Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training

Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Senior Researcher

© 2006, Brandon Hall Research. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce.

In a 2000 report on e-learning, Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content, technology, and services. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. The first report, entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report, the second in the series, focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on elearning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples, lists of online resources, and a bibliography for each of the technologies. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report, along with an index. A third report, which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning, will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes, and I thank them for their support and encouragement. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation, where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently, have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner, Operitel’s CEO, and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell, Carlos Oliveira, and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Pamela Fragomeli, Lise Bye, Grant Hamilton, Amy Davey, Pierre Cahorn, Jennifer McDowell, and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. None of this would have been possible if my wife, Karen Anderson, had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992, and had not accompanied me on this journey with input, editing, and support at all points of my career. Thanks, Karen.

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Table of Contents
Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies
Affective Computing Agents Animation Software Artificial Intelligence Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Avatars Blogs Browsers Classroom Response Systems Collaboration Tools Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Displays E-Portfolio Tools Gaming Development Tools Gesture and Facial Recognition Graphics Tools Haptics Interface Devices Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Location Based Technologies Mashups, SOAP and Web Services Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies Mobile Devices Natural Language Processing Peer to Peer Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personalization Software 12 17 24 28 45 54 59 69 72 76 78 81 97 100 104 107 111 114 117 120 125 128 131 134 138 145 151 155 158 161 167 170 174 176

1 11

Portals Presentation Tools Rapid e-Learning Tools Robotics Search Engines Semantic Web Simulation Tools Smart Labels and Tags Social Bookmarking Social Networking Telepresence Technologies Video and IPTV Virtual Reality Visualization Technologies VoIP and Telephony Wearable Computing Web Feeds Wiki Tools 184 187 192 196 199 209 215 221 224 230 237 241 246 250 259 261 264 268 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Index 272 277 334 .

Learning became standardized and linear. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. with rows. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers.” Starting in the first century AD. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. for example. fire for warmth and cooking. is a 2000 year old “technology. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. and recess. Do Not Reproduce 1 .” The word comes from the Latin lectura. to quote Donald Norman (1993). with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. that lecturing.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. class periods. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. We tend to forget. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. detentions. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. as books were scarce. The modern classroom. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. or device that extends human abilities. material. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. “things that make us smart. the classroom became industrialized. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Technologies are any technique. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. the raising of hands. They are. and language for communication. or “reader. still used in many institutions of higher education.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. With these reforms. Medieval universities followed the same practice. But learning technologies have a much longer history.

” Similarly. Students in these schools learned by reading. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. moving pictures (films). in fact. A third way to learn is by seeing. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). Sadly. and reciting. When a new technology is introduced. changing the practice of teaching. Thomas Watson. 2 © 2006. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. chairman of IBM. There are. When a new technology first comes into use. Eventually. memorizing. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. many different ways to learn.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks consisted of putting industrialized. Schools were started to teach accounting. At the same time. Brandon Hall Research . linear teaching techniques online. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-yearold model. even if the originator of the words is not present. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Like all new technologies. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. the early Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool.” In 1970.just the ability to follow an example. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. For example.

allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability .24/7 Simulation of complex processes This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e-learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. and standards. Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: • They offer business services across platforms. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. it needs to adhere to architectures. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. 2006). Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. However. Some of these advantages include the following: • • • • • • • • • High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks days of computer networking. Do Not Reproduce 3 . It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. as this is a non-technical guide. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. 2006). AT&T was given what would become the Internet. sometimes referred to as a mashup. mashups can only be done using computer technology. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. frameworks. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. To realize these advantages. Rather than pages. Rather than pages. sometimes gathered from multiple sources.

Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.fr/publicatio n.free. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. 2005. Number 3. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. January.grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.php). Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: • • • • • Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks • • • • • They provide location independence. Brandon Hall Research . The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. • • • • • • • • • The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct elearning resources in a grid. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. 4 © 2006. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.

org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. Major specifications for e-learning.org). presentation and interactive environments.adlnet. http://imsproject. http://ltsc.ieee.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks For example. In Europe. enabling the search for content. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. and makes extensive use of XML. research. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. http://www. taken together. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. and education administration.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. Do Not Reproduce 5 . Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. http://purl. E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.imsglobal. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.accessgrid. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://sourceforge. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). At the same time. …the e-learning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.net/projects/ariadnek ps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.elframework. At the same time. interactive learning components.oclc.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). In particular. http://www.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.aicc.org) has a number of published documents that.

Moreover. Rather. Bollier says. “[a] pull economy . what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. reinforces this theme. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). Instead.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. 6 © 2006. the ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage.” In late 2005. 2004). Instead. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. As Anderson (2004. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. 2006) has argued. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a pre-determined sequence of experiences. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at pre-determined times.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. While packaged courses still have a place. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. For example.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.is based on open. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Brandon Hall Research . access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. This is especially true for adult education. In business. Instead of just providing courses. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. They noted that “…in education. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.

mobile devices. and a bibliography. Milan. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies.educause. the reader can approach any topic in any order. Zanichelli.html Anderson. M. New York: Hyperion. Odeh. Chris (2006). often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Cardiff. 2005). the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. In the last chapter.com/wired/archive/12. UK. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. F. Wales.idi. User-created content. Because this research report is meant as a reference work.. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid.. 10/tail. Italy. those learners are now keeping their own records. http://www. March/April 2006.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. R.amazon. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).DC/0502051 Alexander. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. (2005). R. along with selected examples.pdf Anderson. 12(10). Ahmad.. October. Bryan (2006). G. (2005). often placed in repositories as open source content or software. From this. Wired Magazine. 41(2). and wearable computers. http://www. M. Z.ntnu. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. is becoming commonplace.wired. A.. Umer.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621. http://www. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting e-learning materials and experiences. Five years ago. and Conte.. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. ambient networks. M. M.org/abs/cs. Bertolazzi. Bibliography Abbas. June 2005. McClatchey..no/~divitini/ubilearn 2005/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. F. Ali. http://arxiv. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more.com/gp/product/14 01302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 …e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Reggiani.. Chris (2004). Do Not Reproduce 7 . Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Web 2. online resources. I hope you will find it useful. http://www. Thus. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in elearning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. The Long Tail.

K. and Votis.pdf Friesen. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of networking technology. http://www. V..ca/protocols_en. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .. Weiss. T.athabascau. Tsiatsos. American Jrnl. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).com/gp/product/01 31428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.gr/ru6/publications/95795 23. Oct.cancore. http://www. M.ca/softeval/report s/R110203. http://www. WI.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Bailetti..cti. 2004. Nov. and McGinnis (2004). Upper Saddle River.a sp Chatarji. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Web Services .asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b= 667387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. 19..org/home/CSCSI/Memb ers/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. and McGreal. Portugal. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Giotopoulos. Online. Porto. of Distance Education 10. http://cde. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.edu/pdf/ajde.cscsi.. C. Jagadish (2004). S. Aug. 14-16. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. (1996).pdf Erl. 2004. 16. C. David (2005).virtual. T. Thomas (2004). A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Athabasca University. Norm (2006).org/conferences/2002/1 stlege/session1/paper1. http://www. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. March 2002. G. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . Likothanassis.pdf Cerri. Montreal.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.org/celda2005/index. R. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. (2002).gmu.aspeninstitute. Hornig. NJ: Prentice-Hall.htm Bollier. 2.iadis. http://ru6. 4-36.. 13. N.htm l 8 © 2006.devshed. Dec. Lausanne. Chrysostalis. Centre for Distance Ed. Triantafillou. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE.org/site/apps/ ka/ec/product.Dev Shed.. 13-16. 2001. http://ewic. http://www.bcs..amazon. Sept. Stefano (2005). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.pdf Bogonikolos. 6-8. N. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. M. (2001). 2002.. (2002). USA. K.ICALT 2001. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. http://www. Madison. Switzerland. International E-Learning Specifications.

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J. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.alt.tw/JISE/2005/ 200509_06.alt. and Wade.R.pdf Urdan..sinica.com/gp/product/18 46283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.ac.. Research report.aspx Yang. April 1. (2005). An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. Learning Solutions. W. (2006).): Proceedings.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF 5659-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.astd.pdf Roberts. H. Aalderink. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. http://www.amazon. (2003). Zhou et al.informatik. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.pdf Spaniol. 21. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. future thinking: digital repositories. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. Reflective learning. 2006. G. Hambrecht and Co. M. J. http://www. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. G. Dublin. Harvey. ACTeN E-Content Report No.. http://www. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006.. Trinity College. C. Feijen. and Weggen. pp. Samuel (2006). Peter (2004)..operitel.pdf Woodill. Berlin: Springer. http://www.pdf Werkhoven. (2000). ICWL 2003. C. and Jarke. T. May 15. M. and Oliveira..pdf 10 © 2006. http://www. http://www. http://www-i5. Library+information Show. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.rwthaachen.edu.com/publications.E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks Pierre.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILT A_white_paper_2005. (2005). In W. 911-928.net/uploads/images/4 31/experience_machines. W. 9. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities.ac. R. 2005. Cook. Klamma. UK. April 26-27. M. (Eds. Trends in elearning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. e-portfolios. Birmingham. 193– 205.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publicati ons/ATLAS. C.iis. Rhonda (2006). and Ho. Lee. 2006.acten. Mashups. Brandon Hall Research . V. http://www. S.

Included are related terms. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. Do Not Reproduce 11 . allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section. online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. selected elearning related examples.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies.

understand. privacy. confused. emotional design. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Affective computing allows computers to interpret. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes mainstream. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. and react to human emotions. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. and to respond to them effectively. facial recognition. Without the ability to understand emotions. including the ability to recognize and express emotions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. 12 © 2006.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. Brandon Hall Research . affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. speech patterns Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. SRI Consulting (http://www. et al. security. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. In online therapy. too. For example.sricbi.. in Italy. posture.” (Anolli. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. and react to human emotions. 2005). Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. 2005).. emotions.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. keystroke patterns. or sad.” Projected benefits include the following: Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. understand. gestures.

org. accuracy.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.bham.convo.media.html and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.myself-proj.aisb.bartneck.uk/publications/proce edings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. UK.ac. Hatfield.nsma. Affective Computing. and legality. Access it from: http://www. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.pdf Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-tohuman communication The Geneva Emotion Research Group at is nonverbal. China.html The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.mit. including studies of emotions in computers. 2005.” Meet Ditto at: http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. are available online: http://www. Do Not Reproduce 13 . See: http://www.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. UK. it is the University of Geneva maintains a Web not surprising site on this topic. listing many links to interesting resources. Dr.uk/research/cogaf f/0-INDEX. April 12-15.unitrier. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. See it at: cues that http://emotion-research.arizona.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.edu/emotion. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.cs.de/link/affective_p ortal. with many resources. bibliographies. that researchFind it at: ers are working http://www.co.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. See the links at: http://emotion. Check it out at: http://www. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.unige.net/ indicate specific human The Proceedings of the Symposium on emotional Agents that Want and Like: Motivational states. and demonstrations the nonverbal on affective computing in Europe. 2005. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.ch/fapse/emotion/ on software that can recognize The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. University of Hertfordshire. October 22-24.html In Germany.informatik.

and Waterworth. Nortillaro. 2005.html Fallman. H. April 2-7. and Laaksolahti. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. M. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. L. K. Oregon. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation.com/wired/archive/11. http://www. 2005. April 2-7. S.wired. J.sics. CHI 2005. CHI 2005 conference.stanford.sics. Oregon. Nakajima. I. A. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. F..pdf Goren-Bar.pdf Diamond.. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Hook. and Confalonieri (2005)..se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Goren-Bar.sics. K. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. and Merisol. April 2-7.. Joseph (2005). Zurloni.. CHI 2005 conference. B.Affective Computing Bibliography Anolli. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. Oregon. (2005). L. Portland.doc Hook. http://www.. Mantovani. J. and Zouinar. (2005). Portland.1 2/love. Realdon. C.pdf 14 © 2006. April 2-7. http://www...se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Kaye. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. M. Nass. Issue 11/12. April 2-7. Pianesi. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences.uniroma1.dis. Balestra. P. Graziola. M. A.pdf Maldonado. http://www. O.. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. N. Iwamura. CHI 2005. R. J. Portland. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. V. Vescovo.. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Y.sics. CHI 2005 conference.it/~lhci/009.. Salembier. Lee. Yamada. Isbister. Oregon. (2005). The Love Machine: building computers that care.. B. (2005).. Oregon.... J. April 2-7. Bouraoui..sics. C. 2005 http://www. Pachoud. Erlbaum. December. Stock. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. Brave. and Morishima.. (2005).pdf Kaye. D. David (2003). Portland. September 13.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Chateau.edu/~kiky/CSCL200 5Maldonado. P. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. Wired Magazine.. Rocchi.. (2005). NJ.doc Chateau.pdf Cahour. 2005.. O. C.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Fallman. F.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Cahour. and Zancanaro. Brandon Hall Research . Brassac. K. Vermersch. Agliati. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Z.. Portland.sics. I Like It . D. Oregon. H. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.

J.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mentis. Cambridge.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005 _Mostafa_Japan_Final.iste. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Portland. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. E-book http://www. Helena (2005). China.. http://www. Miami. and Picard. Rosalind (1997). Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.elearningreviews.ac. M. ACII 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Affective Computing Mandryk. 2002.miv. http://www. MA: MIT. April 2-7. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.se/~kia/evaluating_affe ctive_interfaces/Picard. Tan.org/Content/Navigatio nMenu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volu me_351/Number_2_Winter_2002_200 31/Applying_Affective_Computing_Tech niques_to_the_Field_of_Special_Educat ion.utokyo. http://www. and Steele. R. J.pdf Masum. Beijing. 35(2). CHI 2005. April 2-7. S. Affective Springer. Oregon.ruebenstrunk. Computing. http://www. Berlin: Picard. October 22-24.de/emeocom p/content. Gerd (1998).amazon. http://www. (2005). 2005. http://www. 2005. 22.t.se/~kia/evaluating_affecti ve_interfaces/Mandryk. Dec. CHI 2005 conference. Portland.sics. M. May 26.sics. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. (2005). (2002). T. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. http://www. S. (2004).HTM Steele. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Regan (2005).org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. and Ishizuka. 2005.htm Tao. R. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. OR. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Norman. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. and Daily.com/gp/product/02626 540296212/sr=861152/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 9851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Do Not Reproduce 15 . Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. New York: Basic.com/gp/product/3 http://www.pdf Ruebenstrunk. CHI 2005. Oregon.sics. (2005).pdf Mentis.amazon. Donald A.

April 2-7. Charlotte (2005). University of Birmingham. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.pdf 16 © 2006. http://www.bham. CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.cs.ac. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .doc Wright. Affective Computing vs.uk/research/cog aff/Wright. Emotional Agents. Portland.thesis.se/~kia/evaluating_affec tive_interfaces/Wiberg. Doctoral Dissertation.sics.Affective Computing Wiberg. Oregon. Ian (1997). 2005.

animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge.htm) Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. intelligent agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. autonomous agents. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. 1999). Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility.. avatars. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Second. rationality.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. For example. proactive (goal directed). which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Do Not Reproduce 17 . Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. veracity. and many of them can actually learn. see the paper by Far et al. learning/adaptation. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. and. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Fourth.informatik. 2004). Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. In this context. First. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Dick Stenmark. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. has classified intelligent agents as follows: Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents http://w3. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online.gu.se/~dixi/agent/cl ass. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. benevolence. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Third. and both may be found in the same program (for example. 1999).

Therefore. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Katzlberger. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. 2005). they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. 2000). 2005. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Massaro et al. Agents have beliefs. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. not only about environments. Viswanath. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Even though each agent acts independently. However. (1998) developed a conversational agent. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. 2004) and are. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. A second agent in the simulation. useful in educational simulations. She made mistakes. 18 © 2006. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. Mentor. acting against other teams of agents. Baldi. et al. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. therefore.Agents Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. In such situations. Brandon Hall Research . This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. and the students had to continue to teach her. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. but also about other agents. Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong.

cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.stanford.uka. (2003).ira.editlib.isi.netobjectdays.ac. and expert guides. They are available as adaptive coaches. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.edu/~slater/pages/ag ents/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.org/pdf/02/papers /malceb/0623. See the article by Williams et al. For details see: www. uses seven different types of agents: 1) Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 2) Skills Manager Agent 3) Student Assistant Agent 4) Learning Paths Agent 5) Content Agent 6) Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7) User Profile Agent. go to: http://ritl. See a demo at: http://www.fsu. and Telecommunications 2003.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. See: http://www. Go to: http://www..pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. 459462.redwoodelearning.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. S. but also about other agents. A.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.org/index. See: http://liinwww.old. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Therefore. & Ebbers. go to: http://ldt.com/ CodeBaby Corp.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 22 Agents have beliefs.csc. expert role-players. not only about environments. http://www.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.liv.codebaby.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the University of Southern California. For details of this research: http://www. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.extempo. See: http://www. (2004): http://www. Do Not Reproduce 19 .org/index.editlib. Hypermedia. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.de/bibliography/Ai /agents.

Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. e-Learning 2005. VA: AACE. 2005.aace.. http://www. (Ed. L.cfm?fusea ction=Reader..org/index. & El-Khouly.old.editlib. Paper presented. E.org/newdl/index. W.org/index. S. G. July.pdf Kao. A.org/comp/mags/ds /2004/07/o7004.editlib.computer. Elan. Erfurt.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21382 20 © 2006. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. (2002). Educause Quarterly.educause.netobjectdays. Hypermedia.pdf Clarebout. 28(2).educause. W. Koono.cfm?fu seaction=Reader.).pdf Jafari. 11(3).. 306-311). ELearning 2003. http://www.. M. Y. and Palopoli. Large Complex Systems.. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. (2003). In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.. G. Jrnl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=884 3 Garro. http://www. http://www. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Norfolk. In Proceedings. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. (2002). S. http://www. Clarebout. 3. Zahia (2004). & Bengu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen.. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. No.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1 2158 Cao. http://www. Educause Quarterly.. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.org/pdf/02 /papers/malceb/0623. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Germany. J.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. 10 (3). Ali (2002). http://csdl. http://www. and Shaw. G.. C. B. 5(7). and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.org/index. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. 1503-1506.org/index. & Lin. and Tsang. S. & Johnson. 1353-1356.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0523. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. (2002).editlib. Johnson. 267-286 http://www...org/index. (1999). The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.editlib. (2000). Ng. G. (2005). Z.edu/ir/library/pdf/ eqm0235. J. Sun. G. 75-80. Inter-active Learning Res. In Richards.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.. A. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).editlib. 275-285. & Kim.pdf Guessoum. Y. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Proceedings. L. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Agents Baylor.

http://www.edu/publications/ps/ MassaroCole_WECC98. Toulouse.com/gp/product/04 70861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius.com/gp/product/159 1405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Mahmood. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. E. 143-162.org/16948 Leelawong. Cohen. L. R. Thomas (2005). Nashville. Doctoral dissertation. 1632. In Proceedings. Sandel. www. and Stucky. http://cslu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Katzlberger. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. www.aace. 1999. O.editlib.org/index. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. http://www. U.teachableagents. 16591666. International Journal on E-Learning. E-Learning 2003. and Winikoff. www. Beskow. France. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. Tennessee.pdf Menczer.aifb.informatics. August.5 .org/index.indiana. M. Vanderbilt University. C.. Krittaya (2005). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Nashville. (2003).de/BIK/vpa/109. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. TN. Doctoral Dissertation. ED-MEDIA. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. P.editlib. V. and Cole.editlib. Fuhua Oscar (2005).K. Learning by Teaching Agents. In Proceedings.unikarlsruhe. Vanderbilt University. IFIP WG12. D. http://www. S.First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). http://dl.. V.ViewAbstract&paper_id=728 3 Do Not Reproduce 21 . 4(1).ViewAbstract&paper_id=628 5 Massaro. J.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.cse. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.pdf Kim.amazon.teachableagents. Doctoral Dissertation. (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.pdf Luengo. and Ho.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (2005). http://www. http://www.. http://www. 17(2). and Ferneley..ogi. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. W.. A.pdf Lin. (1999).org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. 21-38. Daniel. Y. of California. (2006). Hershey.org/papers/Thomas KatzlbergerDissertation.edu/fil/ Padgham. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.org/index.amazon.

L. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. http://citeseer. Peter (1998). June 1-4. Carnegie Mellon University.. J. J.edu/theses/available /etd-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. and Solomon. Doctoral Dissertation..edu/~pstone/thesis / Sung. http://www. EDMedia 2005. R. Biswas. M. ED-MEDIA 2005.pdf Williams. K..ViewAbstract&paper_id=112 88 Ueno. and Núñeza. 1999.ViewAbstract&paper_id=111 01 22 © 2006.teachableagents.Agents Perez.). M. 10 (3).org/papers/ 158bis. Finland. & Madsen. and Higher Education 2004..org/16968 Sahin. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.cfm?fu seaction=Reader. 14(1). http://www. St. In Proceedings.ist.). Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Viswanath.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. (2005). Gilbert. L..cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Wesley.. http://scholar.aace. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. M. 30003002. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. In P.editlib. http://www. & Booth.editlib. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on Multi-Agent Systems (CEEMAS). S. Pittsburgh. Proceedings.editlib. (2005). (1999). http://www. Adebiyi. & Leelawong. PA. http://www. Russia.cs. Richards (Eds. Doctoral Dissertation. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). & Lim. ED-MEDIA 2004. In Richards.psu. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. http://www.org/index. (2005). N.org/index.org/index. D. 47-59. B. Government. G.. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. G.ViewAbstract&paper_id=202 77 Ueno. (2004). 3169-3176. Ferat (2000). Healthcare. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Brandon Hall Research . G. 14151420. http://www.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. (Ed. Proceedings. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. (1999).utexas. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. (2004).editlib. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. 61-65. http://dl. (2004). Petersburg. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning.org/index. S.vt.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.aace. Atreya. 321-333. R. H. Kommers & G.html Shim.. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. 194-201. K.lib.org/newdl/index.edu/565321.

wiley. Chun.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Agents Wooldridge. Paper at CLAG2004.ac. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.ppt Do Not Reproduce 23 . http://ca.upc.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/p roductCd-047149691X. http://research. April 18-21. 2004. (2004).edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. Chicago. Michael (2002).html Yan. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.

Animation Software
Related terms Flash, motion graphics Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However, recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation, research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static depiction.” Lowe adds that “in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. (2003), who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Rather, a static diagram, coupled with imagining how something worked, produced the best learning results. Also, animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation, improved the understanding of animated explanations.” (Huk, et. al., 2003) Finally, producing animations can be very costly, with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that, and the uncertainty of its effectiveness, animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence, like pictures in a flip book. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials, animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However, animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Animation Software

Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above, animation tools can be divided into three groups: Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs, including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.mindworkshop.com/alchemy/g ifcon.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.05 http://www.topshareware.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.0 http://www.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.htm For a selection of over 400,000 pre-built animated GIFs, go to the Animation Factory: http://www.animationfactory.com/animati ons/ Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). It is popular because it is easy to

use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock, 2004). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script, the builtin programming language. To use ActionScript, some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. For information on Flash, go to: http://www.macromedia.com/software/fl ash/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia, connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave, whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. For more information on Shockwave, go to: http://macromedia.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. It’s at: http://www.swishzone.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. To try them: http://faraday.physics.utoronto.ca/Gener alInterest/Harrison/Flash/

“…in some cases, animations may even prejudice learning.”

Do Not Reproduce


Animation Software

Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. More details at: http://www.adobe.com/products/aftereff ects/main.html CAT - Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit.com/gallery/default. asp?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium, their 3-D character creation environment, have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. See more at: http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Enliven - ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.viewpoint.com/pub/products/ enliven.html Falling Bodies - Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It animates fall stunts, using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. For a free demo, go to: http://www.animats.com/dynamics/dem oversion.html

Lightwave 3D is a modeling, animating, and rendering tool. Version 9 is available: http://www.newtek.com/lightwave/lw9_b etafaq.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. See: http://www.massivesoftware.com Maya is a high-end modeling, animation, effects, and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is part of Final Cut Studio, a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For details see: http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/mo tion/ SoftImage|XSI - Softimage Co., a subsidiary of Avid Technology, Inc., has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. Learn more at: http://www.softimage.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.” For more information, see: http://www.animationonline.com/ Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Go to: http://www.ascension-tech.com/

“…stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Animation Software

Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Find more at: http://esub.siggraph.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software, go to AllWorldSoft.com. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.allworldsoft.com/folders/page 2/graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. FreeDownloads Center.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.freedownloadscenter.com/Mul timedia_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animati on_Tools/ Bibliography Castillo, S., Hancock, S. and Hess, G. (2004). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Lehi, Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www.rapidintake.com/books_catalo g.htm Hegarty, M., Kriz, S., and Cate, C. (2003). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Cognition and Instruction, 21(4), 325–360. http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/C&I %20HKC.pdf Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul2 004/hess.htm

Hess, G. and Hancock, S. (2004). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits, July. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/jul 2004/hess.htm Huk, T., Steinke, M., and Floto, C. (2003). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on individual learner abilities, Proceedings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://projekte.learninglab.unihannover.de/pub/bscw.cgi/d17506/Huk _EDMedia2003.pdf Lowe, R.K. (2004). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings, ASCILITE Conference. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/p erth04/procs/lowe-r.html Malheiro, T. (2003). Flash Interactive Session. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003, (1), 1046-1048. http://dl.aace.org/12937 Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. (2002). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning, Educational Psychology Review, March 2002, 14(1), 87-99. http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/it/edit235/ handouts/mayer_mmlearn.pdf Toth, Thomas (2003). Animation – just enough, never too much, Learning Circuits, July 18, 2003. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/au g2003/toth.htm

“…animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.”


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Artificial Intelligence
Related terms Adaptive systems, agents, AI, cognitive informatics, data mining, expert systems, intelligent tutoring, machine learning, multi-agent systems, personalization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test, whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. So far, no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details, here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Given the high expectations, artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless, there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.

Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report, making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence, one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. To achieve their goals, AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program, algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. An ITS may use a variety of technologies, including collaborative filtering, recommender systems, and data mining. ITS systems create several different user models - profiles of the learner, the subject matter expert, and the teacher. To seem humanlike, ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The reality is that, in spite of progress in artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help- seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g., using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick, possibly undeliberate manner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.” On the other hand, for Johnson and Rizzo (2004), a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Moreover, there is some evidence that the emotional state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect; they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner, and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems, and Aist et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and

Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human learning, but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

Do Not Reproduce


There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. (2003). concepts. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Talking Head Tutor vs. objects. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. 2002). “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s interactions with the system (see Smid et al. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: While many systems purport to be personalized. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.e. Do Not Reproduce 30 . While many systems purport to be personalized. gestures. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. etc) and how they are interrelated. rather than using a single type of knowledge. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.Artificial Intelligence learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.

see: http://lsa.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.ca/~butz/publicati ons/wi04. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.pdf For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.cs.. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. 2005b) developed two natural language generators and “. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. and multiagents. ecommerce.colorado. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.uic.uregina.iit. (2005a.edu/papers/daveDiss ertation.” http://www.cs. Do Not Reproduce 31 . http://www. http://lsa.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.” http://www. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR.cs.colorado.. including student monitoring.di. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.unito. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.pdf …using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.Artificial Intelligence Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Hybrid schemes: Fuzzy rules Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.” http://www. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.

Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.it.kicinger.com/index.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.uc3m.infrature. http://www.iis.cmu. and INFOMAP. http://bach. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.pdf Oguejiofor et al. http://quantumsimulations. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.” http://ctat.” http://www.com/Library/WhiteP apers/LearningTheories.unsw.ht ml To achieve their goals.com/doi/pdf/10.tw/IASL/webpdf /paper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_In stant_Messaging.ucalgary.gast.Artificial Intelligence Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.sinica.edu/pubs/ITS20 04-BND-Camera-Ready.library.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.enel.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.leaonline.edu. 32 © 2006.au/unisa/ad t-SUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.pact. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Infrature. http://www. As a result. http://www. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.com/publications/pd f/OguejioforIT-AEC2004. http://www.es/~sergut/publ ications/Gutier04b.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.12 07/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. http://ariic.edu. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. question answering (QA) techniques. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.cs. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. Brandon Hall Research .

http://pact. The reality is that.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. Find out more at: http://ctat.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.it. without programming.cmu.usyd.com/s10.au/~netsys/resea rch/current_computer_science_educatio n_research. For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.virtuelage. http://www. Aurora . skill gaps. and learning style. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. Stottler Henke Associates.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.cmu.stottlerhenke. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. intelligent conflict resolution. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: SimBionic .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Founded in 1988. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. so that these systems become more realistic. Task Tutor Toolkit . and engaging.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.gemini. challenging. http://www.” http://www.cs.ke-corp. see: http://www.htm The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. an adaptive testing algorithm.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. preferred cadence.cs. Inc.pact. Do Not Reproduce 33 . and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.edu.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. and an interactive intelligent tutor.

go to: http://aied.org/2000/fe b2000/ong.autotutor. For more information.Artificial Intelligence University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. http://aied. Read it at: http://www. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.ed.inf.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.ed.cs.wpi.ac. Brandon Hall Research .edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.aspx?id=17164 Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computerbased teaching. Taiwan.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.aaai. 34 © 2006.org/2002/ 04/25/artificial_intelligence_application_ in_distance_learning_and_education.ac. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.” Learn more at: http://www.org/cfp. http://www.inf.uquebec.its2006. with the next one in 2007.technologyreview.htm Marvin Minsky.com/printer _friendly_article.teluq.masternewmedia. http://www.org/AITopics/html/tutor.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. The AIED conferences are held every two years.enel. html The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. Find it at: http://www. See: http://www.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.uk/aiedsoc. China.ucalgary.ca/eng/in dex. For more info: http://www2. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.learningcircuits. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.licef.

cmu. M.pdf Do Not Reproduce 35 .ri. Hershey. (2004).82 Bhatt. K. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Artificial Intelligence Review. Reilly. In J.pdf Barcena.edu/doc/bhattevensarg amonsubmit. P. Chicago. Paraguaçu (Eds..ac.pdf Alkhalifa. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. C. (2005).doi. http://www. T.org/10. Maceió.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeeki ng-ITS04. http://www. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.. Eshaa (Ed.ht ml Aleven. http://www. Mostow.pitt. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. PA: Idea. http://nth. (2004)..).at/erz/salzburger_beit raege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. (2004).. & F. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .sbg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Aist. V. K. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. Brazil. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.it/~argo/papers/200 4_JAIR. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.amazon. (2004). J. C.html Barker. Vicari. V. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelli-gent Tutoring Systems. Lester. Argamon. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).iit.di. and Read. Kort. Baroglio. Hermann (2002). 482-487. C. M. and Douglas.unito. V. McLaren.. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.com/gp/product/159 1408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner.pdf Baldoni. http://www. G.pdf Aleven. M. http://dx. and Penstein Rosé. I. and Evens.2005.. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.wpi.edu/pubs/pub_4073. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. Roll. http://lingcog. and Koedinger. 6(1). 22: 3–39. and Picard. B.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. In Proceedings. E. ITS 2004. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. S.org/materials/contrib/ 2004/Barcena_Read.. and Patti. (2002). R. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.Volume I.1109/ITCC.. R. http://www. http://www. B. S.) (2006). R. (2004).eurodl.

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quizzes. testing Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. making it hard to escape assess-ment. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. the automated scoring of essays. is now possible with a technique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. 1956).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). quizzes. eassessment. computer-based assessment tools. For example. and output. computer mediated assessment (CMA). informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. We can expect that. rubrics. self-evaluation. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. aptitudes. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). it is not uncommon for an individual’s performance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. once only done by a human assessor. quizzes. In a business situation. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. or performance samples. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. More sophisticated forms of automated. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. in the near future. and psychomotor. online assessment. Do Not Reproduce 45 . Assessment software can generate templates. for example. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. and “assessment for credentialing” or summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. When combined into a “360° evaluation. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. and documents for assessors to use. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assessment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. evaluation. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. affective. computer based assessment (CBA). samples. are already available. or performance samples.

questionmark. abilities. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.rmsuk. has recently won awards for its performance. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. However.info/lear ning/solo.brainbench. Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. see: http://www. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.learningandteaching. skills.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. and past work behaviors. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. Diploma. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy.xstreamsoftware. http://www. 46 © 2006.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Brandon Hall Research . multilingual support. and (4) computer marking.com/products/ brownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer.com/redinq/html/inde x. from Resources Management Services in the U. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. Review it at: http://www. See: http://www. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.com The Evaluator.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. See the site at: http://www. and adaptive question branching. Try it at: http://nt.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paperbased”) assessment.K. preview pages for all question types.redinq.horizonwimba. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.testcraft. The Web site contains a Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. For details. Find them at: http://www. a customizable look and feel. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.com/evaluator Testcraft.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer..com/news_ performance_analyzer2.Assessment Tools Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.0. personality. a completely customizable report engine.

http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. For information on latent semantic analysis. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.” organized by academic discipline.fasfind. once only done by a human assessor. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).org/ ETS.respondus. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” Do Not Reproduce 47 .com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. check out the Dialang web site. Try it at: http://www.pedagogue.epistema.com/reaxia_files/Epi stema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.” See their offerings at: http://www. on its Web site. http://www. institutional evaluation. See more at: http://www.ht m Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.colorado.edu/gened/ExemplarRubr ics/Entry.cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCatego ry=1 …the automated scoring of essays.operitel. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. surveys. http://www.org/english/index. reporting. and adminis-tration features.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. learning tools.ets.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. http://www.com/wwwtools/magazin es.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.flaguide. See: http://www. and self-study. see: http://lsa. and services useful for outcomes assessment.vantagelearning.dialang. http://www. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.uc.

htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.Assessment Tools Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.health. The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.discovery.heacademy.uka.200 references.ac.ac. http://www.cshe.com/tools/rubric s.htm l Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of e-assessment. http://www.edu.html The Wolverhampton University “Computer-Based Assessment Project” can generate over 80.scit.au/assessi nglearning/03/online. http://www. http://www.ac.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.com/useguide/as sessme/online.oir.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.ac.rmcdenver. http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.com/schrockguid e/assess.uk/han dbook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computerbased assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.de/Bibliography/M isc/cba. is available from: http://liinwww. with over 1. html The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. Obtain a copy at: http://www.uk/home.tasainstitute.uk/new s-events/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Brandon Hall Research .ulster.html Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. with a list of 34 strategies.wlv.unimelb.ira.uk/cticomp/CAA.uiuc.edu/distance/odell/ira he/arc/6too.nestafuturelab.thinkinggear.000 different tests from its database. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.economicsnetwork.” http://www. http://cba.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. Check them out at: http://school.umuc. http://www.learnflex. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.com/029. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.htm 48 © 2006. Explore the links at: http://www.org/research/ reviews/10_01.

html Bibliography Alfonseca.iltaonline. T.unt.iltaonline. A.tcet. & Rodríguez.pdf Atherton.. http://www.quintcareers. http://www.info/journals/8_3/6. http://www. (2001). Iwashita.com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23. and Hirschman.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/002 -9253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. New York: McKay.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. A. P. B.3 Bateson.amazon. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. St. and O'Hagan. London: Paladin.htm Atkinson. (1982). http://www. and Davies. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.pdf Do Not Reproduce 49 . 8 (3).htm#2.. and Collis. L. New York: Academic Press..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. M. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. 53-65. J. K. http://www. S.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom.. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.. G.learningandteaching. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. http://www. Missouri. J.info/learn ing/solo. McNamara. M.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/104 -8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. Pérez. Carro. Gregory (1973). Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.amazon.ict4lt. (1956).pdf Biggs. (2001). R. E. N. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. http://www. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Taskbased Oral Assessment..ifets. Louis.com/career_asse ssment. http://www. James (2005). the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Educational Technology & Society. Freire. S. Online paper. http://www.org/en/en_mod41. http://www. (2004). D. Online paper.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.amazon.. T. Ortigosa. (2005).com/ILTA_archive/ LTRC23.

http://www. Harabagiu and F.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. http://llt.eschoolnews.assess.com/gp/product/01 95187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Burstein. Daniel. D. and Chodorow.amazon. (2002). C. New York. Martin. (2003). Hillsdale. In M. Inouye. (1989). New York: Oxford. http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive.com/news/sho wStoryts. Chodorow. Jill. Burstein.ets. V.pdf. Burstein (Eds.htm Burstein.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.computer. eSchool News. http://www. August 2003.com/Books/b39739. Ciravegna (Eds. J. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. June 22. In the R..Assessment Tools Brown J. Educational Measurement. Jill. Linn (Ed.msu.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. J. http://www. Jill. Brandon Hall Research . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence.com/gp/product/15 75171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Arlington Heights.org/intelligent/archives. Marcu.amazon. L. IEEE Intelligent Systems.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective. K. & Leacock.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield.org/research/dload/iaai0 3bursteinj. Shermis and J.com/gp/product/15 73562211/sr=81/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. Shermis and J. www. http://www. 3rd Edition. In S. How to Assess Authentic Learning. and Knight. (2003). http://www. Mexico. Burstein (Eds.).amazon.. Kevin (2003). B. http://www. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.ht m. Robert (2005). Acapulco. Hillsdale. C. Jill C. Kay (1999). IL: Skylight. In M. 2005. 1. and Marcu. Daniel.. & Olsen. NY: Macmillan. Rethink testing for future success.com/Books/b39739. Kaplan (Ed. (1997). M. (2003). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.htm 50 © 2006. Langu-age Learning and Technology. In R. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.assess.

Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. (2001).unimelb. (2001). University of Tasmania. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. C. Board on Testing and Assessment.html Do Not Reproduce 51 . B. and Grellett. Howard.ac.org/about/over/positions /category/write/107610. M. (1998). Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. P. Online newsletter. M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Carr.edu.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.msu. (2004). (2005). Online newsletter. http://www. www.ncte.. March 9. n. http://llt. National Research Council. K.amazon. W.au/worldcall/str5. Language Learning and Technology. London: Falmer. The Student Assessment Handbook. Nathan.pdf Dunkel P. L.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).ht ml Center for Education (CFE) (2002). http://www. (Ed. E. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". v. H. May. Millard. Foltz. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. N. http://www.edu.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedi a99.. O’Reilly. http://wwwpsych.msu..edu/vol5num2/Deville/defa ult. T. 5. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. 2. http://llt..Proceedings from a Workshop. Language testing and technology: past and future. 2: 77-93. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.ecs. D.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Writing assessment: a position statement. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.iltaonline. http://www. Morgan.nmsu. W. Loughborough. Louis.au/teachingonline/ develop/webct_tools/communications/a ssess_online_discussion..htm Cebrian. EdMedia '99. P. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. In Proceedings. & Landauer. http://eprints.html Chalhoub-Deville.uk/10940/0 3/aggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_S OA. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. S. Micheline.com/gp/product/04 15335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. (2004). Davis.html Davies.hlc.nap. Chalhoub-Deville.. College Composition and Communication Online. http://www. and Parry. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Language Learning & Technology 2.soton. (1999). St.doc.) (1999). Laham. Y. Micheline. D.utas. (1999). and Sclater. C.

