandon Hall Research .” and a “bird watching learning system.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.edu. pictures.edu. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.

html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.fasfind.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. Gaming.com/wwwtools/m/8907.telus.com/wwwtools/m/2737. technologies. For example.elearningcentre.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.beta80group.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.htm Jari Laru.bham.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. applications. and a glossary.eee. of the University of Oulu in Finland. Learn more at: http://www.fasfind. http://spotlight-mobile. http://www.fasfind.uk/handler/publi cations.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 .html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.” http://m. activities.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. links. http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.knowledgepulse.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.co. http://llt. resources.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault.com/wwwtools/m/2717.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.232. Ireland.mobilelearning.iadis. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. including issues.msu. http://urbantapestries.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.94.135/ipodined/news. http://www3. http://www.ac.com/home_en. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://213. 2006 in Dublin.

flexiblelearning. No. Ronchetti.ac. (2005). B. EDUCAUSE Review.idi.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. http://www. http://www. (2004). http://www. and Trifonova. Gaming. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.a u/edition06/download/geddes.ac. http://www..edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Bob (2005). Y.jisc.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 . JISC Guide. P.html Kadirire.pdf Anderson. http://www. (2003). J. Report. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.html Bibliography Alexander. S. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.educause.uk/eli_practice. http://knowledgetree. September 2005. L. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.J. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. 347-359. Paul (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.unitn. 39. Kao. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.pdf Attewell. A. No. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model..pdf Godwin-Jones.msu.edu.formatex. (2005).com/mobile_learning/i ndex. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. A.ccu. 17-22 http://llt. E. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. of Birmingham http://www. http://mobile. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.ntnu. Univ. Emerging technologies: Messaging.itdl.htm JISC (2005).pdf Geddes. Bryan (2004). Jill (2005). Learning and Skills Development Agency. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. and Sharma. 9(1).6. T. and Pagani. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf Colazzo.html Grew. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.kaywa.pdf Chen. 5.pdf Jasola. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. (2002).jisc.cs. http://www. R. 2(9). Molinari.org/micte2005/4. http://www. Vol..m-learning.net.science. and Sheu.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. Language Learning and Technology. Sept. 19. James (2005). M. January 2005.

Amherst. T. http://portal. J. Coralini. Pigozzi. (2002). Peter (2005). Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. computer-aided. Proceedings.pdf Mellow. S. Greece. Växjö University. Chan. Liang.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. L. J. 2005. Romagnoli. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. F. M...ox. Australia. http://drei. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.org/10...fhjoanneum. M. June/July 2005. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.1109 /WMTE.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. E.com/news/article2 490. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. Sweden. UsabilityNews. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. http://www. Conference on Virtual reality.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri.digicult. Galasso. Växjö. T. M. Vecchietti. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. David (2006). MA: HRD Press. D. June 27.oucs.ieeecomputersociety. http://www.innovateonline.htm#Implications Prensky. S. 2002. Feb. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.pdf Scagliarini. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Teleborg Campus.info/index. Archeology. Marc (2004).century. http://www.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Wang.ascilite.asp Liu. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light.. M. August 29-30. multimedia-based learning application. and Dobreva. http://www. and Sforza. T. http://www.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 ..doc Meisenberger. 2004. A.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Malavasi. Brisbane. Presented at WMTE 2002. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Roffia. Neil (2003).. A.org. and Yang. Cinotti. H. (2001). A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. 1(5).acm.org/citation.usabilitynews.pdf Metcalf.. M.. http://doi. (2005). Proceedings.phil-inst.ac.1039222 McLean. Donnelly..2002. http://21st.. (2004).2. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Ann (2005). E.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. http://www. Kristóf (2002)..amazon. and Cultural Heritage. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. and Nischelwitzer.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Glyfada.

.1490476.ac. http://www. Learning in the Mobile Age.open.ac.bham. Feb. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. May 23. Budapest. M.guardian.uk/elearning/ comment/0.eee.clomedia. 2005.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Hungary.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Ellen (2005).00. 2005.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.uk/public/getfile. J.co. http://kn. Chief Learning Officer.educause.html von Koschembahr.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. May/June 2005. (2005). Guardian Unlimited.fil. Enabling Mobile Learning. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. http://education.pdf Sharples. Understanding.pdf Thomas.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. and. and Vavoula. 40-53.. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Michael (2005). 40(3). Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. Mike (2005). G.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298. EDUCAUSE Review. Christopher (2005). April 2005. http://www. Draft paper submitted for publication.pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . http://www. E-Learning on the move. Taylor.

TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.lexxe. machine translation. http://wwwusers. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . a component of intelligent tutoring systems. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. speech synthesis. Kim (2000). Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. rather than just returning Web pages. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. i. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.. speech recognition. (2005a. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. (2004). Lee et al. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). http://www. http://tcc. (2004). Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.york.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.e. natural language generation. Do Not Reproduce 167 . Di Eugenio.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.uk/~silvia/litReview. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.it/index. et al.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents.translating one natural language into another.itc.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.” See also Jordan et al.cs. http://dmoz. natural language understanding..

org/softwaremap/trove_list ..cstr. M. J. Haller. B. Makatchev.bham.cs. 2(2). http://www. Haller.pdf Drigas.html Bibliography Bagshaw. Language Learning and Technology.elsnet. http://www. D.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis. S. and Glass. Online. M. D. MA: MIT Press. January.pdf Di Eugenio.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. P. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. http://www.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon.uic. University of Edinburgh..edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3. and Vrettaros.ac. tools. D...aaai. Cambridge.amazon. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries.pdf Coxhead. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. Peter (2001). (2005b). http://www.upenn.. (2004).gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. B. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. http://www. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Fossati. Fossati.org/Voice/Activity. Christian (2001). research.w3.pdf Eskenazi. http://llt.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP. Presented at AIED2005 Conf.cs. and VanLehn. http://eduforge. and Glass. and standards. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching.org/aitopics/html/natlang. November 2004 http://imm. (2005a). A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Maxine (1999). http://www. Volume 1. http://www.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.ed.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications.demokritos..cs.ldc. Issue 5. K.ac. Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. S. Yu. D.. 62-76. pdf Jacquemin. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation.uic. M.msu. http://www. Paper presented at ACL2005.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. Yu.html#fn1 Di Eugenio. (2004). Paul (1994).” Do Not Reproduce 168 .

Paraguaçu (Eds. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram.pdf Zhou. and Martin.pdf Lee.. David (2001). Feng-Jen (2001).edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. S. Maceió. (Eds. R.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 . Doctoral Dissertation. and Moorman.amazon. http://www. Illinois Institute of Technology. (2004). Jung Hee (2000). Vicari. computational linguistics and speech recognition. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis.iit. Chicago.pdf Jurafsky. C.cs. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System.linckels. and Glass.iit. C. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. http://www. S. Lester. McHugh.pdf Yang. Abbott. K. D. http://www.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss. Yujian (2000). (Eds. http://www. http://www. Chicago. C. (2005). A.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. A. A.iit. and Moorman.pitt.pdf Ram.amazon. K.cs.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss. (2004). MA: MIT Press. Cambridge.). M. M.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. http://www.digicult. M.) (1999).. http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.colorado.pdf Steinhart. Illinois Institute of Technology. August 31.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross. Doctoral Dissertation.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. M.pdf Linckels. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. http://www. and F. In J.amazon.H. J. Donnelly. D. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. http://lsa. Doctoral Dissertation.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim. A. Dobreva. 435-439.. Cambridge. NJ: Prentice Hall. and Rusbridge. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral dissertation.cs.. Upper Saddle River. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading..info/downloads/TWR3lowres.cs.iit. Illinois Institute of Technology.) (1999). Brazil. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. of Colorado. Chicago. Univ. M. (2000). Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. http://www. and Meinel. Evens. MA: MIT Press. Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.

There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. Jokela (2003). Brandon Hall Research .Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. instant messaging. Collaborative Peer Relationships .ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users.seti. movies. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. As personal computers become more powerful. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. whose research is based on activity theory. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. or e-learning environments. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. http://www. thus bypassing a central server. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. In the future. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning. 170 © 2006. memory. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching.org/science/setiathome. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. and games. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent. thus bypassing a central server.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. chat rooms. and storage. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships .

washington. http://www.mit. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary. http://picto. http://data.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA. encyclopedia.cs.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable. http://p2p.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes.edu/info/ove rview.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources.md3. Any computer can join the infrastructure. where students meet to share and exchange their productions. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. sharing. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.jxta. http://www.com/ eduCommons .org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. http://www. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation. each with its own data schema.usu.berkeley. http://cosl. and translation servers throughout the Web. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously.cdt. Do Not Reproduce 171 . http://lockss. http://edutella.stanford. http://www.edu/piazza.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple.ucsb.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.sun.lcs. http://oceanstore. http://publius.pdos.groove.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers.campusmoviefest.cs.The eduCommons is an open system for creating. http://wwws.weblogger. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks.cs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival.

llearn. and videomakers.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. cross platform application (Win.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.psu. http://www.overnet.bdaweb.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources.html MoveDigital.com/ Overnet is an open source.bdaweb.fastrakconsulting. http://www. http://www.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities. musicians. allows anyone.com/products/in dex. no adware. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists.advancedreality.” It also says that there is “no spyware. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet. http://www.” http://www.se/proje ctdata.edu/apps_list.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe.elearningcentre.movedigital. http://lionshare.its. http://www. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide.net/freescience_learnmo re_it. http://p2p.co.net/index.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 .uk/tactix/features/swapsh op. Mac. for a small fee. http://www. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.com/english/content/ho me.stockholmchallenge.co.limewire. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques.internet2. http://www. data. headquartered at Penn State University.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning.

K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. D. January 17. Applications.edb.). http://www. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog.campustechnology.html Fletcher. July 2001.unihannover. http://www. R. H.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann. A.. 2005. Wolfgang (2002). http://www. Luigi (2005). Martin (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher. In Cunningham. P2P and its impact on the enterprise. 2006. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits. Healthcare. Judith (2006).kbs.utexas.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf Ratti. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. Paivi (2003).editlib. http://www. How P2P will change collaborative learning. Online paper. Jennifer (2002).ac. http://www.learningcircuits. Paul & Cunningham.sunderland. Jay (2001). http://voyager. http://www. Online article.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.htm Farago-Walker.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl. Campus Technology. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. University of Texas.masternewmedia.learningcircuits. significance and impact. and Guergachi. AACE Journal 12(3). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. pp 1051-1058. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. January 2002. P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://julita. and Higher Education 2003. http://www. pp. Austin. Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Ginty. Miriam (Eds.edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. N. 1624-1631.intranetjournal. Julita (2004). Government. 301-313. http://www.htm Cross. and Koumpis.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi.org/index.editlib. A. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. (2002). (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology.pdf Farges. Susan (2003). Bokma.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. eLearning and future trends. Intranet Journal. Case Studies.pdf Vassileva.html Jokela.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . http://www. June 1..org/index. Learning Circuits.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. Tektonidis. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.com/article.

etc. learning management systems. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility). This requires support over time. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. but these are only available to members of the course. A PLE is structured by the learner. and through a variety of technologies. and. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. and social bookmarking sites. wikis. learners need to be in real-world situations. libraries. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. whiteboard). without an offline client to the LMS. Technology needs to be situated. work places. social environments. e-portfolios. Individualization in an LMS is weak. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. Secondly. chat. (Cortlett et al. A PLE must support lifelong learning. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner.. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. In many cases. discussion forums. To practice real-world situations. amongst institutions.). LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. as learners move between institutions. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. 174 © 2006. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. Brandon Hall Research . blogs. such as search engines. for the learner. there can be no electronic interaction. often only for the purposes of the course.

11. http://incsub.elearning.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog.mlearn.pdf Farmer. Edinburgh. Chan. Sharples. Terry (2006). manage.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett.uk/ilogbook/de fault. http://www. Colin (2005). Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. (2005). January 9.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. 2006. Las Vegas.uk/index. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. Running on the learner's PC. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. 22-27 July 2005. J. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.org. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.za/CD/papers/Corl ett. Ting.jisc. http://www.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.cetis.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. and Westmancott.ac.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.bath. http://www. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook.cetis.jisc.. http://portal. James (2006). Online case study paper. http://elgg. Incorporated Subversion. Jan.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. and review his or her learning activity.ac. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. it helps the user plan.ac. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. D. T.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://www. track. O..cetadl.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.bham. Do Not Reproduce 175 . http://terrya..uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham. Nevada.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. M. UK.ac. http://www.ac.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. PLE Reference Model.ac.ac. 2006.edublogs. http://www.

These techniques include content-based filtering. 2005). yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Keenoy et al. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.g. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. Furthermore. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. picture. or it can be an implicit model. (Filippini-Fantoni.). Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. learning environments. artificial intelligence.. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. colour. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. etc. Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. Do Not Reproduce 176 . through a questionnaire). but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. However. rule-based filtering. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. Often.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. However.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.g. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. etc. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. collaborative filtering.. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.

html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . PDAs). Do Not Reproduce 177 .org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites.nl/publications/papers/M traits.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e.ca/English/Per sonal/index.net/home.pdf kaleidoscope.calimera. http://www. objects leave “trails” . navigation.virtualmuseum. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.time-ordered http://www. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www.ecdc.elenaproject.firstmonday. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. and/or presentation of materials. wireless networks.uk/ilex/final.emarcon.beta80group. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. the personalization can be applied to content.. http://www.ed.html (handheld PCs. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user. A demo is available at: http://www. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. The trails can useomarmo.hcrc.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials.g. chc021 http://www.directa.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. http://www.org/en/index.org/default. dynamic user profiling techniques.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. http://www.noech. http://www.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.

. A. A.CY/0409055 Boyle T. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Borda. HATII. http://www.pdf Calimera Project (2005).it/intint/people/paper s/aims04.Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art.calimera.umuai. J.arces. G.unimagdeburg.unibo. A.ascilite.org/ Bibliography Abbott. The Future of Access (or..uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.metmuseum. http://www.. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. S. K. (2004). EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. interactive services in home automation. Kay.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf 178 © 2006. (2004).org/mymetmuse um/index. W. (2004). J. Pizzutilo. May 25. Ler. http://arxiv.org/pdf/cs. T. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. with a particular focus on the museum sector. and Verdaguer.. S.. Gallipoli. Melbourne. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. L. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. and Nuguid. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. 2004. X. Ngo. https://www. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Ceccaroni. University of Glasgow. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.arts.pdf Callaway.uniba.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.. Italy. PowerPoint presentation. Italy.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. and Kuflik. and FilippiniFantoni.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. (2005). Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Gallipoli.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. C. http://tmtfactory.. http://www. De Carolis. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. B. May 25.pd f Cavalluzzi..gla. http://www. Online paper.pdf Bright. (2005).org.pdf Beler. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. http://www.hatii. Cozzolongo. William Niu. (AVI 2004). A. 2004.di..ac. and Cook J. http://adiret. D. (AVI 2004). Bowen. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).cs.(2001). Daisy (2002). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. A. Online paper. http://smart.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.

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corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. vendors. instructorled. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. which form a dynamic user profile.Portals Related terms Collaboration. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. 2001). while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Brandon Hall Research . content management.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Knowledge Management. learning management systems.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. In the business world. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . collaborative environment.

com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.worldwidelearn. the portal offered information on more than 20. As of early 2006.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. e-mail distribution lists. museums.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. school administrators.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. administrators. http://h20219.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.000 publishers worldwide http://www.asp Element K – Access to over 2. calendars. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.elementk.elearningeuropa.proquest.teach-nology. collaborative environment. instant messaging. interactive discussion groups.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.www2. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. and schedules. audio and/or video.fathom.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. http://www.300 online courses http://www. http://www. and universities. online meetings with text. and shared lists for tasks.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.microsoft.000 online courses http://www. document management information.hp.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.executrain. news and announce-ments.trainingregistry.000 lesson plans http://www. instructors.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. students. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 185 .cyberu.saba.700 online courses http://www.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index. go to: http://www. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. instructor-led.microsoft.com/home.

campustechnology.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. http://www.amazon. In Jafari.Education. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. baby! E-learning portals. Ron (2004). http://www. and Aucoin. J.asp?id=9028 Barron. R.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. New York: AMACOM.nl/mart/CategoryView.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113..amazon. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. (2003). May 2000. http://www.. and Sheehan. and Gordon.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. Cornelia (2000).asp Terra.asp Katz. category. 2004.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. (Eds. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. Hershey.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. A. http://www. Campbell.tamtam. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . http://knowledgemanagement. New York: AMACOM. Learning Circuits. Richard & Associates (2002). M. including educational uses.htm Brockbank. http://www. March 1. C.learningcircuits.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. You’ve come a long way. Heidi (2001).educause. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Heidi (2003).learningcircuits. M.) (2003). PA: Information Science Publishing.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Bray (2001). and Sheehan.ittoolbox. http://blogs. Hershey. (2003). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. PA: Information Science Publishing.amazon.com/article. A. http://www. Tom (2000).edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. (Eds. Reviewed at: http://www. K. A Portrait of Learning Portals. http://www.amazon. Campus Technology Magazine.educause. September 2000.

the word “lecturing” means “to read. In fact. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Consequently. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. However.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. virtual classrooms. http://www. web conferencing.” In the Middle Ages.replayhq. Skypecasting. In fact.com/site/index. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://www. Experience them at: http://www. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. the word “lecturing” means “to read. webcasting.lsc.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.” In the Middle Ages. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.macromedia. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. Do Not Reproduce 187 . when experts are not readily available. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Online presentations can be very boring.

in partnership with Dreamworks. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.elluminate.com/webconf/index. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.mit.masternewmedia. http://www.ccimeet. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. independent listing of Webinars. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.infoworld.hp.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. http://www. http://www. a columnist at InfoWorld. http://cde.kolabora. http://www. online communities.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa.com/publications/lel/lel. http://icampus. groupware. intranets.silicon. http://www.00. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. http://weblog.com/cxoextra/0. See the TEAL Project at MIT.athabascau. instant messaging.shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.thinkofit.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.com/udell/2005/0 2/25. http://ajax.39155030. videoconferencing. and Web presentations.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. virtual teams. and e-learning.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing.com/news_radars/we b_presentations.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. Webcasts. online meetings. http://www. social software for online collaboration.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.htm http://www. http://www. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.adelaide. although many are trying to change this practice.kolabora. While it is expensive. http://www.humanresourceWebinars.brandonhall.edu.edu/TEAL). videoconferencing.htm http://www. forums and message boards.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.380000 5416.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.acue.html#a1185 http://weblog. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.com Hewlett-Packard.infoworld.

htm http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations. Captivate. Coursebuilder.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . and whiteboarding.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. although it does not have to be. brain.” http://www. http://www. Web seminars. virtual meetings.html Using Apreso software. http://www.elearningcentre.eweek. http://buyersguide.elearningcentre. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. and Flash.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. Breeze.co.timelyweb. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. Web conferencing. http://www.elearningcentre. virtual classrooms.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.elearningcentre.com/downloads/sea rch.co.com/software/presen tation.co.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning. Authorware. presentation and streaming presentation tools.uk/eclipse/Resources/live.co.e-learningcentre.com/presentatio ns/index. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. http://www.programjunction.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. http://www. http://www.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. http://www.co. Dreamweaver.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.com/eweek/webc onferencing.filesland. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.apreso.presentations.com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1.lsc. http://www. and kidneys.

