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Matrix Converters
14.1 PRINCIPLE OF THE MATRIX CONVERTER
An arbitrary number of input lines can be connected to an arbitrary number of
output lines directly using bidirectional semiconductor switches, as shown in
Fig. 14.1. The multiple conversion stages and energy storage components of
conventional inverter and cycloconverter circuits can be replaced by one switch
ing matrix. With ideal switches the matrix is subject to power invariancy so that
the instantaneous input power must always be equal to the instantaneous output
power. The number of input and output phases do not have to be equal so that
rectification, inversion, and frequency conversion are all realizable. The phase
angles between the voltages and currents at the input can be controlled to give
unity displacement factor for any loads.
In the ideal, generalized arrangement of Fig. 14.1 there do require to be
significant constraints on the switching patterns, even with ideal switches. Some
previous discussion of this given in Sec. 9.1. Both sides of the matrix cannot be
voltage sources simultaneously since this would involve the direct connection of
unequal voltages. If the input is a voltage source, then the output must be a current
source, and vice versa. It is a basic requirement that the switching functions must
not shortcircuit the voltage sources nor opencircuit the current sources.
When the input lines are connected to an electric power utility then the
source is imperfect and contains both resistance (power loss) and inductance
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 416
FIG. 1 General arrangement of an ideal switching matrix.
(energy storage). Many loads, especially electric motors, are essentially inductive
in nature and may also contain internal emfs or/and currents. The basic premises
of electric circuit theory apply also to matrix converters—it is not possible to
instantaneously change the current in an inductor nor the voltage drop across a
capacitor.
To achieve the operation of an ideal matrix converter, it is necessary to
use ideal bidirectional switches, having controllable bidirectional current flow
and also voltage blocking capability for both polarities of voltage. The detailed
attributes of an ideal switch are listed in Sec. 1.2.
14.2 MATRIX CONVERTER SWITCHES
There is no such thing as an ideal switch in engineering reality. Even the fastest
of semiconductor switches requires finite and different switching times for the
switchon and switchoff operations. All switching actions involve power dissipa
tion because the switches contain onstate resistance during continuous conduc
tion. Various options of singlephase bidirectional switches are given in Fig. 14.2.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 417
FIG. 2 Singlephase bidirectional switches: (a) two SCRs in inverseparallel, (b) triac
bidirectional switch, (c) two IGBTs in inverse parallel (probably nonviable due to limited
reverse blocking), and (d) IGBT diode switch.
A fast switching pair such as Fig. 14.2c can be employed if the devices have
reverse blocking capability, such as the MCT or the nonpunchthrough IGBT.
Afastacting switch that has been reportedly used in matrix converter exper
iments is given in Fig. 14.3 [34]. Two IGBTs are connected using a common
collector configuration. Since an IGBT does not have reverse blocking capability,
two fast recovery diodes are connected in antiseries, each in inverse parallel
across an IGBT, to sustain a voltage of either polarity when both IGBTs are
switched off. Independent control of the positive and negative currents can be
obtained that permits a safe commutation technique to be implemented.
The common collector configuration has the practical advantage that the
four switching devices, two diodes and two IGBTs, can be mounted, without
isolation, onto the same heat sink. Natural aircooled heat sinks are used in each
phase to dissipate the estimated losses without exceeding the maximum allowable
junction temperatures. In the reported investigation the devices used included
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 418
FIG. 3 Practical switch for matrix converter operation: (a) heat sink mounting and (b)
equivalent circuit.
JGBTInternational Rectifier (IRGBC 30 F, 600 V, 17 A)
Fast recovery diodeSSG. Thomson (STTA3006, 600 V, 18 A)
A separate gate drive circuit transmits the control signal to each IGBT. Electrical
isolation between the control and the power circuits can be achieved using a high
speed opto coupler to transmit the control signal and a highfrequency transformer
to deliver the power required by a driver integrated circuit.
14.3 MATRIX CONVERTER CIRCUIT
The basic circuit of a threephasetothreephase matrix converter, shown in Fig.
14.4, consists of threephase groups. Each of the nine switches can either block
or conduct the current in both directions thus allowing any of the output phases
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 419
FIG. 4 Basic circuit of a threephase matrix converter.
to be connected to any of the input phases. In a practical circuit the nine switches
seen in Fig. 14.4 could each be of the common configuration of Fig. 14.3 [34].
The input side of the converter is a voltage source, and the output is a current
source. Only one of the three switches connected to the same output phase can
be on at any instant of time.
In general, lowpass filters are needed at both the input and output terminals
to filter out the highfrequency ripple due to the PWM carrier. An overall block
diagram of an experimental matrix converter system is given in Fig. 14.5.
Nine PWM signals, generated within a programmable controller, are fed
to switch sequencer circuits via pairs of differential line driver receivers. In the
switch sequencers the PWM signals are logically combined with current direction
signals to produce 18 gating signals. Isolated gate driver circuits then convert
the gating signals to appropriate drive signals capable of turning the power
switches on or off. Each power circuit is protected by a voltage clamp circuit.
Azero crossing (ZC) detector is used to synchronize to the input voltage controller
signals. For threephase motor loads the output filter may not be necessary.
14.4 SWITCHING CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR
PWM MATRIX CONVERTERS IN THREE
PHASE MOTOR APPLICATIONS [34,35]
When a PWM matrix converter is used to control the speed of a threephase ac
motor the control system should possess the following properties:
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 420
FIG. 5 Basic building blocks of the matrix converter.
Provide independent control of the magnitude and frequency of the gener
ated output voltages (i.e., the motor terminal voltages).
Result in sinusoidal input currents with adjustable phase shift.
Achieve the maximum possible range of outputtoinput voltage ratio.
Satisfy the conflicting requirements of minimum loworder output voltage
harmonics and minimum switching losses.
Be computationally efficient.
Many different methods have been considered as the basis of analyzing and
designing a workable matrix converter. Because of the complexity of the neces
sary switching the associated control logic is also complex and involves large
and complicated algorithms. General requirements for generating PWM control
signals for a matrix converter online in real time are
Computation of the switch duty cycles within one switching period
Accurate timing of the control pulses according to some predetermined
pattern
Synchronization of the computational process with the input duty cycle
Versatile hardwave configuration of the PWMcontrol system, which allows
any control algorithm to be implemented by means of the software
Microprocessorbased implementation of a PWM algorithm involves the use of
digital signal processors (DSPs).
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 421
The two principal methods that have been reported for the control of a
matrix converter are discussed separately, in the following subsections.
14.4.1 Venturini Control Method [34]
A generalized highfrequency switching strategy for matrix converters was pro
posed by Venturini in 1980 [36,37]. The method was further modified to increase
