You are on page 1of 15


Presentationfromthe2009WorldWaterWeekinStockholm TheAuthor(s),allrightsreserved

2009 Stockholm World Water Week


A Snapshot of the Principal Issues

Asia is home to 61% of the worlds population, where about 1.8 billion people do not have access to basic/improved sanitation.

Source: World Bank. Global Data Monitoring Information System

More work needs to be done in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Fiji, Kiribati, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste.

Source: World Bank. Global Data Monitoring Information System

Good progress in meeting quantitative targets but continuing concerns over the quality of the services.

Rehabilitation of sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities is needed in Central & West Asia.

Lack of wastewater treatment facilities in most Asian citiesit is estimated that 90% of Asias wastewater is discharged untreated.

Sector Financing: Abysmally low levels of investment

India: Spending for water supply and sanitation:
<1% of GDP in 2004

Indonesia: Capital expenditures for sanitation:

<1% of public works for urban infrastructure

Sanitation investment is 3% of annual investment in water and sanitation = 0.05% of GDP

Spending for water supply and sanitation: In 2001/02: 0.11% of GDP; in 2005/06: 0.13%; in 2006/07: 0.19%.

It is estimated that the annual costs of meeting the 2015 sanitation target are about $7 billion for sanitation facilities, and $53 billion for wastewater treatment.
UN ESCAP (2004)

Uzbekistan: Domestic and toxic waste treatment:

0.27% of total expenditures for nature protection

The Costs of Inaction Water Quality of Rivers and Coasts

High coliform levels in Indian rivers

High BOD and low DO in selected rivers draining into Manila Bay

Economic Impacts
Total Impact (US$, million) Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Philippines Viet Nam 448 6,344 193 1,412 780 16.8 9.3 Per Capita Impact (US$) 32.5 28.6 Impact as % of GDP 7.2 2.3 5.6 1.3 1.3

Benefits have to be given emphasis:

A $1 investment could yield a return of $3 - $34 Increases productivity and income levels Attracts more investments and tourists Improves living conditions, provides more amenities Results in cleaner environment Results in higher land values Lower cleanup costs

Country Priorities and Plans

Region/Country Central & West: Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan Central & West: Pakistan Priority Areas - Rehabilitation/Repair of sewerage networks and WWTP - Private sector participation - Tariff/User fee system - National Sanitation Action Plan - Provincial Strategies/Programs based on the National Action Plan - Information on technological options - Private sector participation - Low cost, decentralized wastewater treatment systems - Social marketing and community participation - Explore financing options - Information-education-communication (IEC) - Dialogues on technological options - Urban: sewage and solid waste treatment - Rural: sanitary latrines, eco-san toilets Capacity development Institutional and regulatory framework Information on technological options Access to affordable financing

South Asia: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka East Asia: PR China, Mongolia

Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, Viet Nam

Technology Choices
Conventional, Innovative, Low cost
India: Sulabh pour-flush toilets with twin pits; attached to biogas digesters in unsewered areas Eco-san toilets also produces safe fertilizer: Philippines, China (15 provinces) Decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) for urban poor communities: Indonesia (22 provinces; >100,000 beneficiaries) Condominium and Simplified Sewerage Systems: Bali (Indonesia), India Constructed wetlands: Ningbo (China), Bayawan City (Philippines) Waste to energy: Biogas digesters in India, rural China, Cambodia, Nepal, and Viet Nam.

Conventional WWTP: DaNang

Sulabh (India)



Financing Options
Affordable and innovative financing
Gram Vikas (India): Socialized community fund raising for toilets and bathing facilities Puerto Galera (Philippines): Environmental User Fee for sewage treatment system Kerala (India): Revolving fund for toilets and biogas plants

Public Private Partnerships

Marikina (Philippines): city provides land and private concessionaire is responsible for septage and sewage treatment

Other innovative mechanisms

Value added for Different Systems

In Bali, Indonesia: There is a final wastewater station known as the Eco-Lagoon.
Treated wastewater from 12 hotels in Nusa Dua used for watering the gardens and golf course. Mini-ecosystem and tourist attraction: mangroves, bird watching, recreational fishing

In Xiamen, PR China: The Shiweitou Sewage Treatment Plant supplies 24,000 cu.m/day of
treated wastewater for watering plants in more than 500 ha., earning RMB 2 million per year

Eco-lagoon, Nusa Dua

In Bangladesh: duckweed-based wastewater

treatment pond - net profit of almost US$ 2000/ha/y from operation and aquaculture using duckweed as feeds.

Financially Viable Sewerage Systems

Examples: Philippines: Manila Water Company, Inc. India: Municipality of Alandur sewerage project Egypt: Alexandria Water Company Malaysia: Indah Water Konsortium

Factors to ensure financial viability and social acceptability:

determine level of service needed select a suitable technology set appropriate wastewater tariffs to cover: costs, return on investment, future expansion establish regulatory framework

Experience has shown that returns on investments in water and sanitation/sewerage together are 3x higher than investments in either one sector alone. (UN-ESCAP 2009)

Sanitation coverage in most countries in Asia is increasing. Quality of coverage is still a major concern. There are successful sanitation programs and projects that can be replicated and scaled up. ADB ready to provide assistance for capacity development, innovative financing options, knowledge on available technological options Sanitation dialogues in countries on-going work ADB open to work with development partners