2003. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Jennifer (2004).masterviews. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www.downloadjunction. 2005. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze.com/BreezePart 1. P. Christine (2001). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. http://m. April 30. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.htm Canali De Rossi.learningcircuits. July 26.pdf http://www. Luigi (2003a).01. Belinda (2003)..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. K. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.htm Duckworth.russellmcnally. http://www.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. Learning Circuits. http://www.amazon. 3.aln.asp McNally. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.pdf McFerrin.russellmcnally.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth. Robin Good Blog.com/BreezePart 2. (2002).blogspot. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia. Digital Inspiration.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. July.htm Hofman. 7(3). Armit (2005). Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Luigi (2003b). http://www..com/product /software/795/index.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.fasfind. Luigi (2003c). Russ (2004). 2003. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. http://labnol. Live and Online!: tips.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. 2004. May 15. (in two parts) http://www. 2003.com/wwwtools/m/21593. http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. http://www.aace.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 .masternewmedia. July 8. Sept. and Furr. Sept.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. http://www. Live ELearning.html Canali De Rossi. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.

ac. http://www. K.amazon.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 . Choose the Right Vendors. L. 2005. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. InfoWorld. Dave (2002).com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. http://kmi. Choose your presentation tools carefully. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. and Equipment.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Choices are great. Software.infoworld. http://www. Start Saving Time and Money Today. 11. but… Presentations Magazine. Dec.html Zielinski. and Winfield.open.uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. and Quick. http://www. P.presentations. AMACOM. Feb.. (2003).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. S. (2004).pdf Spielman.

Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. tests. It can refer to learning something quickly. or HTML knowledge. For example. and drill down pages. by necessity. In the first case. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Standardize approaches. simple. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Instructional design built in. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. In the second sense of the term. are built in. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online.does not require any plug-ins. Does not require any advanced skills. Navigation built in . easy to use. programming. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. graphics. and based on preformed templates for layout and design.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Deploys easily . FAQ. According to Ready Go!. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. but not always good for you. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. glossary.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. 2003). usually when it is needed (Brodsky. extreme e-learning. Do Not Reproduce 192 . Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. such as creating links. including tools and templates. a demand to produce online content very quickly. learning objects. It is best suited to textbased materials. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary.automatically assures that all navigation works. Advanced features. It can refer to learning something quickly. or where the online information frequently changes. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. and clip art is straight forward and supported . just-intime e-learning. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design.

elearningcentre.readygo.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.masie. http://www. http://www. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. Reusability. which contains information on resources.articulate.versus high-interaction). That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan. See sample templates at: http://www. Assign SMEs who are committed. 2006.org Web site. http://www. computer games. http://www.amazon.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. http://www. 2004). or where the online information frequently changes. and other good stuff. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. schedule and due dates.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.co. virtual classroom. To be effective.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Edit. low.pdf Aldrich. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Future-Proofing. Learning Solutions. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. version control protocols.htm Bibliography Abell.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.” Find out more: http://www.e. Enhance. conferences. centrally located files. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. See a demo at: http://www.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.elearningguild.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. January 23. Templates.scate.com/studio. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Do Not Reproduce 193 . Reduce the number of development vendors. Clark (2005). and communicate deliverable expectations. manage the content and the users.microlearning. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. http://www. 2003). and Publish.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Kendrick (2006). Leverage professional project management methods and tools.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. San Francisco: Pfieffer.raptivity.

July 2004. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. June. Bill (2005).clomedia. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Tips and Techniques.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. http://www. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail. http://www.transformmag. http://www. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. 2002. July 2. Nov. 10.htm Bersin. June 30. Jay (2005). January. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. http://www. Learning Circuits.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 2004. Dianne (2005).pdf Jimenez. J.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. 2006.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries.elearningguild.ltimagazine.pdf Brodsky.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald. e-Learning Crop Circles. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. Paper. Josh (2005). LTI Newsline.clomedia. http://www. http://www. http://www. Larstan Business Reports. Josh (2004).adobe.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. Joe (2005).ltimagazine. http://www.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Brandon Hall Research . Rapid Intake White Paper.meetingone.elearningguild. http://www. Penny (2004). http://vftraining.com/articles/ab stracts/index. Chief Learning Officer.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Lane (2002). LTI Newsline. LTI Newsline. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning. Ray (2006).com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Ray (2005). 9.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.pdf Crosman.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.elearningguru.jsp?id=150619 Hess.pdf Gustafson. 2006. Learning Solutions.learningcircuits. Jan.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Garin (2004).asp Bersin. Mar. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks.pdf Jimenez. Making rapid elearning work.bersin. http://www. tools.elearningmag.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Mark (2003).com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. April.clomedia.com/showArticle. E-Learning for short attention spans. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. http://www. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. and Bersin. Kevin (2002). Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. Transform Magazine. J. August 2004.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. (2004). Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Chief Learning Officer. Jennifer (2004). Extreme Learning: Decision Games.

Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. http://download. January 16.clomedia. Macromedia White Paper.pdf Shepherd. Learning Circuits. The Training Foundation online article. Mobile and Device Based Learning. http://download.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry.macromedia.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. http://www.htm Masie Center (2005).learningcircuits. 2005.pdf Macromedia Inc. Macromedia White Paper. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.trainingfoundation.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. June 2004. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.com/news story. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.pdf Mayberry. Ed (2004).elearningguild. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. http://www. April 20.com/articles/ default. (2004b). 2006.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Clive (2006). Stephanie (2006). Eric (2003).com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. http://www. February 2005. http://www. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Nick (2005).asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.macromedia. Learning Solutions.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.com/content/templat es/clo_article.trainingpressreleases. http://www. Simulation. http://www. (2004a).clomedia. Chief Learning Officer.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. January 2003.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 . Press release.

Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. http://mindstorms.whmsi.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. for underwater exploration.nasa. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. technology. and mathematics.botball.active-robots. engineering. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. Do Not Reproduce 196 .au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. technology. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. and math. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.lego. engineering.org/aboutbotball/overview.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.aad. http://www. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.gov. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.ife. Inc. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. http://robotics. http://www. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.com/ http://www.

nasa. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. particularly robotics. By donning motion sensors. and mathematics.microworlds.org/article. technology. http://robothaven. go to: http://www. and vocal tics.ri.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.irc. http://www.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.edu/~sklar/e r/edu. lip movements.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.ams.kipr.osaka-u.edu/index.com/r_home.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.atr.cuny. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. engineering. http://robotics.net/ Run by NASA.sci. http://www. http://www.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.rec.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.brooklyn.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.cmu.ed. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.ac.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.eng.evolution.euron.gov/rcc/index. It features news. http://www. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. Find out more about this group at: http://www. and other information on robotics. Mr.jp/ See also: http://www.profetic. one child at a time. Do Not Reproduce 197 . links.edurobot. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.

fhbrandenburg. M. Paper at the American Assoc. J.pdf Boersch. Sept. and Mataric. (2004). and Rusbridge. H. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. June. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. (2001).. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. (1980).l3s. Yanco. A. M.andrew. Meeden. November.digicult. Germany. and West. M.uml.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Keating.... (2005). Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. http://zeus. Kumar. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. AAATE Conference 1999.. Harwin. T. A.. P. and Meeden.tools for accessible education.pdf Ferrari.brynmawr. S. and Powerful Ideas.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics. G.cmu. (2004). Ferrari.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Heinsohn. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. and Dautenhahn. (2004). http://www. D. and Wagner. Abbott. H.. I. Basic Books. D. H.amazon.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Ontario. D. D.l3s. New York.. (2001).de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. I. Proceedings. http://www. http://www. Artificial Intelligence Conf. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. and Loose.amazon. R.. http://rob. D. R.. 28-30.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education.wtec. L.cs.. and Hempel. Kumar.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. http://www.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. B. D. Robots in the classroom . Miller. http://www. Düsseldorf. (1999). U..pdf Cooper. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). M. Germany.pdf Stewart. Ottawa.ccmlab.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. W. http://dangermouse. Dobreva. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Sept.pdf Blank. (2004).. New York: Syngress Publishing. Computers.pdf http://www. Donnelly. K. Hohmann.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 .pdf Nourbakhsh..pdf Papert. (2005). http://www. Mindstorms: Children. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. L. S. and Yanco. C. McHugh. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Lathan.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank. M. D. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education.

Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. each with their own defining feature sets.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. Do Not Reproduce 199 . Ezzy (2006a. One is the problem of finding relevant. Meta–search engines. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. Examples are Google and Overture. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. which submit queries.so they take the structure of the Web into account. Web directories. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. federated search. dependable information. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines.examples are early yahoo. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. collective intelligence. information retrieval. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. such as Yahoo. as this section of the report shows. collaboration.com and Alta Vista. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . search engine optimization. While search engines have improved over the past several years. meta-search engines. a rich user experience. resource discovery. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. But. in parallel. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. such as Google and Altavista. data mining. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content .” The first type searches the Web as it exists. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. They bring into the equation user preferences.

then fill in the search box. http://www. get answers http://www.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. http://www. and text. for a variety of reasons. http://search.gada.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. 2004).com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.answers. http://www.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.aol. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.com About. http://www. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines.com/ 200 © 2006.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources.about. video.alltheweb. http://www. http://www.alexa.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://www.convera.ask. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. http://www. http://www.faganfinder. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon.com Gada. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. Brandon Hall Research .com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).gigablast. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.com/ Answers. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.com’s search service http://a9.altavista.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.aeiwi.

http://getoutfoxed. http://www. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.squidoo.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. http://www. blogs.icerocket.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears.grokker.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://search.com/ Gravee . http://www.umdl.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.gravee. http://www. http://www.gnod. http://dmoz.google.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www.lexxe. http://channels.looksmart.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. Brandon Hall Research .jookster. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.umich.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www. http://www.qelix.hotbot. http://qube.netscape. http://www.com/ 201 © 2006. http://www. http://oaister. http://search.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.mooter.com/v2/index.msn. and the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://rollyo.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/search/def ault.pubsub.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.otavo.

gov/ http://www. http://icerocket. http://www.healthfinder.blinkx.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.ist. http://www.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. books.ucr. http://swicki. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. and movies.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.gpoaccess.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://firstgov.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www. http://vivisimo.stumbleupon. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://citeseer.sri. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://infomine. http://www.com/v2a/flash.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.acronymfinder.psu.com/ 202 © 2006. Much of this information is hidden from view.gnoosic.ujiko. http://tagjag. http://scholar.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .google.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. http://www. http://www.govmine. http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules. Wink then diplays the results.com/ Wink – Using social networking.eurekster. reviews. http://froogle.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.wink. http://books. http://www.Clusters results.google.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.imdb.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.yahoo.ai.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.google.

IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.f cgi QBIC .fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. AwesomeLibrary. http://portal. http://kids.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.scirus.nlm.acm.ibm.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www.imdb.com/ Last.convera. http://www.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.com/ MediaFinder . Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. http://www.A legal search engine. ArtKIDSRule.rawsugar.cfm?doid=105 6808.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. http://www.almaden.nih.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://lawcrawler.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.liveplasma. http://www. http://www.rrzn.gov/entrez/query.ncbi.com/ LitLinker .Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. Brandon Hall Research .merl.org/citation.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers.krugle.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.findlaw.org/ Omgili .The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. reviews. http://www. Yahooligans.ithaki.omgili.last. http://wwwqbic. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www. AolKIDS. http://www. http://www.fm/ LawCrawler .koders.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.pandora. http://www. & KidsClick!.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006. FactMonster. http://www.uni-hannover.

truveo.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://nlp.nyu. http://wang16.ee. http://www.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. and their relationships.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.columbia. http://www.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.soundspotter. bookmarks. http://www. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www. http://www.psu.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://a9.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. http://www.cs.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.seekport.psu.” Content-based search engines for pictures.zoominfo.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.ist.com 204 © 2006.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web. http://www.4 billion links. Known as “meta-search” engines. and notes. http://techsearch.searchedu. http://www.columbia.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.ee.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.technorati.ee. or federated searching. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.xcavator. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://smealsearch1.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.searchking. companies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .cmp.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://www. as of this writing. and tracks a user's search history.

pictures.ithaki. weather. city guides.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www.copernic.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. audio.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.kartoo. apartment rentals.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. shopping sites.info.ixquick. health information sources. lottery results.intute. Brandon Hall Research .trovando. http://www.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. classifieds. http://www.zapmeta.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. flights. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.uk/ SearchTools.com/ 205 © 2006. dating and personals.searchtools.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. eBay.dogpile. white pages.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. news sources. http://www. http://www. video. yellow pages. is a valuable resource for researchers. http://www. and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://clusty. produces a visual display of the clusters.ac.search. greeting cards.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. therefore. maps/directions. jobs. http://www. movies.researchbuzz. tickets.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://vivisimo. hotels. http://www. and links the clusters.com/ Info – Searches reference works.inria. http://www. http://www-rocq.net/indexu. games.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. including a set of international telephone directories. http://www. http://www.

or swicki.co. (2005). http://infomine. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. First Monday. Brandon Hall Research .searchenginecolossus.firstmonday.downes.ucr. Y.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.. A. http://www.elearning. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. This search engine. http://searchenginewatch.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.ac. http://www. Users can also browse by subject category. and Shoham.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. S.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. or topic . http://www.just as a search engine is used for text. is against the idea of federated searches.citysearch.com/ Stephen Downes. 10(12). focused searches on topics they care about. the user's community has total control over the results.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. http://firstgov.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. can be published on the user's site. December. Frank. http://swicki.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.gpoaccess.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. Unlike other search engines.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index.netmasters. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.bolton.eurekster.html 206 © 2006.ac.gov/ http://www.tveyes. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. For example. phrase.