the outputtoinput voltage transfer ratio from 0.5 to 0.866. In addition, it can
generate sinusoidal input currents at unity power factor irrespective of the load
power factor.
14.4.1.1 Principle
In the Venturini method a desired set of threephase output voltages may be
synthesized froma given set of threephase input sinusoidal voltages by sequential
piecewise sampling. The output voltage waveforms are therefore composed of
segments of the input voltage waves. The lengths of each segments are determined
mathematically to ensure that the average value of the actual output waveform
within each sampling period tracks the required output waveform. The sampling
rate is set much higher than both input and output frequencies, hence the resulting
synthesized waveform displays the same lowfrequency spectrum of the desired
waveform.
14.4.1.2 Switching Duty Cycles
The Venturini principle can be explained initially using a singlephase output. A
threephase output is generated by three independent circuits, and the analytical
expressions for all three waveforms have the same characteristics. Consider a
single output phase using a threephase input voltage as depicted in Fig. 14.6.
Switching elements S
1
–S
3
are bidirectional switches connecting the output phase
to one of the three input phases and are operated according to a switching pattern
shown in Fig. 14.6b. Only one of the three switches is turned on at any given
time, and this ensures that the input of a matrix converter, which is a voltage
source, is not shortcircuited while a continuous current is supplied to the load.
As shown in Fig. 14.6a within one sampling period, the output phase is
connected to three input phases in sequence; hence, the output voltage V
o1
is
composed of segments of three input phase voltages and may be mathematically
expressed as
V
t k
T
t k
T
t k
T
V
V
V
o
s s s
i
i
i
1
1 2 3
1
2
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
( ) ( ) ( )
(14.1)
Symbol k represents the number of sampling intervals, t
n
(k) for n ס1, 2, 3 are
the switching on times, t
1
(k) ם t
2
(k) ם t
3
(k) equals the sampling period T
s
and
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 422
FIG. 6 One output phase of a matrix converter: (a) equivalent circuit and (b) switching
pattern.
t
n
(k)/T
s
are duty cycles. For a known set of threephase input voltages, the wave
shape of V
o1
, within the kth sample, is determined by t
1
(k), t
2
(k), t
3
(k).
It should be noted that the switching control signals m
1
, m
2
, m
3
shown in
Fig. 14.6b can be mathematically represented as functions of time
m t u kT u kT t k
k
s s 1
0
1
( ) ( ) ( ) − +
[ ] { ¦
∞
∑
(14.2)
m t u kT t k u kT t k t k
k
s s 2
0
1 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) +
[ ]
− + +
[ ] { ¦
∞
∑
(14.3)
m t u kT t k t k u k T
k
s s 3
0
1 2
1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + +
[ ]
− +
[ ] { ¦
∞
∑
(14.4)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 423
where
u(t
0
) ϭ
{
1 t Ͼt
0
0 t Ͻt
0
is a unit step function and the switch is on when m
n
(t) ס 1 and off when m
n
(t)
ס 0.
For constructing a sinusoidal output wave shape, function m
n
(t) defines a
sequence of rectangular pulses whose widths are sinusoidally modulated. Conse
quently, its frequency spectrum consists of the required lowfrequency compo
nents and also unwanted harmonics of higher frequencies. Since the required
output voltage may be considered as the product of these functions and the sinusoi
dal threephase input voltages, the Fourier spectrum of the synthesized output
voltage contains the desired sinusoidal components plus harmonics of certain
frequencies differing from the required output frequency.
The input current I
i1
equals output current I
o1
when switch S
1
is on and
zero when S
1
is off. Thus the input current I
i1
consists of segments of output
current I
o1
. Likewise, the turnon and turnoff of switches S
2
and S
3
results in
the input currents I
i2
and I
i3
containing segments of output current I
o1
. The width
of each segment equals the turnon period of the switch. Corresponding to the
voltage equation (14.1), the three average input currents are given by
I
t k
T
I I
t k
T
I I
t k
T
I
i
s
o i
s
o i
s
o 1
1
1
2
1
3
1
2 3
( ) ( ) ( )
(14.5)
14.4.1.3 Modulation Functions
Applying the above procedure to a threephase matrix converter, the three output
phase voltages can be expressed in the following matrix form:
V t
V t
V t
m t m t m t
m t m t
o
o
o
1
2
3
11 12 13
21 22
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
]
]
]
]
]
)) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
m t
m t m t m t
V t
V t
V t
i
i
i
23
31 32 33
1
2
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.6)
or
[V
o
(t)] ס [M(t)][V
I
(t)]
and the input currents as
I t
I t
I t
m t m t m t
m t m t
i
i
i
1
2
3
11 12 13
21 22
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (
]
]
]
]
]
)) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
m t
m t m t m t
I t
I t
I t
o
o
o
23
31 32 33
1
2
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
,
(14.7)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 424
or
[I
I
(t)] ס [M
T
(t)] [I
0
(t)]
where M(t) is the modulation matrix. Its elements m
ij
(t), i,j ס1, 2, 3, represent the
duty cycle t
ij
/T
s
of a switch connecting output phase i to input phase j within one
switching cycle and are called modulation functions. The value of each modulation
function changes from one sample to the next, and their numerical range is
0 Յ m
ij
(t) Յ 1 i,j ס 1, 2, 3 (14.8)
Bearing in mind the restriction imposed on the control of matrix switches stated
above, functions m
ij
(t) for the same output phase obey the relation
j
ij
m i
∑
≤ ≤
1
3
1 1 3
(14.9)
The design aimis to define m
ij
(t) such that the resultant three output phase voltages
expressed in Eq. (14.6) match closely the desired threephase reference voltages.
14.4.1.4 ThreePhase Reference Voltages
The desired referencephase voltages should ensure that the maximum output
toinput voltage transfer ratio is obtained without adding loworder harmonics
into the resultant output voltages. To achieve this, the reference output voltage
waveform to be synthesized must, at any time, remain within an envelope formed
by the threephase input voltages, as shown in Fig. 14.7a. Thus when the input
frequency
i
is not related to the output frequency
o
, the maximum achievable
outputtoinput voltage ratio is restricted to 0.5, as illustrated in Fig. 14.7a.
The area within the input voltage envelope may be enlarged by subtracting
the commonmode, third harmonic of the input frequency from the input phase
toneutral voltages. For example, when a voltage of frequency 3
i
and amplitude
equal to V
im
/4 is subtracted from the input phase voltages, the ratio of output to
input voltage becomes 0.75 as shown in Fig. 14.7b. Note that this procedure is
equivalent to adding the third harmonics of the input frequency to the target
outputphase voltage. The introduction of the thirdorder harmonics of both the
input and output frequencies into the reference outputphase voltages will have
no effect on an isolatedneutral, threephase load normally used in practice, as
they will be canceled in the linetoline output voltages.
Further improvement on the output voltage capability can be made by sub
tracting the third harmonics of the output frequency from the target output phase
voltage. This is to decrease the peaktopeak value of the output phase voltage,
as illustrated in Fig. 14.7c. With the magnitude of the outputfrequency third
harmonics equivalent to V
om
/6, an outputtoinput voltage ratio of 0.866 can be
achieved. This figure is the theoretical output voltage limit for this type of con
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 425
FIG. 7 Third harmonic addition to increase the maximum achievable outputvoltage
magnitude of matrix converter: (a) output voltages, V
o
ס 0.5V
in
, (b) output voltages, V
o
ס 0.75V
in
, and (c) output voltages, V
o
ס 0.866V
in
.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 426
verter. The twostep, thirdharmonic modulation described above results in the
following output phase voltages expression [38,39]
V t
V t
V t
V
t
t
o
o
o
om
1
2
3
0
0
2
3
( )
( )
( )
cos
cos
cos
]
]
]
]
]
−