J.amazon. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. and Ma. New York: Basic Books.org/PUBLICATIONS_ PRESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. M. (2001). D. M. 4.com/gp/product/04 65025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Goodwin-Jones. Language Learning and Technology. K. (2002). Hardas. 2. Lawrence.. http://www.kent. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.com/pdf/Pap erTests. http://www. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. R (2002). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. (1999). 259284. P. http://llt. v. W. France.. The use of computers in the assessment of t d tl i g LTDI I tit t f Do Not Reproduce 52 . http://llt.) (2005). M.pdf Landauer. (1998). Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. http://www. May. Language Learning and Technology.. (2005). Potenza. http://mason.medianet.html Khan..msu. and Ward. Seven technologies for assessment.com/exec/obidos/A SIN/B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585 /sr%3D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. V. May. C. 5.edu/~amelmed/768% 20Fall%2002/Frase.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Frase. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.com/gp/product/15 91404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Jones.edu/vol5num2/emerging/d efault.pd f Kenyon. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.pdf Hricko. N.proexam.Hershey. Howell. Hillsdale. Discourse Processes.gmu. Fremer. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. (Eds. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.softwaresecure.html. International Journal on E-Learning.edu/publicatio ns/WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. Compiegne.pdf MacDonlad. & Laham.colorado. Y. Patrick (2000).) (2002).com/gp/product/08 05837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glance Mogey. & Mason.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/def ault. No. http://www.. PA: Information Science. http://www. W. J. T. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.msu.amazon.htm.amazon. (Eds.. Robert. n. (2001). Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. and Howell. Gardner. Foltz. and Malabonga.LSAi ntro. H. M. http://www. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Howard (1993). http://lsa. Online paper. J. Weller. http://www. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. and Watt.. 5(2). S. 25.edu/papers/dp1.amazon. D.

& Leacock. Graham.gov/pubs2000/2000195. M.. B.com/gp/product/15 91407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=507 846&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. M.. http://www. http://eric. NY: Guilford Press. D. G. pp. 4(6). 403-416.com Do Not Reproduce 53 . Journal of Technol. pdf Weiner. M. (2006). http://www. D. Burstein. Howard. (1979).com/gp/product/08 05835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. University of Gothenburg. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Washington.) (2005).bc. Reports from the Institute of Education.amazon. National Center for Education Statistics. C. and Skinner. http://www. McArthur. Tim (2006). (2006). Online Assessment.ed. Learning. Measurement and Evaluations. Self.amazon.edu/cgi/viewconten t. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. New York.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Assessment Tools Roberts. (Ed. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. R.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. Computer-Based Assessment in ELearning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.S. J. and Gifford. Fitzgerald. http://www. and Assessment. Mahwah.com/gp/product/159 1409667/sr=12/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö.) (2000). & J. In C. K. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. S. (2000). Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. and Hricko.operitel. Operitel white paper... Handbook of writing research.amazon. S. and Writing. PA: Information Science.ed.amazon. Howell. Information Science Publishing. (2005). http://nces. Hershey. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.com/gp/product/159 3851901 United States Department of Education. DC: U.p ortal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDeta ils&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED173 369&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_a ccno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. A. Problem Solving. http://www. http://escholarship. (Eds. Government.

one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. According to Crofts et al.. With the advent of “broadband” or “highspeed” networks. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. which is gaining in popularity. Audio is an important component of many learning experiences.5 megabytes.e. Brandon Hall Research . (2005). podcasting. is podcasting. One audio application of interest to educators. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . or by “streaming. being the main form of communication in preliterate societies. including the following: Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage 54 © 2006. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). the rest of the file has time to arrive. radio Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. depending on the file size). the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. while it is playing. including the following: Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. For example. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. (i.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. compared with even a few years ago.

Enables instructors to review training or lectures.purdue. http://www. http://www. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. This frag-mentation is being fueled. (i. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. Provides feedback to learners..edu/ Audio in elearning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. open source software for recording and editing sounds. and other operating systems. Provides another channel for material review. helps learning in the following ways: Assists auditory learners.e. Do Not Reproduce 55 . such as those for iPods.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.envision. Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. to personalized media).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. in part.scientificcomputing. http://www.p hp/archives/2004/11/02/the-textbookis-audio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.apple. It is available to download for Mac OS X. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.thepodcastnetwork. http://www.rds. Assists non-native speakers. GNU/Linux.net/projects/audacity / A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.com/blogs/doug/index. You can’t add your own notes. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. http://www. Microsoft Windows. http://sourceforge.html The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.

http://www. or sentences from audio Web sites.avsmedia.48.Audio and Podcasting Tools Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. including software to record and play podcasts.com.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. http://www. shareware. Podcasting is the name for sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. phrases.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.podcasting-tools.com/resources/dc_medi a. http://epnweb. is podcasting. and utilities for conversion. http://www.automaticsync.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.audiotoolsdirect. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: One audio application of interest to educators.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. enhancing.elearningcentre. Audio and video software.htm For a list of podcasting tools. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. 56 © 2006.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.com/AudioTools/in dex.edupodder. DJ mixing.co. playback. http://www. CD audio extraction.ibritt.masternewmedia.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts. http://64. including podcasting. http://www. which is gaining in popularity. http://recap. http://www.htm A number of audio editors are available on the Web. sound editing.htm#Teaching Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. freeware.71.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. recording. go to: http://www. and broadcasting are all found on this site.uk/eclipse/Resources/ sound. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. Brandon Hall Research .htm RECAP Ltd.uk/podcasting/index. http://www.ltd.com/lipsync/in dex. tools.

htm Jobbings. (2003).bias-inc. S. Ray (2005). April 2005. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. 417-419).html Bibliography Buhman.org/issues/issue10_9/ crofts/index. First Monday.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. VA: AACE. Scientific Computing World. Government.html Canali De Rossi. L.masternewmedia. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. Healthcare. 10(9).com/scwmarapr05sonificatio n.editlib. http://www.cakewalk.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. http://firstmonday.html Curtis.. Robin Good’s Blog.org/news/ 2005/05/20/where_to_submit_your_po dcasts.com/products/audition/ main. and Swenson.aace. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. B. Sound Sense. (2005). 45-50. Chesapeake. Dion Cory (1999). and Higher Education 2003 (pp.. http://www. Brenda (2001).audiolink. http://recap. http://digitalcommons.unl. Richards (Ed.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 57 .multitrackstudio.sonicfoundry. May 20. M.uk/articles/podguide. July 2005. University of Nebraska. Video/Audio Production for InternetBased Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Dilley.edu/dissertatio ns/AAI9929186 Crofts. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). 2005.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Luigi (2005).adobe.com/home.ltd.. J. http://www.org/3455 Girvan. In G. Dave (2005). A. and Williams. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.scientificcomputing.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Audition http://www. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. Retsema. September. Fox. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Gerth. http://dl. P.org/index.

(2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.edu/LibraryDetailP age/666?ID=LIVE0514 58 © 2006. and Lomas. http://edmarketing. C. http://www. Learning Circuits. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Eva (2005).Audio and Podcasting Tools Kaplan-Leiserson.learningcircuits.pdf Noakes. June 2005.org/2005/jun 2005/0506_trends Meng. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. Peter (2005). Brandon Hall Research . Podcasts. N.educause. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Podcasting and Vodcasting. http://www.com/adcinstitut e/wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Pap er.apple.

There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Development. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing elearning (aside from programming languages) include the following: FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word For details on each Microsoft product. either directly or with third party tools. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Further. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. shtml). Design. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. and. and Evaluation) processes. Implementation. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by elearning applications. No authoring tool does everything. rapid e-learning. In this vein. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Webbased courses or learning objects.brandonhall. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. As well. either directly or with third party tools. please see http://www.com/ Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Further. 2005). Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. content development.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). see: http://www. (For details. in the end.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Do Not Reproduce 59 .microsoft. simulations. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content.

com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.activeslide. music.anark.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. video.com/ Acroservices .thinkingcap.htm ActiveSlide.accordent.allencomm. video. http://www. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. and marketing applications. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www.info/ Allen Communications .html Since its acquisition of Macromedia.com Agile .adobe. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.Designer’s Edge.Media – Import 3-D Models. go to: http://www.AcroTrain – Author elearning courses using PowerPoint.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.articulateglobal.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Since its acquisition of Macromedia. http://www. and images and turn them into 3-D training. http://www. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp For details on each Adobe product. visualization. www. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.com/presenter. XML.com/products/ Articulate . http://www.com/newAS/file s/products/acrotrain.acroservices.Thinkcap Studio . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. http://www.Capture Station 2.com Anark . Do Not Reproduce 60 .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.

digitalworkshop.ilessons. video.composica.htm Composica . http://www. pointers. Builds quizzes.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to e-learning courses without programming.co. http://www.brainshark.php e2train .com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.e2train. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. stand alone . http://www. video. http://www. DVD-video.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. http://www.A Web-based e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Atlantic Link . http://www.com/eng/index. buttons. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.shtml Dynamic Media . http://www. CD Rom.ht m Brainshark Inc.uk/contentpoint. Flash.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . http://presentation.com/ There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.de/content/enu/produ ct-n-solutions/authoring-system/ Digital Workshop . such as the following: Web.atlanticlink. Do Not Reproduce 61 . pop-up messages.com/ Counterpoint .turbodemo. and PowerPoint slides. audio.com/product s/Pro.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.com/power point-presentations-index.Content Point .com/inde x.com/in dex_eng.exe files. http://www. http://www.com/ Business Performance Technology .htm Bernard D&G .bridge-pt. Integrates various media.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.lersus. hotspots. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.dynamicpowertrainer.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.asp Bridge People and Technology CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.elearningpowertools.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.copycatsoftware. rich text. and animation.co. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. . Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. http://www.Composica Enterprise .

Development Kits – Create Flash courses. http://www. http://www.e-learningconsulting. html E-Learning Consulting . and.p df Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .horizonwimba.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-anddrop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. Brandon Hall Research . HTML courses.com/ Hunter Stone .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.elementk. in the end. 62 © 2006.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. graphics. http://www.Authoring Tools Eclipsys Corporation . Post the characters on any Web site.com Imaira Digital Media .KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/Solutions/Elear ning.com Element K .Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.com/index. http://www. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www.com/products/forceten. without programming knowledge. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-anddrop tools.asp?orgi d=22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127 & (e)pistema .asp Eedo Knowledgeware .sculptoris.eclipsys. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.gen21.epistema. http://www.com/ka. http://www. http://www.com No authoring tool does everything.eedo. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.experiencebuilders.elicitus.hunterstone. and installation files. http://www. http://www. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.com/reaxia_files/E pistema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.

Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and dragand-drop importing of rich media. shtml Itaca .EasyProf . and animations with tests and interactivity.lecturnity. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 63 .elearninginabox.seminar. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.js p Knowledge Planet . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www. with no programming and no plugins. Built-in testing engine. Word.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.com/ Information Transfer .intuition.com/flashh ome.intecllc.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.ie/software/publisher. http://www.Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www.co. http://www.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. http://www. centralized knowledge base. combining multimedia content like video.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .de/ Impatica .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.com/ Integrated Performance Systems . audio.pdf Intuition .knowledgequest.ipsinc.WTDS-Web Training Development System .asp Knowledge Quest . http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORM-compliant e-learning lessons. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.knowledgeplanet.com/home/home.impatica.knowledgepresenter.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools imc AG . Has its own built-in learning management system.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Br ochure.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. http://www.knowledgextensions.uk/ INTEC . from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.easyprof.com/ Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a wellequipped kitchen.com/pro dserv.

learnerland. Works with SAP Learning Solution.com/index. http://www. PowerPoint slides.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. http://www.mindiq. Ready-made button and navigation aids.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.com .Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.ph p MindOnSite . http://www.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www.percepsys.com/coursegen.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.htm MediaMaker .com/ NetPlay Software . http://www.uk/ MindIQ . graphics. with a built-in learning management system.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. http://www. 64 © 2006.instant-demo. and other online presentations for play back to students. http://www.ch/eLearning/EN /index.mindonsite.screenwatch.mckinnonmulherin. http://www.ht m Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. http://www.com/ OPTX International . .customcourse.co.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.maxit.asp?id =178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www.LEARNERLand – Text.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.maxit. Brandon Hall Research .com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.com/ Percepsys . http://www.learn. course publisher.mohive.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.Authoring Tools Learn.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.com/learncenter. and course player all in one software package.com MyKnowledgeMap .

crosswords. http://www. http://nuvvo.com/ Savvica .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. http://www.sensalearning. and assessments.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://www.net ReadyGo .net/ PointeCast . customizable flashcards.com Respondus .htm Suddenly Smart . When content is developed. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.com/ Scribe Studio .E-Learning Objects .teknical.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. image labeling.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://www.readygo.com/smartbui lder-web/sb_author.com/products/stud ymate. Courses can be posted. http://www.qarbon. http://www.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. and Flash. interactive Flash presentations and online training. GIFs.In minutes.cfm Serco (technical) .shtml Reusable Objects .com/Products/elear ning_objects.com/ …many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. without knowing code.com/ Qarbon .respondus.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.reusableobjects. Do Not Reproduce 65 .Nuvvo . popups.or SCORMcompliant.rapidintake.com/sensasol ution.Publisher Professional . http://www. JPEGs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools podia .podia.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. Audio.suddenlysmart. http://www. http://www. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.softchalk. image hotspot activities. http://www.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. http://www.com/common/a ffiliateRefer.scribestudio.podiaOnDemand . http://www.pointecast.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Webbased lesson editor with interactive learning games. Microsoft PowerPoint.com Rapid Intake . a customizable. matching games.

http://www. 66 © 2006. http://www.com/product_sa.asp TEDS . http://www.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. video.asp TrainVision .time4you. French.techsmith. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/Technology.teds.dol. images. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. or Network.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. http://www.trainvision.webex.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.2conformant objects and assessments.co. or Spanish.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.toolbook.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. templates.Authoring Tools SumTotal .Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.uk/index.com/learn_assistant . htm Techsmith .westcliffdata. audio.php?from=menu SyberWorks .com/services/webpresentation-svc.de/ibt/main/en/sit e/time4you/ibt/en/start.com/products/lc.lectora.syberworks. http://www. content conversion.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.php ?content=products/scobuilder There are hundreds of content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.php?from=menu SumTotal .ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.h tml Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAut horing Trainersoft – Desktop Author .Presentation Studio .Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.htm time4you GmbH . Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. CD. Brandon Hall Research . and highly interactive e-learning content. http://www. http://workforceconnections. http://www. and rapid simulation. and text.com/products/t rainersoft/trainersoft8.com/ US Government . and wizards.funeducation. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.com/learn_assistant .toolbook.com/camtasia. kiosks.gov/ Webex .

De Bra.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programmingfree simulation authoring tool. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.win.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader. Berlin: Springer. McMullen. and host online discussions. (2005). C.. (2003). Doctoral Dissertation. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.com/gp/product/14 02017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. See: http://www. http://www.cs. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Webbased Interactive Learning Environments.amazon. and Brusilovsky.com/products/products _xwb.pdf Ramp.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. C.xplana..pdf Murray.xstreamsoftware. Blessing. P. and Pahl. E. T.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-finalfull. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).tue. http://www.. Lin (2005). Illinois. M. P. Vancouver. publish blogs. Montreal.brandonhall.htm Zapatec . http://www.org/index. (2005). AACE. Canada. http://www. Healthcare. http://www.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. D. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. right in their browser with no additional software required. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. Northwestern University. (2005). www.oswego. 2005..com/downloa d_rb40eval. Do Not Reproduce 67 . www. June 2005.oswego. http://www. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.editlib. Government. BC.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. and Riesbeck. interactive and intelligent educational software. and Ainsworth. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EDMEDIA).cs. S. October 24-28. E. Evanston. S.bloki.edu/~lqiu/indie/publicati ons/edmedia2005. L. Melia.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Authoring Tools Xplana .com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.ViewAbstract&paper_id=211 57 Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.

Learning Circuits.com/publications/emerging/emerging.brandonhall. Nov. June 2005. Technical Univ. Learning Circuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Gary (2005). http://www2. The myth about tools.htm Woodill. http://www. CA: Brandon Hall Research..org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. http://www. NL. E.sis. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Reuben (2004).edu/~paws/publicatio ns. 2004.Authoring Tools Ramp. Reuben (2005).htm Tozman. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Sunnyvale. (2005). A.pitt. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. shtml 68 © 2006. Masters Thesis.learningcircuits.learningcircuits.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. Eindhoven.htm Tozman. W.

In the area of psychotherapy.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. but in e-learning. In some situations. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Related terms Agents. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. In the context of elearning. games. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. especially in gamebased learning activities. Similarly. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.” Maldonado et al. and generally simulates human activity. for example.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-to-speech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. in the broadest sense. Do Not Reproduce 69 . It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. the avatar may represent an actual human being.

in cooperation with a number of groups.codebaby.com/eclipping s/2006/07/top_20_educatio. http://blogoehlert.” which are avatars that teach.exodus. See them in action at: http://www. http://www. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.com/solutions/elea rning/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.telsim.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.com / Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.typepad. http://www.com/ Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. users are represent-ed as avatars. 70 © 2006. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. http://www.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.tmmy. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.Avatars Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. In the toolkit.gr/Avatar_Conference / The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. See: http://www.vcom3d.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.knowledgeenvironments. http://www. Try them at: http://www.co.html Online Resources In Europe. offering a large number of supportive functions.co.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.daden. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.oddcast. http://www. modular application.sculptoris.redwoodelearning. Inc.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.

Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. Raj (2003). C.. 25. S. and Nodder. (2004). (2005). In T. (2005). www. Suthers. Lee. B.. and T. Brave. D. 2003. A. http://www. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Yamada. H. Chan (Eds. In Proceedings of TESI 2005 . J.naccq. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Koschmann.elearningguild. Y.nz/conference04/proceedin gs_03/pdf/255.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. S. and Weber. H.. K...pdf Jung. Iwamura..pdf Seth..stanford.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_T ESI.W.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. Ahad. Nexus Media. Nakajima. R. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. New Zealand. www. C. M. Nass..pdf Do Not Reproduce 71 .ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Avatars Bibliography Deuchar. and Morishima. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 2005.pdf Maldonado. http://isnm. Aug. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.Training Education & Education International Conference..edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldo nado.

” The Catalyst Group. blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: Blogs can be useful sources of information. screencasting. in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.Blogs Related terms Crunkies. 72 © 2006. there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Brandon Hall Research . hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the first few pages. in a note of caution. Similarly. and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements. “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations. education. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Clyde adds. or they can be open to the general public. a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much. Few. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a However. one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners.” As well. if any. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. A form of online publishing. Nevertheless. the use of blogs in education is here to stay. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. For teachers. cite the following as problems with blogs: Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan. Weblogs Description Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments. who wrote. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. Blogs are used for communication. video blogging. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio. Blogs are used for marketing. as the following examples show. However.

President of an instructional design firm. if they have subscribed to the blog.com/ Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. with a wide range of writing styles. an applications company. Find it at: http://www.com/cs_id/tr ainingblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg. Do Not Reproduce 73 . His blog. http://www. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket.cramersweeney.internettime. movie reviews look different than recipes. http://www.com/wordpress/ http://informl.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application.net/category/bloggingfor-education/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL.blogburst. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. For more information. http://www.edtechpost. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs.weblogs. Canada. has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.com/ Jenna Sweeny.elearnspace. elearnspace. although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog.sonyericsson. Most blog writing is unstructured. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space.gif BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. is a great resource. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting.org/ http://carapace.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3. their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting.com/spg. see: http://structuredblogging.html http://radio. It’s found at: http://www.jsp?cc= ca&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1 &zone=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals.com/0110772/storie s/2003/03/13/towardsStructuredBloggin g.weblogs.g.html James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about elearning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning.ca/gems/matrix2 .us/archives/026 753.wavemarket. In this approach. the structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs Selected Examples A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. other than simple word searching. http://www. When someone the user knows arrives.

blogspot.essdack.anecdote.com/index.org/pdfs/PIP%20 Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202 006. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blo gGuide050919.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments.postgenomic.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog. http://www.Blogs Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse. based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines.metaxucafe. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.uk/eclipse/Resources/ elblogs. there were 891 educational blogs listed. Teresa A.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.au/papers/Co nnectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics.com/ Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www. http://blogpulse. http://www. has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs.mkbergman.google.48.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers.com/directory/ed ucation_and_training Susan Herzog. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com. “blogs are cool.co.htm …blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. including educational blogging.pewinternet. check out this site: http://www3. View them at: http://video.blogcatalog. Get the guide at: http://www.php Online Resources BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. Find her work at: http://64. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www. In March 2006. which analyzes trends in blog site topics.com/videoplay?docid =-54633740168105430&q=tilt According to eighth graders.pdf 74 © 2006. a librarian.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies.org/socialstudies/ blogs.elearningcentre.71.

has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared.everyhuman.asp Davis.masternewmedia. Luigi (2005). Ways to use Weblogs in education. May 16. http://anne2. July 11.pewinternet.mkbergman. http://www.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_plat forms.teachesme.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=112258 8384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.pdf Canali De Rossi.pdf Clyde.eweek.com/article2/0.org/pdfs/PIP%2 0Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%20 2006. (2006). 14-26. AI3 White Paper. http://www. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Blogs WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/10171. http://www. Educational Blogging. Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/Blog Guide050919. Stephen (2004). Enterprise blogging.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio. Blogs: a global conversation.asp Lenhart. James (2005). http://www. “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability.lo w. David (2005). No. Robin Good Blog. EDUCAUSE Review. blogs can be used within a classroom or a community. A.com/work/theses8. September 2005. http://www. 2006. Master’s Thesis. S.pdf A form of online publishing. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging. 2006.com/cof actors/upload/Blog_usability_report. Laurel (2005).com Bibliography Bergman. Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique.masternewmedia. http://www. July 19. Sept. July 14.freepint. http://www.pdf Pierce. FreePint Newsletter.htm#feature Coursey.catalystgroupdesign. EduBlog Insights. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes. Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. Robin Good Blog. January 13.com/2004/10/ 05/ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes.waypath. eWeek.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_th e_knowledge.12. or they can be open to the general public. Do Not Reproduce 75 . New York. Anne (2004).174. 29.downes.fasfind. Syracuse.eschoolnews. go to: http://m. 2005.com/issues/130105 . 39(5). eSchool News Online.1895.edu/pub/er/erm0 4/erm0450. 5.educause. and Fox. Panelists: blogs are changing education. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Oct. September/October.ca/cgibin/page. www. Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. March 24.00. http://www. Syracuse University. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.com/news/sho wStoryts. Luigi (2004). Dennis (2006). Michael (2005).htm Catalyst Group (2005). http://www. 1837604.com.

mozilla. Like all technology innovation curves.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mosaic browser. http://www. and photo sharing. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox.com/ What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. thin clients. Netscape. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book. blogs.com/applications /omniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional browser.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Related terms FireFox. http://www.activeworlds. The Internet is treated as a virtual space. plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser). using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. America Online. while Opera. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out. Internet Explorer. Selected Examples OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client.mozilla. where many applications interact with each other automatically. For example. (http://www. which owned the rights to Netscape. What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. Flock was launched in October 2005. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce. the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox). or at least their influence is decreasing.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. they may not be necessary as navigational devices. 2001). Webtops Description For many. it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. has a small following. and “themes. search engines. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds.mozilla. allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www. 76 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .com/firefox/). bookmarking. a browser that has been around for a long time. http://www.omnigroup.flock. and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. the defeat of the Netscape browser.org/?application= firefox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. For a complete listing of FireFox “addons” see: https://addons.opera.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons. (http://www.

called “Webtops.evolt. Adam (2004).webdevelopersnotes.php3 Bibliography Cox. http://www.networkworld. 2001.. http://www.39218173. 2004.0. 16. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers. 2002.washingtonpost. http://money.0: The Powerful Web Browser. William Horton Consulting.com. TidBits.com/desi gn/browsers_list. Renai (2005).” Read two entries on this topic at: http://blogoehlert.html Online Resources Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers. May 16.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038. 2005. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. decreasing… (2006) The Webtop.org/wiki/Comparison_ of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Browsers Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers. Malik.com/2006/02/24/smbu already there is siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index. Boulder. 742. 2006.typepad.zdnet.com. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_browser Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed.html?referrer=email 77 © 2006.pdf LeMay. CO.com. July 30. WashingtonPost.2000061733.html Engst.com/eclippings /2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_We b_2_0/0.htm The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing. Still Perfecting its Pitch. O. W.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton.typepad.wikipedia.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser. Network World.cnn. Opera Browser. No. These articles include the following: List of Web Browsers: http://en. Oct. 29.tidbits.bestdegree. Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2. Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. M. John (2001). http://db. 21. or at least their influence is Schonfeld. CNN Money. Michael (2006). across several articles. http://www. OmniWeb 5. Jan.org/wiki/List_of_web_b rowsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en. and Copeland. E.wikipedia.com/news/2001 /0129browserless.00. ZDNet Australia.h talk of a tm "browserless Web” Tedeschi. K.com/getbits. Aug.com/eclippings /2006/07/continuing_to_p. and Horton.

The use of clickers has several advantages. The devices keep students alert and involved. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. 78 © 2006. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. and archiving of questions The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application. increasing their motivation to learn. Beatty.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. management. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. 2004): Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. Brandon Hall Research . Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. clickers. However. The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. or clickers. 2006. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. display. integrated with other types of learning technologies. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. With this technology it is possible to do the following: Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. giving almost instant feedback. voting systems Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. classroom communication systems. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. costs can be an issue. There are time-consuming Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students.

com/ Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. Do Not Reproduce 79 . training the faculty member to use the software. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.com.h-itt.com/index. http://umperg.pearsonncs.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.gtcocalcomp.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.com/products_int erwrite.h tm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Classroom Response Systems issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom.asp x Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. the costs and headaches multiply.smartroom. Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12.umass. http://www.optiontechnologies. http://www.qwizdom.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson Publishing textbook.” In spite of the costs. and military settings. http://www. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. http://www.pearsoned.learnstar.com/cps/index.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. http://www.com/index.com/Default. corporate.einstruction.com/audi ence-response-systems/index. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.physics.” http://www. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. http://www. higher education.au/ELearnin g/AudienceResponseSystems/Home. http://www. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.edu/projec ts/ASKIT In spite of the costs. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways.

http://www. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. including material on the use of classroom response systems. Eric (1997).edu. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. No. 272-275. Tom (2004).html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.educause. Research Bulletin.com/gp/product/01 35654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.utexas.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Ian (2004).pdf Mazur. March 3.aclearn. http://www. Educause Learning Initiative.edu/tsec/jim /CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20compariso ns. July 7.Classroom Response Systems The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Volume 2004. Upper Saddle River. http://www.jmu.com/news_issue.edu/academic/cit/ho wto/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.ca/Clickers The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).uq. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. integrated with other types of learning technologies. 2004. http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.net/display. Brandon Hall Research . Australia. ELearning Dialogue. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.pdf Cassidy. Anne (2006). Feb. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Conference.cfm?page =966 Bibliography Beatty. 80 © 2006.edu/academic/cit/ser vices/cps/ECARCRS. 2006. 3.cua.cisat. Melbourne. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.edu/articleprinter1. The Physics Teacher. R. http://www. https://sharepoint. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Q.elearning. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.cfm ?file=/051103/story2. NJ: Prentice Hall. 41(5).utexas. http://www.pdf Burnstein. http://inside.edu/ir/library/pdf/ ELI7002. and Lederman. http://www.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. (2003).active-learning-site.itee. http://www.ubc. 3. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.pdf The use of clickers can become an inclass Web application.asp?id=154 &IssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.amazon.campustechnology. Inside CUA.

and collaborating. social bookmarking. and consensus building. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.. The Institute for the Future. through brainstorming). identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives There are many different ways to collaborate.g. doing. organization. evaluation. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: Library (a few people place material in a repository. many respond. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. reduction.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. These products can be divided into the following categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: The big news for emerging elearning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. social networking Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.g. it requires skill and experience. e. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests.. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.. Do Not Reproduce 81 .g. clarification.

and communication. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). contacts.w3. and information technology adoption. with templates and workflows for product development. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.teamspace. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).bluetie.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www. organize. and instant messaging.advancedreality. http://www.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. 82 © 2006. http://www.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . Brandon Hall Research .com There are many different ways to collaborate. voice and data collaboration.inteam. http://www. Presence (see who’s online). share files. http://www.bantu. http://www. expert location. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.Collaboration Tools Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .html?ad-main Annotea . http://www.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. collaborative file management.avecomm. jot down notes.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . intellectual property management.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.brightidea. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. and upload photos. collaborate.com/virtualoffice/index.com/ Blenks – In-team .zoho. http://www.com/services/faq_basi cs. calendar. and bookmarks.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.backpackit. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.com/product s/index. and Alerts (time-sensitive notifications) offer rich communications.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. http://www.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Central Desktop – Central Desktop - Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects, share information, and communicate with others. Includes document organization and sharing, document versioning, and searchable discussion threads. http://www.centraldesktop.com/ Cisco - Unified MeetingPlace - An integral component of the Cisco IP Communications system, Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw /ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting - Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources, Web conferencing, and collaboration. http://www.citrix.com/English/ps2/produc ts/product.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.gotomeeting.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files, markup of data, recordable conferencing, and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.comotivsystems.com/ourProdu ct/index.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www.courseforum.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.opencroquet.org

Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat - Web conferencing software to address the needs of business, education, non-profit, and individual users. http://www.globalchat.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise - Offers realtime collaboration through Web access, instant messaging, discussion forum, alerts, flexible workflow, robust document management, and meeting manager. http://www.digite.com/ EMC² - Documentum eRoom - Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. Features include IM; project planning and reporting; search; version control; office, desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook); integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://software.emc.com/microsites/eRo om/index.jsp Engineering.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that features a project navigator; resource information sharing; mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet; desktop sharing and remote desktop control, recording and playback; and document management. http://collaboration.engineering.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) - A Web-based collaboration environment for software development. The system streamlines project planning, requirement and risk management, software construction, product quality assurance, quantitative project management, and organizational process performance. http://www.epam-pmc.com/

Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task; it requires skill and experience.

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Collaboration Tools

Exact Software – e-Synergy - The eSynergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. Features include the following: Accessing documents, scheduling and using calendars, tracking the status of assignments, and sending workflow tasks. http://www.exactamerica.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting - Live meetings and Web conferencing. Features include interactive data collaboration; universal file viewer for MS office documents; drawing tools; presentation tools, including whiteboards, snapshots, and images; interactive whiteboard; desktop sharing; and corporate instant messaging. http://www.ezmeeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming, categorizing, voting, conducting surveys, and creating action plans. http://www.facilitate.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple, easy to use online collaboration system. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.flypaper.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces ProjectSpaces is a password-protected, Web-based extranet tool. It provides working groups with simple, powerful, secure, and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.forumone.com/section/servic es/projectspaces/

Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser, with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.gliffy.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create, search, and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://groups.google.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration - GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www.gordano.com/products/Colla boration.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files, invite workspace members, assign file editing rights and completion dates, attach threaded discussions to files, allow members to update and edit files. http://www.grapevinesoftware.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing, meeting, project management, data and process tracking, and team management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www.groove.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.groupsupport.com/EN/produ cts/GSII.shtml

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Hewlett Packard - Halo Collaboration Studio - A system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html hotComm - A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network, a powerful, scalable, and secure peer networking architecture. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast, efficient, private interactive access or exchange of text, voice, video, data, and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.hotcomm.com/hotComm.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. Features include the following: Business email, online document management, online calendar, online contact management, task manager, and shared documents. http://www.hyperoffice.com/ IBM - Lotus QuickPlace - A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quick place/

IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class e-mail and collaboration system for small businesses. Features include the following: Shared calendars, contacts, folders, and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www.iceweb.com/ iLinc Communications - iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. http://www.ilinc.com/ Interwoven - WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents; integrates with MS Office, Outlook, and Lotus Notes; and provides search, versioning control, and extensibility. http://www.interwoven.com/products/do cument_management/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Features include the following: Document management, including versioning, security levels, search archiving, and file commenting. http://www.inquesttechnologies.com/Sm artApps.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M - A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Integrated suite of multi-user, peer-to-peer, and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www.jdhtech.com/

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Collaboration Tools

JotSpot - Jotspot Live- A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www.jotlive.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace - kGroups provides a number of tools, including file sharing, discussion forums, blogs (Weblogs), podcasting, a Wiki, realtime chat, instant messaging and presence indication, an interface to a mailing list server, image libraries, bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks, link sharing), and more. http://kgroups.uwc.ac.za/index.php?mod ule=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point - An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Customizable Web directory, online editor, and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees, partners, and customers on the Web. http://www.webofficepoint.com/html/pro ducts.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents, calendars, Web resources, and photos. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces, any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative, structured, and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www.mayeticvillage.com/

Microsoft – Live Meeting - Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues, customers, and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www.microsoft.com/office/uc/live meeting/default.mspx Microsoft – SharePoint - Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people, information, processes, and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserve r2003/technologies/sharepoint/default. mspx Near-Time – Flow - Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages, team events, and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Create a Near-Time space to share ideas, resources, and files; author and review pages individually and across the group; schedule and track events and activities; organize and discover content through categories and tags; and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www.near-time.com/ Novell – Groupwise - Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail, calendaring, instant messaging, task management, and contact and document management functions. http://www.novell.com/products/groupwi se/


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Collaboration Tools

Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates, milestones, tasks, and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www.opentext.com/ Oracle - Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Enables individuals, teams, and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www.oracle.com/collabsuite/index.h tml Parlano – MindAlign - A suite of persistent group messaging, instant messaging, and presence management solutions. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://www.parlano.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.performancesolutionstech.com / Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat, MyWorldChat Communicator - Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard, real-time application sharing, text chat, audio and Webcam, file transfer, moderator functions, and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.com/terms.html

Rallypoint - Rallypoint - Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki, providing the best of both worlds. http://www.rallypointhq.com/ Ramius - Community Zero CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Within each area, called an online community, participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized, share knowledge, and communicate. http://www.communityzero.com/ Same-Page.com – eStudio - eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.same-page.com/ Santa Cruz Networks - Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other, see each other in real time using cameras, and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.santacruznetworks.com/

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Collaboration Tools

Selden Integrated Systems – iKE - iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals, Workflow Automation, Document Management, and Remote Access solutions. http://www.seldensystems.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods - Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management, collaboration, and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.sharemethods.com/ SiteScape - Forum ZX - Collaboration software that includes document management, threaded discussions, calendar sharing, search, workflow and task management, and real-time communications such as presence confirmation, voice and Web conferencing, Webbased whiteboarding, and instant messaging. http://www.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications - Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees, partners, and prospects – without leaving their desks. Includes VoIP, live video, application sharing, and breakout groups. http://www.cyber-grad.com/index.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www.stalker.com/content/default. html

SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite, with Total VCS and Total Collaboration - TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "ondemand" communication, collaboration, and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/produ cts/stcollab.html Trichys – WorkZone - WorkZone is the easy-to-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients, project teams, and business partners. Designed specifically for the non-technical user, WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.trichys.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants; view and edit documents or images together; store files; and use live audio, video, instant messaging, and information sharing. http://www.viack.com/product/ Vignette - Vignette Collaboration – Webbased, shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail, desktop document folders, productivity applications, and calendaring tools. http://www.vignette.com/contentmanage ment/0,2097,1-1-1928-4149-19684491,00.html


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

affordable.com/ onProject – myonProject . and share documents.axista.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. and share. scaleable.com/ Do Not Reproduce 89 .webcrossing. or use it to build a Web application. stimulates idea generation. project. Share multiple projects with multiple users.25.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. assign tasks.com/project.opmcreator. pay-as-you-go Webbased project management software.Processes email. http://groups.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. http://www.webasyst. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www. FTP server. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. documents.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . files.Easyto-use database that neatly stores and organizes project files. e-mail server.Instant setup. and data into a single storage area. Works with Microsoft Project. http://www.Intuitive project management software for work teams. http://www.yahoo. XML-RPC server.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .com/company/news/pres s/2005.projectdox.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.writely.tomoye. newsgroup server. online management for projects of any size and scope. discussions. simple. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. calendars.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . interact. http://www. set user permissions.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.04. http://www.com/ Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. http://www.nexprise. and other business communications. and more. and business relationships. http://www. chat server. http://www.brevient. Use it out of the box. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. feedback.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .onproject. expertise. connects peers. http://www.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.tacit. http://www. and e-mails.

project tracking. http://www. private whiteboards for each participant. scheduling solutions. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. video.In-house tool developed to assist in project management.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.Web event calendaring. custom stamps. project planning.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.elluminate.com/index. identify and resolve potential problems.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.com/Collaborati onProducts/Products.project-open. and communicate with their project teams.com/ HP . http://www. Access to the tool is also given to clients. visual. invoicing.0 .nagarro.caucus. Tools include PowerPoint drag-and-drop. print icon.com/content/ view/16/108/ 90 © 2006.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. content button. integrated content management system.saba. http://education. attendee list. shared whiteboard and presentation.com/hpvc Photon Infotech – SPARK . exit and help. form to submit questions. annotation tools. content.com Nagarro . breakout rooms.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. and save to disk icon. http://www. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. URL sharing. whiteboard pages. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. review button.teamdynamix. private/group chat. applaud and meter." virtual collaboration. http://www. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.Features include Hands up. and payments. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. and collaboration to timesheet management. http://www.HP Virtual Classroom .aspx Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . and human performance management applications.photoninfotech. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . data. navigation.com/english/offshore _software_development_project_manage ment. and text chat.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .Projistics . Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. and Web pages. shared desktop.peoplecube.Collaboration Tools Project/Open – Project/Consulting .hp.

glance. how often.horizonwimba. and collaborative content-building sessions.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces .communiqueconferencing. and meetings. Features include shared documents. and content display.net/site/getglance/ex amples.interwise. http://www. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. online classes. Webcasts. virtual office hours.0 . meeting management. session reports.intralinks. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. http://www. and by whom. and Webconferencing specialists. guest lectures. and more. http://www. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. Record classes or Webcasts.genesys. application sharing.com /internet_conferencing.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. and Web conferencing with WebEx.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . sales presentations. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.Delivers unlimited voice.convenos. http://www. http://www. http://www.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.Synchronous Webconferencing software. http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 91 . quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.mixmeeting.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. instant messaging.com/ Intralinks .batipi.A secure. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.elluminate.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .adobe. and phone use. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. and videoconferencing. e-mail invites. http://www.com/products/ liveclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . Web. and collaboration features. video. learning.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. http://www. http://www.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. http://www. office hours. Allows holding live. video. synchronous online lectures.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. For example.

Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. audio.radvision. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.ivocalize. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . instant messaging. and into the enterprise. keyboard and voice chat. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. the Internet. and a change presenter ability. any application. live demos. polling and quizzes.netspoke. http://www. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.com/bridgepoint.linktivity.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .Web and audio conferencing services. teleconferencing. broadcasts files. e-learning classrooms.meetingone.com/website2/even ts_imc. and real-time videoconferencing.To support large deployments. hand raising. desktop sharing. transparency tools. pre-recorded broadcasts.raindance.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. online seminars.liveoffice. http://www. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.Collaboration Tools iVocalize . record and playback. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. http://www.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.com/ Linktivity Division. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . notes. attendee lists. or an entire desktop.com/action. http://www. http://www. annotations.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . With the convenience of online access through an individual account. toll-free conference calling.LiveOffice provides Web-based. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . http://www. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies.cfm/ na_en/page=homepage NetSpoke . including Web conferencing.asp 92 © 2006.asp Meeting One – Click&Share.telnetz.com/rndc/services /services. remote control. Multilingual. and desktop videoconferencing services.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.

e-learning.edufolio.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. remote support.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. set up labs and conduct quizzes. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.edu/~bwilson/bu ilding. http://www.Powers online meetings. The suite manages the creation.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . editing. Web conferencing. present PowerPoint slideshows. teleconferencing. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).html The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. http://www. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. discussion forums.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. http://www. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.com/home/s_vmps. Requires only a browser and a phone. Japan on July 13-14.wave3software.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. http://www.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.vodium.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. http://www. and document collaboration. Solutions include Web meetings. conference calling.cudenver. share other applications. and instant messaging capabilities. Webinars. http://carbon. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.webtrain. http://www. 2006. course. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. or meeting.collabtech. tour Web sites.org Do Not Reproduce 93 .voxwire. publishing. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.ctcevents. send text messages. text messaging.ht ml Voxwire – Meeting Room . and moderation of Webcasts. and system management.webex. surveys.

htm Mitre Corporation. Sign up for free at: http://www. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.as p?referrer=parent&backto=linkingpublica tionresults.Collaboration Tools Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. Bryan (2006). Brandon Hall Research .com/webconf/works paces.globalschoolnet.aspx?docid= ag9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.org/index.writely.com/groupware/ index.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in elearning.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.usabilityfirst.1:100250.ht ml Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. also known as “groupware. http://www.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. communities.mitre. http://www. March/April 2006. http://www.com/View.edu/apps/er/erm0 6/erm0621.1 Bibliography Alexander. http://www. also has a great list of collaboration tools. http://www. http://cde.collaborationloop.” http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. 41(2). Web 2.thinkofit.criticalmethods. http://www. scientific.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://collaboration. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.educause.kolabora.com/(1y2d1on5 2jkgieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.asp?bhcp=1 94 © 2006. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.athabascau.springerlink.org/collab/in dex.org/tools. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.

Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Curtis (2002)..com/writings. 3. Maceió. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.. Proceedings. June 30. A. D.htm Canali De Rossi.htm Butler. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Models of collaboration..cmswatch. Eisenstadt.htm# Clapp. Luigi (2003b).collaborate. Buckingham Shum. Robin Good Blog.org/2003/0 5/02/best_online_resources_for_web_con ferencing_live_elearning_realtime_collabor ation_and_live_presentation_tools.org/collabo ration_technologies/collaboration_techn ologies_conference_2005_Kolabora_rep orts. Nov.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Collaboration Tools Bachler. (2004). September.. Brazil.org/2004/ 01/21/the_state_of_collaboration_techn ologies. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.masternewmedia. Sept.htm Canali De Rossi. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.htm Canali De Rossi. Collaborative Strategies.bruck. (2003). and Tate. Luigi (2004a).editlib.com/Feature/109 Elliot. J. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.org/news/ 2004/06/05/collaboration_technologies _empower_the_enterprise. http://www. A. M.cfm/files/pa per_12386. http://www.N. http://www.ac. Chief Learning Officer. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. May 2. http://www.ecs. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Then Knowledge Management. Luigi (2005)..masternewmedia. S. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration.org/2003/ 09/03/best_new_tools_for_web_confere ncing_and_live_collaboration.. S. 2565-2569. Robin Good Blog.com/content/templa tes/clo_feature. http://www. D.pdf Bonk. J. Robin Good Blog. and Forster. J.. June 22.html Canali De Rossi. Creating an eCommunity. Komzak. Dalton. Bill (2004).Down loadFullText&paper_id=12386 Do Not Reproduce 95 ..clomedia. http://www. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia.uk/12081/ Beshears. http://www.masternewmedia.asp?articleid=41&zoneid= 30 Bruck. Potter. Collaboration First. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). N.com/publication/n ewsletter/publications_newsletter_septem ber03. Live ELearning.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. R. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. http://www. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. D. http://www. 2002.org/index. Matthew (2004). M.. 2002.diglib. June 5.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2004b). http://www. CMS Watch. 2003. Nov. ChenBurger. K. Fred (2002).. J. Luigi (2003a). 4. and Coleman. http://www. 2004. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. 2003. Q2Learning White Paper. Shadbolt. http://eprints. A. T. Page.soton... Robin Good Blog. De Roure. (2004). Michaelides. Fitzgerald.masternewmedia. January 21. Findlay.

Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.rheingold. VA: AACE. http://www. In Crawford. & Weber. D. and Sharifi. 24. e-Book.learningcircuits. (Eds.. G.org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/kreijns. R. Soren (2002).). Carlsen. http://sleid. http://www.ieee. Innovation and Development. W. Institute for the Future White Paper. Callan. J.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.amazon. (2004). McFerrin. http://www.. 1(2).amazon. P. and Thomas. Chesapeake. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Kirschner.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. http://cde. K. D.html Hurst. R. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. (Eds. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. J. J. Palo Alto.ca/online_book/c h8. (2004). CA. http://ifets. Norwell.html Kreijns. A.. http://wscg.. P.zcu.com/gp/product/14 02077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Technologies of Cooperation.PrintAbstract&paper_id=1062 2 Ewing. and Jochems. January 2005. Educational Technology & Society. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.edu.com/cooperation/T echnology_of_cooperation.. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. 5(1). http://www. Willis. 5(1).. and Martens. Educational Technology & Society.org/index.) (2004). (2002).au/include/getdoc. Gibson. Aavani..org/periodical/vol_1_20 02/ewing. (2002). R.pdf Kaplan. Learning Circuits. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. University of Athabasca.cqu. J.Collaboration Tools Elliott. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.org/2002/au g2002/kaplan.html Munkvold. D.editlib. C.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf 96 © 2006.cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full.ieee. Price.. August 2002.) (2003). Evaluation. A.. Nov.. K. K. Brandon Hall Research ..pdf Strijbos. J. J. & Purnell. 827-829).html Institute for the Future (2005). Studies in Learning. http://www. (2002). and Miller. Bjorn (Ed.com/gp/product/18 52334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. London: Springer-Verlag. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. M. http://ifets. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. I.athabascau.. (2005). Kirschner..

” http://goldenswamp. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. VoIP. VoIP Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. discussion groups.com/2006/06/13/t ext-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. For example. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. ranging from simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. discussion forums. Hegarty et al. instant messaging. blogs. For Laurillard.jisc. UK. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. labs.ac. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire.au/eq/default. http://www.janison. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. a process referred to as “text mentoring.uk/deletacademictalk. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. and yet tailored and flexible. telepresence. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. It is being developed into a transportable. chat. whiteboards. messaging. telephony. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.com. re-usable. Do Not Reproduce 97 . html The Learning Place in Queensland.asp …learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.

ngfl. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.48.org/index.com/webconf/hostsi tes.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. and telephony tools.uk/eclipse/vendors/ch at. S.htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.gov.ViewAbstract&paper_id=431 2 Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. and Bortolozzi. (2005). See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.elearningcentre. http://m.fasfind.37/teresadeca/webhead s/online-learningenvironments. M.co.co.htm 98 © 2006. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. Computer Mediated Communication.thinkofit. http://www. http://www. 2004. University of Warwick. Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.. 13-20.ac. International Journal on E-Learning.org/conferences/2005/1 stelegi/session1/paper6. JulySept. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.uk/schools/docum ent. J. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.uk/eclipse/Resources/i m.google. ranging from simple textbased instant messages to live videoconferencing. including communications tools.elearningcentre. F. Komzak. http://www2. http://ewic. Peer Conversations for eLearning in the Grid. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.bcs. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. (2004).org/index. Find her work at: http://64.uk/eclipse/Resources/ usingoutlook. and Cerri.editlib.htm#Teaching The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. CAP e-Guide. chat.htm http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.Communications Tools AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.editlib. Brandon Hall Research .71. http://www. http://www.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.com/wwwtools/m/2645. M.warwick.elearningcentre.uk/services/cap /resources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.cfm?fuseact ion=Reader.pdf Eleuterio. Mark (2004). http://safety. developed in Brazil.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.co.conversate.com/sms/ A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.org/ Online Resources Teresa A. cfm?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. http://www.

” Do Not Reproduce 99 .html Laurik.hbs.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Working Knowledge Newsletter. June.edu/item. 19.doc The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. 2002. and Elliott.charityvillage. S.com Library. http://cde. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. 20-21.amazon.ca/online_book/c h5.athabascau. June. (Mlearn 2002). J.jhtml?id=310 3&t=technology Stone. September 23. R.com/cv/research /rmed35. A. and email has become part of the “new learning landscape. (2000).org/micte2005/4. M. Aug. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. Technologies of Online Learning. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. I. http://www. e-Book.org/2002/aug 2002/elearn. whiteboards. James (2005). 199-212.jisc.. http://dircweb. British Journal of Educational Technology.pdf Kadirire. J. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).uk/uploaded_document s/sb%20cf%20tool. University of Birmingham. 2002. D. 2002.formatex. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your email.ac. J. E-Learning 1. (2002). Diana (1993). and Wales. Nick (2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. VoIP. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. 20-21..html Morgan. distance-learning course at Keele University. Learning Circuits. Bostock. (2004). University of Athabasca. discussion forums.pdf LaCroix. Jan. (2002). 31 (3).html Laurillard. and Briggs. Hegarty. UK. http://hbswk.king.uk/papers/Stone_ A.com/gp/product/041 5256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. London: Routledge.learningcircuits.ac.2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_pee r_review. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. chat. 2005 http://www. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. and Collins.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. 31. J. Sven (2002). Pattie (2005). http://www. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. CharityVillage.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Communications Tools Garner. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. http://www. Francis.

a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. 2000).org/competencies /index.imsproject.html Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). competency-based training. 2005). a Harvard psychologist. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. performance appraisal. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. organizational and personal goals are tied together. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. David McClelland. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Known in the early days as the “quality movement.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. talent management Description According to Sanders (2001). who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. Brandon Hall Research . In 1973. skills inventory. W. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Edwards Deming. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. 100 © 2006. skills. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. entering defined competencies into a matrix. skills verification.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies.

For a large list of competencies for physicians.desire2learn.org/2001/m ar2001/competencies.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.ncrel. http://www. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.com/developerworks/lotus/libra ry/lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.learningcircuits.ibm.htm Many companies have their own competency models. and carry out proper procedures.S. see the competencies matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Read their white paper at: http://www.cpgvision. https://launchpad. objectives. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.org.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.itsc. See the list of competencies at: http://www.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.org/sdrs/areas/issues/ methods/assment/as7scans. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.edu/paprog/clin_events .com The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. http://www.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct0 4/Competencies. and development interventions.learnflex. activities.wmich. measurement. go to: www.htm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Do Not Reproduce 101 . For example. diagnose symptoms.html The U. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.com/article16. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace..

N..php?sctn=4&ct gry=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. http://www. London: IDS. April. Miller.com/gp/product/08 14405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. 1-14.com/gp/product/08 46452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. and Neathy.E. a Canadian company. http://www.cipd. Competency Frameworks. Study 706.clomedia.shtml Hogg.com/skillsman.syberworks. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/gp/product/04 7109031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.oracle. 2005. 102 © 2006. Chief Learning Officer. Josh (2006).ca/index. http://www. New York: AMACOM. Competency and competency frameworks.28.amazon.htm The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.com/applications/hum an_resources/learning. London: Wiley. Sudipta (2005).com/gp/product/05 82280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.amazon. American Psychologist.com/content/templ ates/clo_article. regardless of industry or sector.expresscomputeronline. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Ken (2000). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. v.cipd.asp?articleid=1320&zon eid=187 Bloom. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. April 25.ht m Online Resources HRSG. http://www. Rankin. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. F.amazon. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. New York: David McKay. (2001). (1973). R. http://www. (1982).uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk.uk/subjects/perfman gmt/competnces/comptfrmwk. Brandon Hall Research .html SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. (2001). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. http://www.htm?IsSrc hRes=1 Incomes Data Services. L. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. http://www.amazon. http://www. Express Computer.Competency Tracking Software Oracle Learning Management System http://www.com/ 20050425/technologylife01. Clare (2005). Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. pp.co.hrsg. Benjamin (1956). Building a skills inventory. David.” http://www.co.

Parkin’s Lot. and Hollyforde. Creating a Culture of Competence. Fall 2000. http://parkinslot. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005.amazon.com/2. Sanders. Competency based learning management. N.amazon. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. http://www.com/gp/product/18 43980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. UK: Cambridge University Press. and Expertise.com/gp/product/052 1809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. R. http://www. and Cahorn. (2001). White paper from Operitel Corporation.html Radsma. http://www.html Sternberg.amazon.learningcircuits. The Psychology of Abilities.ca/obj/s4/f 2/dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. G. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. P. New York: John Wiley. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.) (2003). (1999). April 30. White paper. http://www.linezine. (2000). Learning Circuits.operitel. Gary (2004). 2005.aspx?ID=15&Source=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2F Lists%2FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easp x Zwell. University of Toronto. http://www.blogspot.collectionscanada. March 2001. Johanna. (Eds. S. Competencies.htm Whiddett.com Woodill. Cambridge. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. E-Learning Competencies. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. London: IRS. http://www. Ellen (2000). Michael.operitel. P. E.com/gp/product/047 1350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do Not Reproduce 103 . (2004). and Epstein. London: IRS. N. Godfrey (2005). Master's thesis. 2nd ed. Ethan (2001). http://www. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Rankin. Operitel Corporation. and Grigorenko.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Competency Tracking Software Parkin. http://www. S.org/2001/mar 2001/competencies. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™.com/Lists/Publicatio ns/DispForm.1/features/e wette.p df Rankin. (2005). (2003).

2006). and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. non-standard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. simply linking a group of de-contextualized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. manage. Topic maps Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. and reporting. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. launching courses.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads.” such selfcontained systems have been described as being. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. I feel that closed. Repositories. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. First. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Learning objects.” As well. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. you could hire a company to build a private.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. and “topic maps. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Do Not Reproduce 104 . Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. such as registering users. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” Web services (see Woodill and Oliveira. manage. the standardized railway system still works while private. With the advent of learning objects. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. If you could afford it. LCMS. Today. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. there is usually a trade-off for “easy-of-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. Computerbased content management systems (CMS) that develop. displaying a course catalogue. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. in fact.

e-learningcentre.atutor.blogspot.com/200 5/12/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. Strategies for managing scalable content.clomedia.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. reuse in many places.com http://www. http://www.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. http://www.asp?articleid=881& …emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. 2005.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. Curtis (2005). most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.cisco. http://plone. Dec. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. They have designed competitive. http://www. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.topicmap.com/content/templ ates/clo_article.com/global/EMEA/cisc oitatwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_W hite_Paper.” Web services and “topic maps. TravelinEdMan blog. functionality to an ECM.pdf Cohen. http://www. rather than complementary. (2005).html Cisco Corp. http://sakaiproject. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.” http://drupal. and publish to multiple outputs.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Unfortunately.author-it.” Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.topicmaps. http://www. http://www. Cisco Corporation White Paper. March 2005. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.co.org Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. http://www.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. According to its official Web site. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.org/ Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.cmsmatrix. to date. 18. Ed. (2004).” Do Not Reproduce 105 . “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. San Jose.uk Bibliography Bonk. http://travelinedman.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.

A. Scott (2005). January 23. 2005. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Content Management Systems Leslie. Budapest.gr/~retal/papers /conferences/www2003/Interoperability_ poster. May/June.com/nt/2003 /nt_2003_03_03_cms. Gerry (2003). Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Jafari.ca/mt/archive/00 0689.htm Simon. (2006). Educause Review. 2006. June 9. and Oliveira. P. 40(3). Content Management: our organized future. http://www. 2003. http://www. Retalis.operitel.com/publications. McGovern. 2005. S. (Eds. 2003. B. Learning Solutions. March 3.asp Woodill. http://www.elearnspace.) (2005).” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. “Monoliths. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. and Carmean. C. Hershey.html McGee. Why content management software hasn’t worked. (2003).ntua.org/Articles/cont entmanagement. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. C.. http://www. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.educause.as px Do Not Reproduce 106 . New Thinking Blog. and Brantner. S.softlab. May 15.htm Siemens. 2003. Mashups. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.edu/apps/er/erm0 5/erm0533. EdTechPost blog.edtechpost. http://www.gerrymcgovern. George (2003). G. elearnspace blog. Van (2005).pdf Weigel. PA: Idea Group..

delivery models and infrastructure investment. personalization Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in e-learning: Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets. Do Not Reproduce 107 . Consequently a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. knowledge discovery. 2001). Luan and Willett. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. 2000. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to exam-ine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching methods. How can data mining be used in elearning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future.

http://www.icosystem.org/home/eng /products/product_profile/smart. http://www. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. http://www.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.pdf As data mining tools and techniques evolve. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. GO KDS has classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology.wfu.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. Do Not Reproduce 108 . http://pami. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: Usage Statistics – see what parts of the elearning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy.edu/articles/2005/1/03 /index.com/index.soul.reeltwo. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.hkuspace.php?page =news&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. by applying fuzzy logic.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. http://imej. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.uwaterloo.

K. http://www. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. Alex (2002). Austria.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Data Mining Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.. Both products are from Convera.cs. and Kamel. (cited in Luan and Willett. M. Smyth. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. New York: Springer.2004. California.. http://www. G. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. 2001) http://www. Feb. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. In Proceedings.au/%7Ekalina/ind ex. New York: Springer.amstatonline.pdf Fayyad. http://www. Grieser. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.is.. R. What’s Not. Long Beach. School Business Affairs.informatik. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.uwaterloo. Grigoriev.kent. In Pierre.pdf Iskander.edu.pdf Freitas.asp x?PaperID=15069 Do Not Reproduce 109 . U. Piatetsky.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. 68(8).org/ASBO/files/ccPageCo ntentdocfilename000805705546SBA_F eb_2002_pages.kdnuggets. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf Jantke.kdnuggets. Australia.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/in vited/Deveaux.pdf Loo. (1996). Uthurusamy. (2000).dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Innsbruck. http://www. and Tschiedel. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. (2006).usyd. Learning by doing and learning when doing .. Lange.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.ca/pub/hammoud a/hammouda-elearning. and Web mining. Thalheim. Portugal. Porto. 1316. pp.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. G. (2004). Robert (2002).com/gpspubs/aima g-kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. 1--34.. and Cheung. B. knowledge discovery. K.. (2006).ac. 1996. P. Samuel (Ed. 238-241. Data Mining: What’s New. Data Mining in e-Learning.html Hammouda.com/PaperInfo. P.html Bibliography De Veaux. P. http://www. B.cs. 13-16 http://asbointl.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. B. G. http://www. text mining. edited U. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. 2006. Piatetsky-Shapiro.actapress.uk/people/staff/a af/book-springer-ukc. http://pami. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.convera. K. and Smyth.unikiel. and R. M Fayyad. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Feb. S.

319-346. (2004). Japan.compmech. analyze for more adaptive teaching. K. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Mining for Content ReUse and Exchange: solutions and problems.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader.-Dec. 3(1).wfu. http://wwwjime.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/ PDF/Merceron_Yacef. 7(1). Billerica. MA: WIT Press. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. 15(4).asp Merceron.ags. (2004). A. TADAEd for Educational Data Mining.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.ac. and Ventura. Vol 4. Yacef (2005). 39-40. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.org/proceedings/docs/ 2p264. 47-55.de/~cullrich/publications/Merceroneta l-Mining-ISWC-2004. A.pdf Merceron... http://www.edu/services/pro/oir_ reports/dmkm. May 17-22. http://imej. Maomi (2004).pdf Pahl. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. C.com/acatalog/18 45641523.edu/articles/2005/1/03/ index. NYC. and Willett.. http://www. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. 41-54.pdf 110 © 2006. J. Advances in Management Information. (2001).aace. and K.cabrillo. store. David (2005).org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3i1-art5-monk. http://www.pdf Merceron. Oct. http://www. and Minguillon. http://www2004. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. M. 52-59. RP Conference Presentation.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. (2006).pdf McCalla.html Ueno.computer. Gord (2004). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).cnrs.ccsd. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).pdf Monk.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Claus (2004). and K. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).org/index. C. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning. Brandon Hall Research .org/16915 Romero. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. T. C. 2004 (7).open. http://archiveedutice. Hiroshima.pdf Mor. and Yacef. (2004). International Journal on E-Learning. J. http://www. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://dl. Train.Data Mining Luan. Yacef (2004). S. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. E. Scholl. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction.unisb. and Ullrich. http://csdl2. 3(4).editlib. A. A. Oliveira. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.ejel.

which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. 5) carry out a survey. 2) categorize.facilitate. For example. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.com/ Facilitate. http://www. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: • Align Training with Organizational Goals • Improve Human Performance • Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. and recommending remedial action) According to Bahlis (2004). The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. External Solutions Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. in their case study of medical education. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Artificial intelligence Description In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.com/ In education and training we make choices all the time.une.au/dss/grassgro/ind ex.decisionarium.edu. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multi-criteria decision support. Decision-support systems include the following: Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. and 6) document results. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. 3) vote/prioritize.tkk. Do Not Reproduce 111 . 4) develop an action plan. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.bnhexpertsoft.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.

Decision Support Software Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.bnhexpertsoft. books. August.uniserve..p df Chakrabarty. http://www. (2004).meetingworks. Raimo (2003). For newsletters.edu.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. White paper from BNH Expert Software. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.com/english/p roducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. see: http://www.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. http://www. H. http://www.pdf Ehtamo. http://www.” http://dmoz. http://www. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.pdf …teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.site. and information on this area.sal. Hamalainen.sal. http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. and Frasson.ca/~frize/victori apaperapril. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.whichbook. V.uottawa.pdf Frize. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Kankana (2005). UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. Brandon Hall Research .net/index. C.au/pubs/pro cs/wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. http://science. Jay (2004).hut. (2000). Decision-support and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.com/index. M. 12(2-3). R. Online manuscript.dssresources.htm l Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. and Koskinen. 23(4).hut.sal. 112 © 2006. 101-110.utoronto.hut.org/Computers/Software/Da tabases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Su pport_Tools/ Bibliography Bahlis. http://www.html Hamalainen.ca/atrc/research/de cision_support_tool/index.

P.uk/eunis2 005/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.ac. Porto.. K. Enn (2005). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.. USA. Lange.ideagroup. Enn (2004). (2006).html Rhyne.. Thalheim. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed.informatik. Jim (2002).hawaii. 238-241. Grieser. June 20-24. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Jan.aspx ?PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.hicss. http://damit. Germany. Dan (2003).pdf Jantke. Oct. Learning by doing and learning when doing ..de/html/publikationen/D SE03DaMiT. G.unikiel.mc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision Support Software Jantke. 2005. 2004. Portugal.pdf Knolmayer. http://www. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Theresa (1998).2004. In Proceedings. SIGGRAPH publication.uniserve. 2002.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.au/pubs/call ab/vol9/scott. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. http://www. http://dssresources. B.com/books/details. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. K.html Shimizu. August 16-18. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across the curriculum. 6-9. Manchester.org/education/mate rials/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.pdf Ounapuu. Thalheim. Hawaii. PA: Idea Publishing. and Tschiedel.is.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.pdf Power. http://science. M. CAL-laborate. (2004). http://www. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).siggraph. Hawaii. http://www. 9. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. S..asp?id=5390 Do Not Reproduce 113 . Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.edu. 317-328. and Laurindo. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. M. F.html Scott.. and Tschiedel.. Rostanin. (2003).com/PaperInfo.manchester.. Information Systems for a Connected Society. B.actapress. Kauai. Hershey. B. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Aachen. Grigoriev.dfki. Vol. de Carvaho. Memmel. T. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. Gerhard (2003).com/history/dsshist ory. http://www. B. O. http://www. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.

By stacking a second projector. Finally. digital paper. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. Electronic paper could change that some day. including the following: Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.theregister. in cooperation with Sony. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. projectors. This can be a holographic image.uk/2004/12/1 6/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.theregister. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. For air displays. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. In regards to digital paper. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. lighting up theater size screens. monitors. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.co. head mounted displays. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. big enough to be projected on large walls. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. http://www. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. In the near future.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Related terms Digital ink.” Selected Examples Samsung. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.co. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. Do Not Reproduce 114 . display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).uk/2005/03/0 8/samsung_82in_lcd/ Given that a great deal of elearning is visual. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. electronic paper. viewers see a floating mid-air image or video.

” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. http://killer. http://thejournal. still/video camera. For a list of his publications. To access the articles. In 2005.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.firstmonday.io2technology.edu/design/Camera.fogscreen. http://www. Inc.provisionentertainment.com/the/topics/display / First Monday is a journal on new technologies. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. see: http://ad.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. http://www.H. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.com/about. Do Not Reproduce 115 .E.com/tags/digital% 20paper?start=0 T. intelligent interfaces. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.org/issues/speci al11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.ntera. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.com/technology /overview NTERA. see: http://www.technorati.php New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publicati ons.unifreiburg. Projector. http://www. See a demo at: http://www. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.ices. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.siliconlight.cmu. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.informatik. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.html Promera is a hand-held computer.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Displays Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.ac. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.unifreiburg. S. K. Garrett.com/timwang/index. In G. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Hirota.org/citation. http://blog. Healthcare. Richards (Ed. Livingston. Canada. Brandon Hall Research . Germany. M. (1996).. and Ottmann.. http://portal. Vancouver.acm.informatik. Largest LCD and video projection. Whitton. M. 3. W.). http://www..cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed..pdf Wang. Oct. Hamburg. and Higher Education (ELearn 2005). http://ad. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. London: Springer. E. Government. Dec. T. Pisano.Displays Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.jisc. 2005. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.cfm?name=t echwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. State. Tim (2005). A. (2005). 2005. G.. pages 3053-3068..uk/index.php/ 2005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_proj ection 116 © 2006.loaz.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2005-eLearn. and Pizer. H.

pebblelearning. Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. résumés Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.pupilpages.htm Educause. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.com/ E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. maximum flexibility. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.com/products/e portfolio/default.co. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.org/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. open source electronic portfolio. 2005). http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.uk/default. has posted a list of Online Resources on eportfolios.iwebfolio. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ eportfolios. http://www.co. http://www. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. My first report in this series.html PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.ac.livetext.uk/ Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.edu/E%2DPortfolio s/5524 Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.paisley. http://isle. http://www.elearningcentre. Do Not Reproduce 117 .angellearning.chalkandwire.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. and simple usability. evaluation. http://www. http://www. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.educause. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.osportfolio.com/college/portfoli os.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.foliotek.com/eportfolio/i ndex. http://www.

pdf Batson.com/gp/product/B0 006S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=book s&v=glance Attwell. Educause Quarterly. Trent (2002). has a section on eportfolios. Graham (2005). Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Frederick (2005). Vol 27 No 4.educa. mv?d=1_76 Bibliography Achrazoglou. and Hibbitts.elearnspace. E.doc Banks.cfm 118 © 2006.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.campustechnology. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. Dec. http://www.E-Portfolio Tools The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. March. thus.org/Articles/epor tfolios. College of Education http://www. http://ferl. http://www. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.educause. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.imsglobal.com/magazine/va ult/A5260.edu/blog/nils_p eterson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_ proof_of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. Bob (2004).uk/epreferenc emodel/ Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.uk/content_files/ferl /resources/organisations/fd%20learning /e-portfoliopaper. http://www. an online resource on collaboration. University of Iowa. B. has an “EPortfolio Best Practice and Implementation Guide” available for download.becta..ch/dyn/9.htm IMS.org. http://www.thejournal.amazon.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an e-portfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.com/article. http://elgg.criticalmethods. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. Online Paper. (2004).org/ep/epv1p0/im sep_bestv1p0.educause. http://www2. 2004 http://www. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ EQM0441.asp?url=12 9063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. Brandon Hall Research . http://connect. THE Journal Online.nottingham. J.org/collab/v. http://www. helping to transform education and training.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ eportfoliopaper. (2002). the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.pdf Conway. with many links.ac. FD Learning White Paper.

Aalderink. Trinity College. J.. B. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA _white_paper_2005.. (2005).pdf#search=%22An%20Overview% 20of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.educause. (2004). 31(3).pdf Lorenzo. M. Online. and Haywood. http://www. 4. P. G. July/ August 2004. Reflective learning.edu/ir/library/pdf/e qm0224.. (Focus on Teaching). T.ca/content/vol31. (2002).. Dec. W. ePortfolios.org/vol2/iss2/eng lish/article1. http://www. Gary (2004). An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. (2002).htm Tosh. D.educause. Love. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.alt. 39.3/tosh. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios..pdf#search=%22Refle ctive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinki ng%3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens... The Q-Folio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. (2005).A. G. http://www. http://www..cfm Do Not Reproduce 119 . 2(2). Educause Review. Harvey. George (2004). Educause Quarterly. html Young. Fall. http://www. and Wade. no. Lee.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. 16. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.org/Articles/epo rtfolios. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. vol. J. G. K. J. Fleming. 28–37. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. D. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios.. research. elearnspace. S. An Overview of e-Portfolios.Emerging e-Learning Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Dubinsky. (2005). M. 144-169. and Werdmuller.. J. Light. & Figgins.. and McKean. J.A. D. future thinking: digital repositories. http://www.org/papers/Learning_l andscape. and Ittelson. Cook. http://www.ac. April 1. Dublin.eradc. 2005. V. C.pdf#search=%22Creation%20 of%20a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A %20weblogging%20and%20social%20ne tworking%20in%20the%20context%20of %20e-portfolios%22 Tosh. Feijen. (2003). The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.cjlt. http://www.amazon. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.pdf Greenberg.citejournal. Online paper. Bryde.com/exec/obidos/tg/ detail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI3001. 37(2). e-portfolios.. B. Business Communication Quarterly.elearnspace.. and portfolios.educause.

” Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3-D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. writing about “first person shooter games. complex problem solving.com. and Second Life.secondlife. virtual reality Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.com/ http://www.myspace. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.com/ http://www.com/ http://www. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot fire-fighting foam. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. For a brief review of these tools.freescale. 2005).com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/21001043_3-5603082. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. simulations. identity work. Marc Prensky (2003). individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com http://us. play. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. 2003). Examples include Hive7.cyworld. as such.” says that “in the mod world.facebook. 120 © 2006. from the University of Wisconsin. http://www. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Dr. Facebook.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Cyworld. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM).jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Brandon Hall Research . MySpace. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. and learning (Amory.com Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms.com/webapp/sps/s ite/homepage. see: http://news. Try them out at: http://www. serious games. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.hive7. games.html Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging elearning. Constance Steinkuehler.

com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multiplayer games for education that come with authoring tools. helping speed up the game creation process. Many of their learning games resources are free. There is a free 30-day trial version. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.com/solutions/gam es/default. implementation.mpjgaB KQdAe. Review them at: http://esub.magnetargames.softimage. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.” http://www. This game allows users to play. http://www.nasaga.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.ca/~corbett/gamers /tools. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. For example.microsoft.com/xna/ Softimage.ucalgary. produces educational games for training. Canada. The toolset. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.com/ Thiagi. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. Inc. has game development tools for the Xbox.pluginz. edit. Do Not Reproduce 121 .html&CategoryID=2 3 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.muzzylane.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. See the selection of games at: http://www.clickteam.com/news/548 http://www. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. create.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.htm One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. http://www. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a non-programmer to become more involved in the game playing experience. allows members of a game development team to work together. Started in North America. You can read about them at Pluginz.aspx Magnetar Games Corporation is a research-oriented software developer based in Vancouver. http://www. along with their Web sites. http://www.org/?14@33. dubbed XNA Studio.siggraph. http://www. http://www.thinkingworlds.com/ In 2005.

futureplay.htm l The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.programmersheaven. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. researchers. http://it. http://www.htm Dr. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.seriousgamessummit.digiplay. June 25-28.pdf 122 © 2006.ac.” Read her research at: http://website.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. http://www.com/zo ne8/index.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. Brandon Hall Research .dk/people/sen/public.education.wisc.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.seriousgames.uga.coe. Honolulu.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003 Conference.edu/steink uehler/ Bibliography Amory. http://www.gdconf.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.org/index2. Alan (2003).ukzn. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.itc. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.uk/index2. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.org.htm Dr. Hawaii. http://www.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.edu/itforum/Games_Res ources. http://www.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. Sign up at: http://www.za/ited/amory/edme dia2003.Gaming Development Tools Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. 2003.

php Rieber. Mayer (Ed. and Chen. Lloyd (2005). 2005. Bob (2005).edu/atc/web_casts/game s/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. 17-22. Fourth Quarter. Developing Serious Games. C. (2005). S. Williams. Gaming. Train.com/gp/product/158 4504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Gamasutra.amazon. 19. Rob (2006b). Simon (2005). June.asp?isbn=0521547512 Do Not Reproduce 123 . Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. (2005). “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. http://www. D. http://www. simulations and microworlds.pdf Reynolds.uwf.com/gp/product/15 92006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gaming Development Tools Bergeron.php Reynolds.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www.org/uk/catalogue /catalogue. H.marcprensky. In Richard E. Chapter 33. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. 549-567. Serious Games: Games That Educate. http://www. (2005). Rob (2006a).amazon..com/archives/20 06/01/technology_tren. Bryan (2006).itc. Learning on Demand Bulletin. Language Learning and Technology.pd f Prensky. Dreher. Montreal. Xplanazine.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.msu. January 2. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. S. SRI-BI. IT-University Copenhagen. New York: Cambridge University Press. March 10.cambridge. http://www. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. http://llt. http://www. and Maurer.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emergin g. Marc (2003). http://www.pdf Guetl. Xplanazine.uwf.com/archives/20 06/03/games_and_educa. 2006. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. and Inform.edu/atc/web_casts/gam es/Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Asse ssment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Multimedia learning in games. 9(1). Games and Education = Oil and Water. Clifton Park.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.iicm.xplanazine. D.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. http://www. Oct. Jan.com/writing/Pr ensky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20To ol. http://www. and Michael. 2005.xplanazine.. Technology Trends for the Year. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. H. see: http://www. 2006. 2003.pdf Michael. R.

pdf 124 © 2006. http://woz.pdf Swamy. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Michigan State University.amazon. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. J.Gaming Development Tools Steinkuehler..wisc. R. Doctoral dissertation.education. Brandon Hall Research . Jason (2004). (2006). and Biswas. N. Beers. N. C.edu/steink uehler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.com/gp/product/15 84504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. University of Wisconsin . Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. G.org/publicat ions/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. http://jason. (2005). Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.teachableagents. Clifton Park.edu/course s/theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2005.p df Tye. Gupta. Constance (2005). Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.msu. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. 2004. Masters Thesis.Madison. http://www.commtechlab. and Swamy.. http://website.

April 10-12 2006.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. was held in Southampton.com/~ccohen/gest ure.fg2006.” http://mplab.soton. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. and robotics in elearning. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.html Research by Dr. robotics Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.cybernet. affective computing. such as Markov models. artificial intelligence. looking for particular sequences. haptics. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.ecs. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. 2008. including identifying commercial products. UK. Advances in this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.ac. at the University of California. http://www. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.tudelft. Artificial intelligence techniques. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. FG2008.edu/ Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. For a list of papers: http://www. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. Do Not Reproduce 125 .nl/~maja/ Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combin-ation of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. London.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research.ucsd. FG2006. http://www. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.fg2008.

http://cbcl.884693 Chen. Aug. and Cohen. Y.com/PaperInfo. T.pdf Corradini. (1997). An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Deller. 19(7). 2003.html Chang. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.Gesture and Facial Recognition Bibliography Allen.2000. P. R. Pittsburg. Nicole (2001).org/reports/Report -NR-03.pdf Ebert.. 57-64.actapress. (2005). http://www. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. T. PA.pdf Beringer.. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Nevada. http://doi.iscslp2006. Shi-Kuo (2000)..TwentyFourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. L. Michael (2003). and Ma. Munich. http://www. http://www.fsu. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.ogi.org/10.org/anthology/20 00/paper/or03/027. October 14-16. M..11 09/CMPSAC. and Poggio.org/publication/Ercim_ News/enw63/hci. March. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Communication.edu/research/geometri cal_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/surve y_Daugman.. and Bender.cse. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.pdf 126 © 2006. In Proceedings. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Visualization. Brandon Hall Research . W. Porta.stat.edu/CHCC/Publicatio ns/a_map_based_system_using_speech _3d_gestures_corradini. M. (2004). (2000). Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference..asp x?PaperID=21655 Ezzat.edu/projects/cbcl/publica tions/ps/siggraph02. July 1997.smartkom. J. http://www. Gao. 3.ieeecomputersociety.elearningguild. 2000.pdf Borghi. (2002). eLearning Developers’ Journal. 191-196. Lombardi. A. A. Report No. IEEE Transactions. July 2227. Ludwig-Maximilians University. F.ercim. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). (2005). http://www. G.com/pdf/2/08 1803DES. http://www.mit. Geiger. 18. 675 676 http://lcv. M. J. Korea..pdf Daugman. Wesson. Las Vegas.

Sato.cfm?coll=G UIDE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.. (2005). S. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. L.org/persagen/DLAb sToc. January. A. Lee.mit. 884 – 900. A. (1997). 1999.media. 2004:16. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do Not Reproduce 127 . and Bobick. and Wong. Wong.pdf Loi.D.asp x?PaperID=22470 Turk. P.. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. C. Computer vision in the interface. (2002).. J.pdf Wilson. Y. http://www. http://csdl2. 47(1). (2005).xml&DOI=10.edu/jpreston/8530/Pa pers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.F (1999).edu/pdfs/5_Tur k%202004. X. Park. http://www. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.acm.hindawi. Y. Chen. Lai. and Carreira.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Gesture and Facial Recognition Lee. Fussell. S.. http://interact. 2533–2543. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables.org/citation.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/& toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/ 00/2338toc. (2003).1109/ICALT.pdf Peixoto.clayton. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. and Yang. (2004). Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. 21(9). In Proceedings. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Journal on Applied Signal Processing. 27-30. and Kim. 242-245.. Michael (2004). British Columbia..com/GetPDF. J. http://www. J.20 05.recveb. Robust face image matching under illumination variations.computer.actapress. Y. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. September 2002. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.ucsb. J. 442-446. and Koike.edu/~chansu /paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.edu/mas963/en hencedwall. D.150 Nakanishi. Sept. M. H. C.rutgers. C.. http://www. C. Proceedings.pdf Ou. 2004.. Canada http://cims. L.com/PaperInfo. and Chang. Setlock. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). http://portal.research. Communications of the ACM. Vancouver. IEEE Transactions.

com/TechIllustrator.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Related terms Design. Following are the ones most commonly used: Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. the same principles apply to Do Not Reproduce 128 . Designing WebBased Training. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.com/adsk/servlet/in dex?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. In acquiring Macromedia. and in his recent 2006 book.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.adobe. e-Learning By Design. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. Consider the topics and subtopics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better user interface design. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Why Graphics Work Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.com/software/soft_t/gsh arp.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.avs.autodesk.techillustrator.html The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.

php?p=dir &viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. animation. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. In acquiring Macromedia.0.uk/index. rendering.uk/eclipse/vendors/gr aphics.siggraph. The most commonly used packages are the following: Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool http://www. interactive creation. http://www.smartdraw. and playback. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher http://www.com/E/1335.2.itedo.co. post-production. The most listings are for 3-D software.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. Nevertheless.php?p=dir &viewCat=7 Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.org/cms/Home.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3D software tools on the market.corel.com SmartDraw http://www.acdamerica.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.com/Top/Computers/ Software/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.broderbund.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. html Broderbund Printmaster http://www.3dlinks.google.com/index.elearningcentre.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3-D software is 3DLinks. http://www. http://virtuality3d.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.com/ IBM CATIA http://www306.uk/index.ibm.com.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3-D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://www.co.xaraxtreme.co. http://esub. Download a copy: http://www. Adobe has strengthened its position in the elearning world.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.microsoft.com/exp/ste/ho me/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. Do Not Reproduce 129 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Graphics Tools Blender .blender3d.