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Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2

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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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USA. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. and Woukeu. August 2. The Semantic Web.pdf Shirky. and Gouarderes.soton.pdf Tao. H. S. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. D.pdf Tane.pdf Samaras. Wagner.com/login/sign up. http://www. 7 (4).pdf Sampson.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Staab. Paper presented at the GLS conference. Nov.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. Marketing Profs.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. Schmitz. http://www. M. H. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. E. Syllogism. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.aifb. Greenwich.. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks.. P. R..inria. G.pdf Updegrove. F. Woukeu. http://www. http://www. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. CT: Manning. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. Networks. December 3.unikarlsruhe. New York. A. G. L. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. and Studer. 2003. Millard.pdf Tao. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.amazon.ac. 26-28. http://eprints. http://www.shirky. http://wwwsop.dcs. and Stumme.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.infoworld. (2004).info/journals/7_4/5. and Worldview. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. John (2004).asp?source=/5/updegrove1. (2004). eLearning based on the Semantic Web. G. May 17–22. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference.uk/selene/reports/D el3. Andy (2005). 2004. C. K.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.bbk.ecs. and Davis. A. http://www.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Christodoulou.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. Millard.ac. New York. L. http://www.ifets.asp Udell. 7. Thomas (2004). F. Karenos. and Diaz. Lytras. 2005.. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. G. (2005)...fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. J. (2003). Economics and Culture..uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. (2001). D. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. D.bcs. (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 213 . 2004. Clay (2003). InfoWorld. Davis..marketingprofs.html Stojanovic. http://ewic. http://www2004.. (2005).

http://www.ac.guardian. (2003).html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.co. Scott (2005). January 17.981948.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. June 14.html Wilson.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. Peter (2003). Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. 2003. trust. http://www. David (2002). Darwin. June 21. Online article. http://www. Semantic Web. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. 2005. and the Semantic Web.uk/elearning/ story/0. Scott (2002). http://poorbuthappy.10577.darwinmag. CETIS Online article. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. http://education. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Online article. Who said that? Metadata.00.cetis. B.w3.ac.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . 2002. Scott’s Workblog. and Miller.cetis.com/read/swiftkick /column. L. http://www.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).

pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. i. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2005). This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. http://cave. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.icherubini.gov/ Winters et al. http://www. but information about it remains on the Web.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.” My first report in this series.uiuc.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.calt. especially ones set by themselves. learn. http://sos. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market. http://www.insead.e. Do Not Reproduce 215 . microworlds.calt. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.ncsa.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.insead.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.noaa. role-playing. reviewed simulations as an online content format. participants will be motivated to evaluate. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. games. It was decommissioned in 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. According to High (2004). See a variety of such projects at: http://www.

edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.geo.lsa.calt. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.fsl. and Mac OS X.umich. and murmurs.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.calt. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting. http://www.making-history.calt. http://www. http://www.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.umich. Do Not Reproduce 216 .ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education." http://www.edcenter.insead.edu/geowall/ind ex. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. http://crme.net/celestia/index.dc.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.berkeley.insead.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.edu/harvey_about.shatters..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. breathing.med. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. http://www.insead. However.calt.edcenter.noaa. http://www.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning.insead.miami.sdsu.sdsu. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. http://www. Mass. http://www. It runs on Windows.edu/ http://um3d. http://geowall. heart sounds. http://thinkertools.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. Linux.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. they are only available for Macintosh computers. with many examples to try. http://www.soe. pulse rate.

create courses specifically on using computer software.ht m Intermezzon .Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. http://www.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .adobe.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma .ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.knowledge-director.com/ Forio . http://www. For example.knowledgepresenter. http://www. without programming knowledge. http://www.com/ MaxIT .maxit.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. http://www.experiencebuilders. http://www.com/broadcastoverview.atghome.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/ Knowledge Planet .net/ Biographix .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse. http://www.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .adobe. http://www.forio. Integrates with many media types.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.knowledgequest.stt-global. http://www.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www.maxit. http://www.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.asp Knowledge Quest .assima.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.knowledgeplanet.virtualfishtank. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. to play in a virtual fishtank.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.intermezzon. http://www.com/ MaxIT .com/ Kookaburra Studios .STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.com/product s/firefly. go to: http://www.ISLE .biographix. http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 . http://www.

virtualcontrolroom.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.nexlearn.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.outstart. http://www. http://www.reusableobjects.qarbon.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index.com/product_r pe.com/ Reusable Objects .htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . which can then be used to build simulations. http://www. http://coe. http://www. http://www.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .learning2005.sdsu. http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.teds.com/3dTraining. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.stagecast.stottlerhenke.xstreamsoftware.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.com/products/sim. http://www. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.” http://www.co.com/portal/index. http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning.percepsys.elearningcentre. http://www.icherubini.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. including simulations.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.

. How playing power drives lessons home. F.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.com/content/template s/clo_feature. Clark (2005).com/news/showS tory. Jennifer (2004).htm High. http://www. Aug. A. Utrecht. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.learningcircuits. http://www. http://www. 8. http://www. Making the most of software simulations.htm Aldrich. (2004). DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www. http://www.pdf DeVries. T. Six criteria of an educational simulation.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training.eschoolnews.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.medialabeurope. In Interaction Design and Children. http://www. Learning Circuits.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005).org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook.uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Learning Circuits. Shannon (2004). 2004. http://www. and Wilensky.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. Taghiyareh. 2002.pdf Cherubini.. 12. computer games. September. Chief Learning Officer. June. October 2004.. San Francisco: Pfieffer.clomedia. Gash. Learning Circuits.html Do Not Reproduce 219 . Kamau (2004). 2004. p. M.learningcircuits. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Financial Times. (2005). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.amazon.htm eSchool News (2004). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. Feb. Bjorn (2004).cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. International Workshop.ft. Holland. html Bibliography Aldrich.jibc. and McCloughlin. U. http://www. B..htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. A.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. The promise of online simulations..PDF Blikstein. J. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Sept. Clark (2004). (2002). http://www.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. H. P.learningcircuits.uva. Paper presented at Robocup conference. A. 2004.bc. eSchool News. Simjour.ac. 4.bbk.science. and Bostan. Rasmussen.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.blikstein. http://www. http://www. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Mazloumian.

icherubini.simplay.. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.. 17. http://www. J. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.pdf Tjaden.projects. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. N. A. M. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.uc. Florida.. http://www.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. http://www.ncassr.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 .pdf Turkle. Online paper at: http://lsm. & de Jong. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.html Winters.prospect.ac.protonmedia. Aaron (2005).com/protonMEDI A_white_paper. http://www. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Learning Circuits. Les (2004). and Strohecker. Implementation and Evaluation.for Philosophers and Engineers.cs. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge. Mar. July. (2001). 8(31). Viswanathan. A.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Laser. Sherry (1997). C.ht m Sloman. Cherubini. (2004).org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. http://www. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .dei. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. A. (2001).it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.learningcircuits. USA. Department of Computer Science. M.. Montréal.case studies.html Sobeih.bham. The American Prospect. October 15-19. and Ip. A.pdf Swaak. and Hou. Online report. Fort Lauderdale. http://itdl. 284-294. L. R. T.html Linser..pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. Computer simulations in distance education. and Sund Martin.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. (2003). 1997. April.html Lunce.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer. October. September. http://www. J. http://www.-Apr. Gary (2003). Simulation levels in software training. (2002).. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. 1(10). AACE conference. In Association for Computing Machinery.net/papers/ELearning.

Do Not Reproduce 221 . 2005). RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. especially in museums and for outdoor education. optical tags. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. They are programmable and. infrared (IR) tags. RFID technology is developing rapidly. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers..ala. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. therefore. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.org/Template.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. While controversial. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. especially for tagging retail items in stores.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. For a full discussion of this issue. grease. easily changed. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. or water. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. which transmits over short distances. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. http://www.

Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://uitspress.. Noda.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.. C.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. (2005).csmonitor. http://www.rfidnews.com/monthly/articl e. (2004). Oct.org/ Bibliography Borck. and Case. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. http://www.org/newdl/index. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. http://www. 5..iu. (Eds. & Kondo.toydirectory. http://www.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 . A. 2005. Shibuya.checkpointsystems. In Kommers. T.ac. S.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. G. April 13. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x. http://www.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. A. P.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Noma. James (2006).edu/102605_meal. in a 2005 online article. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.cfm?fus http://www. http://www.aace. Osawa.).html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly.html (Online). http://www.. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. symbology tags. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. especially for tagging retail items in stores. K. http://cnm.” http://vis.edu/index. K.. Ando..org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader. N. 2004.aace.digicult. Infoworld.infoworld.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.iu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.com/default .pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. June 27..open.. Tsukagoshi. & Richards.msu.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.

(2005). adoption and innovation. M. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.66 Ward. G. and Yano. M.pdf Robinton. March.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal. Y. (2006). H..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc.toydirectory. and Dobreva. January 1. http://www. standards.asp?id=1222 Ross..cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602. R. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. RFID: frequency. eSchool News Online. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.com/monthly/article . S.digicult..xml&DOI=10. http://www.2005. Masters Thesis.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 . Donnelly. van Kranenburg. http://www. and Backhouse.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc.org/news/showstor y. R.jisc.ac. 2004. Aparna (2004). Corey (2004). DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. http://www.eschoolnews. (2003).computer. M.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. Proceedings. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www. 4(3). http://csdl2. Andrew (2005). RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.1109/WMTE. 261-263.pdf Salcedo. Ogata. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. TD Monthly. Michigan State University.msu.

The result is something called a tag cloud. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations.” However. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. or distributed in emails. as each member can upload resources discovered. faculty. For example. printouts. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. metadata. search.us) post their favorite Web sites. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.icio. music.First. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Do Not Reproduce 224 . while users of the del. they act as an “outboard memory. tagging. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. Fifth. Students. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.us Web site (http://del. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. As of April 2006. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. in turn. For instance. and books. no matter their location or timing. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. researchers at all levels (students. ontologies. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. Flickr held over 100 million images.icio. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. Third. Fourth. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. and Web links. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. Second.

org/ Consumating . rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. http://www.furl. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com Clipmarks . http://blogmarks.digg. users submit stories for review.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. search. http://consumating.com/ Del. Also. and organize the academic papers they are reading.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. http://www. http://www. or check out what everyone wants to do. and search for a specific user's Blinks. store.com/ Blinklist . http://www.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. Do Not Reproduce 225 .us/ Digg .icio. They can save references. http://www.com/archives/beta_up date/index.com/ Furl .metafilter. http://del.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. but. sort.connotea.citeulike.feedmarker. http://www. share their stories. the users decide. get inspired. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. With digg.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. RSS.net/ CiteULike .A free service to help academics share.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.blinklist. and to share them. search others’ references. users can see what others are Blinking. describe. and share photos with others. share references with colleagues.43things.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. Blink also provides tools to sort. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink.icio. and/or books and find them again.us . Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. blogging. http://ask. and non-hierarchical editorial control. http://blog. connect with others. music. Also retrieve it easily.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.eventful. http://www. http://flickr. http://www.clipmarks.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.com/ Flickr – Store.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.

simpy. or enter new items and tag them. http://www.A free.html Linkroll . and discover relevant links.com/ Project Pad .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .netvouz. http://ma.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. http://www.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.linkroll. http://www.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. http://www.jookster. http://www.search. http://www.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.gnolia.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.yahoo.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.com/ Kaboodle . Tags can be shared or kept private.org/news.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.kaboodle.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.pageflakes. http://projectpad. http://www. http://www.eu/products/networ k_menus. based on what is happening in the news media.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://www. updated in near real time.edu/ppad2 /index.spurl.netscape. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www.com/ Magnolia . similar to Digg.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://www.rojo.memeorandum.com/ Jots . http://www.shadows. http://jots. share.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.northwestern.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.networkltd.com/ Simpy – Search tags. http://myweb2.smugmug.

com/index. http://www. http://weblog.html http://atomiq.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 . Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.suprglu.A.infoworld. http://tabblo.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.S.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.html http://tagsonomy. http://www.veotag.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. http://www. http://www. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.com/archives/00055 8.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.” http://www.icio.us.yelp. and Digg. If a city is not there. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. http://www.org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup.zvents.icio.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. and share it with others.us. tags.educause.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www. http://upcoming.tagzania.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell. http://www. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.quickonlinetips. http://www.peterme. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.wink.quickonlinetips. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.quickonlinetips. http://unalog.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.com/udell/gems/d elicious.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://www. with contributions from users.html http://www. and social bookmarking.com/ SWiK .com Wists – A social shopping site. Flickr.wists. http://swik.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001.

00. http://searchcio. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.com.php Lund.com/originalCo ntent/0. T. Shamus (2006). http://ideant. Hammond.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. (2005).corante. Lund. M.sid19_gci1195182. S. April 2005. Flack.html McGillicuddy. B. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.fasfind. Brandon Hall Research .shtml Golder.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. March/April 2006. (2005). Adam (2004).typepad. Hannay. http://www.dlib.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. http://tomgruber. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. http://dlib.” http://magazines. http://www.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. 41(2).ejournal. SearchCIO. http://many. http://www. 2005. 2006. 2.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines..html Lawley. http://www. Social consequences of social tagging.pdf Gurber.plasticbag. Plasticbag.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. 2006. Keynote address.com/wwwtools/m /6350. Tom.adammathes. Bryan (2006). Online paper. B.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.org/teachersource/learning . T.pbs. 11(4). J. D-Lib Magazine. T. and Hannay. April 2005.289142. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). http://www. HP Labs Report. 2005. Many2Many. May 5.. June 21.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. T. Liz (2005).hp. Sept.techtarget.hpl. and Huberman.html Mathes..educause. (2005). (2005).ht ml Mejias. 20.. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.ascc. B.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Jan. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. 11(4).com/wwwtools/m /7172. Ulises (2004). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Web 2. D-Lib Magazine.. Andy (2006).htm Hammond. Tom (2005). Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.fasfind. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.org.html Coates. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge..pdf 228 © 2006. and Scott.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.

2004.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Ideant.typepad. Jon (2004). Nicholas (2004). Jon (2005). 2005.isi. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. http://www.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. Will (2005). July 20. http://www. 2005. 2005.html Do Not Reproduce 229 .com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Webblogg-ed.html Mote. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Aug. 2.infoworld. May 20. Tags vs. http://www. August 20.infoworld.com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. InfoWorld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias. The New School of Ontologies.weblogged. http://www. Tag mania sweeps the Web. http://ideant. Ulises (2005).html Udell.pdf Richardson. InfoWorld. Trusted Sources. Online Paper.

Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. etc.” that is. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. etc. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. family. e-mail. Do Not Reproduce 230 . connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. 2005).al. online personals such as Match. photo albums. shared link libraries such as del. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. My first report in this series. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. reviewed social networking as an online content format. Friendster. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging. dating sites. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. social networking sites such as Friendster.us. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. e-mail. shared links.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration.) Relationship Management (Orkut. social software. photo sharing sites. communities of practice.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. SMS.) Experience Sharing (blogs.icio. tagging. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.com.com. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. etc. etc.

http://www. as a blog. http://www.livejournal. http://www.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.facebook. Facebook has networks for colleges.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.” http://www.diaryland.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. which is then open to other readers.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.linkedin.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. List who a person knows and find out who others know. http://www. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. Do Not Reproduce 231 .codeville.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.com/signin/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. http://www.intronetworks.com/introNetwor ks. http://www. or as a social network.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.freeopendiary. photos.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. and geographic regions. Share it with others if desired. high schools. http://www. Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.faceparty.com/ Live Journal . video.com/ Orkut . http://www. and within “communities of interest. https://www. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. audio.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. workplaces.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. documents.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.myspace.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. http://www.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.classmates. http://www. work.last. http://www. https://www. http://www.friendster.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. and files and then make them available to others. and the military. in associations. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.esnips.my-diary.html Last.orkut.

http://www.html 232 © 2006.S. http://platial.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that. intelligence (1993-2001). http://www. coupled with NetDraw.com/hijackers. see the JNthWeb Wiki. Users share their writings and meet each other.com/inflow3.spartasocialnetworks.” http://www. Columbia University. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.analytictech.orgnet.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.orgnet.netminer.typepad. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.html Org. http://www. upload photos.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.pbwiki.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U. check out the map at org.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. Brandon Hall Research . http://360.stumbleupon.orgnet.com/index. This software produces great graphs of social networks.com/index. http://www. http://www.pbs.com/ucinet. http://www.xanga.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. http://ideant.yahoo. http://www.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/reg/sample.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software. It costs several thousand dollars. http://www. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://jnthweb.analytictech.

http://en.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. http://www.usemod.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. http://www.insna.org. Educational Social Overlay Networks. Nov. 28.co.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo. OD Practitioner.elsevier.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction. 2004.odnetwork. http://www1.wikipedia.html Anderson. http://www.jsp SocioSite: Networks.pdf Bibliography Allee.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu. http://www.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.theworkfoundation. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice.com/xq/asp/sid.futurelab. http://www. but..edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. May 2003.edublogs. 32(4). KM and the Social Network.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites.socialtext. http://www.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://www.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites. http://www.html Allen.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al.lifewithalacrity. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://faculty.kmmagazine.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking.elearningcentre.net/ssa/index.fmg.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam.uva.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 . http://www2. 13. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Oct. Patti (2003). Groups. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis..ucr. http://terrya. Christopher (2004). Verna (2004). Virtual Canuck. see the list in Wikipedia.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. Terry (2005).analytictech. Knowledge Management Magazine.com/cgibin/mb. Life with Alacrity. 2005. http://www.

Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration.com/article2/0.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. (2002). A. Research Report. Dead Already? PC World. Winter 2002. June 2002. Christian (2006). and Prusak.downes. OLDaily.com/mr/hbsp. MA.analytictech. (2004). R. L. http://harvardbusinessonline. (2002).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. Stowe (2003a).. You Don't Know Me. Darwin. Are you ready for social software? Darwin.1 648185. A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Distance and E-Learning.pcmag. http://www. but. 2004 http://www. S. 2005. 14. 44. Cracking the social code.darwinmag. Linked: The New Science of Networks.html Cross.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. Harvard Business Review. July 12. January 2004. Social Capital & Social Software. Darwin.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes. R. A. http://www.com/read/010104/ context.pdf Cross.com/read/050103/ social. and Parker.. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. J.1759. California Management Review.asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. http://doi. 11.theworkfoundation. September 2003.jsp Downes.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. http://www. John (2004). Stowe (2003b). L. Borgatti.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. Stephen (2005).org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.harvard . R.eurodl. Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. The Work Foundation.hbsp. Perseus Publishing. (2002). http://www.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. Cambridge. http://www.downes. Cambridge.darwinmag. Vol.htm Davies. No.com/read/090103/ social.darwinmag.hbsp. Business Networking Systems. L. Stephen’s Web.. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd.html Dvorak.j sp?doi=10. http://www.ca/files/osn. William (2003). May 2003. The Semantic Social Network. Feb.contentdirections. http://www. and Weiss. Feb. Stephen (2004). http://www. September 20.1225/R0503H Cross.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main. (2005). and Parker..harvard . European Journal of Open.. http://www. R.html Boyd.00. Harvard Business Review. MA: Harvard Business School Press.amazon. A.ca/cgibin/page. http://harvardbusinessonline. Liedtka. March 2005. 2.html Boyd.

amazon. Malcolm. Social Networks. Allan (2006). Feb.ed. August. UK: Futurelab. Institute for Social Science Research. 2006. Zucker. http://www. (2006). M.com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel. D. Southhampton. CA: University of California. How to Save the World Blog.salon.learningcircuits. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. July 14.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Caroline (2005). A. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. No. (2005).cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen.pdf Pollard.. MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. Grant. J. Online paper. R.. & Barney. and Brewer (1994).. Oliver.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 235 . http://asn. (2000). Bristol. Sayers. and Riddle. (Online book). http://repositories.pdf Levine.pdf Jordan. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. S.h tml (Review) Gladwell. 15. http://www..ac. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning.net/AugmentedSocial Network. and Facer. Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. A. L. (2001). S. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. 8(8). First Monday.wun. Brown.learningcircuits. Social Software and Learning.org.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. CogDogBlog..edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. Ulrike. http://faculty. Introduction to Social Network Methods..htm http://www. Eva (2003).org/cgi/viewconte nt. Learning Circuits.org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan. (in 2 parts) http://www.cdlib. Art (2003). M. J.planetwork.net/ir/reviews/revs163. 2005. http://www. Social software in action (No real software required).htm Kleiner. April 15. K. (2004). David (2005a). Research Report. Research Report. http://cogdogblog. Hauser.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite. and Foster.com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind. (2003).uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te. (Eds. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Lanham. http://blogs. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources.). http://lrs.netform.futurelab. Seven Principles of Social Networking. 21. Dec. 2005.com/html/s+b%20arti cle. K.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. L.uiuc. New York: Little.ucr. Riverside. 29.

(1998). http://www. Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). http://informatics. http://blogs.ht ml Sessums. D. and Werdmuller. March 9. 2.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. 2005.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. Luis M. G. Jan. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. pp.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. 2005. June 16. 2003. 341-358. Scott. Aug. 2006. 2005. http://www. http://elgg. Salthe.salon. Christopher (2006b).com/writings/group_poli tics. http://blogs.shirky.1 842806. Learning Circuits.asp Wood.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe.pdf Ulanoff. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web.h tml Shirky. Lance (2005).com/0002007/2005/1 1/02.00. 2006. 2005. How to Save the World Blog. David (2005d). B.html Do Not Reproduce 236 . http://blogs.html Pollard.). http://elgg.firstmonday. How to Save the World Blog. Social network analysis: what to map.pcmag.sagepub. (2004). Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet.net/csessums/weblog/6238.html Ravid. Thousand Oaks.h tml. http://www. Elgg: Community Learning Space.com/booksProdDesc. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. http://eradc. Draft paper online. and M. Nov. In: S.cnet. http://www. Social Software presentation. 9(9). September. CNET.net/csessums/weblog/13748. 8. Rescuing social networking. and Raefali S. 2005.salon.htm Tosh. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems.salon.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. June 2. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. John (2000). May 5.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. Nov.Organization. Teaching. Aug. CA: Sage Publications. Christopher (2006a). George (2005).indiana. Kluwer Academic Publishers.com/article2/0. 11.edu/rocha/ises. http://www.html Siemens. Delpos (eds. Clay (2003).html Pollard. David (2005b). Van de Vijver. Learning and Computing. Social Network Analysis. Molly (2005).learningcircuits. 23. Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self. http://www. Connectivism: learning as network creation. David (2005c). How to Save the World Blog. The social networking landscape. (2005).1895. G. Social software and the politics of groups. First Monday.

” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. just like during a real meeting.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. 2001. "online" or "offline") of other users. presentation tools. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. retrieving. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. another person while communicating via the Web.html http://www. and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. share files and documents. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. Do Not Reproduce 237 .html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. as if they were in the same room.hp. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. and shout over each other to try to be heard. In 2000. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. are also available.com/halo/index.g. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. http://www. 2001). Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them.. presence. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings. cameras. When it is fully successful. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. 11. and the sense of contact with. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus.hp. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments.” but other more elaborate technologies. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence.

The driver sits in a box.dmem. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.org/teleimmersion2. in every sense. at a physically remote real world site.uk/ind ex.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.percro. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. http://get.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://www. BSD. http://www.open.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.ht ml http://www. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.jabber. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .ibm. MacOS X.ebuddy. http://www. the CAVE. a communication link between the home site and a remote site.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute.fakespace.ac.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.' http://cnm.unizar.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. http://www.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. http://messenger.aim.advanced. and Windows.advanced. secure.net/ Jabber – An open.yahoo. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.ac.org/teleimmersion.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. http://telepresence.sourceforge." http://www.com/index.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. http://www. http://www-142.live. This would enable the user to experience being fully present.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.strath. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. http://gaim. http://laimuz.

M.nada.virtual-presence.txt Knudsen. http://www.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. and IJsselsteijn. Davide. Do Not Reproduce 239 . Amsterdam: IOS Press. J.amazon.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd. S. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. C. Online memo. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. A. Presence applications poised for takeoff. McHugh.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. Naeve. and Handberg. A. (2002). Being There: Concepts. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. Hubert (2001).. Donnelly. C. Alberta.acs.pdf Knudsen.se/pdf/CID-206.networkworld. John (2004).com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.nada. Wired News.ietf.org Bibliography Dreyfus..pdf Fontana. 6. (2001). The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.ieor. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Calgary. In Soldek. L. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. W. On the Internet. D. http://www. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. MA: MIT Press. http://www. http://www.) (2003). Network Working Group (2000).pdf When it is fully successful. http://www.kth. as well as news.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence. Dobreva. http://www.com/news/culture/0.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Nils (2000). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.org/rfc/rfc2779.pdf Lynn.amazon..digicult. (Eds. (2005). and Pejas. http://cid.html Riva. London: Routledge. June 1.. Ken (Ed.kth.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society. Ins and outs of teledildonics. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). September 24..) (2000).berkeley.wired. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. (Eds. Abbott. and Naeve. Regina (2004). J. A. Banff. Sept. A. G.hig. 44-49. http://www2.65 064-0. Network World. M. Cambridge. January 2005.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. history. 2004. F. http://www. http://kmr. and Rusbridge. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.html Goldberg. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.no/at/nmm/enlund. 2002..

swedishlearninglab. H.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1. 28. L. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.infoworld. In Hoyer. Jon (2005).html Do Not Reproduce 240 . C.. http://www. http://www. (2001). et al.modes. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.org/docum ents/Sponberg. InfoWorld.pdf Udell. Germany: Hagen. (Eds.Learning. H. and Handberg. Knudsen.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. Jan.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.

television. Once video goes on the Internet. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. cell phones. in all its formats. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. video blogging. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. streaming video. bandwidth becomes an issue. IPTV. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Video blogging has become common. in all its formats. Video. amateur and professional video cameras. tlearning. screencasting. vlog Description Video. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. the largest Internet telephone service. even a video plug-in for Skype. vodcasting. Do Not Reproduce 241 . 2002). telepresence. However. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). reviewed video as an online content format. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). is an essential part of learning in today’s world. videocasting. A new version of television. My first report in this series. PDAs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. 2005). Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb.

partners. amateur and professional video cameras.brightcove. see Rocketboom. PDAs. the largest Internet telephone service.uk/index.on2.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. a three-minute videoblog. http://www. http://participatoryculture.rocketboom. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. improves the satisfaction of the client. voice.org/ In 1999.rocketboom. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. It is still going strong at: http://www. or students through a high quality. according to Foroohar (2006). which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.ar/iptv_en.co. and multimedia content to customers.axor. with IPTV.com. even a video plug-in for Skype. http://www.medialogic. See samples at: http://www. the Internet telephone service. Britain's largest telecom firm. cell phones.apple.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.google.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.dfilm. and maintains loyalty. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. http://www. http://www. low bandwidth video stream. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.dmeurope. employees. the “triple play” of video. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. In spite of the limitations. http://www.html Dialcom Networks. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.com/index_about.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://www. http://video. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. As the following examples show.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. video. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .com/default.com For an example of a video blog. BT.

org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. and divide them into chapters or segments.org/ At YouTube.” http://www.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. whether dial-up. and visual resources. cellular. http://www. See examples at: http://www. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.co. https://www.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.” Users can upload video clips for free. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www. http://www. http://eduscapes.dvguru.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. http://vpb. read “Ten video sharing services compared.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. video.hpc. tag them.youtube.com/pressreleas es.google.com/seeds/index.concord.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.com/nara.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.ourmedia. or set-top box.addictingclips. PDA.xstreamengine.veoh.elearningcentre.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. desktop.spider. http://www. For example.navy. http://www.veotag.bittorrent.com Do Not Reproduce 243 .com/ BitTorrent. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://www.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.mil/index.bittorrent. See the current selection at: http://video. http://www.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.

http://www.elearnspace.mefeedia.” http://www. D.masternewmedia. http://www. termed “mobile television. http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere.” http://www.pjb.pdf Bardia.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. P.co. and by tags.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 .uk/files/pdf/1443.org/doing/media.upenn.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.masternewmedia.” http://knowledge.streamingmedia. Pradeep (2004). (2003).edu/articl e.uk/tlearning/contents.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. which users can submit.educause. and Bates. Peter (2003). Online article at: http://www.thinkofit. t-learning Study .500 vlogs organized by popularity. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.iptv-industry.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005. http://www. but business models are fuzzy. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.masternewmedia.” http://www.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.com/article. The site already contains nearly 6.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. by alphabet. http://www. www.com/webconf/video.lsda.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.wharton.org.

com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. Beyond Wireless Broadband. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. and Swenson. C. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. Wi-Max.). The IPTV Revolution.networkingpipeline.com/article. (Ed.) (2002). Friedman. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.usc. G. Brian (2002). The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. In Richards.cfm?fusea . Video Streaming: a guide for icle.pdf tough road deploying IPTV.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle.com/showArt Thornhill. http://www.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. 2005. Campus Technology. (2005).apple.com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.msn. 2005. Luigi (2005a).aace. Telcos face http://www-rcf. http://www. Jonathan. 8-9.org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. http://edmarketing.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. 1.htm IBM (2006).bcr. (Eds. Feb. Changing Channels. Tom (2005). 417-419). Foroohar. University of Missouri. Goldfarb. Manchester.pdf Klass.pdf ction=Reader. M.org/newdl/index.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper. (2003). content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www.pdf http://www. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. http://www. http://www. and Young. Rana (2005). UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Nov. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Robin Good Blog. Networking Pipeline. Luigi (2005b). Asensio. P.amazon. NC: Duke University. http://www.asp?id=7769 Meng.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. Durham. Mon. IBM Institute for Business Value study. June 6. 2. Matthew (2005).).htm Canali De Rossi. 2005. 7. http://www1. L.umist.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi. Brian (2005). Peter (2005). 2005. 2005.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 . S. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.campustechnology.ibm. 2005.masternewmedia.com/id/8018601/si 8. Robin Good Blog. Newsweek (International Ed. April 26.ac. Online paper.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.. discussions and Curtis. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Dec. implications.masternewmedia. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. Wi-Fi.msnbc. Dec.

Creed. desktop virtual reality. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. To do this. By using aspects of game play. skin color. Do Not Reproduce 246 .htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. Near Eastern. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. http://www. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. http://ancient. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. mixed reality. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.net/wiki2/index. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.arts.columbia. and look do not count much in virtual spaces.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. Videoconferencing is not required. inventors. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.futurelab.org. and re-experiencing or re-using past events.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. exchange enabling. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. Exploration and discovery are enabled.ubc. The space is persistent. and storytellers.netofpeers.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. and Religious Studies department. and the aim of the virtual experience. http://www.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines.ca/index. designers. interaction. http://www1.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. simulation.kahootz. Depending on the level of realism achieved.cs. http://solipsis. distributed virtual environments. augmented virtuality.

cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.com/edu/index.activeworlds. https://www.html The U. and the aim of the virtual experience.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time. including education. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.healthdatamanagement.ahds. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). Shape has developed the augurscope.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.opencroquet.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34.epfl. http://vrlab.informationinplace. http://www.ac.secondlife. http://www.ahds.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.shapedc.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.org/highlights/augur.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.spider.hpc. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Do Not Reproduce 247 . http://www.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.html http://vads. http://www.navy. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.com http://www. http://vads. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.org/index.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.ac.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. For example.ac. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. http://www. http://www. http://www.ch/About/about_index.mil/index. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.ergonetz.S.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.equator.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.

G.campustechnology.co.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. T.intuition-eunetwork. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. T.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. 28.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). 2006.learningcircuits. C. http://www.pdf Bouras.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . 24. and Hicks.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. http://www. (2001). http://ru6. Learning Circuits.00.uk/elearning/ story/0.edu/vrel. Sept.htm Bibliography Bouras.coe.ecu. and Tsiatsos. and Tsiatsos.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. http://education..htm Dickey. 27.pdf Hoare. http://ru6.pdf Bouras.guardian. Technology Area .com/article.gr/ru6/publications/898162 4. A. Robin Good Blog. 2004.cti. (2006).org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. August 9. T.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. Eva (2004). The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. 2004. East Carolina University. Research report.1314022. Philopoulos. http://vr. Hornig. Triantafillou. (2001). J.html Jones. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. http://www. 2004. http://www. V. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.. C. Campus Technology. http://ru6. Luigi (2004). Sept. Guardian Unlimited.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3. http://courseweb.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. (2004). e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. 175-199. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.oln.unt. G. and Tsiatsos.cti.10577. Stephen (2004). Michelle (2003). 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. C. http://www. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Dec.masternewmedia.. Trend: augmented reality check. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.cti.

M. and Mangina. Gerard (2002).aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.. M. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Petridis. S.ikg. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 2004.edu. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. http://www. M..pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Vol. 2005. La Coruna/Spain.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.eng. & Sester. M. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Web-based Education 2005 conference. Lister.. 1(2).aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen.org/htmleng/english. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education.digicult. (2005). https://www. C. E..au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.pdf Katterfeld. D.html Liarokapis.. http://www.pdf Ross. M. R. ISPRS. January 2005. 1. P. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. F. F. 35. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.. A.it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen. http://www. Donnelly. and White.actapress.p df Prasolova-Førland.actapress. http://www. and Seyedarabi. International Archives of Photogrammetry.unibo. and Sester. and Rusbridge. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. (Section on Virtual Reality).icc2005. Conlan. Proceedings. T. Proceedings. Abbott. G. No. (2002). (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld.ie/Owen. Web Based Education 2005 conference. (2005). (2004). Ekaterina (2005).com/PaperInfo..pdf McArdle. http://www. M..aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. A.actapress.unihannover. O. C.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. Dobreva.com/Reference.cs. McHugh. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE).monash. http://www. July 9-16.tcd. Bertolotto.elearning.. Monahan. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. P.com/PaperInfo. (2005). Istanbul.

” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. and data rendering. cognitive collage. visualization can represent alternative points of view. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. et al. 2003). Flash. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. reviewed visualization as an online content format. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. 2005). See some amazing demos at: http://www.dpc. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. graphics. mapping. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. data mapping. Finally. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. On the other hand. location based systems. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. images. My first report in this series.inxight. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data. GIS. Do Not Reproduce 250 .edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. data filtering. The educational advantages of visualization are many. pattern recognition. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. allowing for innovation or new understandings. cybercartography. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. geographical information systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. dynamic displays. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future.ucar.

Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.0 as an approach authoring system.bham. For an example. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.alice. http://www.ac. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. such as a blog.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. http://www.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. See: to education. http://www. Free demo at: ew_68. http://www. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub.zoomclouds.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. http://www.esa.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.vrco.com/solutions.ddd.cs.unifiedfield.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. delivery. and display (without glasses!).semagix. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.nih.ubc. whatsoever.nlm.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information. see ZoomClouds. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.ul.utexas.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.esrin. http://www.idc. and will require visualization applications. http://www.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch.vista. allowing 2-D image stitcher.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 . VR.tmm. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www. which showcases their potential.edu/index.html http://www.” http://richie. http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.typorganism. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. Museum Edition. http://www.ontopia.pdf tracking.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.

Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www.indiana.at/home.feedtank. http://www.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.vrvis.nasa. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.” http://www.com/VBody.medibolt.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.skyscraper.edu/ Paul Nixon.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. It has images of space and the earth from space.com/index.cs. See their tool set and examples of their work.marumushi.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . 2004.edu/postcartoaag06. Be sure to explore the “zoo.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.gov/index.mit.bbc.lecielestbleu.”’ BBC News.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.owu.in English or Spanish. http://news. Brandon Hall Research .html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.html 252 © 2006. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. http://www.ontopia. http://makingmaps.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.medtropolis.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.semagix.gsfc.co. http://www.com/solutions. April 7th. http://chatcircles. http://www. http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. http://www.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. Sample the collection at: http://svs.nixlog. a young graphic designer.com Web site in Tokyo.org/timeformations/ intro.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.media.net/omnigator/models /index.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. Sample their efforts at: http://www. http://www.html For a practical application of visualization.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

ambientdevices.spotfire.com/cat/dashb oard/index.vicodi.org/about.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com/omni. for example. at the University of Maryland.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 . including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. retrieval. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.corda. one million items.cs.gfdl. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. http://www.com http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.htm Using time as an added dimension. anatomically detailed.ibm. http://www.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.nih. in the U. http://research. http://clustrmaps.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. See this technology in action.xcelsius.unifiedfield.idashboards.arcscience.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. http://www.umd.amnh.html XCelsius .com/index.microsoft.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. http://www.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.nlm. http://www.mccrackendesign.com/applicatio n.com WorkPlace .com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.http://www.S.com CenterView .html How do users visualize very large data sets. and information presentation.noaa.html Top Tier http://www.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries.

musanim. http://www. http://www.visualanalytics. associations.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. Didger. for 3-D data visualization.timemap.media.com/mam/mam. for well log and borehole plotting. for thematic and analytical mapping. http://www.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. and. http://www.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. http://www.softill.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://tangible. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. http://www.topozone. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. They have worked with the U. networks. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.S.oziexplorer. http://www.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. for 2D and 3-D graphing. MapViewer.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.golden.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://www.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. http://www.microsoft.mit. Grapher.advizorsolutions. http://www.mapinfo. trends.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.com Do Not Reproduce 254 .com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. including the following: Voxler.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.intergraph. Strater. and anomalies in data. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://research.esri.

Carrara.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. http://www. http://www. http://coe.cs. http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 . http://www.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.ac.iu.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.visualcomplexity.” http://vis.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. P.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. modeling.visualthesaurus.daz3d. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. Try a demo at: http://www.masternewmedia.formz. is available online. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.. and rendering software.accurender. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.ubc. animation. http://www.” http://www. for 3-D landscaping and animation.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.sdsu.edu/index.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://www.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. including the following: Bryce.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey. many of which are unique.com/vc/index.liveplasma. for 3-D modeling. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www. and rendering.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.edu/eet/ Ell.agocg.okino.pixologic. Clicking a related term extends the process. Following are two: http://graphics. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.com Pixologic is 2.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.stanford.topicmap. together with their estimated depth of influence.

(2003). pp.htm http://www. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.media.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.gvu. and Woodill. and Shneiderman.infovis.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . Working Paper.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.media.pdf Bertin.amazon. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.gatech.complexityandeducation.ualber ta.com/ http://www. http://www.topicmaps. The Semiology of Graphics. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.editlib.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.gatech. http://www. J. Mackinlay. EXYSTENCE network.istituti. http://acg. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.. Jacques (1967). Paris: La Haye.pdf Bergmann. K.gvu. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. http://www.) (1999). Luca (2003). M. Jacques (1983). (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.net/printRec. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.complexityscience. Sherman (2003). J. Proceedings. Lugano. He finished his PhD. les réseaux. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. (Eds. both visualization companies. J.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. http://www. A. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. http://www.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry..edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. Madison: University of Wisconsin.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. B. http://www. http://www. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. http://www. http://acg. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. G.mit.edwardtufte.vrco. 14(1). Switzerland: University of Lugano. http://www.usilu.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. 1-34.fakespace. and Resetarits.mit. les cartes.edu/research/resea rch.org/index.com/ Bibliography Alpert. 3149 http://www. Paier.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.

http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. A.com/publications. Ruth (2003). June 1. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. (2005). K.org/dl/index.digicult.aace. Donnelly.. (2005).org/Journal/jan_06/article02. 4(1). May/June. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. http://www. http://nivea. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. http://www. 17-30. Arns.ht m O'Regan. (1998). J.org/index. http://itdl. January 2005.campustechnology.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell.cfm/files/paper _5994. (2005). A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.com/articles/abst racts/index. Vol.com/article.educause.univparis5. G. and Bertoline. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.elearningguild. http://www. G.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638. 3(1). Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.K. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes.html Madhavan. A. available online at http://www. EDUCAUSE Review. and Woolsey.html Ross. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. 46: 461-488. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark. http://www. August 11. 42. (2006). J. 16(4).editlib. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 3.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.asp Mittal. L.. Canadian Journal of Psychology. K. Brent (2006). M. (2005). Siggraph. NC: Duke University. Morales. Campus Technology.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. and Knezek. Brian (2002). Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Durham.siggraph. M.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Educational Media International.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. September. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. McHugh. and Pagalthivarthi. Luca (2005).ac.fr/CanJ/CanJ. and Rusbridge. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. (Section on Visualization). S.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.. S. K. 41(3). http://createdrealities. 69-82.pdf Goldfarb. (1992).psycho. C..html Rhyne.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . A. 2005.asp?id=11222 Metros. D. Abbott.amazon. P.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones.. Theresa (1998). No. 329-351. http://www..agocg. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Dobreva.

com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006. (2004). August. CT: Graphics Press. Yvonne (1996). 4th Edition.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.amazon. Spence. B. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. From multimedia to multisensory education. Colin. evidence and narrative. Cheshire. Fall. 2nd Edition. David (2005). Matt (2002). http://www. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. http://www.ciconline. pp. Information Visualization: perception for design.com/tufte/index Tufte.pdf Shneiderman. Edward (1990).E. http://www. Cheshire. David (2002). 185–213 http://www. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Vol. Visualization.indiana. 2nd Ed.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman.com/tufte/index Ware. http://www. Computers. Information Visualization. England: AddisonWesley. Brandon Hall Research . Reading. http://www. http://www.org/threshold Tufte. Mike and Rogers. Envisioning Information. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. http://www. Robert.Visualization Technologies Scaife.amazon.edwardtufte. Edward (2001). Edward (1997). CT: Graphics Press.com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. No.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. http://www.edwardtufte. CT: Graphics Press. M. Amsterdam: Elsevier.slis. 45.edwardtufte.com/tufte/index Tufte. Threshold. 2. (2004).amazon.amazon. Cheshire. (2001). Digital Information Graphics. Sharpe. Harlow.

In the near future. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.jajah. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning.avaya.skype. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. 1996). Using VoIP.infoworld. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.co. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. and a microphone.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. headphones or speakers.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. requiring an Internet hookup. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.envisioninc.elearningcentre. communications tools.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. in remote communities. Internet telephony is relatively simple. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. Internet telephony. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. http://www. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 259 . but it is rapidly improving.

VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.org Bibliography Cherry.org/xpl/freeabs_all. I. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://ieeexplore. http://www..com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. http://www.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. http://www.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .weblogsinc. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. September. Brandon Hall Research .cogs. Stojanov. http://www. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. but it is rapidly improving. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Ottoson. 9-12. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. and O’Droma.pdf Ganchev. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. S. 9(3).org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.ieee. Geraldine (2005). http://llt. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Join the discussion at: http://voip. 260 © 2006.ac. Steven (2005).ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx.spectrum.nald. Meredith (1996). March 2005. Mobile distributed e-learning center.msu.susx.voipreview. Robert (2005). IEEE Spectrum Online. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.ieee.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. M. (2005).

Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. managing. http://news.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.cmu. The entire system.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning. http://www. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. training to do their jobs. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.edu/design/Ion.co. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.checkpointelearning. http://wearables.p df http://www. including wearable computing.ac.ppt In January 2006.ices.bbc. anytime.hubuska. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. weighs less than three pounds. like a wristband or jewelry. For example.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. Selected Examples In Europe. http://killer. including batteries. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 261 .cs.learnexact.bris.

http://www. M. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.jisc. training. C.cs. What you’ll wear in 10 years.org is a rich source of references. M. Wearable Computing for the Commons.eecg. Simson (2004). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://www.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006. http://www.toronto.com/news/culture/0.technologyreview. http://killer.com/read_art icle. (2004).ac. 2004. Brandon Hall Research .eecg.70 481-0.wired.org/index.” including computers built into underwear.edu/ http://wearcam. http://www.704 81-0. http://isd. and Lupisella. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. especially in the area of wearable cameras. http://www. Technology Review (Online).gsfc. http://www.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.uk/index. Mmoma (2006).edu/research/wear ables/index.eyetap.uoregon.mit. S. http://about. like a wristband or jewelry. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. or repairing complex machines.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.com/news/culture/0.ethz. Dec.toronto.html Garfinkel.wearable. and Levene.ices.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.bham.uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.ac. (2003).sportbrain. 1.org/index_graphical. http://www. especially for comercial airlines.edu/design/VuMan.com/Home/Home. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. the automotive industry. 2006.nasa.eee. http://www.media.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.html The design of “smart clothing.wired. March 24. Wired News.html http://www.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. http://www. and other organizations involved in inspecting.cmu. See: http://genesis.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif.org/icwckeynote. S. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. http://www. Fairfax. VA.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Wearable computers that you can slip into. htm Mann. and Niedzviecki. Business Week Online. H. ICWC98. March 8. (2002). Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.amazon. Toronto: Anchor Books. 2005.businessweek. May 12-13.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119. http://wearcam. http://www. Steve (1998). Olga (2005).html Do Not Reproduce 263 . Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.

Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. basic text format for quick review. listings of the latest books. Do Not Reproduce 264 . Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. and laptops. TV guides.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. To read content from a Web feed. blogs. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. feeds. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources.0 format). Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.” as its content is changed by the author. PDAs. this method of finding out what is new is spam free.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. When changes are made to a Web site. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). social bookmarking. job searches. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Instead of having items emailed to you. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. with all the potential for viruses and spam. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. with all the potential for viruses and spam. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. photo collections. podcasts. and Atom is the second. including cell phones. and course offerings. CDs. and electronics.

Sage .rssreader.http://www.videora. RSS Orbit .http://www.pluck.php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .com/ Attensa .com/ Brightcove .com/productBlogExpress. FeedBurner http://www.U.http://www.http://www.http://www.ca/edurss02. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. RSS Software .com/ 5. RSS2Exchange http://www.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www. Reader http://usablelabs.http://www.http://feedbeep. Newsgator Aggie .com tml 2.html http://www.http://gregarius.net/index.com/ http://www.com/rss2exchange/ . Protopage Bloglet .mozilla.puremis.com/today/ http://www.http://bitworking.com 2.com/ 9.com/ 8.com 9.http://sage.com/ BlogExpress 1.newsisfree. OnFolio .rsscalendar.somee.attensa.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.com directory.com/rss/ http://www. StepNewz . Feedster .http://www. Pluck .topix.feedster.rssbandit.com/amphetadesk http://www. NewsIsFree http://www.com/ 0.com Amphetadesk 8. Feed-Directory . Project D.h http://www.feedforall.uk/rssreader/ 7.htm http://www.http://www.com/ .bloglet. Do Not Reproduce 265 .2 7.com/ http://www.com/produ http://neosmart.awasu.net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.6.disobey. Syndirella .com/ http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .sharpreader.http://www. Thunderbird . FeedReader 1. FeedPublish http://www. Feedroll . RSS Bandit http://www.mozdev.http://www. EaZy RSS reader 5.projectdu.html http://www.com/ . Gregarius .blogplanet.com/ Awasu .org/ .feedjavascript.bloglines.com/ 3. Fuzzy Duck http://yole.onfolio.http://www.net/ .com/ http://www.http://www.com 4. feedbeep . RSSReader http://www. each http://www.org/Aggie.newsgator.feedburner.net/dl. Edu_RSS 0.pubsub. Videora .com/myrsstoolbar. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).shtml .protopage.downes.co.com/ 3.com/ http://www.com/ Selected Examples 5.com/feedscout.learningfeeds.hexamail. Rojo .http://www.com/ 6. FeedScout 4.feedreader. 6.ht with its own features.brightcove. PubSub .feedroll.feedpublish.rssreader.http://www. and Atom is the second. Here is a list of 48: ml 7.com/thunderbird/ .rss-to.rojo. LearningFeeds 8.feedzilla. RSSCalendar .com/v2 BlogLines .org/ shtml .bytescout.http://www. RSS-to-Javascript .http://www.http://www.com/ 0. FeedForAll .net/ http://www. Feedtier . SharpReader http://bytescout.fuzzyd.http://feedtier.

2004.php. Bill (2003). Brian Lamb. Read his article written specifically for educators.pdf Canali De Rossi. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www.teachinghacks.vccs. maintains a long list of RSS resources. Dan (2004).ca/edu_rss.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project.masternewmedia. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.Possible Future Evolution. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. RSS could transform online communications. http://www. http://www. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. 31.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. http://careo.maricopa.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).org/blogs/archives/main /000877.eschoolnews.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. http://www.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. http://www.contentious.elearning.redjupiter.ubc.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. 2004.wcc. a blog by Alan Levine.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 . Robin Good Blog. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.com/wiki/doku.php Online Resources Stephen Downes. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .edu/services/rssify/rs sify.dist. 2003. http://www. 3.ca/cgibin/wiki. eSchool News. Oct.com/news/showS tory. To have a blog aggregated.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.elearningguild.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.downes.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. http://timyang. and D’Arcy Norman. http://www. http://www.hebig.htm David. Brian Lamb. see: http://www.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. including listings for various electronic devices.downes. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. eLearning Developers’ Journal.ca/files/RSS_Educ.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.lo. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. May 19. Luigi (2004). Aug.mcli.

BC.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends. http://www.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.html MediaThink (2004). Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. 2003. Lamb.html Do Not Reproduce 267 .mediathink. Mary (2003). Stephen (2002).pdf Gannett. The Shifted Librarian.html Powers. http://technologysource.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Mihai (2006).pdf Parparita.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x. 2005. http://www.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Alexandra (2005).edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine.maricopa.blogspot. March 23. http://www.htm D’Sousa. http://www. June 2004.org/2004/jun20 04/downes. Learning Circuits.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.1. MediaThink White Paper.html?page=1 Udell.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Otherwise Engaged. Vancouver. Jenny (2005). June 18. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. http://www. Namespaced extensions in feeds. 13. http://www.dist.htm Downes.mcli. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. The Technology Source Archives. RSS: the next killer app for education. http://www.oreillynet. A. 2005. 2005. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Version 1.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Aug. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).html Samuel. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. 2006. 2006. Anh (2005). 5-8.learningcircuits. (2003). http://www.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big.alexandrasamuel. D.Web Feeds Downes.usatoday. Using RSS for data integration.htm Harrsch. InfoWorld.. Eva (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.learningcircuits. RSS: the next big thing online. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.downes. RSS Ideas for Educators. USA Today (online).com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. 2005. May 2004. Shelly (2005). Online paper.theshiftedlibrarian. http://www. and Norman. T. and Webb.htm Levine. O’Reilly Network. Google Reader Blog. http://www. B. Aug. Stephen (2004). Quentin (2006). http://www. http://googlereader. July/August 2003. 3.infoworld.xml. Learning Circuits. Jon (2005).com/catalog/syndication feeds/index. University of North Carolina.teachinghacks.oreilly. July 7. Online paper. M.ca/files/RSS_Educ. (2006). Aug. RSS: a learning technology. Sept. 1.

Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.300.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.sourcewatch.net/features.usemod. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. approaches. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. features. http://www. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.org/index. With some basic instructions. 2005). These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. and email notification. and projects.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.org/tiki-index. http://www. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. RSS. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. There are now over 1. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. custom permissions. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. 2.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. http://www. and never finished. can be used by a team for joint writing.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.schtuff. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. 3. Do Not Reproduce 268 . Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. it is important to have several contributors. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.com/ For wikis to work. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. See the progress at: http://edu. time-less. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Anyone can add to it. the software used to run Wikipedia. http://wikipedia. My first report in this series. Content is ego-less. 4. is available for other applications. an image gallery.tikiwiki.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. http://www.wikipedia.com/cgibin/wiki.sourceforge.

and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. an archivist with the British systems. features.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.ubc.learningwiki.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. Twiki.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. http://en. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. “Quickiwiki. http://www. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches. Swiki.html Do Not Reproduce 269 .com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.” is projects.jot.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. http://www.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work.com/cgibin/mb. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. http://radio.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis.dicole. http://www. http://www. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.wikibooks.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. See why it is different.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. http://kairosnews. http://www.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.seedwiki.com/artpdf/GR12. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. http://www. a rich source of information on wikis. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison.gilbane. http://weblog.10.” Essentially.shtml Brian Lamb.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.usemod.infotoday. of the University of British Columbia. http://careo.socialtext. Columbia Archives.infoworld.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.com/ Jon Udell. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. http://flosse. A free trial is available. His article. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. http://www.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki.elearning.Weblogs.