.
`
}
ω
ω
π
ω
00
0
0
0
4
3
6
3
3
3
t
V
t
t
om
−

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
π
ω
ω
ω
cos
cos
cos tt
V
t
t
t
im
i
i
i
]
]
]
]
]
+
]
]
]
]
]
4
3
3
3
cos
cos
cos
ω
ω
ω
(14.10)
where V
om
and
o
are the magnitude and frequency of the required fundamental
output voltage and V
im
and
i
, are the magnitude and frequency of the input
voltage, respectively. The three terms of Eq. (14.10) can be expressed as
V V V
o
A
o
B
o
C
[ ]
+
[ ]
+
[ ] (14.11)
14.4.1.5 Derivation of the Modulation Matrix
Having defined the threephase output reference voltage, determination of modu
lation function M[t] involves solving Eqs. (14.6) and (14.7) simultaneously. The
threephase input voltages with amplitude V
im
and frequency
i
and the three
phase output currents with amplitude I
om
and frequency
o
are given by
V t V
t
t
t
i im
i
i
i
( )
cos
cos
cos
[ ]
−

.
`
}
−

.
`
}
ω
ω
π
ω
π
2
3
4
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.12)
and
I t I
t
t
t
o om
o o
o o
o o
( )
cos( )
cos
cos
[ ]
−
− −

.
`
}
− −

.
`
ω φ
ω φ
π
ω φ
π
2
3
4
3
}}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.13)
Assume the desired output voltage of Eq. (14.10) to consist only of the first term,
[V
o
]
A
, then
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 427
V t
V t
V t
V
t
t
o
o
o
om
o
o
1
2
3
2
3
( )
( )
( )
cos
cos
cos
]
]
]
]
]
−