Proceedings.stc. Brandon Hall Research .pdf Qiu. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.amazon. http://www. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.com/gp/product/09 61392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. In P.com/gp/product/07 87984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Pheonix.cfm?fuseacti on=Reader. Tokyo. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon. X. Edward (2001). Richards (Eds. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. http://www. http://www.Graphics Tools Bibliography Horton.amazon. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. STC.com/gp/product/09 61392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. ED-Media Conference.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. NY: John Wiley.asp?ID=167 130 © 2006. Tools Usage Survey Results. Japan · Sept 7-10. S. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .com/gp/product/04 7135614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. http://www. Cheshire. http://grids. CT: Graphics.). A.stcphoenix. A.. Edward (1997).org/51stConf/sessionMat erial/dataShow.carto. Evidence and Narrative . 2nd Ed. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).amazon. http://www. and Uyar. http://www. http://www. CT: Graphics Press. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. William (2006).amazon.editlib.edu/ptliupages/ publications/MakingSVGaWebServiceina MessageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.org/index.com/gp/product/09 61392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. http://www. William (2000). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. http://www. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). http://www.com/gp/product/04 71538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=28315 5 Horton. Germany.pdf McConnell. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Kommers & G.indiana.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1280 8 Neuman. Edward (1990).net/papers/svg/articles /paper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_ elearning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_200 5. Envisioning Information. William (1991). Designing WebBased Training. Pallickara. New York: John Wiley. Gloria (2004). June 1-3. Potsdam.amazon. (2005).ucs. Cheshire. Frances (2004). Fu-Kwan (2004). (2004).pdf Tufte. Carolina Chapter. e-Learning by Design.

including pens. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.sssup. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. haptics helps make e-learning more relevant to the learner.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_con trollers/freedom/f6_news_touching.pureform.mpbtechnologies. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.unige. Finally.miralab.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. gloves. When used appropriately. including the following: Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.ch/ Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. http://haptex.forcedimension. joysticks/ joypads. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.” http://www. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.it/projects/pureform.com/s ection/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).org/ Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Read the press release at: http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. and force-feedback mice.com/fd/avs/ home/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . http://wwwpercro. Haptic devices come in many forms.html http://www. Do Not Reproduce 131 .handshakeinteractive.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .

not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. J. Matsubara. http://www. 2005.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. M. David (2003). Report delivered January 15. (2002). Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings /&toc=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/23 38/00/2338toc. Upper Saddle River.1_release-public. M. Proceedings.au/articles/2003/0 7/30/1059480393138.com/ Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. professional.com. G.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.1. html Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). M.1109/ICAL T... International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).roblesdelatorre.isfh.com/gabriel/ hapticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.asp Body-based devices include gloves. New York Times (Online).306 Kushner.unitrier.informatik. VR-Based Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. 2005.2005.” http://www.unipi.computer.unige.ch/public/HA PTEX-D4. http://csdl2.sensable. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .html Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.com/title/013065097 8 Inoue. and Ichitsubo. http://www.” http://www. Iwane. http://haptex. (2005).haptics-e. McLaughlin. and Sukhatume. Deliverable D4. July 31.immersion. Nakamura. http://www. Y.miralab.ccii.org/persagen/DLA bsToc. http://www.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www. suits.it/newroboti cs/robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMEN TALS-OF-HAPTICS.pdf Hespanha.phptr.sensegraphics. 2003. Reality bytes. http://www..com/products/phan tom_ghost/phantom.smh.piaggio. Italy in March. 132 © 2006. N. 917-921. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.Haptics SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. M.se/index.xml&DOI=10. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.

pdf Ó hAnluain.net/article-7304. 2004. Chapter on Haptics. http://www. Sukhatme. (2004). 1(3).html O’Malley. Dobreva. (2001). and Hughes. Abbott. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. J. April.html Ross.ch/CDstore/www6/Ac cess/ACC239. Blindness. M. and Essl. K.. (2005)..journalofvision. S. http://www. http://www. http://www. July 3.S. The Haptic Museum. G.asp?p=345621 Sakano. (1997). A. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.usc. Daithí (2003). Journal of Vision.. M. (2003). and Jaskowiak. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis..mcgill.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.. and Rusbridge.edu/DocsDemos/eva20 00. Wired News.pdf McLaughlin.S. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. 2003. L. CA.B. Santa Clara. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. M.. Reaching through the net to touch.edu/~sile/palpable/ NIME04-grain-revised2. M. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Proceedings. Laurie (2004).digicult. M. G.pd f O’Modhrain. McGill University. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).org/comp/proceedin gs/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.cim. Haptics Laboratory.. R.computer. http://web.ra. G.info/downloads/TWR 3-lowres. 22. http://www.com/articles/printerf riendly. Kaneko. http://csdl.matr. and Gillespie. & Uchikawa. 3-5 June 2004. Japan. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.. Vincent (2005). M. Technology and Haptics. http://www. Medioni.. A. Research report.pdf Rowell.org/1/3/250/ Do Not Reproduce 133 . Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. McHugh. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.ethz.pdf O’Modhrain. H. Shahabi.informit..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Haptics Levesque. D. Donnelly. C. Y.media. (2000). Oct.mit. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. 250a. Prentice Hall online article. S.

electronic paper. and some. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.dottocomu. they must interact with it through an interface device. head mounted displays. digital paper. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing elearning content. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. see: http://www. For a review. Writing will require special digital pens. tangible computing.buffalo. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.html For humans to use a computer. whiteboards Description devices. display technologies. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface Do Not Reproduce 134 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. Examples of interface devices include the following: Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. For humans to use a computer. haptics. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. monitors.edu/reporter/vol35/v ol35n17/articles/Accuscript. projectors. input devices. Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.html Sony. http://www. handwriting recognition. Philips. experience computing. human-computer interaction. Now in the research and development phase. Called Librié.com/b/archives/ 002571. like digital ink and paper. wearable computing. they must interact with it through an interface device. gesture recognition. However. This requires a move towards better training of e-learning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of e-learning experiences.

eink.cfm/produ cts/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Interface Devices For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.smarttech.net/Fun/SonyDesign/2 003/home.cmu. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Although this technology has been around for a few years. http://www. http://www.edu/design/Foldable Display.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.fujitsu.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. consisting of a pen and a charger.com/global/news/pr/ar chives/month/2005/20050713-01.channelnewsasia.logitech. textures. 2) roll. http://www. 3) throw. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.media.cmu.cfm Now in the research and development phase.com/software/gad gets/microsoft-prototypes-footpadcomputer-interface-157916. and 5) build. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.ices." http://web. Do Not Reproduce 135 .html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.sony.com/index.com Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.com/storie s/afp_asiapacific_business/view/12697 8/1/.html In 2005. it is constantly being improved and updated.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.com/technology/howitwor ks.ac. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.ices. 4) bend.lifehacker. Writing will require special digital pens.org/rl/interactive _whiteboards. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. http://killer. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.edu/~kimiko/iobrus h/ Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. These methods are 1) touch.” http://www. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.edu/design/Digitalin k.mit. http://www.html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.wacom. see: http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.edfacilities.cs. http://www.swan.html http://killer.

Interface Devices The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive whiteboards. See their advice and resources at: http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.wired.com/presspass/fea tures/2002/oct02/1029tabletinking.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.0 5/ff_digitalink_pr. http://whiteboards.cs. http://www. http://www. http://www.au/edna/page458 8.uk/learning/ict/m anaging/resources/whiteboards.mspx 136 © 2006.html http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.elearningcentre. http://www.becta.html http://www.usask. http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/20 301 Over the years. human computer interaction.devx.anoto. with its use of digital ink.aclearn. Brandon Hall Research .shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.thegrid.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.html Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.wired. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.wired.com/wired/archive/5.0 8/epapers.com/wired/archive/9. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. Following are three such articles: http://www. http://www. http://www.edna.com/wired/archive/8.com/Blu etooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.microsoft.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.0 4/anoto. is described in a 2002 press release. and graphic.uk/eclipse/Resources/ whiteboards.org.net/display.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.edu.cfm?page =961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.org.co.thewirelessdirectory.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Interface Devices

Bibliography Cogill, Julie (2002). How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report, King’s College, University of London. http://www.virtuallearning.org.uk/whiteboa rds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pr imary_school.pdf Cross, Michael (2005). Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited, Oct. 6, 2005. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning /story/0,10577,1585516,00.html eSchool News. (2003). New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online, June 1, 2003. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/show story.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight, Will (2004). The most flexible paper yet revealed. NewScientist Magazine (Online), Jan. 26, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id =dn4602 Mohamed, K., Haag, S., Peltason, J., Dal-RI, F. and Ottmann, T. (2006). Disoriented Pen-Gestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 2006. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsC opy/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed, K. and Ottmann, T. (2005). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered

toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2005, Vancouver. http://ad.informatik.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authors Copy/2005-eLearn.pdf Otsuki, Y., Bandoh, H., Kato, N., Indurkhya, B. and Nakagawa, M. (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(3), 257-269. http://dl.aace.org/16321 Read, J. C. (2005). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. HCI2005. Edinburgh, Scotland, Springer. http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/destech/co mpute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/referenc es/the_usability_of_digital_ink.pdf Revell, Phil (2004). Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Guardian Unlimited, January 6, 2004. http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearnin g/story/0,10577,1116483,00.html Wong, Nicole (2006). Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The Mercury News, Fri. April 7, 2006. http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/merc urynews/business/technology/1428638 8.htm Zeichick, Alan (2004). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Tablet PC Developer, December 22, 2004. http://www.devx.com/TabletPC/Article/2 6667

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Learning Management Systems
Related terms Campus portals, Content management, Course Management Systems (CMS), elearning portals, Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS), learning integration Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se, as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer, 2005), while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made, the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global elearning monoculture.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become, and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control, conversation, and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture - integration with other enterprise systems, especially human resources/“talent management” systems Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics:

…there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Whenever possible, the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than educationspecific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives, thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.e., they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups, roles, and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles, groups, and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.g., the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS), which has the following aims:

For students, more control over their own data For faculty, more control over the learning environment For institutions, more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia, more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network, a search engine, a communication platform, a contact management system, content-driven forums run by experts, and other academic services. http://www.academici.com Elgg is an open source “learning landscape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers, “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners, instructors and resources creating communities of learning.” http://elgg.net/index.php EVE, a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics, has the following functionality: Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms http://lttf.ieee.org/icalt2002/proceeding s/p103.pdf

A 4th Generation LMS is a Web-based applica-tion with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA).

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Learning Management Systems

An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle, a leading open source learning management system, is available as a free download. http://opensourceschools.org/download/ Moodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation, one of the LMS vendors listed below, and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). The LMS companies, in alphabetical order, are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.allencomm.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. - WebMentor LMS http://www.avilar.com/ Compendium Corporation - Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.compendiumcorp.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Element K - KnowledgeHub http://www.elementk.com/ Frontline Data Solutions, Inc. TrainingMine http://www.fldata.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.com/

GeoLearning Inc. - GeoMaestro http://www.geolearning.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. - Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner.com Gyrus - Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.com/ IBM - IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks. nsf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html? Open InfoSource Inc. - InfoSource http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance SystemsiPerform http://www.ips-inc.com/ Intellinex LLC- Intellinex LMS http://www.intellinex.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. - OnTracker LMS http://www.isnewmedia.com/isnm2005/ index.html IntraLearn Software Corp. - IntraLearn XE http://www.intralearn.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. - KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.knowledgeplanet.com/flashh ome.asp Learn.com - LearnCenter http://www.learn.com

LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Learning Management Systems

LearnSomething Inc. - Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.com/ MaxIT - LearnerWeb http://www.maxit.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.meridianksi.com/ mGen Inc. - mGen Enterprise http://www.mgen.com/ NetDimensions - Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.netdimensions.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.novasys-corp.com/index.jsp Operitel Corporation - LearnFlex LMS http://www.operitel.com/overview.aspx Oracle USA Inc. - Oracle Learning http://www.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html OutStart Inc. - OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.outstart.com/portal/index.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) - PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.oracle.com/applications/peopl esoft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ht ml Plateau Systems - Plateau Learning Management System http://www.plateau.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.Net http://www.vbtrain.net/trackerinfo.aspx

RISC - Virtual Training Assistant http://www.risc-inc.com/ Saba - Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/products/saba/lea rning/index.htm SAP - SAP Learning Solution http://www.sap.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ep x SSA Global Technologies Inc. - SSA Learning Management http://www.ssaglobal.com/ SSE - SSElearn Portal http://www.sselearn.com/ Strategia - Ed Training Platform http://www.strategia.ca/en/default.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. - TotalLMS http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/ Syntrio - Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.syntrio.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. - TM SIGAL http://www.technomedia.ca/en/htm/en_ 00_01_01.cfm TEDS Inc. – TEDS http://www.teds.com/ TeraLearn.com Inc. - TeraLearn LCMS http://www.teralearn.com/2004/index.ht ml Trivantis Corporation - CourseMill LMS http://www.trivantis.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.ttg-inc.com/

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Learning Management Systems

Vuepoint - Vuepoint Learning System http://www.vuepoint.com/ WBT Systems - TopClass LMS http://www.wbtsystems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd - DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System http://www.webraven.com Websoft Systems Inc. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.websoft.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. - LMSLive http://www.wizdom.com/ Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. - The Learning Manager http://www.thelearningmanager.com XStream Software Inc. - XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Xtention Inc. - Xtention Learning Management System http://www.xtention.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central,” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems, Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a review of the system and detailed specifications regarding the system's features. http://www.brandonhall.com

For a review of leading open source learning management systems, see the recent article in Learning Circuits, by Sam Adkins. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/oc t2005/adkins.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems." http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=8 &page=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS), separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments,” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: ds/online-learningenvironments.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available from the JISC in the UK. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/index.cfm?name=e lp_lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/scott/b logview?entry=20050125170206


© 2006, Brandon Hall Research

Proceedings. C. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.pdf Do Not Reproduce 143 .eun. (2002). Building educational virtual environments.nxtbook. http://www.pdf Dalziel. November 2004. Incorporated Subversion.melcoe.ieee.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). http://www. Plzen.learningcircuits.tr/tojde14/pdf/ tsinakos. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . M. http://www. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.anadolu. August.org/blog/2005/unmanageing-learning-managementsystems-a-possible-future-for-onlinelearning Jenkins. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).cz/wscg2005/Papers_2 005/Poster/J03-full. 2005. Proceedings of ALT-C.ac..org/eun. http://wscg. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. Proceedings. Pierre (2000). http://www. ICALT2002 Conference. Derek (2004). T. http://www. 2005. and Trifonova. James (2005). Ed.ac. October..edu. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. WSCG Conference 2005. and Tsiatsos.A possible future for online learning. Jan.. L.pdf Morrison. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. http://incsub. A.com/nxtbooks/Mediat ec/clo0806/ Colazzo. Exeter.pdf Cohen. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. University of Birmingham.bath. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .science. Avgoustos (2004). Ronchetti. T.ucisa. A. Czech Republic.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). (2005).edu. 21. Virtual Learning Environments.building new education strategies for schools.unitn.pdf Dillenbourg. Molinari. 2006. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut..au/documents /ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. (2006).mq. J. (2002). April. and Walker. http://tojde. M (2005). UK. Aavani.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Management Systems Bibliography Adkins. R. A. Workshop on virtual learning environments. Sam (2005).htm Bouras. 5(2). 4. Learning Circuits. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. http://lttf. Browne.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. 31-Feb.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.zcu. James (2003). June 20-21. (Online edition).PDF Farmer.pdf Tsinakos.. and Sharifi.uk/groups/tlig/vle/v le_survey_2005. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. Jan.pdf Sadeghi. M. Report published by UCISA. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://www. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.

(2006).cfm?fu seaction=Reader. October 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id =21687 Wiegel.org/newdl/index. Healthcare.unimelb.pdf Wise. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. L. Vancouver. Government. and Higher Education 2005. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.educause.au/telars /talmet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovern anceFinalReport. LMS Governance Project Report. Maomi (2005).aace. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.infodiv. 40(3). and Quealy. http://www. Van (2005).Learning Management Systems Ueno. May-June.edu. Report for the Melbourne.edu/ir/library/pdf/ erm0533. J.pdf 144 © 2006. 2005. May 2006 http://www. Educause Review.

does not mean the intended learning has taken place. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. 2004. At the simplest level. rapid learning. sharable content objects (SCOs). Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Beyond that. reusable learning objects (RLOs). but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. Learning objects have several uses. Do Not Reproduce 145 . They are emulations of “software objects.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. 2006). Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. Wiley. Rather. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computer-based assessments.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. SCORM. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. intelligent tutoring. A more soph- Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability of learning objects. a well-known standard for learning objects. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. As online educational materials are produced. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. However. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). learning object repository (LOR).” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. learning object model (LOM). The acronym SCORM.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations.” such as a graph. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal.” This use has been more successful.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs).

This idea is based on older. http://www. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.fedora.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.educanext.downes. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. culture. http://dlist.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://web. preserves.arizona. http://www. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.sir. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange. http://learnware.cdlib.Learning Objects and Repositories …there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. http://www. http://www.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. computer-use practices.ca/hrd/flore/ 146 © 2006. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. http://dspace.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. curriculum. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.uwaterloo.ca/projects/CC CO/cloe_stories. Brandon Hall Research . behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. and distributes digital research material.org/index.uvic. and they can be general or subject specific.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.” Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). indexes. stores.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.

edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.lolaexchange. with a focus on information literacy.unsw.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.cisco.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.unesco. http://www. http://www. http://www.html Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. http://www.oise.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. http://mlor.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching resources for grades K-12.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.org/ Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.maricopa.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://www.profetic.thegateway.edu.pdf Do Not Reproduce 147 . http://www.wisconsin.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://lester.net/project.koha.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.org/ci/en/ev.edu/DesktopDefault. http://portal. http://www. with almost 15.utoronto.rice. http://www.publiclibraryofscience.org/Home.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).dist.merlot. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.000 items. http://ideas.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.llearn.goenc.mcli.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://www. http://nsdl.lrc3.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL _SECTION=201.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.

C.L. (2004).itdl.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.uwm. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.uniroma1. And Longo.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.org/eng/scientifiques.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. http://www. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. T. and Alderman. Online paper.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. J. http://www. M.html#com123 Bibliography Barritt. (2004). and Anderson.elearnspace.org/blog/archives/ 002089.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. San Francisco: Pfeiffer..org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.nmc.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories A primer on how to design and author learning objects. http://www. http://www.amazon.ca/implementing_proje cts.dis.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www.lornet.dicole. 1(3). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. http://www. (2004).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. authored by Rachel Smith. March.edtechpost. is available at: http://www. CANCORE.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.it/~lhci/002. F. M. http://www. A.cancore.ca/mt/archive/000 681. http://www.jcdl.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 148 . http://www.doc Christiansen.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. Celentano.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.org/guidelines/index.uis. http://www. EdTechPost.

G. Warren (2000).blogs.itdl. R. http://www.html Friesen.pdf Krauss. March..uk/foundation/publi cations/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.. (2004). Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.editlib.aace. Rory (Ed.Downloa dFullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. Anderson. J. and Morales. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. html Edusource (2003).eduserv. R. http://www. (2004). M. D. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. http://ideas. London: Falmer. Jan. Norm (2006). The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. http://www.html McGreal. http://www. Hatala. 2004.. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. and Mohammed.doc Fiaidhi.ca/protocols_en. 1 (3). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.org/Journal/Mar_04/article0 3.org/index.org/mar2000/ primer.. S. Paquette. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. D.com/lo/2004/01/the_r eusability.ca/implementing_projec ts.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.irrodl.html Heery. G. 2(4). International Journal on E-Learning.amazon.html Leeder.. http://www.cancore.9. G.htm Friesen. Stephen. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. T. 2(1). MacLeod. T.org. Learning Circuits. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.9%2015-11-03. Online paper. Online document.edusource. M.cfm/files/pap er_11841.itdl. http://www. S... Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. & Strijker.org/content/v2.htm Do Not Reproduce 149 . Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. B. http://dl. Version . S.1/downes. 1(3). 14. Mattson. http://www.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. (2003). (2004). Software Architecture Document. N... http://www. Babin.org/14190 Downes. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. March.) (2004). Roberts.. Rachel (2006).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.cancore. A. March. (2000). Downes. Friesen..ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pla n/SA%200. Fredinand (2004). Online Education Using Learning Objects. 5-16. http://www. A Primer on Learning Objects.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Learning Objects and Repositories Collis. Harrigan.learningcircuits. Richards. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Online. K. and Schafer.. http://www. Norm (2005).. Research Report.

(Ed. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.Part 2. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). V.org/read/ Wiley. Derek (2004a). http://opencontent.pdf Santally.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.informingscience.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. 7(1). A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Jan. http://www. Final Project Report. R. Rossano. (2000). http://www. McGreal. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. 1(7). : http://reusability.itdl. Learning Circuits. David A. M. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.. Elizabeth (2004). Clive.ac. July 14.kth. N. M. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. June.p df Wiley. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2000).ac.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. M.htm Shepherd. Aug.pdf http://www. 9. http://www. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Learning Material Repositories . March.fastrakconsulting. T. (2006). pdf Roselli. David A.)..org/blog/archives/230 150 © 2006. 2004.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.co.dis. http://www.Rafts or Battleships? . April 2002. 12.edu. http://www. (2002).learningcircuits. INTERACT 2005.htm Wiley.uniroma1. David A.it/~lhci/rossanopres.dis. http://www.bath.uk/tactix/features/objects/o bjects.Learning Objects and Repositories Morrison. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.learninglab. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. and Pragnell. http://www.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.htm Nejdl. Objects of Interest.. (2005). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.Part 1.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.it/~lhci/rossanopaper. Iterating Toward Openness. (2002). Learning Material Repositories .pdf Richards.usq. A.html Murphy. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Brigham Young University. Doctoral dissertation. G. http://proceedings. (2004). Brandon Hall Research .uniroma1. Govinda. 2004. Paper presented.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Derek (2004b). Online. and Freisen. and Senteni. Lori (2002). http://opencontent.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.org/docs/dissertation. Wolfgang (2004).Rafts or Battleships? .bath. http://www.. InSITE conference.

S. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. tours Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. and security issues. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. including the following: Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area In the cultural sector. personal media players. including privacy concerns. galleries. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). and exhibits for a variety of purposes. as with any new technology.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. proximity tools. including to do the following: Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. geocaching. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. location-based systems are found in museums. and wearable computers. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. Do Not Reproduce 151 . navigation. including cell phones. PDAs. Department of Defense. However. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. galleries. laptops. findability. users will be able to use a variety of devices. more demands for a person’s attention. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. gaming consoles.

org/ http://www. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. to what a GIS system uses. A kiosk on create custom maps and tags them with more mobile. GIS also is the following: being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.http://www.http://www. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft http://www.com/ Geographic Information System.com/ mapping service.us/research/G ESRI.esri. experiences that people. See how this direction.pangonetworks.com/ ISlab/ MapInfo . personal media Google Maps is an intuitive map of the Georeferencing is the process of converting world that allows the user to zoom in and players. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://www.org/ educational of Mars. the museum’s exhibit floor features users will be interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.edu/ the globe. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers http://mvz.com/mars/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. The Laboratory’s Web site Cadcorp .live.google.frappr.com/ location and biodiversity around the world.Location Based Technologies The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and The main players in the GIS market include maintain a database of over 40.google. Geographic Information System (GIS) use that http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state.com/ As computer The Science Museum of Minnesota in St devices become Paul has GIS-based projects for public Frapper is a Web site that allows you to smaller and display and ongoing class work. http://earth.com/mars/ specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM information.http://www. interact with Google Mars is a composite of the mapping http://www. with abilities to show the location of Greatest Places allows students to explore including cell almost any service or feature that is a variety of interesting places worldwide searchable from a database.com/ Selected Examples 152 © 2006. and text descriptions of locations to computerout for various levels of details. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.berkeley. http://www.museum.http://www.google. Brandon Hall Research .cadcorp.com able to use a http://www. similar to continuous and can be dragged in any computers.com/ Intergraph .mapinfo.biogeomancer. to model the climate in any place in the world. gaming http://www.state.google.org/ consoles. track their system is being used to plot changes in http://earth. earth.smm.greatestplaces. laptops.clarklabs.intergraph.com/ includes a GIS animations gallery. PDAs.org/ variety of Google Earth is an amazing view of the devices. information. The map is wearable readable geographic locations. Clark Labs . it is a great tool for teaching science.il. and to learn about them using a phones. http://local.http://www.

asp?path=5 00.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.edu. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.org/index.ca/ Do Not Reproduce 153 . http://platial.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.ordnancesurvey.leeds. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. http://www. create.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.wisc.co.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.fi/english/page.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.com/index.gees. see: http://www.edu/sco/gis/hi story. http://www.cetadl. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.opensourcegis.esri.” http://www.ac.eoscenter.bham.5372.confluence. at: http://www.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. http://www.uk/events/2005/gis0 5/gis05. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. Earth. http://pngis. http://www.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. http://www.uk/oswebsi te/education/index.geog. http://portal. See their complete range of products.ac.chimer. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.com/gis4mt/index. as well as papers on trends in GIS.bc.geography.

(2005).ibm. G. 15.directionsmag. and Location-Based industry professionals.geocomm. CAD.. M.intelresearch.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. Koutsoudis. G. Jan 2004. http://www. http://www. 2005. manipulate.digicult. IEEE Report. Information in places. Learning Circuits. Future LocationBased Experiences. Dec. J. 1999. M. DigiCULT Newsletter.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. 2003.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Location Based Technologies Geotags. (1999). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and visualize spatial information. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. (2001).guardian.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. C. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.info/index.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.00.. and Rusbridge.jisc. A.. N.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. January. Chapter on Location Based Devices. 2005.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. IBM Systems Journal. Donnelly. http://elearningeuropa.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.com/geo/ The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).html Ross.pdf Spohrer.learningcircuits. Guardian Unlimited... Arnaoutoglou. Heather (2005).com http://geotags. Abbott. Issue 6..uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. http://www. A.pdf Do Not Reproduce 154 .digicult. Pavlidis. F.pdf Tsirliganis.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.info/downloads/dc_inf o_issue6_december_20031. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. http://geotags. and students. http://www. A. http://www.pdf Cardinali.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.C. J.co..ac. http://education. Steve (2005).htm McLean. McHugh. Mapping. 3D-ArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3-D multimedia space. http://www..pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. D.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Eva (2004). 38(4). Dobreva.research.intergraph. Part II. (2003).1642288. Nov. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.com/ Bibliography Benford. enthusiasts. Fabrizio (2005). and Chamzas. http://www. Online article. and Borriello. S. We learning: social software and e-learning. http://www.

they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. For example.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. hybrid applications. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. API clouds. personalized. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. in schools and universities. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. or protocol. provides access to the API of another Web site. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. A “mashup. Many of these objects are software programs. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. to a lesser extent.” then. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. the rules for sending files across the Internet. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online SOAP originally stood for Simple Object presentations Access Protocol. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. of how to communicate with each other. E-learning in the workplace and. Programs can be “stand alone. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources.” and Do Not Reproduce 155 . including a Web site that The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. to a lesser extent. run all by themselves. all expressed in binary code. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors.” instructors. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. will be only one The meaning of SOAP has since broadened option in a to include rules on how two software myriad of programs can communicate and work with choices for each other. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. For two or more programs to talk to each other. also called “object learners and interoperability. in schools and universities. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. integration. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. or through “Web services.” that is. Using SOAP.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. composite applications. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. tag clouds. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Similarly. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

icio.emilychang.deitel. Many have educational value. communications. Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.Mashups. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service.com/matrix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic.us. http://www. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. http://en.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.wikipedia. http://www.deitel.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/ MASHUP 156 © 2006. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.programmableweb. As Warlick (2006) has noted. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. at the same time. Brandon Hall Research . etc. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.html Rob Hof. http://www.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.programmableweb.0 APIs.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. such as those for collaboration.htmlhttp://www. providing an informal collaborative environment.com/ http://www. SOAP and Web Services the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl.” It has many examples of mashups. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.businessweek. 2004). Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.com /mashups/MashUpsResourceCenter.mashupfeed. document management. a writer for Business Week.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. http://del.icio.. http://blogs.

Learning Technology newsletter.com/blog/main/a rchives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.html Hof. 2002.org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. May 15. 2006. January 2004 http://lttf. J. http://www.ieee. C. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. George (undated). Do Not Reproduce 157 .org/learn_tech/issues/januar y2004/learn_tech_january2004. Infoworld. 2006. http://www. http://www. July 28.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mashups. match. Web Services. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. 6.operitel. Galen (2006). July 25. techLEARNING. and mutate.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b39 44108_mz063. Elearnspace. Dec. Learning Technology newsletter. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. J. Robert (2005). SOAP and Web Services Bibliography Gruman.com/publications. 6. C.infoworld. Vol.aspx Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. and Oliveira.pdf Stacey. http://www. Paul (2002). Business Week Online. Mashups. David (2006). Mix.. 2006.htm Siviter. http://www. and Padron.businessweek. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Learning Solutions.pdf Seimens. Douglas (2004). (2006).org/resources/webs ervices. March 6. 2005.ieee.html Woodill.techlearning. 6. (2004).com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEmas hup_1.htm Torres. Curriculum as Mashup. Enterprise mashups. http://ww6. Issue 1. Issue 1. Dodero. Vol. SOAP. G.html Warlick. January 2004 http://lttf.bctechnology.elearnspace.com/products/print_fri endly.

cancore. and services. social bookmarking Description At the same time that learning objects.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). http://dublincore. http://simile. repositories.do?tm= O4E.edu/o4e/viewhome. and artificial intelligence are being developed. http://www. community.org/metadata/mdv 1p3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.educause. search engines.asp?p age_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. Do Not Reproduce 158 . An ontology.ac. http://www. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy.edu/content. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. http://metadata. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.mit. pervasive computing. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. in the context of information technology. Ohio.mit.html This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging elearning technologies. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program.imsglobal. http://www. http://iiscs. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. and institutional stores.edu/ Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for elearning. to develop metadata standards. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. metadata.wssu. http://libraries.edu/guides/subjects/ metadata/index.cetis.

tagcamp. and Chaput. 82-97. Patrick (2006). Online article. Ontologies and Taxonomies Bibliography Abel. (2004). http://www.htm Gruber.com/research/white papers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. F.info/issues. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web.org/10614 Mathes. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Lenne.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.php?id=25 Chen. TagOntology . SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Ontologybased organizational memory for e-learning. Defining “taxonomy”.php?id=25 Kroski. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. Norm (2005). University of Illinois graduate paper. November. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. (2002). ding_a_metadata_based_website This approach is Lytras.. http://tomgruber. Ellyssa (2005). http://www.aace. and Nejdl. Thomas (2005a).. A.com/view/buil database as they enter data.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Metadata. sometimes A..org/. 7(4).edu/get/a/publication/ 105. http://www. C. P.blogsome.umbc.greenchameleon. D. T. 2006. (2003). 2003. Building a place their own Metadata-Based Website. tags into a BoxesAndArrows. Benayache. MA. 98-111. N. A. http://infotangle.” justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. M. Dec. Presentation to Tag Camp. Moulin.. In Proceedings. Perich. W. Green Chameleon. http://dl.. A.. C. Delphi Group report.ifets. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. A. 7. October 29. 2002. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Infotangle.delphigroup.html Gruber. 7(4). http://www. H. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. Dolog. B. June 2004.pdf Delphi Group (2004). M. http://www. B. http://tomgruber.cancore.. Barry. and Poulymenakou. Thomas (2005b).com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Boston. Dynamic e-learning settings called a through advanced semantics: the value “folksonomy.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who Lider.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.. 2005. http://www. October-December.adammathes. April 18. http://www. Pouloudi. (2004). and Mosoiu.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.pdf Friesen.pdf Do Not Reproduce 159 . http://ebiquity..boxesandarrows. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.info/issues.pdf Henze. (2004). Finin. http://www.ca/editors. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. April 21. International Journal on E-Learning. and Joshi.ifets. Adam (2004).

boxesandarrows.. Christian (2004).learningcircuits. http://www. 2004. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.ifets. D.boxesandarrows. 2002. P.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. 2005. S..ecdl2003.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. I. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. 2004. Stuart (2005). Understanding Metadata.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. July/August. http://www. April 9. http://www. (2004). http://www.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Christina (2002). M. J. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. 7(4). and Diaz.info/issues.php?id=25 160 © 2006. Learning Circuits. Lytras.html Wodtke. Ontologies and Taxonomies National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Wagner. NISO Press. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). 26-28.info/issues. N. and Godby. G. Chen. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. (2003)..htm Weibel.php?id=25 Tozman. http://www.ifets. 11(7/8). Reuben (2004).niso.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07 weibel. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Trondheim.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. and Shao. D-Lib Magazine. J. 7(4). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. May 22. 70-81. (2004). Nov. Norway. Brandon Hall Research .dlib. http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. http://www.Metadata.pdf Oin. http://www. Another new paradigm for instructional design. BoxesAndArrows. BoxesAndArrows.ppt Ricci.

mLearning. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. brokerage. Essentially. and mentoring. conversational learning. and performance-based wearable collaborative learning. wearable computing. assessment… e-learning independent of computers in location. in mobile computing (McLean. such as Personal Digital Assistants Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the (PDAs). personalization. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). learning architecture [that] will support creation. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. laptops. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. any place connectivity Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. tablets. such telephones. there are potential disadvantages teaching and Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning. communicative skills and community interaction.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. laptops.” The Mobilearn However. rich players. MP3 eLearning: accessible resources wherever as increased computer literacy. location based technologies. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: Portability Any time. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. improved identity creation. there were estimated to be 1. This is more than three including the following: Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Do Not Reproduce 161 . powerful support for effective tablet PCs. 2004). location-dependence. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009.6 billion units in operation by that year. cellular telephones. wireless Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. strong search capabilities. and building. 2003). podcasting. using ambient intelligence.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. personalization. MP3 players. times the number of personal computers (PCs). pervasive computing. cellular intersection of mobile computing and Researchers point out other benefits. instant messaging (text. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. cell phones.” Two years ago. personal digital assistants (PDA). you are. tablet PCs. time and space. video) and distributed databases. it is predicted that there will be 2. learning. multimedia.

se/projectd ata.” a “butterfly-watching learning system.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/JECR-2005. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid1990s PC.computer.pdf The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. there were estimated to be 1.net/ 162 © 2006.stockholmchallenge.cs. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days.tw/~yschen/mypap ers/AINA2004-final.co.mobilearn.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. http://www. http://csdl2. movies. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development On a positive note.” They have a “firefly watching system.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. audio.cs.edu. 2004). http://www. and pre-service teachers.pdf http://www.ccu.tw/~yschen/conpap ers/bird. (2004). US.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky.bbc.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.harvard. http://urbantapestries. Users can access and create location-specific text. http://gseacademic. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open service-based architecture.edu. pictures.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.edu.Mobile Devices Two years ago.pdf http://www. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. or a combination of media. Brandon Hall Research . compared to only 50 percent of computer users. Israel. Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.cs.ccu.ccu. http://news. Australia. Cited in Prensky.” and a “bird watching learning system. in Japan.” http://www.

” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. applications.msu. resources.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.knowledgepulse.mobilelearning.232.ph p Do Not Reproduce 163 . including issues.fasfind.edu/vol9num1/emerging/de fault. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content. http://www. http://llt.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.eee.cf m?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.elearningcentre. Learn more at: http://www.135/ipodined/news.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. links. Gaming.ac.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.com/wwwtools/m/2717.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.com/home_en.com/wwwtools/m/8907.htm Jari Laru.” http://m. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.fasfind.tk/ One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.uk/handler/publi cations. For example.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. http://www3. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.uk/eclipse/Resources/mle arning. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. 2006 in Dublin. activities. technologies.fasfind. Ireland.bham. http://213.telus. of the University of Oulu in Finland.94.co.com/wwwtools/m/2737. and a glossary.cf m?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. http://www.iadis.beta80group.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. http://urbantapestries. http://spotlight-mobile.

R. Paul (2005). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. http://www. M. A. B. Language Learning and Technology. http://www.pdf Jasola.pdf Chen. 347-359. http://www.ac. January 2005. Y.pdf Godwin-Jones. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.jisc. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.uk/eli_practice. 39. http://www.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. http://www. (2004).m-learning. September 2005. No. Jill (2005).org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04..jisc. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.ntnu. S. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.html Bibliography Alexander.6.html Kadirire. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. Bob (2005).cs. and Trifonova. (2003). of Birmingham http://www.html Grew.ac.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. and Pagani. http://mobile. 2(9). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.kaywa. Molinari. JISC Guide. 19. and Sheu. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. P. Report. T. No.educause. Vol. 9(1). James (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.net. Bryan (2004). L. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.flexiblelearning. Emerging technologies: Messaging. Gaming.ccu. (2002).pdf Geddes.pdf Colazzo. EDUCAUSE Review. and Sharma. E.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.. (2005).formatex.pdf Anderson. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.science.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.unitn. J.pdf Attewell.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Sept. Ronchetti. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.edu..itdl.J.it/~foxy/docs/T owards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).msu. 5. http://knowledgetree. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.htm JISC (2005). (2005). Univ. 17-22 http://llt. Learning and Skills Development Agency.a u/edition06/download/geddes. Kao. http://www. http://www.org/micte2005/4. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 164 .idi. A.

2004. 2002. A.2002. David (2006). Archeology.usabilitynews. and Dobreva. UsabilityNews. Conference on Virtual reality.acm.phil-inst. Malavasi.pdf Scagliarini. http://drei. E. (2004). Växjö.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. Liang. T. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. http://www. J. Ann (2005). M. Brisbane. D. Cinotti..1109 /WMTE. F. June/July 2005.ieeecomputersociety. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). http://portal. M.org/10.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.asp Liu. Romagnoli.digicult.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenber ger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.. ASCILITE2005 Conference. and Cultural Heritage. http://www.pdf Metcalf. Glyfada. http://www. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. T. (2002). E. Marc (2004).. 1(5). Coralini. Kristóf (2002). M... Proceedings. Proceedings.. Greece. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. http://www. August 29-30. H.htm#Implications Prensky. J..fhjoanneum.ac. MA: HRD Press.org/citation. Pigozzi. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Roffia. and Nischelwitzer.century. Feb. 2005.. Galasso. A. T. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.amazon.doc Meisenberger. and Yang. Donnelly. Växjö University. S. http://www. Chan.pdf Mellow. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Neil (2003)..info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Australia. Sweden. S.cfm?id=585 018&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CF TOKEN=6184618 Do Not Reproduce 165 . computer-aided. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. and Sforza.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Light. Vecchietti. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.. L.info/index.ox. Amherst. (2001). multimedia-based learning application. June 27. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Peter (2005).org. M. http://doi. (2005). Teleborg Campus.. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.ascilite. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.innovateonline.php? view=article&id=83&action=article Ross.oucs.2..1039222 McLean.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. http://www. Wang.com/gp/product/087 4259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. http://21st. M.com/news/article2 490. Presented at WMTE 2002.

Feb. A theory of learning for the mobile age.ac. May/June 2005. Understanding. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. and.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Mobile Devices Sharples. http://www.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.ac. G. Taylor. Chief Learning Officer.html von Koschembahr. Enabling Mobile Learning.cfm?do cumentfileid=7298. and Vavoula.open.fil. Learning in the Mobile Age. Christopher (2005).pdf Do Not Reproduce 166 . Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. 40-53. http://www.. http://www.. May 23.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. Ellen (2005). April 2005. J. Draft paper submitted for publication.bham.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.pdf Sharples.clomedia. (2005).1490476. Guardian Unlimited.eee. Hungary.uk/public/getfile.uk/elearning/ comment/0.guardian.00. http://kn. M.educause. 2005. Mike (2005).co.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. EDUCAUSE Review. E-Learning on the move. 40(3). http://education.pdf Thomas. Budapest. Michael (2005). 2005.

“a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. machine translation. http://tcc. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. speech synthesis. http://www.cs. voice recognition Description According to Coxhead (2001). http://wwwusers. rather than just returning Web pages.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .lexxe. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). Kim (2000).itc. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging elearning technologies.com/ Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. Lee et al. Di Eugenio. (2004). an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.it/index. Do Not Reproduce 167 .uk/~silvia/litReview. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. i. (2004). ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.translating one natural language into another. http://dmoz. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. (2005a. speech recognition. et al.york.. natural language understanding.” See also Jordan et al.org/Computers/Artificial_Intell igence/Natural_Language/ Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.e. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.. natural language generation.ac.