71. Dec. http://64. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. that she updates regularly.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.” http://writingwiki.ucalgary. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. R.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004. http://www. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. Operation of a Large Scale. including wikis.com/wwwtools/m/25242. http://www.fasfind.nu’s first nine months in service.co. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. 5-8. http://aronsson.elearningcentre.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. http://www.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.html Augar. Andrea (2003). including a section on wiki tools. http://whiplash. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. L. http://firstmonday. http://www. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://container. and Zhou.” http://tlc. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. (2002).se/wikipaper. Online paper.educause.48. Teaching and learning online with wikis.ikiw. (2004). Renée (2005).com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.html Ciffolilli.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki.org has lots of resources on wikis. W. Wiki pedagogy. Nov.pbwiki. International Journal of Information Ethics.org. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. Anja (2004).au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. 2.pdf Fountain. 8(12). Perth. Dec. First Monday.ascilite.profetic. Raitman. July.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. N..de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.zkm.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer. Australia.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. http://m. Phantom authority.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 .org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. http://www.

asp Schmitt.shtml Rubenking.. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.pcmag. Lauren (2005). M. Swiki.ac.infoworld.html Stafford. M. http://www.com/artpdf/GR12.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. J. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).Oct. Online article. Ariadne. Wiki Tools. Cossarin. InfoWorld. April 2004.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.html Tomkin.irrodl. Jon (2004).educause.com. http://www.com/cgibin/mb.com/udell/2004/ 10/19. Educause Review.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison.ariadne.html Wood. http://Weblog.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. http://www. T. Online article at PCMag.. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/article2/0. Bo & Cunnin.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. January. 2005. S.uk/issue42/ Udell.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. 12(10).. Searcher. and Webb. http://www.pdf Leuf. Neil (2003). Emma (2005). Clark. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Quickiwiki.. O’Reilly Network. David (2004). Oct. July 7. Sept. 2006.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . and Rudolph. UniversityWiki. (2004). Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. 19. David (2003). Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Richard (2003).00. W. The wiki way. Why Wikis Work Not. Brian (2004). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. 36-48. (2001). http://c2. (2006).amazon.usemod. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. 2004.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. http://www. Making the case for a wiki.oreillynet. http://www.infotoday.4149. April 2003.10. Online article at: http://www. Twiki. L.org/content/v5.14 02872.1/technote _xxvii. http://gilbane. Online article. Issue 42.

I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which. Do Not Reproduce 272 . floppy disks.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. However. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. in turn. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. CD-ROMS. After a product has been successfully launched. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. which can then lead to inventions.

and decline. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. Do Not Reproduce 273 . learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. Ontologies. For a variety of reasons. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. both in classrooms and online. while others will last for decades. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. change itself seems to be inevitable. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. This is due. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. change itself seems to be inevitable. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. peak. in both formal and informal settings. mature. But not all technologies will travel this road. Some will die quickly. in part. or may never become commercially viable. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. ascend the curve. this approach is now rapidly changing. to the complex. In any field. to the complex. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. In any field. some will never leave the development stage. This is due. in part. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. However. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. However. Further.

The speed of change increases with each passing year. mind-altering drugs. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Once we master the art of reading. and personal digital assistants. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. Because of this. means that they actually think differently. mobile phones. libraries. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. 1994). The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. ecological disasters. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. the civil rights movement. The technology of e-learning. the space race. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Brandon Hall Research . 2002. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. 28). people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. The children of the baby boomers. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. born in the 1970s. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. Their children. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. generally went to work earlier. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. 2003). 274 © 2006. video games. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. p. gaming consoles. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. global warming. and computers. terrorism. The experience of younger learners with television. the baby boomers. In contrast. movie theaters. For the older generation. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. In North America. electronic media tends to be on the surface. video games. television.

We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and digital ink and electronic paper. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization.are usually ing paths. in a back-and-forth exchange. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. sex. or violence is needed to keep our attention. For example. creative products. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. commercials. that is all about to change. until we become habituated.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. designers of Sesame Street. the computer. shortly. Within the next five years. Generally. Two hundred years ago. whereby the action of one participant. digitization of smell. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. and the mapping of everything. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. huge data wall displays. wearable computers. Then even more movement. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. In approaching electronic educational media. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. touch and taste. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. portfolios. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. It works for a time. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Likewise. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). However. In the next wave. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. the learner. With feedback. Guides are optional. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. results in an action by the other participant. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. In approaching electronic educational media.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. we will see the restructuring of education and training. Do Not Reproduce 275 . There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. technologies. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. But they are usually disappointed. surprise. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games.

com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.amazon.amazon. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff. Marc. Clayton (1997). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.operitel.com 276 © 2006. New York: Collins. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Douglas (2005).amazon. Digital Game-based Learning. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. Brandon Hall Research . James (1994).com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. http://www. technologies and services for the next 5 years. http://www.amazon. http://www. http://www. http://www. (2001). New York: McGraw-Hill. Texas. Bob (2006). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. May 2006. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Gary (2006). Dallas.amazon.

uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.media.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.nngroup. New York. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.unige.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. 17th Floor.ac.de/link/affective_portal . Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. 1515 Broadway.bartneck.51.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.se/~muse/ho me. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. Box 513. Den Dolech 2 P.mit.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.O.cs.umu.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.myself-proj. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.bham. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Marc Schröder.informatik.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.

O.indiana.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av. Bloomington. 10004-104 Avenue. 1900 East Tenth St. 3400 Hillview Avenue.computer. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. 27A 2º esq. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.ailive. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. L69 7ZF.edu Extempo Systems.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. N.educause. CA 94304 USA http://www. Suite 206 Boulder. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.csc. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.codebaby. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Box 2124 Menlo Park.Portugal Tel.rit. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Palo Alto. Inc. UK http://www. Manuel I.liv. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.informatics. Washington.webist. L69 7ZF. 2910-595 Setúbal .W.extempo.agentlink. Building 5.com Do Not Reproduce 278 .jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . P. #1910.net/ Auburn University Auburn.ac. Edmonton.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.isi.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.auburn. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. D.org/ AiLive Inc.

One Park West Tewksbury.com/home. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 .ascilite. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Box 5200. Inc.au/index.com/ Avid Technology.ascension-tech. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.catoolkit. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.avid. Secretariat.animationfactory. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.com Alchemy Mindworks P.org/ Apple Computer. 110 Cuba Mall.O. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Wellington. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.redwoodelearning.autodesk. Inc. Avid Technology Park.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.adobe.org. Huntsville. PO Box 24478.O. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.animats. Box 527.php/Main _Page Autodesk.mindworkshop.apple. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. Burlington. W Toronto.

CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.com/pub/index. Inc.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.massivesoftware. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.818.A. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.siggraph. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .viewpoint.com/index.aclweb.eitechnologygroup. 190th Street. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.htm Macromedia.org Do Not Reproduce 280 .org AutoTutor c/o Dr. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.460.com Pty Ltd The Basement.macromedia.org/home. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.swishzone. San Antonio.ucsb. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.6450 http://www.S.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.com/ NewTek.newtek.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Inc.aaai. Santa Barbara. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley. Tel: +1. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.psych.autotutor.org/ SWiSHzone.html Ulead Systems 970 W.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab. Suite #480 Torrance. Suite 100 Menlo Park. TN 38152 USA http://www. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.

edu Quantum Simulations.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.cognitivesciencesociety.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. West Montreal.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .it. Inc.cs.usyd.uquebec. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. H-1111 Budapest.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.ke-corp.gemini. u. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.cmu.licef. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.iit.cs. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.org/eden. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.W.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. Calgary.com Do Not Reproduce 281 . 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. 1.eden-online.teluq. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.com/index.edu.cs.ca/eng/ind ex. 100 Sherbrooke St. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. Egry J.pact.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.10th Street S. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.cmu.

Suite 360 San Mateo. Antrim BT37 OQB N.html Do Not Reproduce 282 . Calgary.wpi.W. Suite 1500 Montreal.stottlerhenke. Newtownabbey.brainbench. Alberta.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.virtuelage.umuc.ulster. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.enel. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. East Adelphi.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. Suite K.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.unimelb.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.cs.unisa.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ. Co.edu. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. CA . Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.scit.edu.ac.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.uk/cticomp/CAA.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.ac.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.ucalgary.cshe. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. Chantilly.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.wlv. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.uk/home.cis.

Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.O.O.ingeniousgroup. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.tcet. Suite 753 Madison. Suite 105 Princeton. Box 317 New Hartford. FL 32720 USA http://www.ets.rmsuk. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. Boulder.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.questionmark.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 . Norwalk. Johnson Street. Box 305280 Denton.colorado.quintcareers. Suite 2300 New York. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. Suite 100. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.unt.flaguide. Suite 201 Peterborough.pedagogue.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.redinq.com/redinq/html/index.operitel.horizonwimba.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.S. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.

NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.vantagelearning.avsmedia. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive. Ontario. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign. Inc.multitrackstudio. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.com AudioLink. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory. Laurent Blvd.com/lipsync/ind ex. 50 Hunt St. 2280 St.automaticsync. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www. Watertown.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.epnweb.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma.uiuc.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.cakewalk.oir.. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.audiolink.adobe.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston. Inc.com XStream Software.edu/dme/exams/ITQ..com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. Suite 100 Newtown.xstreamsoftware.aspx BIAS.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall.bias-inc. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.com/AudioTools/ind ex.com/home. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.

com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P.adobe.sonicfoundry. Grime and Associates. Cooper Buildings. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.e-learningcentre.bloki. Suite 200 El Segundo.co. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.mckinnonmulherin..A. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. 136 South Main Street. Waltham. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. West Perrysburg.O.envision.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.acroservices. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison. Arundel Street.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.brainshark. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.accordent.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street. Sheffield. S1 2NS UK http://www.trainvision. Inc.com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 .com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. 860 Sandalwood Road. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.purdue.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.com Brainshark.. Sheffield Technology Parks. San Jose. Suite A300 Salt Lake City.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.com/index. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. Suite 200 Boulder.edu iTunes Apple Computer. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. Continental Blvd.anark.com/power point-presentations-index. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www.com AcroServices c/o L. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.apple. Inc.

NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.copycatsoftware. Nottingham. Inc. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. Italy http://www. Austria http://www. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.co.com.lifeboatdistribution.horizonwimba. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.maxit. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Suite 2300 New York.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.com 286 © 2006. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.customcourse.learn.com/Index.bridge-pt.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.dynamicpowertrainer.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.ciscolearning. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. UK Tel.allencomm.uk/contentpoint. 20100 Milan.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. NG8 6PE.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury. 200 South. Ste. Brandon Hall Research .atlanticlink.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.

O.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.rapidintake.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc.mohive.com ExpertAuthor.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd .68 http://www. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.easyprof. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.e-learningconsulting.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil.edufolio.knowledgeplanet.O. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com/Solutions/Elearnin g. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.64.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. Inc. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.eedo. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona.elearninginabox. Suite 29A Nashua. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.knowledgequest.com Do Not Reproduce 287 . P. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar. 441 W Main St.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www. 38-40. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.com/products/forceten. Suite B Lehi.10 Fax: +34 93 490.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.64.. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.experiencebuilders.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.elicitus. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Box 2827 Redmond.eclipsys.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.

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mindiq. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo. 110 Fourth Ave.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ MindOnSite – Integral Coaching SA Soleil Levant 6 1170 Aubonne. OH 45202 USA Tel: (877) 929-0188 http://trivantis.php Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc.de Lersus easyContent c/o Delfi Software Lietzenburgerstr. VA 24311 USA Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations KnowledgePresenter GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.com Learning Composer c/o TEDS Inc. FRANCE Tel: +41 21 807 01 31 http://www. ON.net Do Not Reproduce 289 .mindonsite. Warwick. 46 10789 Berlin Deutschland Tel: +49 (30) 81298133 http://www.html Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com/tbt/dac/index.lersus. Suite 200 Cincinnati.com Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. Courtice.com/eLearning/EN /index.learnerland.microsoft. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: 1 (800) 616-5409 Fax: (250) 361-9362 http://www. GA 30092-4207 USA Tel: (770) 248-0442 Fax: (770) 248-1949 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 www.com/ LEARNERLand c/o MEDIAmaker Ltd MEDIA HOUSE. 235 Mountain Empire Road Atkins.podia.com podia Ltd 6th Floor. Beeston Nottingham UK NG9 2RS Tel: +44 (0)115 925 5440 http://www.com Lectora c/o Travantis 311 Elm Street.knowledgepresenter.com Lecturnity c/o imc AG Altenkesseler Straße 17/ D3 66115 Saarbrücken Germany Tel: +49 681/ 94 76 .0 http://www.teds.lecturnity. Padge Road.digitalworkshop.com MindIQ Corporation 7742 Spalding Drive. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www. #205 Norcross.

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htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.co. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.83 01 616 http://www. Suite 200 Tampa.syberworks.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.hunterstone.seminar. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.4259 Fax: (760) 635.respondus. Suite 400 New York.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthori ng Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.com/products/study mate.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.sensalearning.suddenlysmart.com Trainersoft FunEducation.5709 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.de/ibt/main/en/site/ time4you/ibt/en/start. Inc.time4you. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.percepsys. 76133 Karlsruhe.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.thinkingcap.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.com Do Not Reproduce 291 . NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 http://www.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. SC. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.toolbook. CA 92101 USA http://www. 250 The Esplanade Toronto. Germany Tel.funeducation. Redmond.scribestudio. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www. 4.com Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.com/coursegen. +49(0)721. Gandy Blvd.

maxit.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.knowledgeenvironments. 10004-104 Avenue. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Birmingham.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.. 11th Floor New York.. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. Ste. Edmonton.telsim. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.. B13 9SG.com Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.co.redwoodelearning.uk/chatbots.vcom3d.html Knowledge Environments.co. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Moseley.qarbon. 219 Tampa. 323 Newbury Street Boston.turbodemo..uk Do Not Reproduce 292 .oddcast. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. Dale Mabry Hwy.daden. Suite 1550 San Jose. W Toronto.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.tmmy. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. Inc. 55 South Market St.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.codebaby. #1910. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. Inc. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.xplana.com DA Group The Lighthouse. Suite 260 Orlando.

. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. Mary Apts. 6th Flr. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.gtcocalcomp. Suite 900 Austin. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.com GTCO CalComp. CA 94608 USA http://www. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Suite 209 Moorestown.blogburst.omnigroup..opera.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.active-learning-site.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.cramersweeney.flock. INDIA. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.qelix.com OmniWeb Omni Development. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.O. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Inc.wavemarket.com/v2/index. Nesbit Rd.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Mazgaon. P. USA http://www. Mumbai 10. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.O. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.com Do Not Reproduce 293 . Inc. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Inc.mozilla.com WaveMarket.

Somerset. Jospeh Street. Suite 101E Falls Church.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com BlueTie.com Do Not Reproduce 294 .au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.bantu. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto.brevient.com.inteam.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.com Batipi 11 St. Inc. SW. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. Ontario.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.optiontechnologies. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. NJ .pearsoned. Pleasant St.smartroom.avecomm. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.qwizdom. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Amherst.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.backpackit. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.bluetie.umass.aspx Qwizdom. Pittsford. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.physics.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.adobe. Inc.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. Inc.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.0162 http://www. Puyallup. 12617 Meridian E. Orlando.batipi. Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.944. Suite# 401.

CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. 1192 East Draper Parkway.cisco. #205 Pasadena. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.convenos. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.communityzero.saba.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. 6th Floor New York. Inc. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 630 McLean. Inc. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Draper.com Cisco Systems.com Centra c/o Saba.courseforum. San Jose. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.comotivsystems. Suite 600 Ottawa. Suite 950 Portland. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.brightidea.caucus.html Citrix Systems.communiqueconferencing.collaborationloop. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.citrix. Suite 522.com Do Not Reproduce 295 .com/centra-saba Central Desktop.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Brightidea.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue. 6th Floor San Francisco.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. 795 Folsom Street. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. 170 West Tasman Dr.com 404 Fifth Avenue. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.centraldesktop.telnetz. 232 http://www.

com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.epam-pmc.facilitate.ezmeeting.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. Ontario. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. Sanibel FL.digite.. Brandon Hall Research . Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. 82 Pioneer Way.same-page.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.edufolio.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com LLP PO Box 325.exactamerica.emc. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Lauderdale. Inc.forumone. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Inc. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.W. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.elluminate.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Engineering. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. 1034 N.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.engineering.flypaper.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.com 296 © 2006. 57th Street Gainesville.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.digi-net.com Digité.

851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Inc. ON.net GroupSupport. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.glance.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.novell.com c/o Citrix Systems.com Glance Networks.groupsupport.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.com Groupwise c/o Novell. Clevedon.com Do Not Reproduce 297 . 3100 Steeles Avenue East.groove.gordano.4517 http://www.grapevinesoftware. Ste. Inc. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.com B. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. 395 Encinitas. Inc.globalschoolnet.horizonwimba. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.hp.net Groove Networks.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.gotomeeting. Suite 500 Markham. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.com GoToMeeting.genesys. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.V.net Global School Net 132 N. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. El Camino Real.hotcomm. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.

AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.intralinks.microsoft.jdhtech.iceweb.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. Suite 412 Cambridge. Inc. 44th St. #115 Rockville. Phoenix.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 .com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.ilinc. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. 11th floor New York. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.interwise. Suite 100 Tucson.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com Interwise.hyperoffice. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Sunnyvale. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.linktivity.inquesttechnologies.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.ivocalize.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.ibm.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.interwoven. 25 First Street.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.

mitre. Suite 1401 Denver. Suite 300 Torrance.com Do Not Reproduce 299 . 3 Wing Drive.com Near-Time.opmcreator.onproject. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Suite 1450 Chicago. Harbor. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.netspoke.meetingone.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.parlano.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.com/collabsuite/index.near-time. Riverside Plaza.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.performancesolutionstech. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.org/tools.com onProject. Fordham Blvd. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.. 1289 N. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. Suite 6500 Woburn.oracle.h tml Parlano 10 S.mayeticvillage. Inc. Inc.liveoffice.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.opentext. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice.peoplecube.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.