.
`
}
ω
ω
π
ω
oo
t −

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
4
3
π
(14.14)
By eliminating the other two terms of Eq. (14.10), the achievable ratio V
om
/V
im
becomes 0.5. Derivation of the modulation matrix for the output voltages defined
in Eq. (14.10) is given in Ref. 34. Using the threephase input voltages of Eq.
(14.12) to synthesize the desired output voltage of Eq. (14.14), the modulation
matrix derived must be in the form expressed as either
m t A
t t
t
A
o i o i
o i
( )
cos ( ) cos ( )
cos ( )
[ ]
+ + −
]
]
]
+ −
+
1
2
3
4
3
ω ω ω ω
π
ω ω
π
]
]
]
+ −
]
]
]
+ −
]
]
]
+ cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
o i o i o i
t t
2
3
4
3
))
cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( )
t
t t t
o i o i o i
ω ω
π
ω ω ω ω
π
+ −
]
]
]
+ + −
]
]
]
4
3
2
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.15)
or
m t A
t t t
A
o i o i o i
( )
cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( )
[ ]
− − −
]
]
]
− −
−
2
4
3
2
3
ω ω ω ω
π
ω ω
π
]
]
]
− −
]
]
]
− − −
]
cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( ) ω ω
π
ω ω ω ω
π
o i o i o i
t t t
2
3
4
3
]]
]
− −
]
]
]
− −
]
]
]
−
cos ( ) cos ( ) cos ( ) ω ω
π
ω ω
π
ω ω
o i o i o i
t t t
4
3
2
3
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.16)
where A
1
and A
2
are constants to be determined. Substituting either Eq. (14.15)
or Eq. (14.16) into Eq. (14.6) gives three output voltages which are sinusoidal
and have 120Њ phase shift between each other.
V m t V t AV
t
t
t
o
A A
i im
o
o
o
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
−

.
`
}
+ +
( ) ( )
cos
cos
cos
3
2
2
3
1
ω
ω
π
ω −−

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
4
3
π
(14.17)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 428
or
V m t V t A V
t
t
t
o
A A
i im
o
o
o
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
−

.
`
}
− −
( ) ( )
cos
cos
cos
3
2
2
3
2
ω
ω
π
ω −−

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
4
3
π
.
(14.18)
If both [m(t)]
Aם
and [m(t)]
Aמ
are used to produce the target output voltage, then
[V
o
]
A
ס [V
o
]
Aם
ם [V
o
]
Aמ
, yielding
A A
V
V
om
im
1 2
2
3
+
(14.19)
Applying the same procedure as above to synthesise the input currents, using Eq.
(14.7), yields
I m t I t A I
t
t
i
A A
T
o om
i o
i o
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
+
+ −

.
+ +
( ) ( )
cos ( )
cos
3
2
2
3
1
ω φ
ω φ
π ``
}
+ −

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
cos ω φ
π
i o
t
4
3 (14.20)
or
I m t I t A I
t
t
i
A A
T
o om
i o
i o
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
−
− −

.
− −
( ) ( )
cos ( )
cos
3
2
2
3
2
ω φ
ω φ
π ``
}
− −

.
`
}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
cos ω φ
π
i o
t
4
3 (14.21)
This means that modulation matrix [m(t)]
Aם
results in an input current having a
leading phase angle
o
, while [m(t)]
Aמ
produces an input current with a lagging
phase angle
o
.
Let the required sinusoidal input currents be defined as
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 429
I t I
t
t
t
i im
i i
i i
i i
( )
cos ( )
cos
cos
[ ]
−
− −

.
`
}
− −

.
`
ω φ
ω φ
π
ω φ
π
2
3
4
3
}}
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
(14.22)
where
i
is an input displacement angle.
Setting [I
i
(t)] ס[I
i
]
Aם
ם[I
i
]
Aמ
and substituting [I
i
]
Aם
and [I
i
]
Aמ
defined
by Eqs. (14.20) and (14.21), respectively, the input phase current equation is
given as
3
2 3 3
1 2
I A t A t
I t
om i o i o
im i
cos( ) cos( )
cos
ω γ
π
φ ω γ
π
φ
ω γ
− + + − −
]
]
]
−
ππ
φ γ
3
0 2 4 −

.
`
}
i
, ,
As cos(A ם B) ס cosA cosB מ sinA sinB, applying this to both sides of the
equation yields
( ) cos cos cos cos A A t
I
I
t
i o
im
om
i i 1 2
3
2
3 3
+ −

.
`
}
−

.
`
}
ω γ
π
φ ω γ
π
φ
(14.23a)
and
( )sin sin sin sin A A t
I
I
t
i o
im
om
i i 2 1
3
2
3 3
− −

.
`
}
−

.
`
}
ω γ
π
φ ω γ
π
φ
(14.23b)
Neglecting the converter power losses, the input power of the circuit equals the
output power of the circuit; hence,
V
im
I
im
cos
i
ס V
om
I
om
cos
o
(14.24)
This yields
I
I
V
V
im
om
om
im
o
i
cos
cos
φ
φ
(14.25)
Substituting I
im
/I
om
from Eq. (14.23) into Eq. (14.25) gives
( ) cos cos cos cos A A t
V
V
t
i o
om
im
i o 1 2
3
2
3 3
+ −

.
`
}
−

.
`
}
ω γ
π
φ ω γ
π
φ
( )sin sin
tan
tan
sin A A t
V
V
t
i o
om
im
i
o
i 2 1
3
2
3 3
− −

.
`
}
−

ω γ
π
φ
φ
φ
ω γ
π
..
`
}
sinφ
o
(14.26)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 430
Solving Eq. (14.26) simultaneously, coefficients A
1
and A
2
are found to be
A Q A Q
i
o
i
o
1 2
1
3
1
1
3
1 −