Cambridge. M.” Do Not Reproduce 168 . Haller. Paul (1994). tools.. S. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study.w3. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP).. http://www. 2(2). Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. S. and Glass. Paper presented at ACL2005. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications. 62-76.. Language Learning and Technology. (2004). November 2004 http://imm.amazon.cs. (2005a).cs.msu.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.gr/publibations/inte ll_tool. Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. http://www.pdf Di Eugenio.. An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries.. (2004). Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05. B. (2005b). http://www. P. Yu. Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. and VanLehn. Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. January.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.ed.pdf Eskenazi.elsnet.ldc.pdf Coxhead. A. Haller. Yu.uic. Online. http://www. http://www. Christian (2001). Makatchev. http://www.upenn. Peter (2001). Fossati. MA: MIT Press.org/aitopics/html/natlang.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon.org/softwaremap/trove_list . and standards. D. D.uic. http://llt.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. M.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.ac.. pdf Jacquemin.cs..bham. D. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. Fossati. research.aaai. D.org/Voice/Activity. M. J. and Glass. Volume 1.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. Doctoral Dissertation.demokritos. http://www. K. Issue 5.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.cstr. University of Edinburgh.html#fn1 Di Eugenio.pdf Drigas.ac. B.html Bibliography Bagshaw. and Vrettaros.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for this activity. http://eduforge. http://www. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.

(Eds. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. August 31.pdf Jurafsky. C.). http://www. (2004).pdf Ram. M. In J. Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing. Doctoral Dissertation. Donnelly.edu/papers/daveDisser tation. Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Cambridge. K. http://www.iit. D. and F. Doctoral Dissertation. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.com/gp/product/026 2181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ross.edu/~circsim/documents/k jhdiss.pdf Linckels. and Rusbridge. Feng-Jen (2001). Vicari. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. (2000).pitt. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Illinois Institute of Technology.iit.. http://www. and Glass. Yujian (2000). Dobreva. Evens.lu/Publications/ICWE20 04. (2004).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Natural Language Processing Tutoring System. K. and Moorman. Doctoral Dissertation.cs. MA: MIT Press. C. Paraguaçu (Eds. A. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Upper Saddle River.pdf Yang.edu/~circsim/documents /yzdiss. Jung Hee (2000). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. A. and Meinel. Maceió.cs.cs.cs. http://www.. of Colorado.pdf Zhou. S. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. R.pdf Lee. A. Chicago.pdf Do Not Reproduce 169 . Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. http://www. http://lsa.edu/~circsim/documents/c hldial04. computational linguistics and speech recognition. and Moorman. Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2005). NJ: Prentice Hall.pdf Steinhart.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www.iit. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Brazil. and Martin.edu/~circsim/documents /fydiss.iit. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. http://www. M. Doctoral dissertation. M. McHugh. Cambridge.amazon. A.H.com/gp/product/02621 81924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram.com/gp/product/01309 50696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/104-30772121261530?ie=UTF8 Kim.) (1999). D. Illinois Institute of Technology.colorado. http://www. Illinois Institute of Technology. C. M. (Eds. Chicago. http://www. Chicago. Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. 435-439. J.linckels.digicult.. Univ. David (2001).edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. MA: MIT Press. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.) (1999). Abbott..amazon.amazon. Lester. S.. M.

ht ml Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music. as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker. the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves. sharing Description Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users. movies. Brandon Hall Research . and games. or e-learning environments. memory. chat rooms. combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing paradigm. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. instant messaging.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers. Jokela (2003). Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education. As personal computers become more powerful. and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power. and storage. Selected Examples SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. Collaborative Peer Relationships . The potential develop-ment of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peer-topeer learning.A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming. http://www. In the future. 170 © 2006.org/science/setiathome. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. thus bypassing a central server. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments.Peer to Peer Technologies Related terms Collaboration. thus bypassing a central server. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. 2003): Multiple Peer Relationships . whose research is based on activity theory. and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning.seti. Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent.

http://www. Groove is now owned by Microsoft Corporation.edu/info/ove rview. and translation servers throughout the Web.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning.pdos.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. each with its own data schema. Any computer can join the infrastructure.campusmoviefest.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost.mit.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA. Do Not Reproduce 171 .edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata.sun. http://www. http://cosl.edu/chimera/ The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources.cs.com/ eduCommons . http://edutella. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future. http://lockss. http://wwws.jxta.The eduCommons is an open system for creating. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers. http://www. PC to server) to communicate and collaborate.usu. http://oceanstore.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival.md3. encyclopedia.weblogger.cdt. http://data.washington.berkeley. sharing. http://picto. where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://publius. robust distributed systems using peer-to-peer networks. contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. standardized protocol for talking to dictionary.stanford.ucsb.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple. http://p2p.lcs.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. persistent digital cache" of e-journal content.cs.groove.cs.edu/piazza.

for a small fee.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet. Mac. http://www. http://www.fastrakconsulting. and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe.” http://www. no adware.stockholmchallenge. http://www. the online P2P distribution service for independent artists.uk/tactix/features/swapsh op. and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide.internet2.movedigital. to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.advancedreality.co.com/products/in dex.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. headquartered at Penn State University.limewire.net/freescience_learnmo re_it. allows anyone.se/proje ctdata.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities.edu/apps_list.com/english/content/ho me.” It also says that there is “no spyware. http://www. http://www. and videomakers.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies.uk/eclipse/Resources/ p2p.bdaweb.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education.html MoveDigital.llearn.net/index.psu.co.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning. http://p2p. musicians. http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 172 . cross platform application (Win. http://lionshare.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.elearningcentre.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes.bdaweb.overnet.edu/main/project_inf ormation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. http://www. no Trojan horse” bundled with this program.its. data.com/ Overnet is an open source.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources.

Martin (2004). Paul & Cunningham.org/2002/jan20 02/hofmann.editlib. R. University of Texas. eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues. 2006.kbs. http://www. significance and impact. Bokma.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.org/index. Online paper. P2P and its impact on the enterprise..edu/multimedia/PDF folder/PeerComputing. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. A. July 2001.learningcircuits. Jennifer (2002). Susan (2003). Ginty. January 2002.pdf Do Not Reproduce 173 . Jay (2001). (2002). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. (2004). http://www. Campus Technology. Intranet Journal. Healthcare. Miriam (Eds. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.com/article. and Koumpis. June 1. http://www. Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology.com/articles/200 109/tm_09_26_01a. Luigi (2005). H.htm Cross.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview. Online article.sunderland.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02. and Higher Education 2003.intranetjournal.utexas.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.html Jokela. and Guergachi. 2005. http://www.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.campustechnology. Wolfgang (2002). D. Julita (2004). pp 1051-1058. Case Studies.unihannover. http://www. eLearning and future trends.editlib. Robin Good Blog. http://www.usask.org/2001/jul200 1/Cross. http://voyager.pdf Ratti.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Peer to Peer Technologies Bibliography Boettcher.org/index.). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. http://www. AACE Journal 12(3). http://www. http://www. Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits.org/2005/01/ 17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is. Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Paivi (2003). Judith (2006). A.learningcircuits. January 17..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. How P2P will change collaborative learning.html Fletcher. K.edb.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi. Applications.masternewmedia. pp. 301-313. eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto.pdf Vassileva. Tektonidis.pdf Farges. Learning Circuits.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl.ac.htm Farago-Walker. Austin. 1624-1631. Government. Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom.. In Cunningham. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://julita. N.

174 © 2006. discussion forums. wikis. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. etc. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discuss-ion. work places. libraries. often only for the purposes of the course. and. amongst institutions. personalization Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. there can be no electronic interaction. but these are only available to members of the course. e-portfolios. Secondly. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: LMSs are not intrinsically learner-centered. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. there is little scope to choose a person-al suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. (Cortlett et al.). In many cases. A PLE contains collabor-ation tools that can connect with anyone. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. whiteboard). The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. as learners move between institutions. This requires support over time. Individualization in an LMS is weak. for the learner. Technology needs to be situated. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. Learning happens everywhere and at all times.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. To practice real-world situations. learning management systems. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. chat. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. without an offline client to the LMS. and through a variety of technologies. A PLE is structured by the learner. blogs. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications (mostly in the interest of accessibility).. Brandon Hall Research . A PLE must support lifelong learning. social environments. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. 2005) The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. such as search engines. learners need to be in real-world situations. and social bookmarking sites. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution.

http://www. D. Running on the learner's PC.bath. Nevada.ac. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems. 2006. Incorporated Subversion. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. http://www. http://terrya. January 9.uk/uploaded_document s/birmingham. O. 2006. and it remains to be seen if they will become common-place or will replace learning management systems.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. PLE Reference Model.uk/members/ple/reso urces/cdm_ple_session. it helps the user plan.cetis. UK. J. http://www.ac. Jan.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://www. 22-27 July 2005. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.mlearn. http://www.za/CD/papers/Corl ett. and Westmancott.. Terry (2006). M.cetadl. Las Vegas. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.doc Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Ting.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personal Learning Environments Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.uk/ilogbook/de fault. http://incsub.jisc.org/blog/2006/theinevitable-personal-learning-environmentpost Milligan.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. http://elgg. track. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. and review his or her learning activity. http://www.uk/news_folder/ple %20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. Chan.ac. Colin (2005).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-primetime/ Corlett.org.cfm?name=cetis _ple In a post on his blog.ac. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Sharples. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Online case study paper. Supporting personalised learning – the Interactive Logbook.aspx ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. (2005).ac.bham.elearning. http://portal. James (2006). manage.uk/index.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). Do Not Reproduce 175 .jisc..edublogs.pdf Farmer..ac. Edinburgh. T.cetis. 11.ac.

we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. through a questionnaire). Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. collaborative filtering. etc. Furthermore.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. However. However. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.).. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. or it can be an implicit model. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching.g. picture. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. 2005). artificial intelligence. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Often. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. rule-based filtering. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background to the pages. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. Do Not Reproduce 176 . In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. colour. (Filippini-Fantoni.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. and being able to set a picture as the background on a PC’s “desktop. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. etc. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. These techniques include content-based filtering. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. Keenoy et al. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. yet we would heist-ate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour.g. learning environments. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.

ed.noech.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.org/public/pub/researcher/act An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a ivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.beta80group. chc021 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Personalization Software Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. PDAs).it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .org/default.calimera. http://www.time-ordered http://www.directa. the personalization can be applied to content.org/issues/issue9 The PAST project was a prototype exploit_5/hamma/ ing a number of key technologies The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. http://www.html be related to a learner’s interests or cognitive http://www. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. http://www. http://www.pdf kaleidoscope.org/en/index. objects leave “trails” . Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.three pre-defined profiles The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on and a user-defined profile. navigation. dynamic user profiling techniques. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.firstmonday.html (handheld PCs. http://www.ecdc. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being the fact that learners engaging with learning delivered to each user.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95gg handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.hcrc. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.net/toscana/events/m sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. A demo is available at: http://www. Do Not Reproduce 177 .html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.net/home. and XML technologies) to create a wireless eguide for archaeological sites.emarcon.uk/ilex/final. and/or presentation of materials.virtualmuseum. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.. The trails can useomarmo. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.ca/English/Per sonal/index.g. wireless networks.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.nl/publications/papers/M traits.elenaproject.ac. useums%20with%20a%20personal%20tou http://www.

org/mymetmuse um/index. http://adiret. University of Glasgow.. B. and Cook J. http://tmtfactory.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.pdf 178 © 2006.org/ Bibliography Abbott. A. J. http://www. http://www.CY/0409055 Boyle T.calimera. https://www. Online paper. Daisy (2002). http://arxiv. G. Ngo. Italy. A. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Calimera Project (2005).asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuse um_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. (2004)..arces. A.com/articulos/MagicalMir ror200406. J.pdf Beler. and Nuguid.it/intint/people/paper s/aims04. with a particular focus on the museum sector. and Verdaguer. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. interactive services in home automation. (2004).Personalization Software The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pizzutilo. D.unimagdeburg. Online paper.gla. Magical Mirror: multimedia.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.org. S. May 25.umuai. X. (2005).arts. (2005)..ascilite. Gallipoli.hatii. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. and Kuflik.org/pdf/cs. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. (AVI 2004). S. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.uniba. W.di. http://www. http://www. Italy. L. 2004. HATII.pdf Callaway. William Niu. (2004).(2001). T. Borda. K. (AVI 2004).ac.cs.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.pdf Bright. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.pd f Cavalluzzi. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). http://smart. May 25.pdf Ceccaroni. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. C. Kay.. Cozzolongo. Brandon Hall Research . The Future of Access (or. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. 2004.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. http://www.. Bowen.. A. A. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. PowerPoint presentation. De Carolis. Gallipoli.unibo. Ler. and FilippiniFantoni.. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. Melbourne.metmuseum..

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instructorled. Some uses of e-learning portals include: Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian.Both internal and external to the organization A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Communities of Practice Personalization . and real-time training and documents in a supportive. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. Knowledge Management.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . In the business world. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter 184 © 2006. including the following: Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases.Portals Related terms Collaboration. 2001). collaborative environment. which form a dynamic user profile. 2004) Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. vendors. content management. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. Brandon Hall Research . learning management systems. resource sites Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.

museums.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include students. go to: http://www. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.proquest.com/windowsserver20 03/technologies/sharepoint/default. the portal offered information on more than 20.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. and shared lists for tasks. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.com/products/centra/kn owledge_center/index.000 publishers worldwide http://www. news and announce-ments.000 online courses http://www. http://www. e-mail distribution lists. instructor-led. http://h20219.300 online courses http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. http://www. and universities. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. and schedules. school administrators.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.fathom.000 lesson plans http://www. interactive discussion groups.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. audio and/or video.com/home.asp Element K – Access to over 2. instant messaging. students. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.cyberu.com/office/sharepoint /prodinfo/demo. instructors.elementk. document management information. calendars.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.microsoft.elearningeuropa. online meetings with text.teach-nology. Do Not Reproduce 185 .com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. collaborative environment. administrators.hp.executrain.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.com/services/cach e/259662-0-0-225-121.www2. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.trainingregistry.microsoft. As of early 2006.worldwidelearn.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.saba.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. http://www.700 online courses http://www.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.com/ A complete elearning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.

Heidi (2003). Bray (2001). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. R. category. Learning Circuits. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. C.amazon. and Aucoin. Campus Technology Magazine. and Sheehan.Education. A Portrait of Learning Portals. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. 2004.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. http://blogs. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. PA: Information Science Publishing. Heidi (2001). (Eds.edu/apps/eq/eqm0 4/eqm04113. J. You’ve come a long way.tamtam. M. (Eds.asp Terra.ittoolbox. http://www. http://knowledgemanagement.com/article. K.asp Katz. Reviewed at: http://www. (2003).learningcircuits..htm Do Not Reproduce 186 . Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.htm Brockbank. Hershey. In Jafari. September 2000. http://www. Hershey. http://www. http://www. Campbell. baby! E-learning portals. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. Richard & Associates (2002).org/2000/may 2000/Barron. PA: Information Science Publishing.nl/mart/CategoryView.amazon.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 &tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Cornelia (2000). http://www.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.learningcircuits..educause. M. and Sheehan.) (2003). (2003). E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Portals Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. and Gordon.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. A. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. May 2000. http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron.amazon. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.educause.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Collins. including educational uses. New York: AMACOM.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. New York: AMACOM.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.campustechnology. Tom (2000). March 1.amazon. Ron (2004). http://www.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. San Francisco: JosseyBass. http://www.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. A.

org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively It is clear that in this age of entertainment. when experts are not readily available. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. In fact. The actual present-ations are often called online lectures or Webinars. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Online presentations can be very boring. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience.htm Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.lsc. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Do Not Reproduce 187 . Skypecasting.macromedia. http://www. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. virtual classrooms. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. web conferencing. However. In fact.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. webinars Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Consequently.com/site/index. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. webcasting.” In the Middle Ages. http://www.” In the Middle Ages.replayhq. Experience them at: http://www. the word “lecturing” means “to read. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www. and Web presentations. groupware.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. http://www.htm http://www. online meetings. forums and message boards.edu/TEAL). See the TEAL Project at MIT.com/webconf/index.kolabora.mit. http://weblog.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.silicon. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.com/hpinfo/newsroom/pres s/2005/051212xa. http://cde. videoconferencing.hp. online communities. Webcasts.acue.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.com/udell/2005/0 1/22.html#a1156 Do Not Reproduce 188 .shtml The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. and e-learning. http://www.00.380000 5416.infoworld. http://www. Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. http://www.thinkofit.kolabora. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.39155030.ccimeet. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.infoworld.com/publications/lel/lel. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.com/cxoextra/0.masternewmedia. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.edu.com/udell/2005/0 2/25. videoconferencing.com/news_radars/we b_presentations. instant messaging. While it is expensive.html An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.html#a1185 http://weblog.elluminate. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live ELearning 2004”.brandonhall.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution. a columnist at InfoWorld. http://www.htm Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://ajax. http://www.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. in partnership with Dreamworks.adelaide. virtual teams.com/news_radars/we b_conferencing. although many are trying to change this practice.athabascau.htm http://www. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.com Hewlett-Packard. http://www. independent listing of Webinars. http://icampus. intranets. social software for online collaboration.humanresourceWebinars.

com/cat_busi nessproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoft ware_1. http://www.com/software/presen tation. http://www.filesland. presentation and streaming presentation tools. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.co. Web seminars. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. Authorware. htm http://www. virtual classrooms.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. and kidneys.htm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/live.html Do Not Reproduce 189 . Coursebuilder.co.apreso.elearningcentre.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.php?string=presentation&search=All& match=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E %3E Presentations.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/prese ntations.com/presentatio ns/index.co. http://www.e-learningcentre. http://www. and Flash.co.lsc.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.” http://www.timelyweb.elearningcentre.elearningcentre. http://www.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.com/downloads/sea rch. Breeze.programjunction. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. virtual meetings.elearningcentre. http://www. http://www. although it does not have to be. Dreamweaver.com/eweek/webc onferencing. and whiteboarding.uk/eclipse/Resources/tea ch.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.presentations.eweek.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_web conferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.html Using Apreso software. Captivate.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.co. http://buyersguide.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Web conferencing. brain.

April 30. 7(3). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.masternewmedia.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Belinda (2003). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).aace. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. and Furr. Jennifer (2004). Luigi (2003a).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Sept. How to Become an e-Learning Guru: It’s a Breeze.russellmcnally.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.pdf http://www. http://www. Russ (2004).htm Canali De Rossi. Live ELearning. (2002). http://www. 2003. http://www. 2004. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.pdf McFerrin.learningcircuits.com/BreezePart 2.blogspot. Christine (2001). Digital Inspiration. http://www. Armit (2005). Sept.amazon.aln. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Bibliography Agarwal.htm Hofman. http://www. May 15. Learning Circuits.html Canali De Rossi. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. July 26. Luigi (2003c).fasfind. 3.masterviews. (in two parts) http://www. July. July 8. 2003.com/product /software/795/index.russellmcnally. K..org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confe rencing_live_elearning_realtime_collaborati on_and_live_presentation_tools. http://m.com/BreezePart 1. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.downloadjunction. http://www. 2005. P.pdf Do Not Reproduce 190 . An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.01. Robin Good Blog. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. 2003.org/2001/jul2 001/duckworth.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog.asp McNally. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. Luigi (2003b). http://labnol. http://www.htm Duckworth..org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.org/publications/jaln/v7n3 /v7n3_lazarus. Live and Online!: tips.com/wwwtools/m/21593.

http://kmi. K. 2005. Choices are great.com/exec/obidos/tg/de tail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. but… Presentations Magazine. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.jsp?vnu_content_i d=1816615 Do Not Reproduce 191 .presentations. Dave (2002).. http://www. L. Start Saving Time and Money Today. http://www.html Zielinski. InfoWorld.pdf Spielman. (2004).com/presentation s/delivery/article_display. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Dec. and Winfield. 11. Choose the Right Vendors.amazon. AMACOM.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Presentation Tools Scott. P. Software.infoworld. http://www. Feb. S. Choose your presentation tools carefully.ac.com/article/05/02/11 /07OPstrategic_1. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. and Quick. and Equipment.open. (2003).uk/publications/pdf/kmi05-1. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.

or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. simple. programming. glossary. Do Not Reproduce 192 . usually when it is needed (Brodsky. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: Short learning curve.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. just-intime e-learning. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. It can refer to learning something quickly. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Does not require any advanced skills. but not always good for you.automatically assures that all navigation works. For example. learning objects. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. In the second sense of the term. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. are built in. Standardize approaches. including tools and templates. According to Ready Go!. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials.does not require any plug-ins. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. In the first case. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. microlearning Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. such as creating links. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. tests. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. easy to use. or HTML knowledge. Instructional design built in.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: Standardize development processes. a demand to produce online content very quickly. It can refer to learning something quickly. Navigation built in . or where the online information frequently changes. and clip art is straight forward and supported . It is best suited to textbased materials. The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. extreme e-learning. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. and drill down pages. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Deploys easily . graphics. 2003). FAQ. by necessity. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Advanced features. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online.

http://www. January 23.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.com/studio.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. version control protocols. and other good stuff. See a demo at: http://www. To be effective. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.articulate.raptivity. Kendrick (2006). 2004). Clark (2005). Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.” Find out more: http://www.microlearning. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.pdf Aldrich. or where the online information frequently changes.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. a demand to produce online content very quickly. 2003). and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. Learning Solutions. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.org Web site. which contains information on resources. manage the content and the users. See sample templates at: http://www.elearningguild.. Edit.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Reusability. San Francisco: Pfieffer.com/gp/product/078 7977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. Future-Proofing. http://www. schedule and due dates.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.amazon. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal.htm Bibliography Abell.elearningcentre. and Publish.e. low. Do Not Reproduce 193 .scate. Assign SMEs who are committed. 2006. http://www. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have access to a clear project plan.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. and communicate deliverable expectations.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. virtual classroom. Reduce the number of development vendors. http://www.readygo. computer games.co. http://www.masie.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. conferences. centrally located files. Enhance. Templates.versus high-interaction). http://www. Leverage professional project management methods and tools.

Tips and Techniques.com/resources/Fil e/US/English/managing_knowledge1. Lane (2002).elearningguild. LTI Newsline. Learning Circuits.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.htm Bersin. 2004. Chief Learning Officer.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 194 © 2006. http://www. http://vftraining. and Bersin. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Dianne (2005).pdf Brodsky. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. January. J. Ray (2006). Mark (2003). 2002. http://www.pdf Gustafson. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Garin (2004). When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. http://www. June 30. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. http://www. 2006.com/content/templat es/clo_article.elearningguru. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. July 2. http://www. e-Learning Crop Circles. Jennifer (2004). Joe (2005). Nov.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. July 2004. http://www. Penny (2004).asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Rapid Intake White Paper. techniques and best practices for building e-learning programs in weeks.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid Elearning. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.Rapid e-Learning Tools Archibald.com/content/templat es/clo_article. April. Making rapid elearning work.learningcircuits. Larstan Business Reports.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. tools. (2004).com/showArticle. Jan. http://www. http://www. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. Chief Learning Officer.bersin. June. Brandon Hall Research . Josh (2004). http://www.elearningguild.transformmag. LTI Newsline. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.com/ltimagazine/a rticle/articleDetail. Kevin (2002). E-Learning for short attention spans.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Mar. http://www.pdf Jimenez.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. http://www. 2006. 9. Ray (2005).ltimagazine.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_ eLearning.elearningmag.ltimagazine.com/articles/ab stracts/index. Paper. LTI Newsline.meetingone.clomedia.pdf Crosman.com/ltimagazine /article/articleDetail.jsp?id=150619 Hess.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. http://www. Bill (2005).adobe.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Jay (2005). J. http://www.clomedia.asp Bersin. August 2004. 10. Chief Learning Officer. Learning Solutions. Transform Magazine.pdf Jimenez. Vignettes for Training White Paper.clomedia. Josh (2005).

learningcircuits. Macromedia White Paper. http://download.com/pub/elea rning/virtual_classrooms.com/pdf/2/0116 06dev-f. January 2003.clomedia. Press release.elearningguild. http://www.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 Do Not Reproduce 195 . http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Rapid e-Learning Tools Macromedia Inc. 2005.clomedia. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Nick (2005).com/news story.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Macromedia White Paper. Chief Learning Officer. Simulation. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. 2006.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.com/pub/elea rning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. The Training Foundation online article.pdf Shepherd. June 2004. Ed (2004). http://www.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. http://www. Clive (2006). Learning Circuits. http://www. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. (2004a). A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.pdf Macromedia Inc. April 20.org/2004/jun20 04/mayberry.htm Masie Center (2005). (2004b).trainingfoundation. http://download.trainingpressreleases. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.macromedia. February 2005. Learning Solutions. Eric (2003). January 16.pdf Mayberry.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Stephanie (2006). http://www.com/articles/ default.macromedia. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.

This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.com/ http://www. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. engineering.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.whmsi.botball. and mathematics. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. technology. simulation Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. engineering. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.active-robots. for underwater exploration. technology.au/ The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. and math. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. Inc. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.lego.ife. http://robotics.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. http://www. http://mindstorms. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.org/aboutbotball/overview.aad.gov. Do Not Reproduce 196 .nasa. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. http://www.

ri.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. http://robotics. http://www.evolution.ed. links.osaka-u.sci. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. and mathematics. engineering.irc.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Do Not Reproduce 197 . http://www.net/ Run by NASA. It is also highly effective in developing teamwork and selfconfidence. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.atr. http://www. technology.edurobot.microworlds.rec.cmu. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.eng. Mr.ac. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.edu/index. It features news.brooklyn. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. go to: http://www.ams. one child at a time.php Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.edu/~sklar/e r/edu.profetic.gov/rcc/index.cuny.org/article.jp/ Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. By donning motion sensors.nasa.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying technology.php3?id_art icle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. lip movements. http://robothaven.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.jp/ See also: http://www. and vocal tics.com/solutions/mwe xrobotics.kipr.com/r_home. particularly robotics.euron.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. http://www. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. and other information on robotics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. http://www. Find out more about this group at: http://www.

Basic Books. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). G. and Dautenhahn.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Sept.. Yanco. Donnelly. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Computers. http://www. D. A. I. (2005). M.. T.. D.wtec. http://rob. (2005). S.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. W. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. P. Kumar. U. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. D.pdf Boersch. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. http://zeus. Düsseldorf. Germany.edu/user/fduvalle /robo_ed/robots_accessible_education.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04_7 9_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. June. B.pdf Nourbakhsh. Robots in the classroom . and Meeden. and Wagner. 28-30. (2004).com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=88/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. http://www. Lathan. McHugh. http://www. Hohmann. http://www. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.amazon.... M.pdf Papert. (2004). Keating.. http://www. Paper at the American Assoc. New York. http://dangermouse. R.pdf Do Not Reproduce 198 . I... and Powerful Ideas. (1999).. and Hempel.pdf Cooper. L.digicult. Ferrari. M. D. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.l3s. Sept.l3s.org/robotics/us_worksho p/June22/educational-robotics.ccmlab. New York: Syngress Publishing.amazon. Ontario...pdf Blank. M. D. H. L. Meeden.andrew. and West. November.uml. http://www. Dobreva. H.ca:8080/~terry/papers/ 2001-Robots_Education. (2001). http://www. D. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Artificial Intelligence Conf. and Mataric. (2004). Mindstorms: Children. (2004). (1980). (2001). C. Ottawa. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Germany. D.brynmawr. and Yanco..tools for accessible education. M. Harwin. K. AAATE Conference 1999.pdf Stewart. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Heinsohn.pdf http://www. S.. and Loose.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Robotics Bibliography Blank.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_Post er. and Rusbridge.cmu.fhbrandenburg. J. Miller.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. A.pdf Ferrari. R. Abbott. Kumar. Proceedings.cs. H.

Meta–search engines. They bring into the equation user preferences. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. in parallel. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. search engine optimization. such as Yahoo. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: Crawler–based search engines. Examples are Google and Overture. Do Not Reproduce 199 . collaboration. information retrieval. resource discovery. as this section of the report shows. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. federated search. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. meta-search engines. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. Web directories. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . While search engines have improved over the past several years. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. collective intelligence. which submit queries.so they take the structure of the Web into account.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. Search is probably the most used elearning application. Ezzy (2006a.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. data mining. But. such as Google and Altavista. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. dependable information. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest.com and Alta Vista. each with their own defining feature sets. Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. One is the problem of finding relevant.examples are early yahoo. social bookmarking Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. a rich user experience. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models.

com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. and text. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://search.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. http://www.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. then fill in the search box. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.aol. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. 2004).com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. get answers http://www.gada.convera.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. http://www.com/ Answers.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www. http://www. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.aeiwi.gigablast. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. http://www.altavista.com About.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. http://www. http://www. http://www. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: General search engines: A9 – Amazon. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ 200 © 2006. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.alltheweb.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.faganfinder. for a variety of reasons.answers.com/ Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://www.alexa. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.about.com’s search service http://a9.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines One new approach is called “federated searching. video.com Gada.ask.

otavo. Brandon Hall Research .gnod.umdl. http://rollyo. http://www.com/search/def ault.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://channels. http://search.com/ Gravee .com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com/v2/index.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.lexxe.icerocket.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.pubsub. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.umich.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://search. http://www.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.gravee.squidoo.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://www.com/ 201 © 2006.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://www.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.netscape. http://www.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. blogs.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.jookster. http://www.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. http://www. http://qube.msn. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.grokker.hotbot.looksmart.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://getoutfoxed.qelix. http://www. http://dmoz. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.mooter.google. http://www. http://oaister.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. and the Web.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her topic appears. http://www.

stumbleupon. http://infomine.com/v2a/flash.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://www. Brandon Hall Research . http://scholar. http://vivisimo.google.blinkx.google. http://www.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.gov/ http://www.psu.acronymfinder.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://tagjag. http://www.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. http://www. http://swicki.ai.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.ucr.ujiko.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://www.gnoosic.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.yahoo. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.gpoaccess. http://www.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.sri.ist.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://www.com/ 202 © 2006. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://citeseer.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. Wink then diplays the results.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.Clusters results.edu/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://books. http://icerocket. http://firstgov.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. reviews.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://froogle.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.healthfinder. and movies.google.govmine. http://www.eurekster.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. Much of this information is hidden from view. http://www.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.imdb. books.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .wink.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).merl.cfm?doid=105 6808.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://portal.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.uni-hannover.org/citation.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. http://www.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.com/ Krugle – A search engine for developers.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.convera.imdb.com/products/retrieva lware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. AwesomeLibrary. reviews. cast lists and theatre schedules.koders.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.scirus.findlaw.f cgi QBIC .nlm. http://www.liveplasma.ithaki.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.A legal search engine.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.last. http://kids. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine. http://www. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. & KidsClick!. http://www. http://wwwqbic.almaden.ncbi.fm/ LawCrawler .krugle. http://www. AolKIDS. http://www. FactMonster.com/srsapp/ 203 © 2006. http://www. Brandon Hall Research .acm.pandora.com/ LitLinker . Yahooligans.com/ MediaFinder .de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.nih. ArtKIDSRule. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. http://www.omgili. http://lawcrawler.gov/entrez/query.com/ Last.ibm. http://www.rawsugar.org/ Omgili . http://www.rrzn.

psu. http://www.4 billion links.seekport.zoominfo.cmp.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.columbia. http://techsearch.searchedu. or federated searching.psu.cs.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://www.columbia. http://smealsearch1.ee.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. as of this writing.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www. http://www.columbia. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://wang16.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.truveo.soundspotter.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.searchking.htm Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. and tracks a user's search history.ist.nyu.ee. http://nlp. and their relationships.technorati. http://www.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. http://www.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://a9.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.ee. bookmarks. Brandon Hall Research .A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. http://www. http://www.xcavator.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines SearchEdu .” Content-based search engines for pictures. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www. Known as “meta-search” engines.com 204 © 2006. companies.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. and notes.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.

researchbuzz.inria.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows meta-searching in at least 14 languages.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://www. lottery results.com/ Info – Searches reference works. tickets.searchtools. http://www.copernic.intute. http://www.info. city guides.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www-rocq. jobs. is a valuable resource for researchers.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. http://www. weather.ac. http://vivisimo. greeting cards. eBay.ixquick. http://www. yellow pages.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. classifieds. http://www. white pages. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. pictures.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. produces a visual display of the clusters. flights. http://www.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. games.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. audio. http://www. maps/directions. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. apartment rentals. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ 205 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research . and links the clusters. with speciallycreated national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. video. http://www. http://clusty.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www.kartoo.dogpile.com/ Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. shopping sites.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. therefore.net/indexu.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. http://www. hotels.uk/ SearchTools.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. news sources. movies.zapmeta. health information sources.trovando. and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www. dating and personals.search.ithaki.

and Shoham. (2005). Y. http://www. http://swicki.netmasters. can be published on the user's site. 10(12).just as a search engine is used for text.elearning. or swicki. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. December.firstmonday.org/issues/issue1 0_12/aharoni/index. http://www.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.com/ Stephen Downes. Brandon Hall Research . http://www. or topic .edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.gov/ http://www.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. S. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. http://searchenginewatch.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Search Engines A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK.ac. the user's community has total control over the results.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. http://www.eurekster.citysearch. A. This search engine. For example. Unlike other search engines.html 206 © 2006.bolton. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. First Monday. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.gpoaccess. Frank..com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government.downes.ucr. http://www.co.gov/ Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.ac. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.searchenginecolossus. focused searches on topics they care about. http://firstgov. is against the idea of federated searches.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. Users can also browse by subject category. and it uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. http://www.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.tveyes. phrase. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. http://infomine.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Search Engines

Battelle, John (2005). The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. New York: Portfolio. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/15918 40880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro, O. and Apprato, F. (2004). Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging, and Searching in e-Learning Systems. International Journal on e-Learning, July-Sept. 2004. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction =Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicult_ thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Ensor, Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.ala.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.htm Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 1. Read/Write Web, July 20, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr.php Ezzy, Ebrahim (2006). Search 2.0 vs. Traditional Search. Part 2. Read/Write Web, July 25, 2006. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/sear ch_20_vs_tr_1.php

Geser, Guntram (2004). Resource Discovery - Position Paper: Putting the Users First. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector, DigiCULT Thematic Report, No. 6., June 2004, 7-12. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/digicul t_thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Gincel, Richard (2004). Refining enterprise search. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.html Heck, Mike (2004). Simple advice for complex search solutions. InfoWorld, Oct. 15, 2004. http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.html Kumar, P., Kashyap, S., Mittal, A. and Gupta, S. (2005). A fully automatic question-answering system for intelligent search in e-learning documents. International Journal on E-Learning, 4(1), 149-166. http://dl.aace.org/16955 Low, B. and MacColl, J. (2005). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ed.ac.uk/boon/delos20 05.pdf Murray, Corey (2005). ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News, Oct. 3, 2005. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2


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Search Engines

Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox, June 30, 2003. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030630. html Porco, Carmine (2006). Search engines don’t suck, they’re just limited. Parts I and II. White paper, Prescient Digital Media. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.htm Part II: http://www.prescientdigital.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.ht m Pratt, W. (2000). Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University. http://www.ischool.washington.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.pdf Schlenker, M., Mimkes, J. and Hilf, E. (2004). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference, 2004. http://www.isnoldenburg.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.pdf

Sullivan, Danny (2004). Major Search Engines and Directories. SearchEngineWatch, April 28, 2004. http://searchenginewatch.com/links/articl e.php/2156221 Vaas, Lisa (2005). It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. eWeek.com, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1 869408,00.asp Wyman, Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…, May 8, 2005. http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005 /05/mary_hodder_poi.html

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web
Related terms Learning objects, metadata, microformats, ontologies, search, semantic grid, taxonomies, Web feeds Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT, near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web, Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically, the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe, but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth, are now falling short of earlier promises. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems, but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics. One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky, 2003). Like it or not, producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments, and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor In summary, the idea of the semantic Web is progressing, but it will not be in general use for some time.

The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee, founder of the World Wide Web. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs), each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Selected Examples In Europe, the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www.elenaproject.org/en/index.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www.aktors.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies, such as semantic portals for end-users, semantic infrastructural services, and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. http://www.seco.tkk.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. http://kaon.semanticweb.org/

Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://edutella.jxta.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www.personalreader.de/html/ Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005, the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. The first issue is free. http://www.ideagroup.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-Learning. http://www.ifets.info/index.php?http://ww w.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www.aimatshape.net/

One of the major criticisms of the semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation.

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Abbas, Z., Umer, M., Odeh, M., McClatchey, R., Ali, A. and Ahmed, F. (2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference, May 9-12, 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/05020 51.pdf Aguirre, S., Brantner, S., Huber, G., Markus, S., Miklos, Z., Mozo, A., Olmedilla, D., Salvachua, J., Simon, B., Sobernig, S., and Zillinger, T. (2005). Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005), Greece, May 29 - June 1. http://jungla.dit.upm.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.pdf Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. (2004). The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (1), Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou, G. and van Harmelen (2004). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, MA: MIT. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 12103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee, Tim (2003). Forward. In Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, xi. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/02620 62321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. and Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, May 2001. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleI D=00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler, Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/marbut/i sTheSemanticWebHype.pdf Daconta, M., Obrst, L. and Smith, K. (2003). The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management. New York: Wiley. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/047 1432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 De Roure, D., Jennings, N. and Shadbolt, N. (2001). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. http://www.semanticgrid.org/v1.9/semgrid .pdf Doctorow, Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article. http://www.well.com/~doctorow/metacrap. htm Dorai, C., Mauthe, A., Nack, F., Rutledge, L., Sikora, T. and Zetti, H. (2002). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins, France. http://homepages.cwi.nl/~media/publicati ons/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf

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Emerging e-Learning Technologies

Semantic Web

Downes, Stephen (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Stephen’s Web, Oct. 10, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?post=31624 Fensel, D., Wahlster, W., Lieberman, H. and Hendler, J. (Eds.) (2003). Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford, Paul (2003). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web, Syllogism, and Worldview”. Online article. http://www.ftrain.com/ContraShirky.html Haack, Phil (2006). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. DevSource, May 27, 2006. http://www.devsource.com/article2/0,189 5,1961106,00.asp Hatem, M., Ramadan, H. and Neagu, D. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Journal of Computer Science, 1(4), 500-504. http://www.scipub.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.pdf Henze, Nicola (2005a). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.pdf

Henze, Nicola (2005b). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05, 18-22 July 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Kraan, Wilbert (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. CETIS Online article. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras, M. and Naeve, A. (Eds.) (2005). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews, Brian (2005). Semantic Web Technologies. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_document s/jisctsw_05_02bpdf.pdf Nilsson, M., Palmer, M. and Naeve, A. (2001). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning - Some Architectural Guidelines. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE), Lund, Sweden, Oct. 2001. http://www2002.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/

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H. 2004.html Stojanovic.. InfoWorld. G. December 3. L.asp Udell. and Gouarderes. 7. http://www. http://www. Millard. and Davis. D.inria. Wagner. C. Marketing Profs. 2003. Millard. John (2004).fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. http://www. J. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. K. Thomas (2004). Syllogism. http://eprints. (2001). New York.. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.info/journals/7_4/5. F. CT: Manning.ac. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.pdf Tao. (2005).org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.bcs.. Davis. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.. Andy (2005). 2005. and Christodoulou. (2005).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Passin. and Studer. M.. Greenwich. Nov.pdf Samaras. G. G.pdf Sampson.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Paper presented at the GLS conference.marketingprofs. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. A. and Woukeu. http://wwwsop.pdf Updegrove.html Do Not Reproduce 213 . Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.uk/selene/reports/D el3. R. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.com/writings/semantic_sy llogism. G. P. Schmitz.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.. Clay (2003). Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.. E. D..dcs. http://www. http://ewic. (2004). and Stumme.ac.ifets. http://www. http://www. Staab.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. (2004).shirky. eLearning based on the Semantic Web.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. (2004). S.unikarlsruhe. Report on the Self e-Learning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. Economics and Culture.soton. New York.com/login/sign up. 26-28.pdf Tao. http://www.amazon. and Worldview.ecs. Lytras. August 2.Razmeri ta/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. May 17–22.aifb. Karenos. Networks. and Diaz. L. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self e-Learning Networks. http://www2004. F.. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web.de/~sst/Research/Publications/W ebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.pdf Tane.bbk. H.pdf Shirky. Woukeu. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.com/gp/product/19323 94206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. USA. 7 (4).infoworld. A. D. 2004. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. The Semantic Web. (2003).