Suite 445 Scottsdale. P.sharemethods.com SpiderWeb Communications. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.com Selden Integrated Systems. Inc.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Suite 200 Greeley.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.project-open. New No.com RADVISION Inc.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.O. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.microsoft.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. Cactus Rd.sitescape.radvision.Adyar Chennai. Inc. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley.cyber-grad.projectdox. 1175 58th Avenue. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.seldensystems. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.q2learning. Suite 440 San Jose. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.com/content/default. Suite 210 Maynard.raindance.nagarro.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. 3679 Concord Road. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Suite B.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com Raindance Communications.photoninfotech. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. 35.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Inc.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 . Box 3325 York. 17-17 State Highway 208.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc. 51.stalker.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.

net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Suite 950 Washington.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.tacit. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.vignette.vodium.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.tomoye.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.com/groupware/in dex.sumtotalsystems.usabilityfirst.com Teamware P. Suite 100 Austin.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .teamware.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.trichys. Suite 810 Toronto. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.viack.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.txl Viack 14811 N.teamspace. Canada http://www.O.wave3software.webofficepoint. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.teamdynamix. Kierland Blvd. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8.. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.

5200 Franklin Dr.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. Inc. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet. George St.O. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.zoho.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.atutor. Robarts Library.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www. Inc. 130 St.P.. Toronto.santacruznetworks.net WebEx Communications. Suite 115 Pleasanton.author-it.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks.cpgvision.axista. First Floor University of Toronto. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. P. Suite 1050 Vancouver.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.webasyst. Inc. CA 94588. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.qld.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.webex.gov.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.webtrain. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. Inc. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.webcrossing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Ontario.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.backpackit.

Sheffield Technology Parks.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd.edu.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.bnhexpertsoft. QC. Suite 201 Peterborough. Prof. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc. S1 2NS UK http://www.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.convera.une. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.e-learningcentre.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www. 4000 Steinberg Street St.kdnuggets..com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. TX. Cooper Buildings. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.html Do Not Reproduce 303 .uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa.desire2learn. Arundel Street.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www. Sheffield.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc.org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.com GrassGro c/o Assoc.learnflex.syberworks. Laurent.facilitate.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.co.oracle. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario.hrsg. Suite C215 Houston. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.

San Francisco. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia. Second Floor La Grange. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www. Telford. Suite 100 Indianapolis.chalkandwire.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd. West Conshohocken. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.provisionentertainment. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting.com Do Not Reproduce 304 . Catherines.. WA.com/ LiveText 1 S.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St.siliconlight.foliotek. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki.angellearning. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.co.fogscreen.ntera. La Grange Road. Inc. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.pebblepad.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose.nuventive. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www. Suite 606. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.meetingworks.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc.

programmersheaven. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California.C. Sunderland Tyne and Wear.magnetargames.com Do Not Reproduce 305 .com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.thinkingworlds.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab. Puebla Lucia local 7. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www..com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. NW Washington. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham.softimage. Inc Avid Technology Park.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.com/solutions/game s/default.ucsd. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs. One Park West Tewksbury. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.freescale. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.clickteam. 0445 La Jolla. SR6 0AN UK http://www.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.adobe. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Dept.microsoft.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning.seriousgames.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.

Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.forcedimension. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www. 100 Pine Street.autodesk. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.handshakeinteractive. Washington Street Denver.broderbund. Inc.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.immersion.tech-illustrator. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.ibm. Suite 300 Burlingame. Inc.mpb-technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne.microsoft. Suite 1900 San Francisco. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www. Unit 9 Waterloo.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose.blender3d. CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.corel. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.miralab.unige..com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www. Suite 300 San Diego. CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.com SmartDraw. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.itedo.smartdraw.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 .com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.

sensable.fujitsu.se SensAble Technologies.unipi.com Do Not Reproduce 307 . 1207 – 11 Avenue SW.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.wacom. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. 2-56126 Pisa. NW Suite 700. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. Ste. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista. 7677 Oakport Street.ccii.anotogroup.com Logitech Inc.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.allencomm. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.. Washington.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi. 15 Constitution Way Woburn. D.logitech. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. 12th Floor Oakland. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. Inc. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.smarttech. 200 South.edfacilities.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave.piaggio. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.eink.C.sensegraphics. Suite 300 Calgary.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.

FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.redbooks. 111 Water St. Suite 301 West Des Moines.strategia.geolearning. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Inc. Quebec.com DOTS .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www. Suite #620 Santa Monica.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www. Winter Park. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.intellinex.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning.howtomaster. Suite 660 Longueuil.. 4600 Westown Parkway. 6947 University Blvd.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street. Inc.ips-inc. Colfax Avenue Building 200. East Dundee.netdimensions. Inc.html?Ope n InfoSource.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC. Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai.com Do Not Reproduce 308 .elementk. Inc. Suite 225 Golden. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.trivantis. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www. Huntington Building. Suite 200 Cincinnati.webraven.ibm.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F.com/redbooks.gen21.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM.cornerstoneondemand. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.

com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.wizdom. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise. Inc.learnflex. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. East .com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com LearnCenter c/o Learn. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee. Inc.Suite 350 Toronto. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.maxit.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com.compendiumcorp.websoft. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Suite 201 Peterborough.knowledgeplanet. Suite 260 Foxborough. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. 550 Queen St. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.isnewmedia. Chantilly. MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.meridianksi.com mGen Enterprise mGen. Inc. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. 1 West Front Street Red Bank.learnsomething.learn. MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.intralearn. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 309 .mgen.

PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com TEDS Inc.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.plateau. St. LTD 671 N.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.sumtotalsystems.outstart. West.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal.com Do Not Reproduce 310 .com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.teds.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. Inc.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.oracle.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.saba.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.sselearn. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Suite 700 Arlington.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. 500 West Madison.sap.ssaglobal. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.oracle.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. Suite 1280 San Francisco.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.syntrio. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. Suite 2200 Chicago. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal.teralearn. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. Louis. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.technomedia. Glebe Road.com.

Suite 101 Houston.wbtsystems. 122 West Way. Laurent Blvd. 17041 El Camino Real. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.edutools. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.vuepoint.fldata. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.trainingpartner.gyrus.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.xstreamsoftware.ttg-inc. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. NY. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.O..info/index. Inc. Inc. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Ontario. Suite # 105 Columbia.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.com Tracker.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.risc-inc.com Do Not Reproduce 311 . 240 Bay Street. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Inc. Box 9752 Boulder.avilar. Victoria. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. Suite 200 Ottawa. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. 2280 St.vbtrain. Inc.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.xtention. 4 Expressway Plaza.

ca ENC Learning Inc. 4th Floor Oakland. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.arizona. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.netera. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.uwm. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.goenc.com Do Not Reproduce 312 .edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.cdlib.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.sir.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.

ETRAC.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.edu.unsw.lrc3. Stevenage. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. Fondren Library. Suite 3100 San Francisco.O.edu/DesktopDefault. AZ 85250 USA http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. P.mcli. MS 44. Sterling Court.maricopa.dist.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.clarklabs.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. Houston. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. Box 3000 Boulder.org Do Not Reproduce 313 . CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. Hertfordshire.llearn.rice.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.org/eng/scientifiques. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Rice University.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. Box 1892.lolaexchange. Norton Road.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. AZ.lornet.cadcorp.merlot. Suite 1600 Tucson. CT 06459 USA http://www.O.4464 Markham Street Victoria.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.plos. SG1 2JY.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. 5151 East Broadway.thegateway. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.

V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.5372.intergraph.com/gis4mt/index. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org Metadata.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.asp?path= 500. Box 240000 Huntsville.cetis. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. Inc.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.edu PanGo Networks.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.eoscenter.geocomm.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.org Do Not Reproduce 314 .smm. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.esri.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. P.O.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Dept. 959 Concord Street.ac. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.edu.fi/english/page.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.cf m ESRI Suite 300.berkeley. of Geography. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.pangonetworks. Suite 100 Framingham.cancore. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.O. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.mapinfo.

mobilearn.uk/handler/default . 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Italy http://tcc.ac. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.elsnet.org/aitopics/html/natlang .com MOBILearn c/o Dr.com Do Not Reproduce 315 .se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Suite 501 Portland.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.upenn. Inc.html ELSNET Trans 10.aaai. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. PMB #112 Lake Mary. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Austria http://www.lexxe.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.bham.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.itc. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.ldc.knowledgepulse. PA.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.eee. Electrical and Computer Engineering. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.advancedreality. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.imsglobal. 19104-2653.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.org/ Spotlight Mobile.stockholmchallenge. Suite 100 Menlo Park.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.

Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria. NY.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.net internet2. Deane Rd.org/site/pp. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Suite 300.internet2. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Inc.lockss.asianart.movedigital.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.groove. Inc.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.llearn.overnet. 10010 USA http://www.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.seti.ac. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.stockholmchallenge. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Whisman Road Mountain View. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks.cetis.org 316 © 2006. Inc.com MoveDigital.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.sun.

New York 10973 USA http://www.worldwidelearn. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.cyberu.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.17th Avenue SW Calgary. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Inc.rmv.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.elena-project. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.teach-nology.virtualmuseum. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill. 3º 08021 Barcelona. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com Portals CyberU.trainingregistry. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. Suite 225 Santa Monica.Project Coordinator CSI .executrain.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com Teachnology. 3333 http://www.elementk. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.com ProQuest 789 E. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Box 172 1039 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.saba.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.microsoft. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. Alberta.proquest. Eisenhower Parkway P. 15-4-A Gatineau.elearningeuropa.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.O. 1st Floor A . CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.

CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. CA 94040.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.com ReadyGo Inc.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.mit. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.org Macromedia. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. Redmond. NE Calgary.elluminate. O.presentations.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. 3016 5th Ave.macromedia.com 50 S.articulate. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.com/halo/index. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Do Not Reproduce 318 . CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Suite B Orion.apreso. Minneapolis. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.readygo. Box 2827. Ninth St.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.333.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Alberta.raptivity.com Presentations.. Michigan.hp.lsc. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.6526 http://www. Inc.com Raptivity P.scate.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.genesys.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.com/presentatio ns/index.saba.

Inc. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.cmu.whmsi. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.rec.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Pasadena.atr. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. SWEDEN. Henrik I Christensen.generalrobotics. 100 Norman.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . Ste.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.active-robots. 130 W. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Union St.irc. D.ac.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.osaka-u.nasa.ri.ams. Centre for Autonmous Systems.ed.eng.gov. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.aad. Radstock Somerset.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.evolution. Chilcompton.ife. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Inc. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.euron. Lindsey Bldg.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.botball.org Euron c/o Prof.org Evolution Robotics.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.

copernic.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.dogpile.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.com Gada.findlaw. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.convera.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.excite.O. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.ask. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.gigablast. Brandon Hall Research . NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. Suite 60 Quebec.com excite.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About.alexa.about. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Ask.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. 42nd Floor New York. Suite 500 Oakland.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.google.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com Google (including Froogle.net/ 320 © 2006.6100 http://www. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.gnod. Inc. Google. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Gnod. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.

info. 625 Second Street San Francisco.O.ac.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 . Suite 1200 Bellevue.1057022 LookSmart.koders.healthfinder.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. Box 1133 Washington.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.mooter. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE.acm.kartoo. Chicago. DC 20013-1133 http://www.ixquick.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.looksmart. 17th Floor New York.net Koders Inc.metacrawler. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.krugle. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.com Info. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. Ltd.cfm?doid=1 056808.intute.lalisio.org/citation. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. Inc.icerocket.msn.lexxe. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.

ee. 2400 N. Nesbit Rd.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .edu/ PubSub Concepts.com Pandora Media.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.pubsub.searchking. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.biz Truveo. 23rd Floor San Francisco.seekport. 360 22nd Street.almaden.convera.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 . NY 10003. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Inc. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Suite 207 San Francisco.com/v2/index. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.cs. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.82152 Martinsried http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. INDIA. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.pandora. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp..com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Seventh Floor New York.. Mumbai 10. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Inc.W.netscape.truveo. Suite 211 Palo Alto .com SearchKing. 23rd Oklahoma City. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC.columbia. New York. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Inc.rawsugar.qelix. 7th floor. 64 Fulton Street.W.technorati.ibm. Mazgaon. Mary Apts. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. 6th Flr.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York.nyu.

com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.alphaworks. Ontario.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.experiencebuilders.zoominfo. Inc. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. 10 Old Bailey.biographix.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.atghome. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.com Zoom Information Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.macromedia.seco. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 1st Floor A .tkk.yahoo.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.com Assima Ltd.macromedia.elena-project.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.Project Coordinator CSI . Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Box 1558 New Canaan.com Flash c/o Macromedia.com Captivate c/o Macromedia. Yahoo http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.assima.personal-reader. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 .ibm.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .O. EC4M 7NG London. Inc.

PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.knowledgeplanet. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com MASIE Center. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.fsl. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.com NexLearn.ac.knowledge-director. England http://www.nexlearn. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. Suite 200 Ottawa..com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Ontario. Laurent Blvd. GreenPark Reading.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 .forio. Newburyport.cs. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Suite 300 Wichita. CA . Inc. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.bham.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.stt-global. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.knowledgequest.knowledgepresenter. LLC 100 South Main Street.learning2005. Suite 360 San Mateo. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. B15 2TT. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.muzzylane.. 2280 St.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.intermezzon.xstreamsoftware.noaa.stottlerhenke.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.

us Eventful c/o EVDB. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.eduperformance.stagecast.virtualcontrolroom.edu/index.maxit. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.stt-global.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Inc.iu. Inc. Québec. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www..assima.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.com Softsim Outstart Studio. 1821 Walden Office Square. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Schaumburg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. Light & Acoustics.com/English/t6 essai. 101 Wolf Drive.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Suite 224 Bloomington.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.icio.com Do Not Reproduce 325 . ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.teds.outstart. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Suite 240 Atlanta.qarbon. Thorofare. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. Taschereau Ouest. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Suite 125 San Diego.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.com Stagecast Software. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.icio.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Suite 1550 San Jose. 55 South Market St. Suite 400.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Suite A-207 Brossard.checkpointsystems. CA 94089 USA http://del. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Morton Street.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.

CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Ltd..spurl. Suite 500 Renton. Suite 900 Austin. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Box 920089 Needham.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. 795 Folsom St. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.rojo. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.classmates. Brandon Hall Research . SW. Menlo Park. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. CA.com/ mag.. Inc.com Classmates Online.analytictech.com 326 © 2006.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.eu Rojo Networks. Inc. 2001 Lind Ave. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.networkltd. First Floor San Francisco.friendster.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Inc.tagzania.gnolia. Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www.com Friendster. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco. WA 98055 USA http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.netscape.shadows.zvents.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.O.com Spurl ehf..furl.

Inc 1 Infinite Loop.com Jabber Software Foundation P. 4th Floor Marshalltown.apple. Suite 900 San Francisco. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. New York.net Sparta Social Networks. Cupertino.brightcove.bittorrent.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.percro.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.dfilm.advanced.sociosite. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.O. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.org Fakespace 11 E.html Do Not Reproduce 327 .hp. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.com Brightcove.com Jabber Software Foundation P.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Church Street. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.O. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Box 1641 Denver. CA 94105 USA http://www. CA 90028 USA http://www.socialtext. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.jabber. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.jabber.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Inc.spartasocialnetworks.fakespace.com iTunes Apple Computer. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . 655 High Street Palo Alto. Box 1641 Denver.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.com/halo/index.

informationinplace.percro. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.futurelab.org.activeworlds.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.intuition-eunetwork.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 .de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.navy.epfl. 7220 Trade Street. Suite 206 Bloomington.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.ergonetz. VA 23461-1924 https://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.xstreamengine.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.veoh.edu/vrel. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.coe. IC ISIM VRLAB.com Intuition 9.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Inc. Suite 115 San Diego. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.spider.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.hpc.org Veoh Networks. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. CA 92121 USA http://www.accurender.ecu.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.

Suite 110 Troy. Suite 3 Brooklyn.ac.com Do Not Reproduce 329 . MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. 350 South 400 West.bham.com ESRI Suite 300. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Grove.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Williams Building College Park. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Draper.esri.feedtank. Troy.cs.V.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.ambientdevices.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.O.intergraph. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. 1333 Butterfield Rd. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. 809 14th Street.mapinfo. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.vista.formz. Inc. Cambridge. Golden.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Suite 317 San Diego. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.com Golden Software.umd. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Suite 100 Lindon. Inc. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.daz3d. Box 240000 Huntsville.idashboards. Inc.com/ MapInfo One Global View. Danvers.xcelsius.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.advizorsolutions. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.corda..golden. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Columbus.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.