.
`
}
+

.
`
}
tan
tan
tan
tan
φ
φ
φ
φ (14.27)
where Q ס V
om
/V
im
is an outputtoinput voltage ratio, which also satisfies
Eq. (14.21). Note that the input displacement angle and hence the input power
factor of the matrix converter may be adjusted by varying these coefficients
appropriately.
The overall modulation matrix may be written as the sum of [m(t)]
Aם
and [m(t)]
Aמ
. As adding three elements on the same row of the modulation
matrix results in zero at any instant, the constant 1/3 must be added to each
element to satisfy the constraint specified in Eq. (14.9) giving
m t m t m t
A A
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
+
[ ]
+
[ ]
+ −
1
3
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1 (14.28)
Substituting each component in Eq. (14.28) with the results derived above,
the formulas for the overall modulation matrix are expressed by
m t ( )
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
Q
i
tan /tan −
3
1 φ φ
oo
o i o i
o i
t t
t
( )
+
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
cos ( ) cos ( ) /
cos ( ) /
cos (
ω ω ω ω π
ω ω π
ω
2 3
4 3
oo i o i
o i
o i
t t
t
t
+ −
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
+
[ ]
+ −
ω π ω ω π
ω ω
ω ω
) / cos ( ) /
cos ( )
cos ( )
2 3 4 3
4ππ ω ω
ω ω π
/ cos ( )
cos ( ) /
3
2 3
[ ]
+
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
o i
o i
t
t
+
Q
i
tan /tan +
3
1 φ φ
oo
o i o i
o i
t t
t
( )
−
[ ]
− −
[ ]
− −
[ ]
cos ( ) cos ( ) /
cos ( ) /
cos (
ω ω ω ω π
ω ω π
ω
4 3
2 3
oo i
o i
o i
o i
t
t
t
t
− −
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
−
[ ]
+ −
ω π
ω ω π
ω ω
ω ω
) /
cos ( ) /
cos ( )
cos ( )
2 3
4 3 4ππ
ω ω
ω ω π
/
cos ( )
cos ( ) /
3
4 3
[ ]
+
[ ]
+ −
[ ]
]
]
]
]
]
o i
o i
t
t
(14.29)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 431
Alternatively, a general and simplified formula for one of the nine elements in
matrix [m(t)] above may be written as [39]
m t Q t i j
Q
ij o i
( ) ( ) cos ( ) ( )
( ) c
+ − + − + −
[ ]
]
]
]
¹
´
¹
+ +
1
3
1 1 2 4
3
1
Θ
Θ
ω ω
π
oos ( ) ( ) ω ω
π
o i
t i j − − −
]
]
]
¹
`
¹
2
3 (14.30)
where i,j סl, 2, 3; Q סV
om
/V
im
; and ⌰ סtan
i
/ tan
o
is an inputtooutput
phase transfer ratio. As shown in Eq. (14.29), m
ij
(t) is a function of
i
,
o
, Q,
and ⌰. Assuming that V
i
and
i
are constants, Q is a variable of V
o
, while
o
,
the phase lag between the load current and voltage, is a nonzero value. Since
unity input power factor operation is always desired,
i
, is zero. This, in turn,
leads to ⌰ being zero. Subsequently Eq. (14.30) may be simplified as
m t Q t i j
t i
ij o i
o i
( ) cos ( ) ( )
cos ( ) (
+ + − + −
[ ]
¹
´
¹
¹
`
¹
+ − −
1
3
1 2 4
3
2
ω ω
π
ω ω −−
]
]
]