2003.html Wilson. and the Semantic Web.ac.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Semantic Web Van Dijck. trust.uk/elearning/ story/0. Scott (2005). June 14. 2002. January 17. Who said that? Metadata.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. (2003). http://www. http://education. CETIS Online article.darwinmag.cetis. Online article.co. Peter (2003). The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.981948. http://www. Online article.ac.com/read/swiftkick /column.w3.org/2001/sw Do Not Reproduce 214 . Darwin. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. B.cetis.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. Scott’s Workblog. David (2002).guardian. and Miller. Semantic Web. http://www. 2005.10577. Scott (2002). Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.00.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). http://www. June 21.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. L. http://poorbuthappy.

Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.noaa.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.insead.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. i. especially ones set by themselves. http://cave. Do Not Reproduce 215 . http://www. games. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. It was decommissioned in 2005.uiuc. According to High (2004). entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.edu/?pagename=L 2C The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. reviewed simulations as an online content format.edu/?pagename=P rojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.ncsa. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. http://www arcscience com/omni htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).” My first report in this series. scenarios Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. 2005). and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the elearning market.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.insead.calt.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. http://www.calt. microworlds.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. participants will be motivated to evaluate.e. but information about it remains on the Web. role-playing.icherubini. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.gov/ Winters et al. learn. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. http://sos. This virtual world was linked to a tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.

edu/ http://um3d.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www. http://www.html The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.edu/?pagename=V ERDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.calt.insead. with many examples to try.geo.edcenter. Linux.calt.shatters.dc. Do Not Reproduce 216 . see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve weather forecasting.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.umich." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.lsa. heart sounds.edu/hardware/Geo Wall/index.miami.fsl. http://www.gov/ Educational simulations involve learning through experience or dynamic goalbased learning.umich.edu/?pagename=E dComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. they are only available for Macintosh computers.insead. http://thinkertools.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. http://crme.med. http://www.net/celestia/index.berkeley..edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.calt. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.insead. http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. Mass.calt.soe.ht ml The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. However. http://www.sdsu. breathing.noaa. http://geowall.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.edu/?pagename=C hangeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change." http://www. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. pulse rate. and murmurs.edu/harvey_about.sdsu. and Mac OS X. http://www. http://www.making-history.edcenter.edu/geowall/ind ex. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.insead. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. It runs on Windows.

asp Knowledge Quest . http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.ht m Intermezzon .com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www. http://www.com/ MaxIT .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at the click of a mouse.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. Integrates with many media types.knowledgepresenter.maxit.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. http://www. http://www.knowledgequest.intermezzon.maxit.assima.com/ Forio .com/ MaxIT .com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animations and videos that play in any browser. http://www.atghome. to play in a virtual fishtank. For example. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.knowledgeplanet.stt-global. http://www.com/product s/firefly.experiencebuilders. without programming knowledge.virtualfishtank.com/products/flash/flash pro/ Assisma . http://www.net/ Biographix . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.forio.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 217 .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.ISLE .com/broadcastoverview.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. go to: http://www. http://www.com/ Knowledge Planet .STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.adobe.com/ Kookaburra Studios .Create live screen movies by capt actions at up to 25 frames a second.biographix. http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.knowledge-director.adobe.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www.sdsu.learning2005.stagecast.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths. http://www.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.stottlerhenke.qarbon. http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.virtualcontrolroom.com/portal/index.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/the sis/ Elliot Masie. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www. which can then be used to build simulations.nexlearn.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.reusableobjects.percepsys.xstreamsoftware.teds.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. http://coe.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.edu/eet/articles/mededuc ation/index. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .co.” http://www.com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.com/3dTraining.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.com/learnland/ Do Not Reproduce 218 .com/product_r pe.com/products/sim. http://www. http://www.outstart.com/ Online Resources on Simulations The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in elearning. http://www. http://www.icherubini. including simulations.

San Francisco: Pfieffer.htm eSchool News (2004). A. eSchool News.com/news/showS tory.nl/~arnoud/researc h/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.jibc.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.htm High.learningcircuits. M. and Wilensky. (2002). F.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. Sept. Shannon (2004). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.org/2004/sep 2004/estabrook. Utrecht. H. p. Clark (2005).. Taghiyareh. A. Six criteria of an educational simulation.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt.com/cms/s/6020572800f2-11d9-9d96-00000e2511c8.eschoolnews. Learning Circuits.PDF Blikstein.science. Bjorn (2004). DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www.bc. and McCloughlin. Financial Times. Learning Circuits. Holland. http://www. Gash. 2002.uk/ccs/elearn/resources. Simjour. Rasmussen.blikstein. B. June..bbk. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.org/2004/oct20 04/aldrich. http://www. 12.org/research/l ibrary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. html Bibliography Aldrich.pdf Cherubini. A. Kamau (2004).ac. October 2004.com/content/template s/clo_feature. 4. computer games. http://www. Aug. Making the most of software simulations. http://www.uva.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Find /Links/Simulation_Training. Mazloumian. http://www. U. International Workshop.amazon. Jennifer (2004).pdf DeVries. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005).htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.html Do Not Reproduce 219 . http://www. How playing power drives lessons home. In Interaction Design and Children. http://www. Learning Circuits. (2005). (2004). Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. T. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Paper presented at Robocup conference.htm Aldrich.learningcircuits. The promise of online simulations.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. 2004. 8..learningcircuits. http://www. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.com/paulo/document s/papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.asp?articleid=382&zoneid=29 Bitaghsir. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. J. http://www.ft. P. and Bostan. Clark (2004). http://www.clomedia.medialabeurope... Feb. 2004. 2004. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. September.

and Ip. A. The American Prospect. Laser. and Sund Martin. and Strohecker. http://www..projects. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. J. R.simplay. AACE conference.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini _Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Computer simulations in distance education.. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. T.for Philosophers and Engineers.html Winters.learningcircuits. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. September.net/papers/ELearning.icherubini. Learning Circuits. J.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt2003 7291013Discovery%20simulations. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. A.uc. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. 284-294.bham. A. (2003). October 15-19. http://www. October. & de Jong. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Online paper at: http://lsm. (2004). 8(31).html Lunce. A. (2001). Les (2004).ncassr. M. USA. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .pdf Tjaden. Fort Lauderdale.pdf Swaak. Gary (2003). Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. http://www. Montréal. Mar.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. Viswanathan.case studies.-Apr. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. 1(10). Implementation and Evaluation. C. N..uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.cs.pdf Do Not Reproduce 220 . L. Simulation levels in software training. Cherubini.ht m Sloman. 1997.protonmedia.. http://www. Aaron (2005).org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. 17. In Association for Computing Machinery. Florida.dei. April. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Simulation Tools Karrer. and Hou.. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Online report. http://www. Sherry (1997). July. (2001).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. http://itdl.pdf Turkle. (2002).. http://www.com/protonMEDI A_white_paper.ac.prospect. Department of Computer Science. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive knowledge.html Sobeih.html Linser. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. M.

infrared (IR) tags.. Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. especially in museums and for outdoor education. 2005). Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. While controversial. Do Not Reproduce 221 . which transmits over short distances.cfm&ContentID=77689 Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. They are programmable and. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the tag to continuously power the tag. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. grease. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. or water.org/Template. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. RFID technology is developing rapidly. according to their application: EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. therefore.cfm?Section= ifissues&Template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. optical tags.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.ala. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. http://www. easily changed. symbology tags Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. For a full discussion of this issue. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. especially for tagging retail items in stores. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.

Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. http://www. Osawa.ViewAbstract&paper_id=2 x.com/2004/1005/p Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use 17s01-legn. K.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. (2004).com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.checkpointsystems.html a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Proceedings of EDeducation can be enhanced by locationMedia 2005: Montreal.. James (2006). Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.infoworld. 5.aace. http://www. Shibuya.edu/index. & Richards. Noda. P. S..msu. C... http://cnm..com/monthly/articl e.digicult. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.ViewAbstract&pa 0093 per_id=20093 Do Not Reproduce 222 .csmonitor. (2005) presented how outdoor symbology tags. Tsukagoshi.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT Y. Noma. K.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. http://www.rfidnews. Oct. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. awareness using RFID and 2-dimensional 276-283. April 13.cfm?fus http://www.html?s=feature RFID technology is developing rapidly. G.org/newdl/inde infrared tags eaction=Reader.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.. & Kondo. http://www.html (Online). in a 2005 online article.ac.edu/102605_meal. T.pdf awareness using RFID and two-dimensional Osawa et al.iu.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.” http://vis. http://www. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor obiles/m02. http://www.com/default .org/newdl/index. especially for tagging retail items in stores.open. symbology tags...shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Andrew Robinton. A.toydirectory. Infoworld. 2004.org/ Bibliography Borck.aace. Ando. Outdoor education by locationhesisFinal. http://www. June 27. http://uitspress. and Case.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. In Kommers.iu. N. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. (2005).html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.). (Eds. A.uk/projects/prolearn/m Heining.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. 2005.

standards. G. (2005). Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).uk/uploaded_document s/TSW0602.msu. RFID: frequency. Proceedings. R. Corey (2004). http://www.toydirectory. http://www. http://www. M. H. Masters Thesis. S.pdf Salcedo. Technology Watch Report 1.computer. adoption and innovation. M. Aparna (2004). Ogata. Michigan State University. eSchool News Online. TD Monthly. Andrew (2005).com/monthly/article .jisc. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. http://www.ac.2005. Y.1109/WMTE. 261-263...digicult. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.66 Ward. 4(3).xml&DOI=10. van Kranenburg.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Smart Labels and Tags Murray.org/persagen/DLAbsT oc. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. and Dobreva.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrTh esisFinal.asp?id=1222 Ross.org/news/showstor y.eschoolnews.info/downloads/twr2003 _01_low. R.. http://www. http://csdl2.pdf Robinton.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&toc= comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/00/2 385toc. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. and Backhouse. M. (2006). Donnelly. January 1. March. (2003). and Yano. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. 2004.pdf Do Not Reproduce 223 ..

they act as an “outboard memory. printouts. Third. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. For instance. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. the ability to create multiauthored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. in turn. For example. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. ontologies. search. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. Flickr held over 100 million images. while users of the del. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.First. and Web links. As of April 2006. faculty. no matter their location or timing. The result is something called a tag cloud. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. Do Not Reproduce 224 . as each member can upload resources discovered. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. and books. Fifth. tagging. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. Fourth. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. researchers at all levels (students. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research.us) post their favorite Web sites. music. or distributed in emails.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.us Web site (http://del.icio.” However. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. metadata. Students. Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. Second.icio.

us . rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.eventful.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. users submit stories for review. share their stories.digg.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.icio. search.clipmarks. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.icio. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. users can see what others are Blinking. http://www.com/archives/beta_up date/index.us/ Digg .com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. describe. RSS. http://blog.furl. http://www. the users decide.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.citeulike. share references with colleagues.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. http://flickr. http://www.A free service to help academics share. and search for a specific user's Blinks.com/ Furl .A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. http://www. or check out what everyone wants to do. They can save references. and/or books and find them again. store. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. Blink also provides tools to sort.43things. http://www. and organize the academic papers they are reading. http://del. http://blogmarks. and share photos with others.metafilter. connect with others.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. http://consumating.com/ Flickr – Store.com/ Del. and non-hierarchical editorial control. search others’ references. http://www.blinklist. With digg. Also retrieve it easily.com/ Blinklist .connotea. Do Not Reproduce 225 . music.org/ Consumating . sort. get inspired. http://www.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.feedmarker.net/ …social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. blogging. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/ training community. http://ask.com Clipmarks . http://www.net/ CiteULike . and to share them. but. Also.

http://www.com/ Magnolia . http://www.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.kaboodle. http://projectpad. and discover relevant links.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. http://www.rojo.linkroll.pageflakes.html Linkroll . http://jots.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.jookster.simpy. http://www. updated in near real time.com/ Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.A free.com/ Simpy – Search tags.spurl. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.northwestern.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www.com/ Jots . http://myweb2. or enter new items and tag them.org/news.com/ Kaboodle . http://www.shadows.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.com/ Project Pad .eu/products/networ k_menus.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.net/ Do Not Reproduce 226 . share.netvouz. similar to Digg.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.search. based on what is happening in the news media.memeorandum. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. Tags can be shared or kept private.yahoo. http://www.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. http://www.edu/ppad2 /index. http://ma.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.smugmug. http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.gnolia. http://www. http://www.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.netscape.networkltd. http://www.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Jookster .

http://www.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. and Digg. Flickr.com/archives/ 2005/02/absolutely-delicious-completetools-collection/ http://www.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/index.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. and share it with others. has an audio presentation online about how tagging works with del.quickonlinetips.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.suprglu. http://www.com/archives/ 2005/09/complete-digg-tools-collection/ Do Not Reproduce 227 .org/archives/2005/08/ontol ogy_is_overrated_followup. http://swik. http://upcoming.tagzania.peterme.com/udell/gems/d elicious.infoworld.com/ SWiK . http://tabblo.edu/ir/library/pdf/E LI7001. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. and social bookmarking. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.us.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.wists.educause. http://weblog.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. with contributions from users. If a city is not there. http://www. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.veotag.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Suprglu . a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.yelp.com/archives/00055 8.A.com/writings/ontology_overra ted.quickonlinetips.html http://www. http://www.com/archives/ 2005/03/great-flickr-tools-collection/ http://www.S. tags.quickonlinetips.zvents. http://unalog. http://www.html http://atomiq. http://www.” http://www.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.icio. Follow the thread in the following four postings: http://shirky.com/ Online Resources Jon Udell.wink. http://www.icio.html http://tagsonomy.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. http://www.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.us.com Wists – A social shopping site.

org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.com/academic/c omputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.html Coates. 2006.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. D-Lib Magazine.pdf 228 © 2006. http://www.pbs. T.org/teachersource/learning . http://tomgruber. http://www.dlib. M. Liz (2005).hp. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. B. Adam (2004). Flack. Social consequences of social tagging. (2005). http://searchcio. 2.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Andy (2006). Keynote address. Web 2. T.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.adammathes. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. (2005).fasfind. http://www. Plasticbag. http://many. 2006..asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.fasfind.ascc.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. April 2005. http://dlib.com/ideant/files/me jias_dtd.Social Bookmarking WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.ht ml Mejias.com. Online paper. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.. 2005. Ulises (2004). 41(2).html Mathes.289142.corante.. Many2Many.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.com/originalCo ntent/0. Tom.sid19_gci1195182.html Lawley. 11(4).pdf Gurber. http://www.techtarget. http://www. (2005). Brandon Hall Research .now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. (2005).com/wwwtools/m /6350.. B.” http://magazines. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. J. http://www. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. HP Labs Report. B. and Hannay.html McGillicuddy. April 2005. Tom (2005). S.. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. D-Lib Magazine. SearchCIO. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. T.php Lund. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.plasticbag. Bryan (2006). T.hpl. and Huberman. March/April 2006. 2005.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.educause. Jan. 20.typepad. and Scott.htm Hammond.00.shtml Golder. Lund. Shamus (2006). May 5. http://ideant. Sept. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).ejournal. 11(4). Hammond. June 21. Hannay.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_tagg ing.com/wwwtools/m /7172.org.

Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. 2005. The New School of Ontologies.html Udell. July 20.html Mote. InfoWorld. http://www. Tags vs.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell.isi.infoworld. 2005. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Will (2005). Ulises (2005). Aug. Jon (2005).com/article/05/07/20 /30OPstrategic_1. August 20.pdf Richardson.com/article/04/08/20 /34OPstrategic_1. Nicholas (2004).html Do Not Reproduce 229 . InfoWorld. Webblogg-ed.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.typepad. 2005.weblogged. http://ideant.com/ideant/2005/05 /facilitating_th. 2004. Jon (2004). http://www. Ideant. Online Paper. 2. http://www.infoworld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Bookmarking Mejias. http://www. Trusted Sources. May 20. Collaborative knowledge gardening.

) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Friendster.” that is. text messaging (SMS) Sharing software: Blogs. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. social software. e-mail. 2005). family.) Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.) Experience Sharing (blogs. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. etc.com. connected by one or more relations Networks Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Do Not Reproduce 230 . etc) Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. e-mail. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. social networking sites such as Friendster.com. shared links. reviewed social networking as an online content format. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Relations Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Ties Lines between actors Exist between actors.al. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. shared link libraries such as del. Web feeds Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. online personals such as Match. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. SMS.us. tagging. My first report in this series. dating sites. etc. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: Communications software: Instant messaging. They identify five broad classes of social software: Communication (IM. photo sharing sites. etc. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. etc.) Relationship Management (Orkut. photo albums. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites Social networks require what Hammond et.icio. communities of practice.

Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.freeopendiary.livejournal.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. high schools.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. http://www. or as a social network. and within “communities of interest. work. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. List who a person knows and find out who others know. http://www.com/introNetwor ks.myspace. https://www. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. https://www. Share it with others if desired.html Last. in associations.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.classmates.esnips.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.orkut.my-diary.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. http://www. http://www.linkedin.codeville.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.friendster. which is then open to other readers.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. http://www. Do Not Reproduce 231 . Facebook has networks for colleges.com/signin/index. and geographic regions. http://www.last.facebook. workplaces.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. http://www. and files and then make them available to others.intronetworks.faceparty.com/ Live Journal . http://www. video. The sites are places to meet people with common interests.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. photos.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.diaryland. http://www. documents.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.com CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www.” http://www.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. and the military. audio. as a blog.com/ Orkut . http://www. http://www.com Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.

S. Users share their writings and meet each other. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect. http://www. http://www. upload photos. http://www.pbwiki.orgnet.spartasocialnetworks.html 232 © 2006. see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.com/reg/sample.netminer.Social Networking Platial – A site to create social maps. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. intelligence (1993-2001).htm Online Resources For a review of a variety of types of social software.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.com/index.analytictech.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis.orgnet. Columbia University.orgnet. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.com/ucinet.com/inflow3. http://www. see the PBS map “Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U. coupled with NetDraw.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College. http://ideant. http://www. http://platial. It costs several thousand dollars.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.xanga. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. http://360. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.html Org.com/hijackers.” http://www. http://www.yahoo.stumbleupon. http://www.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11.com/index.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. Brandon Hall Research .analytictech.typepad. check out the map at org.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. http://www. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://jnthweb.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that. This software produces great graphs of social networks.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.

Oct.org.com/xq/asp/sid.kmmagazine.uva.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents. http://www2.nl/sociosite/topics/int eraction.uk/eclipse/Resources/soci al. Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies.ucr.socialtext. Life with Alacrity.usemod.pdf Bibliography Allee.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. see the list in Wikipedia. 28.elsevier.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me. but. 13.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. Terry (2005). Verna (2004). 2005. http://faculty. May 2003. 4CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid. http://www. 2004..wikipedia. Groups.insna. http://www.F79B4E317854-4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.com/cgibin/mb.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites. http://www. Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.fmg. and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://terrya.htm Do Not Reproduce 233 .lifewithalacrity.futurelab. http://www. http://en.edublogs. http://www.org/wiki/List_of_social _networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking.theworkfoundation. Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. Nov.com/homepage/sae/s on/menu. http://www.net/ssa/index. http://www1.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report.org/2005/11/28/h ello-world/ Anklam. http://www.elearningcentre.odnetwork. Virtual Canuck. Patti (2003).co. OD Practitioner.html Anderson.analytictech.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and links to similar sites. Knowledge Management Magazine.jsp SocioSite: Networks. http://www. http://www. Educational Social Overlay Networks.org/odponline/vol3 2n4/knowledgenets.html Allen.com/2004/10/t racing_the_evo. Christopher (2004). KM and the Social Network.. 32(4). http://www.

L.darwinmag. Darwin. No. L.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail. May 2003.ca/files/osn.htm Davies. Vol. Distance and E-Learning. R. http://www. A Practical Guide to Social Networks.jhtml?id =2705 Cross. 44.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e. European Journal of Open. Stowe (2003a). http://doi.eurodl.pdf Cross. The Work Foundation. Business Networking Systems. William (2003). September 2003. and Weiss. Research Report. Harvard Business Review. OLDaily. R. Darwin..jsp Downes.html Dvorak. Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. July 12. Feb. http://www. Stowe (2004).org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd. March 2005.harvard . 14. R. Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks.com/read/010104/ context.. http://www. June 2002. Liedtka. Stowe (2003b).1 648185. Borgatti. Social Capital & Social Software.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes. John (2004). (2002).contentdirections.html Cross. Christian (2006).. Cambridge. S.downes. California Management Review. http://harvardbusinessonline.j sp?doi=10. Stephen (2005). Are you ready for social software? Darwin.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Barabási. Dead Already? PC World. L.. http://harvardbusinessonline. September 20. Feb. http://www. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Winter 2002. A. http://www. The Barriers of Content and Context. You Don't Know Me. http://www. January 2004. Cracking the social code. Stephen (2004).asp Do Not Reproduce 234 . Cambridge.analytictech. The Hidden Power of Social Networks.. The Semantic Social Network. A.amazon. J. The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop.html Boyd.hbsp. R. (2004).1225/R0503H Cross. 2.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard. 11.darwinmag.downes.html Boyd. http://www. 2004 http://www.com/mr/hbsp.com/read/050103/ social. (2002).darwinmag. Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. and Prusak. but. 2005.1759. Perseus Publishing.com/resear ch/isociety/social_capital_main.00. (2002).hbsp.theworkfoundation. http://www. MA.edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.ca/cgibin/page. A. and Parker.pcmag. Harvard Business Review. and Parker.com/read/090103/ social.harvard . http://www. MA: Harvard Business School Press.com/article2/0. (2005). Stephen’s Web.

L..netform.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen. J. 2006. (2006). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. First Monday. (2005). 2005.com/0002007/2005/0 7/14. Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources.com/html/s+b%20arti cle.futurelab. Riverside.cdlib. (2001). Brown. Research Report. Art (2003)..com/gp/product/03163 46624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel.salon. 29. A.planetwork.h tml (Review) Gladwell. (2003). MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr. http://lrs.pdf Levine. Sayers.pdf Pollard. July 14. 15. Learning Circuits. Social Software and Learning. http://www. (2004).ed.learningcircuits. Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Bristol. M.org. and Riddle. http://asn. Oliver. http://cogdogblog. R. The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet.ucr. Zucker. Lanham.. How to Save the World Blog.html Do Not Reproduce 235 .com/2006/02/21/socia l-software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. L. http://faculty. Ulrike. Social software in action (No real software required).org/2003/dec 2003/kaplan.uiuc.uk/elearning/seminars/s eminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornthwai te.learningcircuits. K.wun. http://blogs. New York: Little. Allan (2006). Hauser.pdf Jordan.. & Barney.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. CA: University of California. Malcolm.uk/download/pdf s/research/opening_education/Social_Soft ware_report. (Eds. and Facer.net/AugmentedSocial Network. WeLearning: Social Software and E-Learning. http://www. April 15. Southhampton. http://repositories. S. and Foster. August.). (Online book). Feb.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite.org/cgi/viewconte nt. and Brewer (1994). M.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business. Caroline (2005).htm http://www. Social Networks. Eva (2003).htm Kleiner. 21. Seven Principles of Social Networking. 2005.net/ir/reviews/revs163. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series. David (2005a).ac. UK: Futurelab. Dec. http://www. 8(8).Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Feenberg. D. Institute for Social Science Research. Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. No. A. Online paper.amazon. (2000). CogDogBlog. Introduction to Social Network Methods.. Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. J. K.. http://www. Research Report. (in 2 parts) http://www. Grant. S.

Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self.com/article2/0. How to Save the World Blog. Elgg: Community Learning Space. http://www. Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. George (2005).salon. Christopher (2006b). 2005. D. Rescuing social networking. Aug. 2006.net/csessums/weblog/6238. Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. http://elgg.com/0002007/2005/0 8/11. September. Jan. 2005. and Raefali S. 2006.html Pollard. In: S. 2005. Salthe. CA: Sage Publications. Social network analysis: what to map. Clay (2003). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online). http://www. http://www. John (2000). 11. June 16.shirky. 2005. http://elgg.html Do Not Reproduce 236 .1 842806.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Social Networking Pollard. B. The social networking landscape.com/0002007/2005/1 1/02. http://eradc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums. 2003.html Siemens.com/0002007/2005/0 6/16. Aug. How to Save the World Blog. May 5.Organization. http://www. Five reasons social networking doesn’t work.pdf Ulanoff.com/booksProdDesc. and M. Nov. Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. G. 2005. Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. Van de Vijver. Molly (2005). Social software and the politics of groups. 23.com/writings/group_poli tics.00.1895.net/csessums/weblog/13748.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha. March 9. Scott. G.). Christopher (2006a).org/2005/nov2 005/seimens. Luis M. 2. Thousand Oaks.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.firstmonday. Draft paper online. Social Software presentation.learningcircuits. First Monday. June 2. (2004).html Pollard. http://blogs. http://blogs. David (2005c).salon.pcmag. Connectivism: learning as network creation.asp Wood. Social Network Analysis. http://www. David (2005d).salon. How to Save the World Blog. and Werdmuller.h tml. 9(9).ht ml Sessums. (1998). 341-358.indiana.org/papers/Learning_landsca pe.cnet.html Ravid.edu/rocha/ises. (2005). CNET. http://www. Learning Circuits. David (2005b).sagepub. 8. http://blogs. pp. Lance (2005). Nov. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Delpos (eds.h tml Shirky. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet. Learning and Computing. http://informatics.htm Tosh. Teaching.

and shout over each other to try to be heard. just like during a real meeting. presence. such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV). and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings.com/halo/index. including the following: Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching Selected Examples The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. as if they were in the same room. and the sense of contact with.” but other more elaborate technologies. http://www. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence. presentation tools. 2001.com/hpinfo/newsroom/feat ure_stories/2005/05halotale. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. are also available. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept.hp. 2001).. When it is fully successful.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Related terms Instant messaging. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners.html In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments. Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. In 2000. Do Not Reproduce 237 .html http://www. share files and documents. another person while communicating via the Web. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. retrieving. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus. cameras.g. That is the theory behind telepresence applications.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging. 11. most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of. Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them.hp. "online" or "offline") of other users. the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site. transparent telepresence Description The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together.

http://www. http://www.com/messenger/overview Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. secure.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects.live. and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.fakespace. The driver sits in a box.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www-142. http://messenger. The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user." http://www. http://www. http://laimuz.uk/projects/stadium/ Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. at a physically remote real world site. BSD.dmem.nsf/wdocs/home page GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. http://gaim.sourceforge. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://telepresence. html Do Not Reproduce 238 .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute.percro. the CAVE.jabber.org/teleimmersion2.ht ml http://www.strath.aim. in every sense.' http://cnm.com/index. MacOS X.com/ Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user.uk/ind ex.unizar.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. http://get. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. and Windows.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.net/ Jabber – An open.ac.open.ibm. This would enable the user to experience being fully present. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.org/teleimmersion. http://www.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.advanced.yahoo.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. a communication link between the home site and a remote site. Their tag line is “Simultaneous Presence. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.ebuddy.advanced.ac. http://www.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.

. and Rusbridge.com/gp/product/158 6033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Nils (2000).ieor. http://www. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. June 1.networkworld.txt Knudsen.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.org/rfc/rfc2779. 44-49. A. as well as news. the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. John (2004). (2001). and Pejas. A. http://www.com/gp/product/04152 28077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund.html Riva. Wired News.edu/~goldberg/art/ tele/ Internet Society.digicult. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. W. Sept.wired.pdf Fontana. M. L.nada.berkeley. http://www. http://www. (2005). D.pdf Lynn. http://www. Network World. http://kmr. (2002). Hubert (2001). In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).amazon. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. S.se/pdf/CID-206. (Eds.acs. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.nada. September 24. Calgary. Abbott.. Being There: Concepts. and Handberg. (Eds. http://www. and Naeve. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.html Goldberg. J. Davide.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence..ietf.org Bibliography Dreyfus.) (2003). Keynote address at the ISEC conference. On the Internet. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www2.hig.no/at/nmm/enlund. Presence applications poised for takeoff. C. F.. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. Ken (Ed.65 064-0. 2002.) (2000). http://www. http://www.kth. 2004.se/papers/TelePresen ce/CJKPresenceProd.. London: Routledge. http://cid.pdf Knudsen. Naeve. Ins and outs of teledildonics. A.virtual-presence. history. Cambridge. Banff. Network Working Group (2000).kth. and IJsselsteijn. Alberta. C. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. 6. In Soldek. January 2005. Online memo.amazon.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. Regina (2004). Dobreva. Do Not Reproduce 239 .. McHugh. J. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. Donnelly. MA: MIT Press. M. A. G.pdf When it is fully successful.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Online Resources Virtual-Presence.com/news/culture/0.

pdf Udell.html Do Not Reproduce 240 .swedishlearninglab. H.org/docum ents/Sponberg. and Handberg. Jan.modes. C. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. H. Germany: Hagen.Learning. Jon (2005). Knudsen.infoworld. (Eds. http://www.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. et al.. (2001). L.com/article/05/01/ 28/05OPstrategic_1.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Telepresence Technologies Sponberg. InfoWorld. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. In Hoyer. http://www. 28.

in all its formats. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. 2005). PDAs. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Do Not Reproduce 241 . television. My first report in this series. vlog Description Video. the largest Internet telephone service.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. cell phones. A new version of television. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. tlearning. games Tax payment Information services Shopping Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TV-based learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Despite the high quality of many productions. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. streaming video. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. video blogging. screencasting. However. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). IPTV. Video. even a video plug-in for Skype. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. in all its formats. amateur and professional video cameras. bandwidth becomes an issue. 2002). reviewed video as an online content format. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. telepresence. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Video blogging has become common. Once video goes on the Internet. vodcasting. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). videocasting.

com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.com Do Not Reproduce 242 .htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. a three-minute videoblog. http://www. and multimedia content to customers. It is still going strong at: http://www. http://participatoryculture. cell phones.ar/iptv_en.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Further. http://video. Britain's largest telecom firm. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.com/default.asp?Art icleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.org/ In 1999.google.com For an example of a video blog. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. BT. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. http://www. partners.html Dialcom Networks. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. the “triple play” of video.com/index_about.axor. Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. http://www. the largest Internet telephone service. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. video. see Rocketboom. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. improves the satisfaction of the client. voice. http://www.rocketboom. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. the Internet telephone service. amateur and professional video cameras.uk/index. low bandwidth video stream. http://www.rocketboom. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. http://www.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.on2. even a video plug-in for Skype.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. As the following examples show. In spite of the limitations. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. according to Foroohar (2006).brightcove.dmeurope. and maintains loyalty.co. with IPTV. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world.dfilm. or students through a high quality.com.medialogic. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.apple. See samples at: http://www. PDAs. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. employees.

read “Ten video sharing services compared. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. https://www.spider.veotag.uk/eclipse/Resources/st reaminglearning.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.com/nara. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. whether dial-up. http://www. http://www.” http://www. http://www.addictingclips.com Do Not Reproduce 243 .dvguru. and visual resources.org/ At YouTube. video.veoh.xstreamengine.com/ Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. http://www.co.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. http://www.cfm ?RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.bittorrent. and divide them into chapters or segments. http://eduscapes.ourmedia. desktop.com/ BitTorrent.mil/index.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.com/seeds/index.concord.elearningcentre.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. For example.com/pressreleas es.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.navy.” Users can upload video clips for free. http://www. or set-top box. http://www.com/ Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.bittorrent. PDA. tag them. See the current selection at: http://video.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. http://vpb.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multiformat broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.hpc.google.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. See examples at: http://www. cellular.youtube.

org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. http://www.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. D. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7005.pjb.” http://www. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.masternewmedia.com/webconf/video. htm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.upenn.elearnspace. Online article at: http://www. but business models are fuzzy. t-learning Study .” http://www. http://www.pdf Bardia.educause.masternewmedia.uk/files/pdf/1443.wharton. www.iptv-industry. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.uk/tlearning/contents.streamingmedia.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.masternewmedia. and Bates.lsda.” http://knowledge.org/doing/media.500 vlogs organized by popularity. which users can submit. by alphabet. Peter (2003).com/article. termed “mobile television.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.edu/articl e. http://www. http://www. P.co.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.” http://www. and by tags. (2003).mefeedia.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.cfm?articleid=1519 Bibliography Atwere. Pradeep (2004). The site already contains nearly 6. http://www.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.thinkofit.htm Do Not Reproduce 244 . http://www.org.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.

(Ed.pdf http://www. Mon.com/id/8018601/si 8. 2005.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Video and IPTV Canali De Rossi. http://www.htm IBM (2006). Asensio. Beyond Wireless Broadband. Online paper. 8-9. Tom (2005). Brian (2002).. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Friedman.).com/adcinstitute on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Robin Good Blog. Matthew (2005). implications. IAT Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use Services White Paper.com/showArt Thornhill. Rana (2005). NC: Duke University. and Swenson. The IPTV Revolution. Foroohar. Changing Channels. 417-419). April 26.ac.apple.ibm. Nov. Robin Good Blog. Campus Technology.amazon. Wi-Fi. Wi-Bro: XMax Goes The Distance. C. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=1496 6 Nolle. http://www1. In Richards. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Feb.msnbc.aace.jhtml?articleID=161600153 educational development. Wi-Max. Proceedings of E-Learn /wp2003 (pp. L. discussions and Curtis. (2003). 1. content/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper http://www. http://www.com/gp/product/08223 29646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Do Not Reproduce 245 .org/news/200 5/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.) (2002).pdf Klass. 2005.com/article. Manchester. S. Networking Pipeline. 2. http://www.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. 2005. IBM Institute for Business Value study.umist. Jonathan. Goldfarb. University of Missouri. Luigi (2005a). Luigi (2005b). Dec.masternewmedia.asp?id=7769 Meng.pdf tough road deploying IPTV.org/newdl/index. P. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Newsweek (International Ed.usc.masternewmedia.org/news/200 5/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wifi_ wimax. and Young. 2005. Peter (2005). What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.cfm?fusea . http://www. Durham.php te/newsweek/ Taplin. (2005). 2005.). (Eds.msn.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/t Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p0 http://www. June 6.pdf ction=Reader. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. G. he_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. 7.bcr. http://edmarketing. Brian (2005). Video Streaming: a guide for icle. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.campustechnology. 2005. Dec. Telcos face http://www-rcf. Visual Pedagogy: http://www2.networkingpipeline.

net/wiki2/index. interaction. http://www1. The space is persistent. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. http://www.futurelab. To do this. virtual environments Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.html Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Near Eastern.arts. http://ancient. Videoconferencing is not required.kahootz. By using aspects of game play.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. http://www. Exploration and discovery are enabled.cs. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Do Not Reproduce 246 . designers.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.edu/graphics/pro jects/arc/arc. http://solipsis. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. Depending on the level of realism achieved. mixed reality. distributed virtual environments. There are no central servers at all: it relies only on end-users' machines.columbia. and storytellers. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. skin color.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. augmented virtuality. simulation. Creed. and re-experiencing or re-using past events. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. desktop virtual reality. and the aim of the virtual experience. exchange enabling. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time.ubc. inventors.netofpeers.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.ca/index.org. and Religious Studies department. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. php/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties.

epfl. https://www.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).ch/About/about_index. http://vads.navy.opencroquet.ergonetz.html http://vads. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. http://www. Shape has developed the augurscope.cfm ?RID=POL_OT_1000274 Depending on the level of realism achieved.html The U.S.ac.shapedc. and the aim of the virtual experience. http://www.secondlife. http://www.ahds.spider.uk/guides/using_guid e/sect34. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. http://www. The augurscope consists of a tripodmounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.ahds. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).equator. including education.ht ml Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.hpc.uk/guides/vr_guide/in dex.asp The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.com/edu/index.html Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. http://www.ac.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.com/ht ml/current/CurrentIssueStory.cfm?PostID=1 9660 Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. http://www.ac.org/highlights/augur.informationinplace. Do Not Reproduce 247 . an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. virtual reality can be a powerful elearning tool or a colossal waste of time.html ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund in Germany.mil/index.healthdatamanagement. http://www. For example.com http://www.activeworlds. http://vrlab.org/index.

com/article. http://ru6.00. Technology Area . http://www. Robin Good Blog. J. (2001). maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. T.. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.gr/ru6/publications/616810 77. and Tsiatsos.cti. Sept. Guardian Unlimited. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.htm Dickey. 2004. Hornig. A. Virtual teaching aids become a reality.intuition-eunetwork. 2004. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. August 9. Trend: augmented reality check. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Sept. Learning Circuits. 2006.campustechnology. 24.. G.co.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. (2006). http://www. Stephen (2004). G. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.coe. 27. 2004.oln. (2004). http://www. Research report.pdf Hoare. 28. C.guardian.gr/ru6/publications/957952 3.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. http://www.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.cti.org/conferences/OLN2003 /papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. C.learningcircuits.org/2004/dec 2004/0412_trends. Campus Technology.masternewmedia. Luigi (2004).gr/ru6/publications/898162 4.uk/elearning/ story/0.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). Michelle (2003).edu/vrel.ecu.unt.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.cti.pdf Bouras.10577. Dec. http://education. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. and Tsiatsos. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.pdf Bouras. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.html Jones.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Triantafillou.htm Do Not Reproduce 248 . http://ru6. Eva (2004). V. and Hicks. 175-199. East Carolina University. http://vr.. T. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.htm Bibliography Bouras.1314022. (2001).org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. http://ru6. http://courseweb. T. and Tsiatsos. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Philopoulos. http://www. C.

it/Journal/Pap ers/Queen. and Mangina. E.icc2005. Monahan. 35. July 9-16.elearning.html Liarokapis.unihannover.tcd.digicult. M.org/htmleng/english. P. Donnelly. http://www. F.de/publikationen/publikationen/2 004/istanbul_Katterfeld. No. S. and Rusbridge..com/Reference.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Virtual Reality Katterfeld.unibo. (2005). R. Vol. https://www. McHugh. O.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.pdf Do Not Reproduce 249 . Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.aspx?P aperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. and Sester. (2005)..ie/Owen. Gerard (2002).ikg. http://www. and White. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Web-based Education 2005 conference. (2005).. M. January 2005. Istanbul. P. (2002). Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). International Archives of Photogrammetry. http://www. La Coruna/Spain. http://www. Bertolotto. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Ekaterina (2005).pdf McArdle.. & Sester..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. M.pdf Ross. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. M. 1(2). C.edu. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Lister. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. D. Abbott.actapress. http://www. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.. Proceedings. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. http://www. 1. Proceedings. ISPRS. Petridis. Dobreva. M. F..p df Prasolova-Førland.com/PaperInfo.actapress.cs. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. (Section on Virtual Reality). T..aspx? paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. 2005.actapress. 2004. A. (2004). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools.eng.pdf Katterfeld. G. C. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.com/PaperInfo. and Seyedarabi.aspx ?PaperID=19716 Queen. http://www.monash. Conlan. A. (2005). M.au/uicee/world transactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2/0 6_Liarokapis10.

visualization can represent alternative points of view. cybercartography. GIS. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. On the other hand. location based systems. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. Do Not Reproduce 250 . learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. mapping. allowing for innovation or new understandings. 2003). 2005). new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. The VGEE consists of four elements: An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. The educational advantages of visualization are many. geographical information systems. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. data mapping.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. pattern recognition. dynamic displays. reviewed visualization as an online content format. See some amazing demos at: http://www. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. et al. data filtering.ucar. Flash. images. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and require a lot of explanation. My first report in this series. graphics. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.dpc. and data rendering. Finally.com/products/vizserver / Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data.edu/vgee) Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. cognitive collage.inxight.

allowing 2-D image stitcher.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.nih.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://www. http://www.esa.pdf tracking.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Capable of stitching full complex phenomena are users to access complex geophysical data in view panoramas without any user input their preferred mode.ul. http://www. http://www. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.ontopia. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. http://www.semagix.vrco.gov/research/visible/visi ble_human.idc.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.cs.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.tmm.nlm. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. http://www.utexas.com The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www. Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.it/eoq/eoq68/EnviVi panoramic photography.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Infor mation%20Retreival.bham.ac. http://www.” http://richie.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.ca/~mbrown/autostitch /autostitch. Museum Edition. http://www.com/solutions.ppt Do Not Reproduce 251 .vista. VR.esrin. and will require visualization applications. Free demo at: ew_68. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.zoomclouds. and display (without glasses!). For an example.typorganism. See: to education. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. whatsoever. http://www.org/ new ways of The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic modeling visualization of satellite information.edu/index.ubc.com/ As complexity theory develops Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. which showcases their potential. delivery.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.net/omnigator/models/i ndex.unifiedfield. AutoStitch can be used for emerging that http://esapub. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.0 as an approach authoring system.alice. see ZoomClouds. such as a blog.ddd.html http://www.

ontopia.owu.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.semagix.vrvis. Sample the collection at: http://svs.” http://www.marumushi.edu/postcartoaag06.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. April 7th.nixlog.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. Be sure to explore the “zoo. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. http://www. http://news.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. http://www. It has images of space and the earth from space.gsfc.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. http://makingmaps.net/omnigator/models /index.medibolt.indiana.edu/ Paul Nixon.in English or Spanish.gov/index. See his list of resources at: http://www.at/home. http://www.medtropolis.nasa. a young graphic designer.skyscraper.html 252 © 2006.Visualization Technologies Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.lecielestbleu.org/timeformations/ intro. 2004.html For a practical application of visualization. Sample their efforts at: http://www.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. http://chatcircles.com/solutions.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.media. http://www.mit.feedtank.com/VBody. See their tool set and examples of their work.cs. http://www.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. Brandon Hall Research . http://www.bbc.”’ BBC News.com/index. http://www. http://www.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com Web site in Tokyo.co.

one million items.ambientdevices.http://www.nlm.mccrackendesign.com/msdnmag/issue s/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard – http://www.http://www. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.xcelsius.idashboards.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.htm Using time as an added dimension. in the U.com/omni. Techniques Spotfire DecisionSite is software to for solving this problem have been developed visualize data to make decisions.html Top Tier http://www. http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. and information presentation. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.gfdl. http://www.corda. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.html How do users visualize very large data sets. for example. anatomically detailed. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.com/cat/dashb oard/index.http://www. See this technology in action.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.com CenterView .ibm.microsoft.com/index.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.com WorkPlace .arcscience.unifiedfield.nih. http://clustrmaps.noaa.S.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.org/about.vicodi. http://www.html XCelsius .Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.com/applicatio n. http://www.amnh.org/mif/scivizgallery /galleries. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.cs.umd. http://www. http://www. at the University of Maryland. http://research.spotfire. retrieval.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Do Not Reproduce 253 .com http://www.

golden.com OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that goes far beyond static JPG map images. trends. http://www.mapinfo.softill.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.S. http://www. http://www.media. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.visualanalytics.com Do Not Reproduce 254 . Didger.com/mam/mam. http://tangible.esri. and anomalies in data. for 3-D data visualization. associations. for well log and borehole plotting. and.intergraph.com/vibe/ Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. http://www. http://www. http://www.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. for thematic and analytical mapping.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. MapViewer.musanim.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.mit. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.microsoft.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. http://www.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. They have worked with the U. including the following: Voxler. Grapher.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://www. for 2D and 3-D graphing. http://research. Strater. http://www. http://www.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.timemap.oziexplorer. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.topozone. networks.advizorsolutions.

cs.uk/reports/visual/sur vey/visurvey. http://www.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com/ Do Not Reproduce 255 . is available online.visualthesaurus.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. http://www. http://coe. many of which are unique.daz3d. Clicking a related term extends the process. for 3-D landscaping and animation.topicmap. animation.” http://vis. http://www. modeling. Carrara.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.com/vc/index.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.” http://www. Try a demo at: http://www. http://www.iu. for 3-D modeling.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. including the following: Bryce.okino.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.accurender. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. and rendering. http://www.agocg. together with their estimated depth of influence.ubc.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.ca/~tmm/courses/infov is/ LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.liveplasma.edu/eet/ Ell. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.ac.visualcomplexity. P.com Pixologic is 2..com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. http://www.stanford. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.5-D modeling and rendering software.cf m The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. Following are two: http://graphics.sdsu. http://www.masternewmedia.formz.edu/index. and rendering software.pixologic.edu/courses/cs44 8b-04-winter/ http://www. http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.

Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. J. Jacques (1983). Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. K.vrco.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSE R2_AndersonWoodill.edwardtufte. les réseaux. pp.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. http://www.complexityscience. http://acg.gatech.edu/research/resea rch. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.istituti. (2003). 14(1). and Woodill.gvu.usilu. http://acg. Mackinlay. M.org/index.gvu.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.complexityandeducation. and Shneiderman. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. Paris: La Haye.) (1999). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Madison: University of Wisconsin. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Jacques (1967).mit. Lugano.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. Proceedings. http://www. http://www. Luca (2003). http://www. Paier.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.net/printRec. and Resetarits. G. http://www.media.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.htm http://www.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. J. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.pdf Bertin. http://www.topicmaps.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. B. Working Paper. EXYSTENCE network. J.com/ Bibliography Alpert. both visualization companies. The Semiology of Graphics. A.pdf Bergmann. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.infovis. Switzerland: University of Lugano. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Sherman (2003).ualber ta..com/ http://www.fakespace.edu/gvu/softviz/ Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. http://www.media.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. (Eds. 3149 http://www. 1-34.gatech.. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. les cartes.amazon.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Do Not Reproduce 256 . http://www. He finished his PhD. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.editlib.mit.

http://www. (2005). and Rusbridge.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29&r eferer Ell.digicult. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Luca (2005). (2005).html Ross.DownloadFull Text&paper_id=5994 Clark.psycho.html Rhyne.. http://itdl. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internetbased 3-dimensional and face-to-face classroom instruction. http://www. P. http://www.pdf Do Not Reproduce 257 . available online at http://www.univparis5. J. (Section on Visualization). Arns. L. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Siggraph. M. S. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning... September. http://www. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.editlib. Vol. K. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Canadian Journal of Psychology. McHugh. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. A. Abbott. 16(4). http://www. Donnelly. G.org/education/materi als/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Campus Technology. J. A. S. (2005). International Journal on E-Learning.asp Mittal. Morales.siggraph. 329-351.. 3. http://www. and Woolsey. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.com/publications. August 11.amazon.educause.com/gp/product/08223 29646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=507846 &s=books&v=glance Jones.agocg. http://createdrealities. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.aace. G. Brian (2002).ht m O'Regan. and Bertoline. (1992). D. EDUCAUSE Review.html Madhavan.. K. K.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.org/index. No.pdf Goldfarb. 41(3). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. May/June.elearningguild. Theresa (1998). Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. http://www. http://www.com/articles/abst racts/index. http://nivea. 17-30. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. 42. Educational Media International.. NC: Duke University.cfm/files/paper _5994. Ruth (2003).K.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. and Pagalthivarthi. 46: 461-488.asp?id=11222 Metros. Dobreva.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. and Knezek. Brent (2006).org/dl/index. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.campustechnology. 2005. 4(1). 69-82.ac. June 1.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Visualization Technologies Botturi. Durham. C.edu/apps/er/erm06 /erm0638.com/article. (2005).fr/CanJ/CanJ. January 2005. (1998). 3(1). (2006).

pdf Shneiderman. Edward (1990). evidence and narrative. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Brandon Hall Research . 4th Edition. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. No.org/threshold Tufte. http://www. M. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. 2nd Edition. Computers. August. (2004). http://www.indiana. 45. Mike and Rogers. Robert.com/tufte/index Tufte.E. http://www. 2. Reading. Vol. http://www. (2001).amazon. From multimedia to multisensory education. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past.edwardtufte. David (2005). 2nd Ed. Cheshire. http://www.edwardtufte. Envisioning Information.amazon. CT: Graphics Press. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.edwardtufte. http://www. Edward (2001). pp. CT: Graphics Press. Yvonne (1996). Spence. Edward (1997).com/gp/product/0201 596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. (2004). 185–213 http://www. Threshold. England: AddisonWesley.slis. David (2002). CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. Visualization.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Staley. B. Matt (2002).ciconline.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 258 © 2006.com/tufte/index Ware. Digital Information Graphics.amazon. http://www.amazon. Cheshire. Information Visualization: perception for design.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Colin.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books &v=glance Woolman. Information Visualization. Harlow. Sharpe.Visualization Technologies Scaife. Fall. http://www.com/tufte/index Tufte.

avaya. Do Not Reproduce 259 . and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.skype.Emerging e-Learning Technologies VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. headphones or speakers. communications tools.elearningcentre. http://www. Using VoIP. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. but it is rapidly improving. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. Internet telephony.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. 1996). http://www. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.jajah.html See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. htm Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. requiring an Internet hookup.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. Internet telephony is relatively simple. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. in remote communities.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.infoworld. Skype Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. and a microphone.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www.com Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in e-learning. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. http://www.co. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.envisioninc. In the near future. http://www.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.

M.pdf Ottoson.VoIP and Telephony The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . Meredith (1996). Mobile distributed e-learning center. and O’Droma.nald.voipreview.cogs. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. but it is rapidly improving. http://www. http://www. http://www. 9-12. http://www.ieee. 9(3).js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.org/xpl/freeabs_all.pdf The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Robert (2005).ac.pdf Ganchev. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Join the discussion at: http://voip.susx.msu.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. September.. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.spectrum. Brandon Hall Research . Geraldine (2005).org Bibliography Cherry. I. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. (2005). http://ieeexplore. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Language Learning and Technology. March 2005. IEEE Spectrum Online.ieee. Stojanov. 260 © 2006. http://llt.weblogsinc. S. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Steven (2005). The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.

stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. including batteries.hubuska. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. 1998): It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention It is unrestrictive to the user It is observable by the user It is controllable by the user It is attentive to the surrounding environment. http://wearables. anytime.uk/1/hi/business/460 1690.co. managing.ices.cs. including wearable computing. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. ubiquitous computing Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. The entire system. weighs less than three pounds. like a wristband or jewelry. Do Not Reproduce 261 .uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.checkpointelearning. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. http://www.com/Docs/workshop_ hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Learning.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.com/eXact_iTutor_ MoMo/eXactiTutor. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.ac. http://news.ppt In January 2006. For example.cmu. Selected Examples In Europe. training to do their jobs. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. http://killer. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.learnexact.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.bris.p df http://www.html A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use.edu/design/Ion. http://www.bbc.

technologyreview. MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. (2004).wired. Mmoma (2006).bham.wearable.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.ac.cs. See: http://genesis. especially for comercial airlines.pdf Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. http://www.wired. (2003).shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.nasa. M.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.ethz.com/read_art icle.com/news/culture/0. and other organizations involved in inspecting.edu/design/VuMan.ices.edu/~mann/ 262 © 2006. http://www.mit. http://www.eecg.org/index_graphical. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for body-worn applications. http://killer. http://isd.html The design of “smart clothing. March 24.70 481-0.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. like a wristband or jewelry. Wired News.sportbrain. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Brandon Hall Research . Simson (2004). What you’ll wear in 10 years.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. 2004.eecg.704 81-0. http://about.uoregon. Dec. http://www.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. Wearable Computing for the Commons.cf m The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. Technology Review (Online).uk/wear-it Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. 2006.jisc.edu/research/wear ables/index.html Garfinkel. M.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. http://www.uk/index. the automotive industry. http://www. or repairing complex machines. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.toronto.ac. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. and Lupisella.org is a rich source of references. http://www. 1. C.edu/ http://wearcam. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.media. and Levene. S.com/Home/Home.com/news/culture/0. especially in the area of wearable cameras.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.html http://www.org/index.cmu.gsfc. training.toronto. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.eyetap. http://www. http://www.” including computers built into underwear.Wearable Computing The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.eee.

Steve (1998). May 12-13.businessweek. VA. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wearable Computing Kharif. http://www. Business Week Online. March 8.org/icwckeynote. Olga (2005). htm Mann. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0 385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. 2005. Toronto: Anchor Books. Fairfax. (2002). Wearable computers that you can slip into. ICWC98. and Niedzviecki. H.html Do Not Reproduce 263 .amazon. http://www. http://wearcam. S.com/technology/c ontent/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc119.

” as its content is changed by the author. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. job searches. with all the potential for viruses and spam. podcasts. listings of the latest books.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. social bookmarking. syndication Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. When changes are made to a Web site. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. To read content from a Web feed.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Related terms Atom. feeds. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automat-ically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. with all the potential for viruses and spam. photo collections. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers For learners and teachers. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Instead of having items emailed to you. Do Not Reproduce 264 .0 format). enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. basic text format for quick review. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. PDAs. and course offerings. and Atom is the second. Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. TV guides. CDs. and electronics. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. including cell phones. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). blogs. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. and laptops. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site.

http://www.http://www.http://www. FeedForAll .feedforall.newsisfree.http://www.com/ 8. LearningFeeds 8.hexamail.http://www.com directory.onfolio.feedreader.com/ http://www. RSSCalendar .com 4.h http://www.pubsub. Reader http://usablelabs.topix.learningfeeds.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Web Feeds Topix .com/ 3.2 7. RSS2Exchange http://www.http://www.http://bitworking.com/productBlogExpress.http://www.U.blogplanet.com/ 0.com/ Attensa . Protopage Bloglet .com/rss/ http://www.org/ . RSS-to-Javascript .com/ 3. EaZy RSS reader 5.http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. FeedBurner http://www.html http://www. StepNewz .mozdev.bloglines.com/today/ http://www.com 9. Rojo .6.net/ My RSS Toolbar There are many Web feed aggregators.com/produ http://neosmart.bytescout.com/feedscout. each http://www.feedjavascript. Do Not Reproduce 265 .com/ http://www. RSS Software .com/ http://www.html http://www.com/ 0.com/ . Fuzzy Duck http://yole. RSS Orbit .net/excel/soft/EaZyRss.ru/projects/syndirella/ http://www. FeedReader 1.ca/edurss02. RSSReader http://www.fuzzyd.shtml .com/ 5.protopage.com/myrsstoolbar.http://www.feedburner. Project D.net/ .somee. Gregarius .php?id=2 cts/pulpfiction/ .rojo. Feedtier .http://feedbeep.pluck.http://gregarius.videora.rsscalendar. Syndirella .feedzilla.disobey. OnFolio . 6. Feed-Directory .http://feedtier. Pluck . Thunderbird .feedpublish.com/ .http://www.com/ http://www. feedbeep . Here is a list of 48: ml 7.feedster. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).http://www.com 2.org/Aggie. NewsIsFree http://www. Sage .com/ 9.rss-to. PulpFiction CompleteRSS http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.http://www. and Atom is the second.com/rss2exchange/ .downes.http://www.com/v2 BlogLines .http://www.net/ http://www.attensa.com/ http://www.ht with its own features.co.http://www.http://sage.rssreader.com/ Brightcove .http://www.com/amphetadesk http://www.com Amphetadesk 8.net/index.com/ Selected Examples 5. SharpReader http://bytescout. Feedroll .awasu.com tml 2.http://www.rssbandit. FeedPublish http://www.feedroll.mozilla.com/ Awasu .projectdu. FeedScout 4.newsgator.sharpreader.com/thunderbird/ .org/ shtml .net/dl.com/ BlogExpress 1.brightcove. Edu_RSS 0. Newsgator Aggie .htm http://www.uk/rssreader/ 7. Feedster .bloglet.com/ 6. PubSub . Videora .rssreader.puremis.

hebig.php.ca/edu_rss. including listings for various electronic devices. http://www.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.wcc.ca/cgibin/wiki. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.htm David.Possible Future Evolution. May 19.elearning. and D’Arcy Norman.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. Brian Lamb.redjupiter.maricopa.contentious. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. Read his article written specifically for educators.Web Feeds For a list of more aggregators. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.masternewmedia. http://www.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.teachinghacks. Brian Lamb. see: http://www. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas %20for%20Educators111.eschoolnews. 2004.downes. 3. http://www. 2003. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. RSS could transform online communications.mcli. http://www.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. eSchool News. Luigi (2004). http://www. Robin Good Blog.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. http://www.dist.php?id=lists :thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Bill (2003).ubc. To have a blog aggregated.ca/files/RSS_Educ.downes. http://careo. Oct. http://www.com/archives/200 3/10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.com/wiki/doku. Dan (2004). Just follow the instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.pdf Canali De Rossi. a blog by Alan Levine. 31.com/news/showS tory.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://timyang. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. eLearning Developers’ Journal.org/blogs/archives/main /000877.php Online Resources Stephen Downes. 2004.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Do Not Reproduce 266 .elearningguild.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.vccs. Aug.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_ project. maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://www.lo.

Version 1. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.. http://www. Online paper. USA Today (online). An Introduction to RSS for Educators. O’Reilly Network. 2006. RSS: the next big thing online. http://googlereader. Shelly (2005).org/2004/jun20 04/downes.pdf Gannett.html MediaThink (2004). 1. 2005. and Webb. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.learningcircuits. B.htm D’Sousa. June 18. InfoWorld. 2005. Quentin (2006). Jon (2005). Aug.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. 3.1. M.downes.teachinghacks.com/catalog/syndication feeds/index.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Namespaced extensions in feeds. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.theshiftedlibrarian. March 23. Mihai (2006). Aug. MediaThink White Paper.xml.com/2006/0 8/namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. Alexandra (2005).mcli. http://www. http://www. RSS Ideas for Educators. May 2004. RSS: the next killer app for education. 2003.maricopa. 13. Vancouver. http://www. Learning Circuits.edu/show/me rlot03/ Levine. D.html Samuel.com/tech/news/200508-01-rss-research_x.blogspot. July 7. (2006).mediathink.oreillynet.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Jenny (2005). Stephen (2004).html?page=1 Udell.org/2004/may2 004/0405_Trends.pdf Parparita. June 2004. Mary (2003). Otherwise Engaged. (2003). RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. The Shifted Librarian. http://www.learningcircuits. 2005.usatoday. July/August 2003.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.infoworld.htm Downes. http://www. http://technologysource. and Norman. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Online paper.com /pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Stephen (2002). 5-8.oreilly. Learning Circuits. RSS: a learning technology. A. http://www.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomie s_are_becoming_so_big. http://www.dist. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. Google Reader Blog. Using RSS for data integration.htm Harrsch.html Do Not Reproduce 267 . The Technology Source Archives. 2005.htm Levine. Sept. Lamb. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. 2006. Aug. T. University of North Carolina.html Powers. Anh (2005).Web Feeds Downes.ca/files/RSS_Educ. Eva (2004). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.alexandrasamuel. BC.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. http://www. Some fundamental principles include the following: Anyone can change anything. custom permissions. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. can be used by a team for joint writing.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. My first report in this series. social networking Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. http://wikipedia. Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. and never finished. 3.sourceforge.com/cgibin/wiki. Do Not Reproduce 268 .usemod. http://www. Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. features.300.org/ Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. and email notification. is available for other applications. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. and projects.net/features. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. 2005). anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. RSS. See the progress at: http://edu. it is important to have several contributors. time-less. Content is ego-less.wikipedia. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. With some basic instructions. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.org/tiki-index.php?titl e=SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.schtuff. http://www.com/ For wikis to work. There are now over 1. http://www. 4. approaches. Anyone can add to it.org/index.sourcewatch. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. the software used to run Wikipedia.tikiwiki. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. an image gallery. 2.

See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.dicole.infoworld.com/ Jon Udell. http://weblog.wikibooks.pdf Jotspot is an “application wiki. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. a rich source of information on wikis. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki approaches. an archivist with the British systems.Weblogs.” Essentially.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.ca/~blamb/wiki radio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. “Quickiwiki. http://www. http://en. http://radio. Twiki.com/ The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian Online Resources word for “quick”) A huge source of links to wikis. Columbia Archives.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.html Do Not Reproduce 269 .com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. as well as is applied to a an analysis of how they work.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.elearning. of the University of British Columbia. See why it is different.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.com/cgibin/mb. http://www. features.jot. http://kairosnews.ubc. http://www. is provided by diverse set of David Mattison. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.infotoday.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. http://www.” is projects.learningwiki.com/artpdf/GR12. Swiki. http://www. http://www. http://www. His article.usemod.com/searcher/apr03 /mattison.seedwiki.gilbane. http://flosse.socialtext. A free trial is available.com/0120501/categ ories/wikis/2004/02/16.shtml Brian Lamb.10.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste: Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. http://careo. and as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.

an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. http://www.org:16080/dossiers/d ossier_imprimer.com/wwwtools/m/25242.profetic.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools WritingWiki. W.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis .html Augar.educause. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. Renée (2005).de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.pbwiki.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.html Ciffolilli..pdf Fountain. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Bibliography Aronsson.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.ucalgary.org has lots of resources on wikis. (2004).71. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. Andrea (2003). Phantom authority. http://www. http://www. Nov. (2002). July. 5-8. Profetic: dossiers pratiques.elearningcentre. that she updates regularly.org/issues/issue8_12/c iffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). First Monday.ca/documents/ITBL_stu dentwikis. N. Teaching and learning online with wikis.pdf Do Not Reproduce 270 .nu’s first nine months in service. http://64.org.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. http://m. Anja (2004). including wikis. Online paper. Perth.” http://writingwiki. http://container.ikiw. Wiki pedagogy. http://aronsson.37/teresadeca/webheads /online-learning-environments.fasfind. Operation of a Large Scale.edu/ir/library/pdf/EL I7004.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.zkm. and Zhou. 8(12).ascilite. http://www. Raitman. Australia. R. 2. http://whiplash. Dec. including a section on wiki tools.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. International Journal of Information Ethics.co. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.se/wikipaper. http://firstmonday.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. Dec.” http://tlc. L. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.48. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. http://www.

12(10). and Webb.1/technote _xxvii.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. UniversityWiki.amazon. O’Reilly Network.html Stafford.usemod.14 02872. Quickiwiki. Online article. Online article at: http://www. Sept.com/cgibin/mb. Richard (2003).uk/issue42/ Udell. Issue 42. 2006. Jon (2004). and Rudolph.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. W. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Searcher. Twiki. April 2004. (2006). Cossarin.pdf Leuf. M. April 2003. Why Wikis Work Not. Online article at PCMag. Emma (2005).00.infotoday...irrodl. http://Weblog.html Tomkin. Oct. Making the case for a wiki.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. InfoWorld. http://www. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Bo & Cunnin. Clark.infoworld. http://www. Lauren (2005).com. http://www. http://www.com/udell/2004/ 10/19..ariadne.educause. http://www. Swiki. http://gilbane.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.pcmag. David (2004).com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. Wiki Tools. Online article. http://www. (2001). Zwiki and the Plone Wars .html Wood.Oct.com/artpdf/GR12.10. David (2003).com/article2/0. 36-48.ac.. July 7. The wiki way. 2005.oreillynet.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. Neil (2003). J. http://c2. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. 19.org/content/v5.com/gp/product/02017 1499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books&v =glance Mattison. Brian (2004). 2004.pdf Do Not Reproduce 271 . M.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Wiki Tools Kulisz. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). L.4149. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.asp Schmitt. Educause Review. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. T. January. (2004). S. Ariadne.shtml Rubenking.

CD-ROMS. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. which can then lead to inventions. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Do Not Reproduce 272 . After a product has been successfully launched. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: Developing technologies – Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies – Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies – Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. which. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. floppy disks. However. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. in turn. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only subject to incremental changes: Animation Software Assessment Tools Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. peak. and decline. This is due. to the complex. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. But not all technologies will travel this road. in part. while others will last for decades. mature. to the complex. ascend the curve. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. change itself seems to be inevitable. in part. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. this approach is now rapidly changing. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. This is due. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. some will never leave the development stage. However. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. Some will die quickly. For a variety of reasons. In any field. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony Declining technologies – Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. or may never become commercially viable. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a failure. Do Not Reproduce 273 . However. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. in both formal and informal settings. In any field. Further. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. Ontologies. both in classrooms and online. change itself seems to be inevitable.

video games. Brandon Hall Research . and the globalization of corporate capitalism. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. 274 © 2006. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. 28). In North America. and personal digital assistants. mind-altering drugs. and computers. generally went to work earlier.Innovation in e-Learning Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. For the older generation. Their children. born in the 1970s. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. 2003). the civil rights movement. video games. The children of the baby boomers. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. The experience of younger learners with television. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. gaming consoles. ecological disasters. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. In contrast. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. electronic media tends to be on the surface. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. movie theaters. libraries. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. Once we master the art of reading. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. The technology of e-learning. Because of this. 2002. p. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. the baby boomers. means that they actually think differently. terrorism. global warming. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. mobile phones. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. the space race. 1994). the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The speed of change increases with each passing year. television.

Generally. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. designers of Sesame Street. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. interactivity in e-learning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. digitization of smell. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. In the next wave. sex. shortly. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the Eastern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. commercials. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub-atomic and cosmic levels of phenomena. results in an action by the other participant. With feedback. However. Two hundred years ago. Then even more movement. huge data wall displays. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). and the mapping of everything. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and At the individual level. wearable computers. But they are usually disappointed. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. that is all about to change. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners computer either can be potentially freer to follow their games. the multitude of new technologies and online content make it possible to take control of one’s own learning journey. But they own goals because of the flexibility of learn. In approaching electronic educational media. Within the next five years. especially when compared with the interactivity of video games. It works for a time. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. whereby the action of one participant. in a back-and-forth exchange. or can be more bound up by the disap-pointed.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. portfolios. Do Not Reproduce 275 . the computer. the under-40 generation has high expectations due to their experience with video and computer games. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. much of the hype generated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. surprise. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technologies. touch and taste. and digital ink and electronic paper. we will see the restructuring of education and training. In approaching electronic educational media. technologies.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Innovation in e-Learning To keep our attention. For example. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environment. the learner. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. creative products. Guides are optional. until we become habituated. or violence is needed to keep our attention.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there.are usually ing paths. Likewise.

http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Innovation in e-Learning Bibliography Christensen. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Rushkoff.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Digital Game-based Learning.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. Douglas (2005).com 276 © 2006. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. http://www. Marc.amazon.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. New York: Collins. Texas. http://www. (2001). James (1994). Brandon Hall Research . technologies and services for the next 5 years. New York: McGraw-Hill. Dallas. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. http://www. http://www. http://www. Clayton (1997).operitel. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition.amazon. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. Gary (2006). Bob (2006).amazon. May 2006. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler.amazon.

Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. New York.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.bartneck. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.se/~muse/ho me.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.cs.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. Box 513.unige.O.ac.umu. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. 1515 Broadway. Den Dolech 2 P. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.bham. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Marc Schröder.media. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.nngroup. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.informatik.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.com/ Do Not Reproduce 277 . Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.myself-proj.de/link/affective_portal . MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.mit. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. 17th Floor. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.51.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.

isi. Palo Alto. P.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. 10004-104 Avenue.computer.org/ Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.ac. Manuel I.csc.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. CA 90292 USA Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Bloomington. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. Building 5.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.edu Extempo Systems. 2910-595 Setúbal .liv. Box 2124 Menlo Park.html Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .codebaby.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.org/ AiLive Inc.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.W.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. L69 7ZF. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. D.com Do Not Reproduce 278 . Inc. #1910. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.informatics. CA 94304 USA http://www.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Washington. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.webist. Suite 206 Boulder. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. O.educause. L69 7ZF. Edmonton. 27A 2º esq.auburn. 1900 East Tenth St. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.indiana. N.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.rit. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.agentlink.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations WEBIST Av. UK http://www. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.ailive.Portugal Tel.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 3400 Hillview Avenue.extempo.

avid.catoolkit.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Inc. Box 527. Burlington.O. Huntsville.O. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.com/ Do Not Reproduce 279 . PO Box 24478. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.php/Main _Page Autodesk.com/ Avid Technology. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.ascension-tech. One Park West Tewksbury.asp Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.animationfactory.com Alchemy Mindworks P.redwoodelearning.com/home.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.autodesk.org. Inc. 110 Cuba Mall. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Avid Technology Park.adobe. Wellington.au/index.org/ Apple Computer.ascilite. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.animats. Box 5200.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.mindworkshop. W Toronto. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Secretariat. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.apple. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.

siggraph. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . Suite 100 Menlo Park.ucsb.460.org Do Not Reproduce 280 .macromedia. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.com/pub/index. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. Santa Barbara.viewpoint.edu/~hegarty/hega rtylab.aclweb.html Ulead Systems 970 W. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.S. Inc. TN 38152 USA http://www. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.aaai. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.swishzone. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.eitechnologygroup.org/home.htm Macromedia.com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.com/ NewTek.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.818.com/index.6450 http://www.psych. Suite #480 Torrance. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.org/ SWiSHzone.A.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.massivesoftware. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. Tel: +1. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. San Antonio.autotutor.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EI Technology Group.newtek. 190th Street. Inc.

pact. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .uquebec.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.cognitivesciencesociety. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.com/index.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cs.eden-online. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. Calgary.org/eden.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.cmu. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. 100 Sherbrooke St.ca/eng/ind ex. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.edu.cs. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.edu Quantum Simulations. u.it. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. H-1111 Budapest.licef. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.cmu. Egry J.iit.ke-corp.cs.gemini.teluq. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.usyd.edu European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.10th Street S. West Montreal.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. Inc.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.com Do Not Reproduce 281 . 1.W.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Suite K. Calgary.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.enel.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.edu.cs. Co.ac.virtuelage. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.ulster.html Do Not Reproduce 282 . 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.unimelb. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.wlv.uk/home.cis.com Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www. CA .cshe. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. Alberta.uk/cticomp/CAA.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.wpi. Suite 1500 Montreal. Suite 360 San Mateo. Antrim BT37 OQB N.edu.unisa.scit.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.ac. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. Newtownabbey.umuc. Chantilly. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.W.ucalgary.brainbench..stottlerhenke. East Adelphi.

com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.S. Suite 201 Peterborough. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.flaguide.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www. Boulder.ets. Suite 753 Madison. FL 32720 USA http://www.questionmark.pedagogue.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U.redinq. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle.O. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.tcet.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.ingeniousgroup.edu/home Do Not Reproduce 283 . Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.unt.colorado. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.rmsuk. Johnson Street. Suite 100. Norwalk. Box 317 New Hartford.com/redinq/html/index.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street. Suite 105 Princeton.O. Box 305280 Denton. Suite 2300 New York.quintcareers.operitel.horizonwimba.

Suite 200 Ottawa. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.com/lipsync/ind ex. Laurent Blvd. Ontario.audiolink.com AudioLink.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.cakewalk. Inc. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.adobe. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www. 2280 St.bias-inc. Inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www.com XStream Software.epnweb.com/AudioTools/ind ex.automaticsync.com/home. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign.html Do Not Reproduce 284 .html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.avsmedia. Suite 100 Newtown. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www. 50 Hunt St..org Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall..xstreamsoftware.ht ml Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www.oir.multitrackstudio.aspx BIAS. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.vantagelearning. Watertown.uiuc.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.com Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.

S1 2NS UK http://www.. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.brainshark. Sheffield. Grime and Associates.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Suite A300 Salt Lake City.envision. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Inc.sonicfoundry. Sheffield Technology Parks. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley.A. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.com Brainshark.bloki. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.anark. 136 South Main Street. San Jose.com/power point-presentations-index. Continental Blvd. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.com Accordent Technologies 300 N.com AcroServices c/o L.purdue.trainvision. Suite 200 El Segundo.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. Waltham.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.adobe. Arundel Street. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www..com/ Do Not Reproduce 285 . Inc.accordent. Suite 200 Boulder. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www. Cooper Buildings.O.co. West Perrysburg.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P.com/index.acroservices. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www. 860 Sandalwood Road. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.e-learningcentre.asp Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.apple.mckinnonmulherin.edu iTunes Apple Computer.

NG8 6PE. Suite 2300 New York.ciscolearning.com.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.com 286 © 2006. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax.horizonwimba. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Ste.maxit.copycatsoftware. Brandon Hall Research .allencomm. Austria http://www. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.co. 200 South. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.com/Index.Companies and Organizations Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.dynamicpowertrainer.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 8053 Graz.lifeboatdistribution. Nottingham.customcourse.bridge-pt.learn.uk/contentpoint.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall. 20100 Milan.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www.atlanticlink.org/Products/CLI _Virtuoso/Index. UK Tel. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Inc. Italy http://www.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton. Box 2827 Redmond.com/Solutions/Elearnin g. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. P. 38-40.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P.elicitus. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. O..64.knowledgequest.64. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www.eclipsys. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.rapidintake. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.O.com/products/forceten. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc. 441 W Main St. Suite B Lehi.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd .easyprof.edufolio. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.68 http://www.e-learningconsulting. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www. Inc. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.knowledgeplanet.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. Suite 29A Nashua.experiencebuilders.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Do Not Reproduce 287 .mohive. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.eedo.10 Fax: +34 93 490. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.elearninginabox. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www.com ExpertAuthor.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.

Inc.htm Knowledge Assembler c/o Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. NSW..elementk. UK Main Tel: +44 (01285) 883900 Fax: +44 (01285)883901 http://www. Berlin. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Fax: (585) 240-7760 http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0)1903 538844 Fax: +44 (0)1903 536080 http://www. Suite 225 Golden.gen21.instant-demo. Brandon Hall Research . Colfax Avenue Building 200. Laurent Blvd.com/products/product s_Author. East Dundee. BN14 8ND.com Kallidus Authoring System c/o e2train Limited 1st Floor.com/ Intuition Publisher IFSC House International Financial Services Centre Custom House Quay Dublin 1 Ireland Tel: +353 1 605 4300 Fax: +353 1 605 4301 http://www. shtml iPerform Course Builder Integrated Performance Systems.uk Impatica Inc. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar. Ontario K1G 3V4 Canada Tel: (613) 736-9982 Fax: (613) 736-9084 http://www. CO 80401 USA Tel: (303) 233-2100 Fax: (303) 462-8849 http://www. 101/102 Cirencester Bus.intuition. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) Fax: (518) 689-3095 http://www.htm KBridge c/o KnowledgeXtensions. West Sussex. Inc. Unanderra Wollongong. 111 Water St. Decoy Rd. CT 06023 USA Tel: (860) 828-5650 Fax: (860) 828-3017 http://www.elearningpowertools.co. Suite 205 Ottawa..com/ka.. Fax: +61 2 4272 1338 http://www.com Instant Demo c/o NetPlay Software Tamarind Drive. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Fax: (847) 836-1818 http://www. Cirencester.impatica.htm KnowledgeHub Authoring Services c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. 1725 St. Worthing.e2train. GL7 1XD.com Intiva c/o Business Performance Technology 1224 Mill Street East.Companies and Organizations iLessons c/o Counterpoint MTC Ltd Unit 2 Timberlaine Trading Est.ilessons.knowledgextensions. Australia.com 288 © 2006.ips-inc.ie/software/publisher.com/prod serv. Gloucestershire. Park Love Lane.

lersus. OH 45202 USA Tel: (877) 929-0188 http://trivantis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations KnowledgePresenter GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.com/eLearning/EN /index.com MindIQ Corporation 7742 Spalding Drive.podia. 46 10789 Berlin Deutschland Tel: +49 (30) 81298133 http://www.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ MindOnSite – Integral Coaching SA Soleil Levant 6 1170 Aubonne. ON.com podia Ltd 6th Floor.com Lecturnity c/o imc AG Altenkesseler Straße 17/ D3 66115 Saarbrücken Germany Tel: +49 681/ 94 76 . Warwick. Suite 200 Cincinnati. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www.com/ LEARNERLand c/o MEDIAmaker Ltd MEDIA HOUSE.de Lersus easyContent c/o Delfi Software Lietzenburgerstr.learnerland.0 http://www.lecturnity. 235 Mountain Empire Road Atkins.com/tbt/dac/index.net Do Not Reproduce 289 .microsoft.knowledgepresenter.mindonsite. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 www. Padge Road. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www. VA 24311 USA Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. 110 Fourth Ave. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: 1 (800) 616-5409 Fax: (250) 361-9362 http://www.teds. #205 Norcross.html Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.digitalworkshop. Beeston Nottingham UK NG9 2RS Tel: +44 (0)115 925 5440 http://www. FRANCE Tel: +41 21 807 01 31 http://www. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo.php Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc. GA 30092-4207 USA Tel: (770) 248-0442 Fax: (770) 248-1949 http://www.mindiq.com Learning Composer c/o TEDS Inc. Courtice.com Lectora c/o Travantis 311 Elm Street.

Suite 200 Ottawa. 2280 St.com RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www.westcliffdata. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www. Laurent Blvd.webex. Brandon Hall Research . 3rd Floor Magalia.articulate.com RapidGuide c/o XStream Software.. Johannesburg. Inc. Ontario.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. 200 South. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.respondus. Ste. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www.co.uk/index. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www.westcliffdata.reusableobjects.uk/index.com Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications. Ontario.com/services/webpresentation-svc. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.com Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr. Richmond. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www.php? content=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd.com 290 © 2006. Inc.com Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www.Companies and Organizations PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West. Inc. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Cedar Ave & Napier Road. Suite 150 Lindon.xstreamsoftware. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 2280 St.com SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House.readygo. Laurent Blvd. Redmond.xstreamsoftware. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Suite 200 Ottawa.php? content=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House.allencomm.com ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.pointecast.co.com Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www.screenwatch.. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City.

FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.hunterstone.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. Germany Tel. Redmond.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.time4you. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas.toolbook.scribestudio. SC. Gandy Blvd.com Do Not Reproduce 291 . Suite 200 Tampa.com/products/study mate. 76133 Karlsruhe. 4.funeducation. Suite 400 New York. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.co. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 http://www. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. +49(0)721.suddenlysmart.sensalearning.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.4259 Fax: (760) 635.respondus.thinkingcap.de/ibt/main/en/site/ time4you/ibt/en/start.com Trainersoft FunEducation.83 01 616 http://www.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.5709 http://www.percepsys. Inc.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.syberworks. CA 92101 USA http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthori ng Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.com/coursegen.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.com Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.seminar.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.

FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.daden.vcom3d. Dale Mabry Hwy. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.tmmy.co.. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. 219 Tampa.. Moseley. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. W Toronto.com DA Group The Lighthouse.knowledgeenvironments.qarbon. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.uk/chatbots.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. 10004-104 Avenue. Suite 260 Orlando. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.maxit.com Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. B13 9SG.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.oddcast.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. #1910. Ste.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. 11th Floor New York. Suite 1550 San Jose.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.telsim. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.. 323 Newbury Street Boston.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. Inc. Edmonton.uk Do Not Reproduce 292 .co.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.xplana. 55 South Market St.redwoodelearning. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.turbodemo. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. Birmingham. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.codebaby.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Inc.html Knowledge Environments.

Mumbai 10. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.wavemarket. Inc.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.blogburst. Inc. 6th Flr. 7125 Riverwood Drive Columbia. Inc. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.flock.gtcocalcomp. Nesbit Rd.cramersweeney..com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Suite 900 Austin. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.omnigroup.htm Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 293 . CA 94608 USA http://www.opera. Suite 209 Moorestown. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville..com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. INDIA.qelix. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.com GTCO CalComp. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.active-learning-site.com/v2/index. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Mazgaon.O.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. USA http://www. P.com WaveMarket. Mary Apts.O.mozilla.