Suite 305 North Chelmsford. 2nd Floor Poolesville.mccrackendesign.net Pixologic.visualthesaurus.visualanalytics.com Unified Field.vicodi.O. U.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.nih.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.microsoft. Suite 3A New York. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . Inc. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 73 Princeton Street.topozone. Inc. 3 East 28th St. MA 01863 USA http://www. Inc.S. CA 94712 USA http://www.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.com Spotfire.ontopia.pixologic. Tracy.softill. Box 884.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. 9th floor New York. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. 20010 Fisher Avenue. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.spotfire. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 155 Spring Street.org Visual Analytics Inc.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. 212 Elm Street Somerville.unifiedfield.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. Riga. Unit # 1 Mississauga.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. Inc. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.okino.musanim.nlm. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. NY 10012 USA http://www.

com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Valdeku 100.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. CA 95008 USA http://www.com Web Feeds Attensa. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. Estonia http://www. Inc. Inc. 869 97th Ave N.wearable. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.bloglines.attensa.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. California. FL 34108 USA http://www.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .brightcove. A-1220 Vienna. Suite 2260 Portland.jajah.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.vrvis.inxight. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com Brightcove. Suite 102 Mountain View. Donau-City-Strasse 1. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. Tallinn. ETZ H Electronics Lab.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.skype. 94043 USA http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.feedburner.feedreader.com JAJAH Inc. Ltd.sportbrain. Hanover. Unit A2 Naples. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 11211.feedforall. Suite 100 Campbell. Inc. 2513 Charleston Road. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.ethz. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.

com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Switzerland http://www.org JotSpot.mozilla.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.feedster.com Feedster. San Francisco.pubsub.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Brandon Hall Research . CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.V. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.socialtext.pluck.feedzilla.microsoft. Petersburg. South #358 St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Building K Mountain View. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 116 New Montgomery Street. Inc. Suite 381 Vancouver. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.rssreader. 167 Hamilton Ave.rojo. 3rd Floor Cambridge. 200 2nd Ave. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. First Floor.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. 64 Fulton Street. Suite 605 San Francisco.com PubSub Concepts.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. Inc. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.com Rojo Networks.715135858 http://www..onfolio. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Suite 900 Austin. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Broadway.com 332 © 2006. Pacific Business Centre #101 . P. Seventh Floor New York. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.. Inc.jot. Coldbrook Business Corp. 795 Folsom St.1001 W.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Nederland Tel: +31. California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. Inc.

Brandon Hall Research .Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006.

217. 101. 225. 224. 105. 31. 161. 226. 63. 247. 67. 174. 66. 44. 65. 129. 103 Complexity theory. 201. 43. 3. 78. 118. 25. 26. 3. 242. 62. 70 barcodes. 151. 241. 254. 109. 186. 117. 33. 220 Audio. 25. 123. 268. 95. 83. 199. 266. 155 Ambient computing. 29. 53. 7. 209. 64. 60. 77. 188. 187. 251. 110. 205. 232. 235. 174. 162. 59. 235. 102. 24. 60. 32. 3. 51. 67. 61. educational. 255. 226. 250 cognitive maps. 246. 209 Air display. 268. 48. 164. 194. 266. 86. 179. 56. 217. 33. 231. 231. 156. 64. 67. 88. 37. 28. 55. 120. 173. 176 assessment. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 84. 161 Cooperation. 61. 275 Affective computing. 177. 183. 97. 9. 91. 51. 128. 269. 246. 217. 161. 66. 67. 266 Augmented reality. 142. 81. 87. 92. 45. 227. 86. 261 Animation. 34. 202. 221. 250 collaboration. 19. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 118. 54. 82. 22. 69. 21. 33. 116. 250 Dashboards. 156. 93. 18. 97. 250. 159. 94. 218. 25. 106. 161. 80 Cognition. 65. 17. 125. 25. 161. 129. 20. 78. 70. 93. 13. 251. 77. 154. 177. 185. 218. 34. 250. 72. 174. 87. 88. 79. 248. 34. 17. 230. 29. 82. 111 Blogs. 143. 90. 275 Collaboration. 107. 78. 62. 260. 296. 28. 97. 279. 140. 91. 226. 108. 46. 96. 185. 242. 188. 76. 118. 218. 28. 175. 57. 64. 245 Browsers. 105. 98. 33. 61. 264. 76. 61. 230. 47. 55. 93. 16. 148. 4. 156. 85. 97. 32. 91. 35. 94. 138. 246. 22. 274 Communities of practice. 40. 201. 266. 27. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 230. 86. 258 cognitive collage. 270 Boolean searches. 87. 51. 21. 90. 184. 87. 241. 36. 138. 268 Broadband. 120. 215. 250. 247. 184 Conversational learning. 199 334 © 2006. 217. 224 Cell phones. 100. 26. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 96. 176. 85. 247. 12. 111. 101. 122. 204. 26. 82. 246. 47. 15. 57. 284. 46. 31. 83. 37. 46. 17. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 95. 236. 255. 108. 114 cybercartography. 156. 26. 230. 60. 2. 91. 32. 117 Assessment. 131. 243. 259. 18. 241. 252. 275 Computer based assessment. 184. 69. 80 Clickers. 46. 255 Architectures. 225. 28. 244. 68. 18. 113. 29. 201. 228. 111. 221 Bayesian probability. 277 Agents. 289 Authorware. 202. 125. 30. 161. 177. 89. 96. 47. 54. 39. 76. 83. 221. 162. 259. 98. 264 Classroom response systems. 75. 92. 48. 89. 250. 25. 184. 69. 148. 84. 97. 253 Data mining. 139. 142. 28. 285. 14. 244. 155. 248 Authoring tools. 146.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 52. 3. 59. 257 Adaptive systems. 150. 138. 88. 64. 259. 5. 104. 251. 29. 230 Competency Tracking. Brandon Hall Research . 73. 19. 115. 104. 31. 216. 85. 45. 269. 61. 149. 35. 198. 268 Communications Tools. 143. 49. 74. 45 Content management. 242. 105. 60 Avatars. 209. 4. 209. 60. 244. 67. 56. 63. 168. 89. 106. 154. 160. 66 AJAX. 172. 162. 165. 120. 163. 24. 121. 45. 200. 120. 157. 190. 110 Adobe. 111. 87.

155. 126 GIF graphic format. 248. 61. 134. 152. 55. 145. 268 Knowledge management. 254. 256. 125. 174. 17. 15. 215. 258. 80. 114. 194. 320 graphics. 148. 275 Distributed systems. 273. 306 Individualization. 174. 114. 247. 92. 115. 77. 246. 21. 161. 43. 32. 30. 70. 135. 82. 171. 31. 241. 134 Head mounted displays. 139. 132. 98. 94. 155. 158 iPod. 156. 106. 250. 7. 233. 151. 73. 30. 62. 60 Displays. 114. 189. 159. 104. 31. 252. 8. 25. 48. 92. 202. 136. 211 evaluation. 5. 257 Grid computing. 12. 5. 3. 275. 192. 250. 250 Immersive environments. 60 dynamic displays. 206 Findability. 96. 220. 247. 192. 305 Geocaching. 12. 78. 123. 76 Flash. 139. 25. 131. 139. 34. 169. 222. 250. 145. 199. 65 Google. 192. 19. 161. 23. 32. 113. 200 Design. 12. 151. 91. e-learning. 129. 170. 242. 245. 208. 12. 10. 203. 62. 210. 132. 134 Healthcare applications. 238. 18. 118. 203. 205. 136. 152. 236 e-Science. 257 FrontPage. 278 Infrared tags. 199. 155. 261. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 31 Emotional design. 15. 65. 243. 242. 115. 86. 179. 13. 7. 5. 128. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 99. 39. 86. 62. 48. 155. 114. 215 Expert systems. 128. 24. 33. 193. 276 images. 104. 250 e-Commerce. 87. 117 Experiential learning. 35. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 217. 156. 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 257. 98. 82. 154. 34. 251. 209 Handwriting recognition. 26. 60. 33. 253. 246. 217 Federated searches. 59. 40. 4. 276 Instant messaging. 12. 9. 275 Director. 215. 64. 254. 218. 18. 10. 159. 153. 244 Games. 177. 151. 157 Hype in e-learning. 216. 196. 46. 223. 6. 250 Graphics. 102. 170. 267. 88. 192. 87.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 83. 65. 250. 114. 134 Haptics. 45. 63. 54. 72. 205. 4. 184. 122. 56. 97. 167. 138. 219. 71. 29. 193 Facial recognition. 252. 113 Deep Web. 267 formative assessment. 201. 120. 135. 244. 90. 31. 72. 112. 15. 97. 127. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 134. 111. 111 Extreme learning. 3. 69. 153. 217. 251. 17. 250. 84. 188. 287. 9. 18. 28. 262 Hybrid systems. 215. 128. 236. 251. 186. 199 Informatics. 115. 19. 224. 84. 43. 73. 158. 274. 254 Gesture recogntion. 176 Interface devices. 255. 125. 26. 121. 237. 3. 152. 5. 21. 185. 204. 230. 168. 68. 255. 128. 132. 259. 243. 126. 76. 104. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 120. 205 History. 158. 37. 323 Folksonomies. 3. 45. 110. 32. 191. 93. 228. 198. 62. 24. 10. 221. 133. 122. 151 FireFox. 28. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 241. 273 Informal learning. 80. 33. 160. 119. 120. 28. 2. 44. 170. 111. 34. 66. 134. 109. 134. 199. 145. 83. 273 Interoperability. 6. 28. 194. 108. 5. 167. 29 e-Portfolios. 104. 77. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 92. 138. 228. 112. 91. 171. 260 Dreamweaver. 30. 211. 61. 30. 246. 115. 76. 125. 246. 24. 27. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 1. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 45 Frameworks. 121. 119. 170. 135. 118. 222. 231. 39. 54. 135. 129. 117. 239. 207. 78. 227. 92. 70. 224. 273 Human-centered computing.

58. 38. 218 Metacognition. 238. 231. 152. 108. 175. 166. 173. 19. 194. 156. 102. 162. 244. 163. 56. 85. 32 Metadata. 306. 7. 60. 183. 59. 60. 260. 152. 157 Medical applications. 165 Mobile computing. 66. 311 Learning Management Systems. 163. 7. 57. 103. 31. 190. 187. 171. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 117. 129. 174. 244. 192. 89. 33. 10. 62. 198. 270. 61. 221. 158. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 298. 5. 78. 158. 155. 209 Microlearning. 243. 3. 151. 32. 221. 254. 177. 289. 32. 146. 273. 93 Radio. 64. 203. 159. 300. 195. 317. 221 Project management. 261 Macromedia. 86. 79. 174. 47. 171. 84. 161. 105. 86. 161. 59 Presentation tools. 209. 201. 166. 65. 148. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 268 latent semantic analysis. 184. 165. 312 learning object model. 143. 151 Quizzes. 62. 179. 177. 78. 230. 209. 61. 163. 223 Rapid e-learning. 125 Ontologies. 321. 280. 294. 245. 136. 200. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 76. 105. 242. 145. 227. 241. 192 Networks. 106. 139. 187. 190. 115. 5. 221. 12. 31. 224. 66. 63. 315 Motion Graphics. 311. 186. 87. 4. 241. 182. 8. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 13. 232. 45. 193 Microsoft. 162. 52. 54. 104. 59. 144. 314 Meta-search engines. 73. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 40. 17. 115. 189. 158. 80. 191. 6. 274. 32. 72. 152. 151. 101. 3. 170. 206 Microformats. 107. 192 Libraries. 63. 237. 141. 159. 140. 158. 121. 159. 90. 186. 184. 215. 27. 318. 151. 145 Learning Objects. 219. 45. 12. 145. 171. 89. 61. 97. 174. 151. 22. 156. 271. 24 Museums. 128. 177. 110. 47. 83. 181. 54. 189. 42. 196. 104. 154. 210. 234. 31. 105. 123. 199. 119. 267. 255 Neural networks. 170. 247. 185. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 91. 164. 82. 187. 176 Personalization. 222. 36. 135. 228 Optical tags. 5. 25. 332 Microworlds. 161. 145. 305. 178. 284 Portals. 211. 221. 179. 189. 147. 273. 59. 139. 138. 60. 28. 287. 142. 223. 260. 104. 192. 92. 221. 179. 330. 138. 195. 5. 188. 250. 111. 210 PowerPoint. 177. 184. 158. 145. 55. 188. 24. 309. 101. 151. 218 M-learning. 120. 141. 161 Podcasting. 17. 250 Pedagogy. 230. 159. 47. 234.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 254. 193 Projectors. 90. 233. 30. 190. 65. 235. 64. 72. 99. 146. 178. 82. 144. 176. 201. 161. 178. 44. 52. 20. 262. 318 Location based tools. 217. 118. 224. 148. 5. 100. 246. 28. 244. 222. 164. 55. 204. 172. 20. 318 Privacy. 139. 7. 160. 54. 171. 197 Legacy materials. 175. 160. 186. 177. 159. 147. 222. 254. 175. 162. 88. 63. 179. 202. 66. 142. 171. 187. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 147. 82. 120. 185. 104. 219. 114. 45. 209 pattern recognition. 131. 250 Mashups. 230. 174. 177. 182. 138. 18. 134 Proximity tools. 3. 85. 241. 154. 5. 64. 43. 209. 6. 205. 155. 55. 32. 197. 111. 109. 135. 65. 230. 172. 3. 83. 64. 323 mapping. 62. 6. 95. 189. 73. 227. 183 Navigation. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 224. 91. 192 Lecturing. 84. 308. 164. 273. 290. 112. 59. 161. 2. 193. 85. 274. 55. 259. 145 learning object repository. 227. 6. 193. 210 Pervasive computing. 33. 151. 100. 261. 146. 65. 79. 162. 27.

243. 98. 32. 155 Tagging. 226. 152. 205. 221 Social bookmarking. 216. 202. 48. 213. 223. 7. 250. 45 Symbology tags. 231. 45. 187. 302. 120. 227. 143. 260 Telepresence. 128. 199. 134. 5. 274 Tests. 214 résumés. 62. 220. 47. 202. 241 Television. 251 Serious games. 190. 10. 264 Social networking. 156. 241 virtual classroom. 148. 215. 150. 145 Screencasting. 6. 117. 201. 187 Virtual classrooms. 62. 9. 112. 209. 145. 69. 5. 262. 241 Search engines. 267. 244. 66. 192 Thin clients. 196. 158. 273. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 215. 123. 226. 63. 145 Repositories. 159. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 232. 12. 4. 145. 199. 167. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 241. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 197. 226. 254 Taxonomies. 149. 255 Single-user wiki. 212 reusable learning objects. 142. 171. 72. 115. 226. 137. 119. 81. 51. 63. 113. 221. 230. 5. 218 Scenarios. 247. 117 Reusability. 5. 15. 238. 214. 224. 60. 43. 60. 244 Tangible computing. 221. 120. 254. 201. 158. 119. 268 Skypecasting. 46. 241. 194. 218 Science. 259. 252. 241. 127. 196. 45 Semantic Web. 154. 161. 167. 26. 18. 155. 24. 10. 3. 19. 38. 221 self-evaluation. 3. 176. 12. 52. 232 Speech recognition. 204. 190. 188. 211. 171. 260. 47. 201. 86. 120. 219. 203. 187. 174 Virtual reality. 146. 138. 27. 255 Turing Test. 242 Security. 219. 76. 147. 268. 241 Vodcasting. 134. 33. 155. 332 Webcasting. 226. 109. 145 Robotics. 46. 9. 2. 227. 151. 236. 202. 49. 281 SCORM. 244 summative assessment. 225. 233. 187. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 196. 275 Vlogs. 246 Visualization. 275 Translation. 245. 242. 224. 51. 159. 200. 33. 331 Web conferencing. 268 Tags. 62. 97. 55. 59. 156 sharable content objects. 255. 151. 261 Usability. 148. 225. 165. 180. 225. 139. 164. 327 Videocasting. 157 Simulations. 152. 61. 62. 266. 158. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 100. 143. 253. 97. 273. 119. 209. 237. 2. 6. 215. 244. 167. 228. 5. 97. 76 T-Learning. 65. 145. 63. 88. 158. 183. 84 Telephony. 160. 261 Shockwave. 169 Streaming video. 57. 46. 189. 238. 222. 76. 75. 243. 259. 206. 65. 10. 104. 12. 230. 227. 52. 98. 331 Wearable computing. 134. 147. 76. 125. 246. 195 Virtual learning environments. 206. 210. 203. 228. 217. 160. 122. 174. 67. 226. 69. 222 Tag clouds. 174. 158. 179. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 261. 170. 251. 263. 4. 224. 216. 218. 156. 252. 8. 146. 265. 193. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 28 Ubiquitous computing. 187. 198. 244 Tours (online). 319 Role-playing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 187 Smart labels and tags. 242. 45. 241. 45. 121. 216. 97. 73. 81. 224. 159. 242. 138. 240. 221. 66. 106. 169. 151. 33. 231. 217. 50. 60. 212. 209. 247 Video. 256. 139. 16. 208. 264. 228. 222. 33. 45. 31. 224 Team management. 7. 275. 114. 85. 239.

233. 266. 272. 267. 97. 116. 156. 68. 3. 77. 137. 269. 184. Gary. 332 Woodill. 233.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 10. 256. 90. 87. 174. 136. 115. 114. 6. 106. 168. 104. 103. 268. 209. 232. 270 Wikis. 187 Whiteboards. 1. 271. 82. 84. 59. 270. 157. 307 Wikipedia. 276 Word. 269. 5. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 86. 80. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 53. 268. 134. 135.

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