.
`
}
]
]
]
j)
π
3
(14.31)
For practical implementation, it is important to note that the calculated values of
m
ij
(t) are valid when they satisfy the conditions defined by Eqs. (14.8) and (14.9).
Also Eq. (14.30) gives positive results when V
o
/V
i
Յ ͙3/2
14.4.2 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Control
Method
The space vector modulation (SMV) technique adopts a different approach to the
Venturini method in that it constructs the desired sinusoidal output threephase
voltage by selecting the valid switching states of a threephase matrix converter
and calculating their corresponding ontime durations. The method was initially
presented by Huber [40,41].
14.4.2.1 Space Vector Representation of ThreePhase
Variables
For a balanced threephase sinusoidal system the instantaneous voltages maybe
expressed as
V t
V t
V t
V
t
t
t
AB
BC
CA
ol
o
o
o
( )
( )
( )
cos
cos( )
cos(
]
]
]
]
]
−
°
ω
ω
ω
120
−−
°
]
]
]
]
]
240 ) (14.32)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 432
This can be analyzed in terms of complex space vector
→
V V t V t e V t e V e
o AB BC
j
BC
j
ol
j t
o
+ +
]
]
2
3
2 3 4 3
( ) ( ) ( )
/ / π π ω
(14.33)
where e
j
ס cos ם j sin and represents a phaseshift operator and 2/3 is a
scaling factor equal to the ratio between the magnitude of the output linetoline
voltage and that of output voltage vector. The angular velocity of the vector is
o
and its magnitude is V
ol
.
Similarly, the space vector representation of the threephase input voltage
is given by
→
V Ve
i i
j t
i
( ) ω
(14.34)
where V
i
is the amplitude and
i
, is the constant input angular velocity.
If a balanced threephase load is connected to the output terminals of the
converter, the space vector forms of the threephase output and input currents
are given by
→
I I e
o o
j t
o o
− ( ) ω φ
(14.35)
→
I I e
i i
j t
i i
− ( ) ω φ
(14.36)
respectively, where
o
is the lagging phase angle of the output current to the
output voltage and
i
is that of the input current to the input voltage.
In the SVM method, the valid switching states of a matrix converter are
represented as voltage space vectors. Within a sufficiently small time interval a
set of these vectors are chosen to approximate a reference voltage vector with
the desired frequency and amplitude. At the next sample instant, when the refer
ence voltage vector rotates to a new angular position, a new set of stationary
voltage vectors are selected. Carrying this process onward by sequentially sam
pling the complete cycle of the desired voltage vector, the average output voltage
emulates closely the reference voltage. Meanwhile, the selected vectors should
also give the desired phase shift between the input voltage and current.
Implementation of the SVM method involves two main procedures: switch
ing vector selection and vector ontime calculation. These are both discussed in
the following subsections.
14.4.2.2 Definition and Classification of Matrix
Converter Switching Vectors
For a threephase matrix converter there are 27 valid onswitch combinations
giving thus 27 voltage vectors, as listed in Table 14.1. These can be divided into
three groups.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
M
a
t
r
i
x
C
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
s
4
3
3
TABLE 14.1 Valid Switch Combinations of a Matrix Converter and the Stationary Vectors (k ϭ2/Ί3)
Output voltages Input currents Voltage vector Current vector
On switches V
AB
V
BC
V
CA
I
a
I
b
I
c
Magnitude Phase Magnitude Phase
1 S
1
, S
5
, S
9
V
ab
V
bc
V
ca
I
A
I
B
I
C
V
il
i
t I
O
o
t
2 S
1
, S
6
, S
8
ϪV
ca
ϪV
bc
ϪV
ab
I
A
I
C
I
B
ϪV
il
Ϫ
i
tϩ4/3 I
O
Ϫ
o
t
3 S
2
, S
4
, S
9
ϪV
ab
ϪV
ca
ϪV
bc
I
B
I
A
I
C
ϪV
il
Ϫ
i
t I
O
Ϫ
o
t ϩ2/3
4 S
2
, S
6
, S
7
V
bc
V
ca
V
ab
I
C
I
A
I
B
V
il
i
t ϩ4/3 I
O
O
tϩ2/3
5 S
3
, S
4
, S
8
V
ca
V
ab
V
bc
I
B
I
C
I
A
V
il
i
t ϩ2/3 I
O
o
t ϩ4/3
6 S
3
, S
5
, S
7
ϪV
bc
ϪV
ab
ϪV
ca
I
C
I
B
I
A
ϪV
il
Ϫ
i
t ϩ2/3 I
O
Ϫ
o
t ϩ4/3
1P S
1
, S
5
, S
8
V
ab
0 ϪV
ab
I
A
ϪI
A
0 kV
ab
/6 kI
A
Ϫ/6
1N S
2
, S
4
, S
7
ϪV
ab
0 V
ab
ϪI
A
I
A
0 ϪkV
ab
/6 ϪkI
A
Ϫ/6
2P S
2
, S
6
, S
9
V
bc
0 ϪV
bc
0 I
A
ϪI
A
kV
bc
/6 kI
A
/2
2N S
3
, S
5
, S
8
ϪV
bc
0 V
bc
0 ϪI
A
I
A
ϪkV
bc
/6 ϪkI
A
/2
3P S
3
, S
4
, S
7
V
ca
0 ϪV
ca
ϪI
A
0 I
A
kV
ca
/6 kI
A
7/6
3N S
1
, S
6
, S
9
ϪV
ca
0 V
ca
I
A
0 ϪI
A
ϪkV
ca
/6 ϪkI
A
7/6
4P S
2
, S
4
, S
8
ϪV
ab
V
ab
0 I
B
ϪI
B
0 kV
ab
5/6 kI
B
Ϫ/6
4N S
2
, S
5
, S
7
V
ab
ϪV
ab
0 ϪI
B
I
B
0 ϪkV
ab
5/6 ϪkI
B
Ϫ/6
5P S
3
, S
5
, S
9
ϪV
bc
V
bc
0 0 I
B
ϪI
B
kV
bc
5/6 kI
B
/2
5N S
2
, S
6
, S
8
V
bc
ϪV
bc
0 0 ϪI
B
I
B
ϪkV
bc
5/6 ϪkI
B
/2
6P S
1
, S
6
, S
7
ϪV
ca
V
ca
0 ϪI
B
0 I
B
kV
ca
5/6 kI
B
7/6
6N S
3
, S
4
, S
9
V
ca
ϪV
ca
0 I
B
0 ϪI
B
ϪkV
ca
5/6 ϪkI
B
7/6
7P S
2
, S
5
, S
7
0 ϪV
ab
V
ab
I
C
ϪI
C
0 kV
ab
/2 kI
C
Ϫ/6
7N S
1
, S
4
, S
8
0 V
ab
ϪV
ab
ϪI
C
I
C
0 ϪkV
ab
/2 ϪkI
C
Ϫ/6
8P S
3
, S
6
, S
8
0 ϪV
bc
V
bc
0 I
C
ϪI
C
kV
bc
/2 kI
C
/2
8N S
2
, S
5
, S
9
0 V
bc
ϪV
bc
0 ϪI
C
I
C
ϪkV
bc
/2 ϪkI
C
/2
9P S
1
, S
4
, S
9
0 ϪV
ca
V
ca
ϪI
C
0 I
C
kV
ca
/2 kI
C
7/6
9N S
3
, S
6
, S
7
0 V
ca
ϪV
ca
I
C
0 ϪI
C
ϪkV
ca
/2 ϪkI
C
7/6
0A S
1
, S
4
, S
7
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0B S
2
, S
5
, S
8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0C S
3
, S
6
, S
9
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
C
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t
᭧
2
0
0
4
b
y
M
a
r
c
e
l
D
e
k
k
e
r
,
I
n
c
.
A
l
l
R
i
g
h
t