Ontario.com.com Do Not Reproduce 294 . Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. Orlando. NJ .aspx Qwizdom.com Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Inc.inteam.944.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Pittsford.bantu. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Pleasant St. Somerset. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.batipi. Inc. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.pearsoned. 12617 Meridian E. Jospeh Street. Inc.optiontechnologies. SW.umass.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.qwizdom.edu Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite# 401.smartroom. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Amherst.brevient.backpackit.com BlueTie.adobe. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.com Breeze c/o Macromedia. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.bluetie. Inc.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.com Batipi 11 St. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto. Suite 101E Falls Church. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.physics. Puyallup.avecomm.0162 http://www.

Suite 522. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 1192 East Draper Parkway.courseforum.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Do Not Reproduce 295 .com Brightidea. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Suite 950 Portland. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Inc. 795 Folsom Street. #205 Pasadena. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.convenos. Suite 630 McLean.centraldesktop.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. 6th Floor San Francisco.saba.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. San Jose. Draper.collaborationloop.html Citrix Systems.communiqueconferencing. 100 North Lake Avenue.citrix. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.com 404 Fifth Avenue.com Cisco Systems. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com Centra c/o Saba. CA 91101 Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. 232 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.telnetz.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. 6th Floor New York.caucus. Inc. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.communityzero.cisco.brightidea. 170 West Tasman Dr. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Suite 600 Ottawa.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. Inc. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.comotivsystems. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.

flypaper. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. Brandon Hall Research .W.com 296 © 2006. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.epam-pmc. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. 82 Pioneer Way.elluminate.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.facilitate.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.com Engineering. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Sanibel FL. Lauderdale. 57th Street Gainesville. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. MA 01810 USA Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.same-page. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.emc.Companies and Organizations Digi-Net Technologies.forumone. Inc. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com LLP PO Box 325.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.digi-net.ezmeeting.. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.digite.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Ontario.com Digité.edufolio. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.engineering.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. Inc. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.exactamerica. 1034 N.

com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.com Groupwise c/o Novell. ON. Suite 2300 New York.net Global School Net 132 N.genesys.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.gordano. El Camino Real.hotcomm. Inc. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.net GroupSupport.net Groove Networks. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.globalschoolnet. Clevedon. 395 Encinitas.groove. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.hp.com GoToMeeting.gotomeeting. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. Inc. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.com Glance Networks. Suite 500 Markham.horizonwimba.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.4517 http://www.glance.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.groupsupport. Ste.V.novell. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.grapevinesoftware. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com/products/groupwis e hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.com Do Not Reproduce 297 . PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.com B.com c/o Citrix Systems.

Inc.interwise.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.linktivity. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. 25 First Street.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. #115 Rockville.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com Interwise.inquesttechnologies.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.ivocalize. 11th floor New York.jdhtech. 44th St.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.iceweb. Phoenix.ibm. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www03. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.interwoven.microsoft.hyperoffice. Suite 412 Cambridge. Suite #150 Herndon.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Sunnyvale.ilinc.intralinks.mspx Do Not Reproduce 298 . Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.

h tml Parlano 10 S.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.opentext.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. Fordham Blvd.mayeticvillage.netspoke.com Near-Time. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Harbor. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. 1289 N.com Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.org/tools.onproject.oracle.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. Inc.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. Riverside Plaza.liveoffice.peoplecube.mitre.performancesolutionstech. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations LiveOffice. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com onProject.meetingone. Suite 300 Torrance.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. 3 Wing Drive.com Do Not Reproduce 299 .parlano. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles..opmcreator. Inc. Suite 1401 Denver.near-time.com/collabsuite/index. Suite 1450 Chicago.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.

radvision.photoninfotech.ht ml Do Not Reproduce 300 .TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.cyber-grad. New No. Cactus Rd.com Selden Integrated Systems.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. Suite 210 Maynard.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Inc. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. 51. 3679 Concord Road.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.stalker.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Inc. Suite 200 Greeley.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.com Raindance Communications.com SpiderWeb Communications. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.projectdox. Ste 275 Mill Valley. Suite 440 San Jose.Adyar Chennai. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.raindance. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.com/content/default. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. Suite B.project-open. Inc. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Photon Infotech Inc.O. 1175 58th Avenue. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com RADVISION Inc. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.seldensystems. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.sharemethods.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. 35. P.q2learning. Ca 94941 USA Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.nagarro. 17-17 State Highway 208. Box 3325 York.microsoft.sitescape.

sumtotalsystems. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Kierland Blvd.webofficepoint. Suite 100 Scottsdale. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.viack.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.vodium.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.com/groupware/in dex.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. Suite 810 Toronto. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.wave3software.tacit. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.O. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.usabilityfirst.teamware. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Suite 950 Washington..Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Teamware P.vignette.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.teamspace.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.txl Viack 14811 N.tomoye.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.trichys. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.teamdynamix. Canada http://www. Suite 100 Austin.com Do Not Reproduce 301 .com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.

gov.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite 115 Pleasanton.author-it. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.net WebEx Communications.webtrain. Robarts Library.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.qld.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Web Crossing. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.com Communications Tools The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033..backpackit. USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.webcrossing.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks. CA 94588.com Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Inc.Box 2900 Alameda.atutor.webasyst. Ontario.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752.santacruznetworks. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. 5200 Franklin Dr. Suite 1050 Vancouver. 130 St. M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.com Competency Tracking ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J. Inc. Inc.axista.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 302 . Toronto.cpgvision. Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. George St.P.com Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell. First Floor University of Toronto.zoho. City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education. P.webex. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.O.

org SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. QC.kdnuggets.hrsg.convera.syberworks. Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario. TX.com Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Suite 201 Peterborough. Sheffield Technology Parks.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.html Do Not Reproduce 303 .co.au/dss/grassgro/inde x.une. Canada H4R 2G7 Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.desire2learn.facilitate. 4000 Steinberg Street St.com Decision Support Software BNH Expert Software Inc..bnhexpertsoft. Prof.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Desire2Learn Inc. Suite C215 Houston.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401. S1 2NS UK http://www. Arundel Street. Sheffield.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Cooper Buildings.e-learningcentre.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.oracle. Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St.uk HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa. Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.learnflex. Laurent.com Data Mining Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.edu.

98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose. West Conshohocken. CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road. Suite 100 Indianapolis. ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www. Second Floor La Grange.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth. Telford. Inc.io2technology. Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki. CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www. San Francisco.ntera. IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd.meetingworks.foliotek.nuventive.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow. Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.siliconlight. MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park. Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www. Catherines.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S.provisionentertainment..pebblepad.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting.com ePortfolio Tools ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way. PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www. La Grange Road.com Do Not Reproduce 304 . WA.uk/ Display Technologies FogScreen Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia. PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.co.chalkandwire. TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.com/ LiveText 1 S.angellearning. CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www. Suite 606.

com Do Not Reproduce 305 . Sunderland Tyne and Wear.com/solutions/game s/default. One Park West Tewksbury. Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300 Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.microsoft. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.C. St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin.com Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Machine Perception Laboratory University of California. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.avs.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc.adobe. DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gaming Design and Development Tools Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.edu Graphics Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Puebla Lucia local 7. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.. SR6 0AN UK http://www.clickteam.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave. 0445 La Jolla.programmersheaven.freescale. Dept. San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive. Inc Avid Technology Park. NW Washington.magnetargames.softimage.ucsd.thinkingworlds. CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.seriousgames. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham. 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology.com Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.

CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.ch MPB Technologies Inc.smartdraw.itedo. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.tech-illustrator. Suite 300 Burlingame.immersion. Unit 9 Waterloo. Inc.broderbund.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep. Suite 1900 San Francisco.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.autodesk. Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.microsoft. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael. Suite 300 San Diego.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Autodesk. CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.corel.com Haptics Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne. Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www. Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.ibm.ca Do Not Reproduce 306 . CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www. Washington Street Denver. California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.handshakeinteractive. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.miralab.blender3d.mpb-technologies. CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.com SmartDraw.forcedimension. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Inc.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd. 100 Pine Street.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose..com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North.unige.

smarttech.allencomm.sensegraphics.C. NW Suite 700. WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave. SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www. Washington.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Inc. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW. 15 Constitution Way Woburn. Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi. Suite 300 Calgary. 12th Floor Oakland.fujitsu. AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www..se SensAble Technologies.com Interface Devices Anoto Inc. 2-56126 Pisa.com E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria. MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.com Logitech Inc.eink.logitech.sensable.cfm SMART Technologies Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 307 . D. Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver.ccii. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www. Ste. MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista.com Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.edfacilities. 7677 Oakport Street. CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont.wacom.unipi. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.piaggio.anotogroup. 200 South. CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.

com/redbooks. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny.geolearning. Suite #620 Santa Monica.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC. J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www. 4600 Westown Parkway.. 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland.netdimensions. Winter Park. Inc. East Dundee. OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 308 . Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM. Inc.n sf/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Inc.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning.strategia.intellinex. 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.redbooks.ibm.elementk. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd.cornerstoneondemand.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F. Suite 200 Cincinnati. IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www. Colfax Avenue Building 200. Suite 225 Golden.ips-inc.com DOTS . Suite 301 West Des Moines. 6947 University Blvd.webraven. Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.trivantis.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Cornerstone OnDemand. 111 Water St. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www. CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.com iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems.Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www. Inc. Quebec. Suite 660 Longueuil. FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www. Huntington Building.html?Ope n InfoSource.howtomaster.gen21.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street.

MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.compendiumcorp.intralearn. Suite 260 Foxborough.wizdom. Suite 201 Peterborough. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc.isnewmedia.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St. Inc.learnsomething. 1 West Front Street Red Bank.learn.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis.websoft. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.maxit.com LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www. FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www. Chantilly.learnflex.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com Do Not Reproduce 309 . Inc.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www. East . MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee.com mGen Enterprise mGen.mgen. Inc. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.knowledgeplanet.meridianksi. 550 Queen St.

html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. St. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Suite 700 Arlington.oracle. West.Companies and Organizations Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.ssaglobal. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.sumtotalsystems. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.sselearn. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.syntrio. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com TEDS Inc.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. LTD 671 N.teralearn. Louis. Suite 2200 Chicago.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.saba.outstart.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com/products/saba/learn ing/index.com Do Not Reproduce 310 .technomedia.ca Total LMS c/o SumTotal. 500 West Madison.sap.teds.plateau. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Glebe Road. Suite 1280 San Francisco.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.oracle. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Fifth Floor Montreal.com.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.

xstreamsoftware. 2280 St. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.vbtrain. Box 9752 Boulder. 4 Expressway Plaza. 122 West Way.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.avilar.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.fldata. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 311 .Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.ttg-inc. Suite # 105 Columbia. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.wbtsystems. Inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.Companies and Organizations Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.edutools.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.risc-inc.. Ontario.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.com Tracker.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. NY.O. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.info/index.vuepoint. 17041 El Camino Real. Laurent Blvd. 240 Bay Street.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.gyrus. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. Victoria. Suite 101 Houston.xtention. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. Inc.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.trainingpartner.

goenc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.uwm.cdlib.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. 4th Floor Oakland.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.netera. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.com Do Not Reproduce 312 .arizona.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.sir. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.ca ENC Learning Inc. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.

TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.cadcorp.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. ETRAC. Sterling Court.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. 5151 East Broadway.4464 Markham Street Victoria. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.maricopa.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. CT 06459 USA http://www. Box 3000 Boulder. Hertfordshire.O. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. Norton Road.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.unsw.org Do Not Reproduce 313 .dist.merlot.edu/DesktopDefault. AZ. Stevenage. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. Houston. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.clarklabs.aspx?t abindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Fondren Library. Box 1892. Rice University.llearn. P. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.lrc3.thegateway. Suite 3100 San Francisco.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. Suite 1600 Tucson.rice.mcli. MS 44. AZ 85250 USA http://www.htm LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.edu.org/eng/scientifiques.O.lolaexchange.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.plos.lornet. SG1 2JY.

Inc. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.smm.5372. Box 240000 Huntsville. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. P.cetis.org Metadata.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.ac. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.edu PanGo Networks.com Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.esri. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. Dept.cf m ESRI Suite 300. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .edu.fi/english/page. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.berkeley.cancore.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.pangonetworks.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.O. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.asp?path= 500.eoscenter. of Geography. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.intergraph. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org Do Not Reproduce 314 . Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.mapinfo. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. 959 Concord Street.geocomm.com/gis4mt/index.O. Suite 100 Framingham.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.

TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.uk/handler/default .itc.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. 19104-2653.bham.aaai.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.org/aitopics/html/natlang . Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. PA. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Italy http://tcc.mobilearn.com Do Not Reproduce 315 . Suite 100 Menlo Park.eee.upenn. Electrical and Computer Engineering. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.ldc.it Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.com Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Austria http://www.ac. Inc.knowledgepulse.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.org Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.stockholmchallenge.lexxe. Suite 501 Portland.advancedreality.html ELSNET Trans 10.elsnet. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.org/ Spotlight Mobile. PMB #112 Lake Mary.imsglobal. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.

lockss.seti. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.net internet2. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.internet2. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.org 316 © 2006. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.sun. Brandon Hall Research .llearn.stockholmchallenge. Suite 300. Inc.Companies and Organizations Groove Networks. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.groove. NY.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. Whisman Road Mountain View.org/site/pp.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.cetis. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Deane Rd.overnet. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.ac. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. 10010 USA http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria.movedigital.asianart.asp?c=ktJ2J9 MMIsE&b=179086 Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Inc. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com MoveDigital. Inc.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .

saba. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.trainingregistry.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.virtualmuseum.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.ca ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.com Portals CyberU.teach-nology. 15-4-A Gatineau.Project Coordinator CSI .executrain.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.com Do Not Reproduce 317 .com ProQuest 789 E. Eisenhower Parkway P. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.17th Avenue SW Calgary.elena-project.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona.cyberu. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.rmv. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.microsoft.worldwidelearn. Suite 225 Santa Monica. 1st Floor A .proquest. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Inc. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.O. Alberta. 3333 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Slate Hill.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.elearningeuropa. New York 10973 USA http://www.elementk.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. Suite 600 Alpharetta.com Teachnology. Box 172 1039 .

.hp. Box 2827.org Macromedia. Suite B Orion. NE Calgary.scate. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.raptivity. Redmond. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.com Presentations. CA 94040. Michigan.com Do Not Reproduce 318 .mit.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Alberta. Inc. Ninth St.articulate. Minneapolis.com/halo/index. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.jsp Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.com 50 S.macromedia. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.elluminate.com/presentatio ns/index. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.333.saba.lsc. 3016 5th Ave. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.genesys.com ReadyGo Inc.presentations.html Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.readygo.apreso. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.com Raptivity P. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.6526 http://www. O.

aad. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.ed. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.cmu.eng.ams. SE-100 44 Stockholm. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Pasadena. 100 Norman.ac. Inc. Centre for Autonmous Systems.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. 130 W.atr. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.ife.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.org Evolution Robotics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.evolution. Henrik I Christensen.osaka-u.generalrobotics. Inc.com Do Not Reproduce 319 . (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Radstock Somerset.whmsi.org Euron c/o Prof.ri.euron.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.gov.nasa. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. D.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Union St.rec. Ste. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.active-robots. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.irc. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. SWEDEN. Chilcompton.botball. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Lindsey Bldg. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.

be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.excite.google.com excite. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com Google (including Froogle. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.about.gnod.com Gnod. Suite 60 Quebec. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Gada. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.net/ 320 © 2006.O.copernic.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.convera. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. Google.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.com Ask.alexa.findlaw. 42nd Floor New York.dogpile.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. Suite 500 Oakland.ask. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.6100 http://www. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Brandon Hall Research . QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.com Headquarters 555 12th Street. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.gigablast.Companies and Organizations Search Engines About. Inc.

com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 http://www.healthfinder. Ltd.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. Chicago.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.icerocket.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.com Info. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Healthfinder P.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. 17th Floor New York.acm.intute.lalisio.lexxe.info.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.kartoo.msn.metacrawler. Suite 1200 Bellevue.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.com LitLinker c/o ACM.krugle. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.mooter.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.ixquick.koders.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.1057022 LookSmart. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.com/ Do Not Reproduce 321 .ac.cfm?doid=1 056808.org/citation. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. Box 1133 Washington.net Koders Inc. DC 20013-1133 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE.looksmart.O. Inc. 625 Second Street San Francisco.

com Technorati 665 3rd Street. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.nyu.com SearchKing. Inc.. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com/v2/index. 6th Flr.edu/ PubSub Concepts.technorati.82152 Martinsried http://www. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. New York.seekport. Suite 207 San Francisco. Suite 211 Palo Alto . INDIA. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.htm Do Not Reproduce 322 .ee. 2400 N.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.ibm.. Mumbai 10.W. Inc. Nesbit Rd.pubsub. 64 Fulton Street.com Pandora Media. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.searchking. 23rd Floor San Francisco.netscape.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.W. Mazgaon.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Netscape AOL LLC. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.columbia. Seventh Floor New York. Mary Apts.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. NY 10003.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . Inc.qelix. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Mudd 500 West 120th Street New York.biz Truveo. Inc. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. 360 22nd Street.truveo. 7th floor.rawsugar. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.almaden.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.convera.cs.pandora. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. 23rd Oklahoma City.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway.

Box 1558 New Canaan.alphaworks.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Ontario.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. EC4M 7NG London.com Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.macromedia. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. 1st Floor A . Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.macromedia. Inc.experiencebuilders. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.tkk.ibm.yahoo.zoominfo.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.com Flash c/o Macromedia. 10 Old Bailey. Inc.assima. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.elena-project.O.fi Do Not Reproduce 323 .personal-reader. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. Yahoo http://www.atghome. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.seco.com Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com Zoom Information Inc.biographix.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Yahoo! Inc.com Assima Ltd. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI . 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.com/tech/sema nticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .

stt-global. B15 2TT. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.cs.noaa. Suite 360 San Mateo. Laurent Blvd. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Inc.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Newburyport.. 2280 St. Suite 300 Wichita.knowledgequest.knowledgepresenter.nexlearn.learning2005. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.. LLC 100 South Main Street.com MASIE Center.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. CA .gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.bham. Ontario. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. GreenPark Reading.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.com NexLearn.muzzylane. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. Inc.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.forio.knowledgeplanet. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.stottlerhenke. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. England http://www.fsl.com/products Do Not Reproduce 324 .html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.knowledge-director.xstreamsoftware.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.intermezzon.ac.

Light & Acoustics.eduperformance. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.icio. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. 55 South Market St. Suite 400.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Québec.stt-global.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Inc.teds. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Morton Street. CA 94089 USA http://del. Suite 1550 San Jose.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Inc. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Suite 125 San Diego. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Schaumburg.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.shtml?prim=lab_ov erview Social Bookmarking del.com/English/t6 essai.us Eventful c/o EVDB.edu/index.icio.com Softsim Outstart Studio.com Stagecast Software. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Thorofare. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Suite 240 Atlanta. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 1821 Walden Office Square. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.virtualcontrolroom. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Suite A-207 Brossard.checkpointsystems.iu.com Do Not Reproduce 325 .maxit.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.outstart.qarbon. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. 101 Wolf Drive. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Taschereau Ouest.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. Suite 224 Bloomington. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www..stagecast.assima.net Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.

Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.shadows.classmates. Suite 900 Austin. WA 98055 USA http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots..eu Rojo Networks.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.spurl.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Suite 500 Renton.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.analytictech.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.tagzania.com Friendster. Menlo Park. Inc. SW. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. CA. Inc.netscape.com/ mag.friendster.networkltd. Inc. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. 795 Folsom St.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. 625 Second Street San Francisco.rojo.com Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.furl.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. 2001 Lind Ave.Companies and Organizations FURL c/o LookSmart.. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.zvents.com Classmates Online.gnolia. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com Spurl ehf. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.O.com 326 © 2006. First Floor San Francisco. CA 94105 USA http://www.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Box 920089 Needham. Ltd. Brandon Hall Research .

Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.org Fakespace 11 E.dfilm.com Brightcove. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Box 1641 Denver. Box 1641 Denver. 4th Floor Marshalltown.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.com/halo/index.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.advanced.org Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.bittorrent.spartasocialnetworks.jabber.brightcove.fakespace.sociosite.percro.jabber. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto. Suite 900 San Francisco. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.html Do Not Reproduce 327 . CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com Jabber Software Foundation P.hp.apple. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.O. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.O. Cupertino.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 1011 CM Amsterdam.org Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. CA 90028 USA http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www. New York. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. Inc. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P.socialtext. Church Street. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .net Sparta Social Networks.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.com iTunes Apple Computer.

de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. 7220 Trade Street. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.com Intuition 9.navy. VA 23461-1924 https://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.org. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.spider. IC ISIM VRLAB.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.hpc. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.uk Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.veoh. Suite 206 Bloomington. Suite 115 San Diego. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.epfl. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.com/ Do Not Reproduce 328 . East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.ecu.com Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.accurender.percro.org Veoh Networks.xstreamengine. CA 92121 USA http://www.edu/vrel. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. Inc.htm Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.futurelab.ergonetz.informationinplace.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.intuition-eunetwork.activeworlds. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park 501 North Morton Street.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.coe.

Inc.feedtank. 350 South 400 West.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.intergraph. Box 240000 Huntsville. Suite 280 Downers Grove.V.ambientdevices. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.vista. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Inc. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.idashboards.com Do Not Reproduce 329 . 809 14th Street. Draper.xcelsius. Suite 100 Lindon.com ESRI Suite 300.corda.O. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. Columbus. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Danvers. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.bham. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.cs. Suite 110 Troy. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.esri.formz.com Golden Software. 1333 Butterfield Rd.advizorsolutions. Troy. Inc.ac. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.umd.daz3d.. Williams Building College Park. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.golden.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Cambridge. Golden.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations ADVIZOR Solutions.com/ MapInfo One Global View.mapinfo. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.

73 Princeton Street.S.mccrackendesign.net Pixologic. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 2nd Floor Poolesville.nlm. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Riga. Inc. Unit # 1 Mississauga. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.topozone.softill. Inc. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Do Not Reproduce 330 . Box 884.org Visual Analytics Inc.visualthesaurus. U. CA 95378 USA Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. Suite 3A New York. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. CA 94712 USA http://www. Inc.com Unified Field. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. MA 01863 USA http://www. 155 Spring Street.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.nih.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.ontopia. 20010 Fisher Avenue.pixologic. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. Ontario L4V 1T8. 9th floor New York.musanim. 3 East 28th St.microsoft.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.com Spotfire.unifiedfield. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Tracy.visualanalytics.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Inc.vicodi.okino.O.spotfire.

A-1220 Vienna. Suite 100 Campbell.vrvis. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.skype. FL 34108 USA http://www.sportbrain.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. California. Ltd. Donau-City-Strasse 1. ETZ H Electronics Lab. Suite 2260 Portland.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Inc.attensa. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Valdeku 100. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.ch Do Not Reproduce 331 .inxight. Inc.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.jajah.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. 869 97th Ave N. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. 2513 Charleston Road.ethz.feedburner.com Web Feeds Attensa. Hanover.brightcove.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. Suite 102 Mountain View. Estonia http://www. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 11211.wearable. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.com Brightcove. Unit A2 Naples. 94043 USA http://www.com JAJAH Inc.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Inc.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.bloglines. CA 95008 USA http://www.feedforall. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Tallinn.feedreader.

California 94301 USA Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www. Building K Mountain View. San Francisco.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.org JotSpot.socialtext. Inc.mozilla.jot. Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. Inc. Suite 381 Vancouver.feedster. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. First Floor.rojo.715135858 http://www. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Switzerland http://www.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Coldbrook Business Corp.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.V.feedzilla.pluck. South #358 St. Suite 605 San Francisco.. Pacific Business Centre #101 . 167 Hamilton Ave. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.rssreader.microsoft. Broadway.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. Seventh Floor New York. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. 3rd Floor Cambridge. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Companies and Organizations Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com PubSub Concepts. 200 2nd Ave.1001 W. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Inc. Nederland Tel: +31. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. P.. 795 Folsom St. Brandon Hall Research .com 332 © 2006. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Suite 900 Austin.pubsub.com Feedster. 116 New Montgomery Street. 64 Fulton Street. Petersburg..com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.onfolio.com Rojo Networks.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.

Emerging e-Learning Technologies 333 © 2006. Brandon Hall Research .

217. 95. 78. 25. 107. 118. 70 barcodes. 257 Adaptive systems. 33. 5. 148. 93. 96. 275 Collaboration. 116. 61. 97. 45 Content management. 62. 60. 241. 268 Communications Tools. 242. 21. 100. 64. 18. 248 Authoring tools. 244. 174. 118. 54. 22. 275 Computer based assessment. 174. 230 Artificial Intelligence. 246. 77. 250 cognitive maps. 15. 20. 113. 230. 162. 45. 108. 165. 266. 37. 247. 84. 161 Cooperation. 9. 129. 111. 91. 87. 75. 154. 26. 61. 32. 246. 275 Affective computing. 56. 89. 209. 83. 205. 250 Dashboards. 61. 97. 91. 209. 67. 138. 55. 279. 89. 232. 29. 59. 28. 236. 184 Conversational learning. 60. 221. 29. 157. 105. 261 Animation. 230 Competency Tracking. 162. 4. 259. 202. 86. 51. 251. 156. 103 Complexity theory. 186. 187. 60. 111. 68. 268 Broadband. 114 cybercartography. 92. 139. 51. 255. 115. 34. 285. 155 Ambient computing. 83. 117 Assessment. 252. 230. 305 Advantages of e-learning. 95. 33. 29. 33. 104. 218. 80 Cognition. 200. 270 Boolean searches. 59. 25. 161. 56. 57. 250 collaboration. 17. 24. 117. 80 Clickers. 66 AJAX. 94. 40. 148. 35. 188. 225. 21. 143. 122. 25. 97. 78. 155. 48. 218. 114 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 284. 76. 67. 24. 259. 226. 161. 46. 201. 82. 111. 105. 61. 175. 156. 47. 18. 93. 253 Data mining. 125. 254. 66. 177. 230. 226. 199. 7. 47. 28. 87. 266. 289 Authorware. 55. 98. 120. 67. 142. 111 Blogs. 106. 85. 199 Brandon Hall Research. 123. 54. 88. 85. 3. 60 Avatars. 248. 87. 269. 63. 34. 26. 235. 235. 96. 47. 242. 31. 28. 251. 118. 69. 110. 32. 138. 231. 30. 250. 53. 98. 46. 61. 31. 33. 247. 16. 227. 79. 260. 91. 52. 241. 74. 121. 244. 39. 172. 226. 156. 161. 57. 154. 60. 224 Cell phones. 69. 215. 69. 108. 46. 31. 217. 138. educational. 185. 241. 179. 201. 218. 110 Adobe.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Index 3-D graphics. 250. 228. 14. 251. 63. 183. 18. 109. 266. 81. 184. 149. 151. 25. 184. 88. 90. 161. 13. 244. 76. 97. 48. 17. 35. 220 Audio. 299 Collaborative writing wiki. 274 Communities of practice. 77. 67. 82. 93. 83. 3. 269. 44. 65. 131. 27. 225. 26. 221 Bayesian probability. 19. 97. 62. 296. 173. Brandon Hall Research . 45. 188. 49. 78. 255. 202. 185. 37. 19. 163. 184. 217. 85. 177. 125. 217. 156. 26. 101. 162. 73. 84. 277 Agents. 140. 4. 174. 12. 176. 160. 3. 150. 94. 143. 106. 176 assessment. 72. 66. 86. 89. 25. 146. 159. 250. 246. 243. 250. 231. 51. 224. 266 Augmented reality. 64. 82. 29. 255 Architectures. 245 Browsers. 120. 86. 101. 128. 96. 190. 120. 104. 64. 17. 142. 201. 105. 209 Air display. 43. 3. 28. 91. 102. 198. 32. 76. 258 cognitive collage. 168. 22. 164. 204. 268. 120. 209. 70. 36. 230. 2. 129. 242. 87. 87. 28. 264. 34. 92. 45. 247. 46. 64. 268. 194. 65. 221. 259. 199 334 © 2006. 216. 161. 246. 67. 177. 90. 88. 264 Classroom response systems.

152. 7. 17. 48. 267 formative assessment. 33. 192. 251. 88. 32. 155. 122. 247. 257 Grid computing. 111 Extreme learning. 242 Knowledge base wiki. 12.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Decision support systems. 129. 127. 92. 194. 32. 64. 217. 161. 199. 31. 273 Human-centered computing. 115. 276 Instant messaging. 204. 97. 87. 35. 82. 3. 15. 205. 250. 158. 76 Flash. 15. 215. 102. 236. 54. 275. 170. 170. 216. 205 History. 260 Dreamweaver. 237. 151. 104. 69. 138. 111. 12. 191. 159. 151. 114. 115. 131. 247. 305 Geocaching. 2. 231. 171. 275 Director. 86. 244. 77. 28 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 25. 208. 104. 34. 184. 19. 132. 83. 267. 86. 245. 221. 188. 193 Facial recognition. 171. 153. 113 Deep Web. 155. 45. 128. 120. 254. 275 Distributed systems. 12. 62. 21. 15. 4. 26. 199. 5. 156. 117 Experiential learning. 112. 243. 65 Google. 24. 5. 8. 138. 134 Haptics. 238. 259. 199. 61. 160 Do Not Reproduce 335 . 115. 241. 217. 228. 31. 170. 30. 145. 126. 87. 80. 7. 5. 152. 66. 5. 274. 128. 151 Geographic Information System (GIS). 134. 3. 92. 136. 18. 218. 28. 262 Hybrid systems. 39. 169. 120. 196. 30. 94. 5. 246. 215. 123. 118. 28. 60 Displays. 72. 80. 250 Graphics. 199 Informatics. 128. 242. 154. 273 Interoperability. 239. 268 Knowledge management. 46. 257. 278 Infrared tags. 250 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 314 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 18. 60 dynamic displays. 26. 110. 250 e-Commerce. 104. 273. 13. 84. 167. 33. 222. 210. 28. 44. 273 Informal learning. 220. 114. 186. 121. 179. 223. 54. 192. 209 Handwriting recognition. 201. 134 Healthcare applications. 258. 6. 114. 62. 189. 158. 244 Games. 252. 18. 114. 73. 257 FrontPage. 30. 117. 262 Digital Ink and Paper. 12. 158 iPod. 230. 174. 323 Folksonomies. 45 Frameworks. 30. 71. 65. 60. 119. 62. 78. 255. 205. 151 FireFox. 136. 6. 24. 287. 113. 134. 92. 255. 233. 139. 202. 122. 135. 73. 125. 215 Expert systems. 48. 251. 211. 238 Intelligent tutoring. 227. 29 e-Portfolios. 106. 250. 246. 254. 211 evaluation. 219. 250 Immersive environments. 306 Individualization. 63. 198. 92. 83. 159. 45. 177. 236 e-Science. 160. 253. 112. 156. 243. 125. 203. 17. 34. 9. 152. 77. 55. 139. 135. 133. 104. 32. 76. 134 Head mounted displays. 10. 31. 28. 129. 12. 62. 96. 155. 207. 242. 3. 153. 99. 91. 222 Innovation in e-Learning. 59 Fuzzy Logic. 252. 250. 24. 261. 21. 200 Design. 224. 320 graphics. 161. 203. 39. 25. 125. 193. 132. 108. 118. 148. 43. 1. 61. 217 Federated searches. 250. 98. 185. 170. 157 Hype in e-learning. 70. 241. 40. 120. 109. 97. 9. 206 Findability. 78. 37. 91. 82. 70. 56. 254 Gesture recogntion. 151. 119. 276 images. e-learning. 174. 128. 4. 68. 84. 176 Interface devices. 168. 3. 29. 31 Emotional design. 10. 246. 98. 224. 248. 65. 228. 194. 43. 139. 121. 34. 155. 33. 145. 135. 114. 215. 251. 246. 250. 90. 59. 132. 256. 134. 10. 222. 115. 135. 134. 167. 111. 145. 126 GIF graphic format. 76. 23. 93. 72. 192. 19. 27. 192.

271. 197 Legacy materials. 61. 318 Do Not Reproduce 336 . 22. 31. 104. 101. 270 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 190. 227. 139. 190. 82. 192 Networks. 261 Macromedia. 114. 60. 63. 12. 121. 260. 139. 85. 162. 294. 17. 151. 144. 254. 158. 79. 219. 119. 215. 101. 147. 5. 170. 241. 171. 174. 88. 142. 273. 161. 24. 146. 83. 160. 181. 138. 148. 201. 176 Personalization. 89. 210. 118. 145. 151. 99. 59. 32. 59. 91. 135. 317. 274. 82. 184. 268 latent semantic analysis. 8. 111. 3. 27. 5. 250 Pedagogy. 222. 144. 193 Microsoft. 234. 182. 233. 154. 4. 84. 209. 64. 308. 151. 275 Live Presentations and Webinars. 73. 289. 228 Optical tags. 60. 65. 192. 54. 33. 221. 156. 111. 185. 3. 93 Radio. 134 Proximity tools. 318 Location based tools. 109. 3. 47 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 227. 59. 198. 115. 230. 72. 139. 162. 209 Microlearning. 10. 158. 3. 175. 179. 147. 179. 32 Metadata. 158. 145. 193. 174. 171. 73. 58. 32. 161. 61. 171. 261. 97. 175. 318 Privacy. 184. 27. 163. 162. 194. 43. 262. 54. 195. 177. 40. 209. 19. 209. 218 M-learning. 87. 55. 146. 219. 267. 86. 60. 64. 176. 244. 152. 177. 76. 138. 110. 246. 186. 155. 12. 45. 166. 131. 178. 6. 104. 187. 250 Mashups. 146. 80. 92. 158. 107. 202. 300. 193 Projectors. 47. 245. 161 Podcasting. 120. 188. 143.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Lab book wiki. 171. 45. 179. 104. 100. 241. 205. 192 Lecturing. 7. 254. 42. 244. 147. 192 Libraries. 165. 260. 221. 32. 65. 63. 221 Project management. 28. 145 learning object repository. 172. 65. 209 pattern recognition. 33. 78. 217. 85. 164. 174. 7. 18. 55. 86. 230. 105. 227. 5. 151 Quizzes. 120. 100. 173. 89. 230. 38. 273. 115. 163. 197. 13. 28. 169 Learning Content Management Systems. 30. 269 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 172. 145. 103. 234. 91. 54. 224. 330. 157 Medical applications. 148. 235. 66. 79. 159. 273. 62. 159. 222. 177. 24 Museums. 84. 78. 135. 164. 241. 284 Portals. 129. 311 Learning Management Systems. 287. 311. 165 Mobile computing. 57. 154. 151. 64. 171. 254. 31. 32. 6. 6. 231. 250. 243. 264 Personal learning environments (PLE). 44. 204. 82. 221. 102. 183. 108. 112. 20. 188. 159. 224. 63. 47. 5. 290. 104. 125 Ontologies. 189. 155. 244. 178. 182. 223 Rapid e-learning. 62. 6. 270. 175. 298. 2. 211. 192. 191. 145. 185. 305. 210 Pervasive computing. 170. 201. 159. 117. 158. 45. 95. 187. 200. 178. 123. 259. 52. 56. 179. 186. 151. 162. 160. 161. 177. 105. 315 Motion Graphics. 142. 145 Learning Objects. 189. 199. 314 Meta-search engines. 318. 174. 52. 242. 136. 323 mapping. 83. 309. 206 Microformats. 164. 62. 187. 55. 141. 106. 195. 66. 64. 189. 61. 128. 152. 222. 156. 189. 161. 177. 55. 232. 85. 90. 187. 5. 161. 20. 306. 237. 138. 203. 163. 36. 280. 177. 184. 17. 221. 268 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 312 learning object model. 218 Metacognition. 332 Microworlds. 105. 223. 25. 193. 190. 5. 151. 7. 90. 141. 274. 321. 221 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 31. 59 Presentation tools. 152. 183 Navigation. 224. 59. 166. 238. 140. 196. 72. 159. 210 PowerPoint. 247. 186. 230. 255 Neural networks. 65. 66. 221. 47.

264. 159. 174. 259. 134. 331 Web conferencing. 231. 274 Tests. 215. 225. 85. 242. 9. 215. 224 Team management. 49. 138. 261. 149. 232 Speech recognition. 51. 197. 2. 261 Usability. 8. 121. 205. 169 Streaming video. 16. 113. 81. 242. 158. 18. 180. 48. 199. 240. 174 Virtual reality. 238. 66. 3. 218. 252. 57. 164. 224. 231. 241 Search engines. 52. 238. 226. 28 Ubiquitous computing. 76. 254. 261 Shockwave. 255. 62. 143. 171. 174. 203. 219. 72. 275. 225. 251. 202. 114. 147. 237. 152. 119. 45. 217. 43. 227. 76. 222. 219. 216. 159. 120. 128. 10. 266. 155. 117. 158. 145 Screencasting. 146. 60. 6. 273. 319 Role-playing. 109. 73. 201. 208. 125. 187 Virtual classrooms. 47. 158. 252. 268. 254 Taxonomies. 52. 120. 220. 260. 152. 146. 148. 167. 9. 221. 15. 232.Emerging e-Learning Technologies rapid learning. 241. 158. 201. 223. 226. 211. 62. 46. 45. 145 Robotics. 214. 227. 209. 260 Telepresence. 112. 145. 97. 255 Turing Test. 192 Thin clients. 217. 202. 5. 139. 167. 263. 268 Skypecasting. 10. 69. 204. 76. 5. 60. 331 Wearable computing. 2. 241. 246 Visualization. 60. 151. 209. 213. 250. 226. 244. 247 Video. 179. 123 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 224. 45 Semantic Web. 145 Repositories. 24. 218 Scenarios. 224. 123. 51. 273. 75. 281 SCORM. 241. 169. 256. 98. 134. 206. 45 Symbology tags. 27. 65. 69. 228. 139. 47. 190 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 227. 45. 194. 242. 156. 241. 66. 251 Serious games. 100. 122. 221 Social bookmarking. 55. 176. 12. 210. 226. 45. 19. 32. 46. 104. 243. 195 Virtual learning environments. 206. 187. 33. 200. 241 Television. 5. 12. 241 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 167. 142. 193. 244 Tours (online). 150. 12. 246. 145 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 196. 160. 199. 6. 76 T-Learning. 222. 187. 33. 5. 198. 86. 264 Social networking. 196. 155. 145. 67. 212. 187. 97. 59. 228. 63. 26. 106. 31. 221 self-evaluation. 242 Security. 147. 188. 196. 159. 191 Do Not Reproduce 337 . 81. 244 summative assessment. 241 virtual classroom. 4. 236. 62. 226. 115. 138. 190. 158. 209. 215. 33. 170. 88. 275 Vlogs. 226. 134. 84 Telephony. 46. 7. 268 Tags. 98. 97. 230. 155 Tagging. 4. 156. 156 sharable content objects. 183. 221. 3. 154. 151. 187 Smart labels and tags. 233. 265. 201. 218 Science. 63. 244. 50. 157 Simulations. 262. 165. 259. 120. 161. 230. 245. 275 Translation. 267. 216. 327 Videocasting. 212 reusable learning objects. 119. 25 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 65. 7. 239. 117 Reusability. 127. 221. 38. 33. 222 Tag clouds. 214 résumés. 225. 216. 61. 171. 151. 63. 97. 119. 235 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 137. 145. 253. 5. 224. 203. 187. 302. 228. 148. 243. 10. 189. 247. 244 Tangible computing. 143. 62. 255 Single-user wiki. 241 Vodcasting. 202. 268 Social networking analysis (SNA). 332 Webcasting. 160. 190.

233. 332 Woodill. 59. 116. 271. 276 Word. 187 Whiteboards. 184.Emerging e-Learning Technologies Webinars. 97. 232. 267. 266. 86. 10. 270. 90. 5. 268. 135. 233. 1. 137. 6. 214 Do Not Reproduce 338 . 134. 82. 256. 77. 270 Wikis. 114. 156. 104. 268. 269. Gary. 87. 209. 157. 272. 307 Wikipedia. 3. 103. 106. 84. 174. 59 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 53. 68. 269. 168. 136. 115. 80.

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