s
R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d
.
Chapter 14 434
1. Group I. Synchronously rotating vectors. This group consists of six
combinations (1 to 6) having each of the three output phases connected
to a different input phase. Each of them generates a threephase output
voltage having magnitude and frequency equivalent to those of the
input voltages (V
i
, and
i
,) but with a phase sequence altered from that
of the input voltages. As the input frequency is not related to the output
frequency, the SVM method does not use the above listed vectors to
synthesize the reference voltage vector that rotates at a frequency
o
.
2. Group II. Stationary vectors. The second group (1P to 9N) is classified
into three sets. Each of these has six switch combinations and has a
common feature of connecting two output phases to the same input
phase. The corresponding space vectors of these combinations all have
a constant phase angle, thus being named stationary vector. For exam
ple, in the first set of the group, output phases B and C are switched
simultaneously on to input phases b, a, and c. This results in six switch
combinations all giving a zero output linetoline voltage V
BC
. For the
second set, the shortcircuited output phases are C and A; hence, V
CA
is zero. In the final six, output phases A and B are connected together
and the zero linetoline voltage is V
AB
. The magnitudes of these vec
tors, however, vary with changes of the instantaneous input lineto
line voltages.
3. Group III. Zero vectors. The final three combinations in the table form
the last group. These have three output phases switched simultaneously
on to the same input phase resulting in zero linetoline voltages and
are called zero voltage vectors. When a threephase load is connected
to the converter output terminals, a threephase output current is drawn
fromthe power source. The input currents are equivalent to the instanta
neous output currents; thus, all input current vectors corresponding to
the 27 output voltage vectors are also listed in Table 14.1.
14.4.2.3 Voltage and Current Hexagons
A complete cycle of a threephase sinusoidal voltage waveform can be divided
into six sextants as shown in Fig. 14.8. At each transition point from one sextant
to another the magnitude of one phase voltage is zero while the other two have
the same amplitude but opposite polarity. The phase angles of these points are
fixed. Applying this rule to the 18 stationary voltage vectors in Table 14.1, their
phase angles are determined by the converter output linetoline voltages V
AB
V
BC
,
and V
CA
. The first six, all giving zero V
BC
, may locate either at the transition
point between sextants 1 and 2 (
o
t ס 30Њ) or that between sextants 4 and 5
(
o
t ס210Њ), depending upon the polarity of V
AB
and V
CA
. From the waveform
diagram given in Fig. 14.8 the three having positive V
AB
and negative V
CA
are
at the end of sextant 1; conversely, the other three are at the end of sextant 4.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 435
FIG. 8 Six sextants of the output linetoline voltage waveforms.
The magnitudes of V
AB
and V
CA
are determined by the switch positions of the
converter and can correspond to any of the input linetoline voltages, V
ab
V
bc
, or
V
ca
. Similarly, vectors in the second set generating zero V
CA
and nonzero V
AB
and V
BC
are at the end of either sextant 3 or 6. The three having positive V
BC
and negative V
AB
are for the former sextant, the other three are for the latter. The
final set is for sextants 2 and 5.
Projecting the stationary voltage and current vectors onto the ␣ plane, the
voltage hexagon obtained is shown in Fig l4.9a. It should be noted that this
voltage vector diagram can also be obtained by considering the magnitudes and
phases of the output voltage vectors associated with the switch combinations
given in Table 14.1. The same principle can be applied to the corresponding 18
input current vectors, leading to the current hexagon depicted in Fig. 14.9b. Both
the output voltage and input current vector diagrams are valid for a certain period
of time since the actual magnitudes of these vectors depend on the instantaneous
values of the input voltages and output currents.
14.4.2.4 Selection of Stationary Vectors
Having arranged the available switch combinations for matrix converter control,
the SVMmethod is designed to choose appropriately four out of 18 switch combi
nations from the second group at any time instant. The selection process follows
three distinct criteria, namely, that at the instant of sampling, the chosen switch
combinations must simultaneously result in
1. The stationary output voltage vectors being adjacent to the reference
voltage vector in order to enable the adequate output voltage synthesis
2. The input current vectors being adjacent to the reference current vector
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 436
FIG. 9 Outputvoltage and inputcurrent vector hexagons: (a) outputvoltage vectors and
(b) inputcurrent vectors.
in order that the phase angle between the input linetoline voltage and
phase current, and hence the input power factor, being the desired value
3. The stationary voltage vectors having the magnitudes corresponding
to the maximum available linetoline input voltages
To satisfy the first condition above, consider the reference voltage vector that
lies in one of the six sectors at any particular time instant. One of the lineto
line voltages in this corresponding sector is bound to be either most positive or
most negative, hence being denoted as the peak line. The vectors selected to
synthesis the reference voltage vector should be those that make the voltage of
the peak line nonzeros. For example, when the reference voltage vector
ref
is
in sector 2 as shown in Fig 14.9a, the peak line is V
OCA
, and the stationary vectors
giving nonzero V
CA
are the first and third sets in group II of Table 14.1, thus 12
in total.
Further selection takes both second and third requirements into account.
From Eq. (14.35),
i
is the phaseangle between input linetoline voltage and
phase current, which, for unity input power factor, must be kept at 30Њ, giving
zero phase shift angle between the input phase voltage and current. Following
the same principle for the reference voltage vector, at a particular time interval
the reference current vector locates in one of six sectors and so does the input
linetoline voltage vector. Note that the input voltage vector leads the current
vector by 30Њ and transits from the same sector as that of the current to the
next adjacent one. Consequently, the maximum input voltage value is switched
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 437
between two input linetoline voltages of these two sectors. Taking the previously
selected 12 vectors and using the maximum available input voltages, there are
four vectors with peakline voltages equivalent to one of these two linetoline
voltages, and these are chosen. This can be illustrated using the input linetoline
voltage waveform in Fig. 14.10b when the reference current vector I
→
ref
is in sector
1, the input linetoline voltage vector
i
may lie in either sector 1 or 2. The
maximum input linetoline voltage in sector 1 is V
ab
, while that in sector 2 is
מV
ca
. Among the 12 stationary vectors, those having V
OCA
equivalent to either
V
ab
or מV
ca
are the suitable ones and these are vectors 1P, 3N, 7N, and 9P in
Table 14.1. Following the above stated principle, the selected sets of stationary
vectors for reference voltage vector and input current vector in sextants 1 to 6
are listed in Table 14.2
14.4.2.5 Computation of Vector Time Intervals
As described above, the selected voltage vectors are obtained from two subsets
of the stationary vector group. In particular, vectors 1P and 3N are from the zero
V
BC
subset, and 7N and 9P are from the zero V
AB
subset. The sum of these, given
by 
o1P
 ם 
o3N
 due to the 180Њ phase angle between them, defines a vector
ou
. Similarly, the solution of 
o7N
 ם
o9P
 gives another vector
ov
. As shown
in Fig. 14.10a both
ou
and
ov
are adjacent vectors of the output reference
voltage vector
ref
. Based on the SVM theory, the relation for these voltage
vectors can be written
t
t T
ref ov ov ou ou
s
V dt T V T V
0
0
+
∫
≈ +
→ → →
(14.37)
where T
ov
and T
ou
represent the time widths for applying vectors
ov
and
ou
,
respectively, t
0
is the initial time, T
s
is a specified sample period.
FIG. 10 Vector diagrams: (a) output sextant 2 and (b) input sextant 1.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
C
h
a
p
t
e
r
1
4
4
3
8
TABLE 14.2 Selected Sets of Switch Combinations
Input sextant 1 Input sextant 2 Input sextant 3 Input sextant 4 Input sextant 5 Input sextant 6
Output sextant 1 1P,4N,6P,3N 5N,2P,3N,6P 2P,5N,4P,1N 6N,3P,1N,4P 3P,6N,5P,2N 4N,1P,2N,5P
Output sextant 2 3N,9P,7N,1P 9P,3N,2P,8N 1N,7P,8N,2P 7P,1N,3P,9N 2N,8P,9N,3P 8P,2N,1P,7N
Output sextant 3 4P,7N,9P,6N 8N,SP,6N,9P 5P,8N,7P,4N 9N,6P,4N,7P 6P,9N,8P,5N 7N,4P,5N,8P
Output sextant 4 6N,3P,1N,4P 3P,6N,5P,2N 4N,1P,2N,5P 1P,4N,6P,3N 5N,2P,3N,6P 2P,5N,4P,1N
Output sextant 5 7P,1N,3P,9N 2N,8P,9N,3P 8P,2N,1P,7N 3N,9P,7N,1P 9P,3N,2P,8N 1N,7P,8N,2P
Output sextant 6 9N,6P,4N,7P 6P,9N,8P,5N 7N,4P,5N,8P 4P,7N,9P,6N 8N,5P,6N,9P 5P,8N,7P,4N
C
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t
᭧
2
0
0
4
b
y
M
a
r
c
e
l
D
e
k
k
e
r
,
I
n
c
.
A
l
l
R
i
g
h
t
s
R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d
.
Matrix Converters 439
For the example given above, the space vector diagrams of output sextant
2 and input sextant 1 are shown in Fig. 14.10. Let the phase angle of the reference
voltage vector,
o
t, be defined by the sextant number (1–6) and the angle within
a sextant
o
(0Њ Յ
o
Յ 60Њ). Similarly, the phase angle of the input current
vector,
i
t מ
i
מ 30Њ, may be defined by the input sextant number and the
remaining angle
i
. The subsequent derivation is then based on these vector dia
grams.
For a sufficiently small T
s
, the reference voltage vector can be regarded as
constant, and hence Eq. (14.37) can be expressed in twodimensional form as
T V t V t V
s ref
o
o
P o P N o P
cos( )
sin( )
cos θ
θ
+
°
+
°
]
]
]
−
( )
30
30
1 1 3 3
330
30
0
1
7 7 9 9
°
°
]
]
]
+ −
( )
]
]
]
sin
t V t V
N o N P o P
→ → →
→ →
(14.38)
where t
1P
, t
3N
, t
7N
, and t
9P
are the time widths of the associated voltage vectors.
Note that in general these time widths are denoted as t
1
, t
2
, t
3
, and t
4
.
As the magnitude and frequency of the desired output voltage are specified
in advance, the input voltage and phase angle are measurable and relationships
for evaluating the magnitudes of the stationary voltage vectors are given in Table
14.1. Equation (14.38) can then be decomposed into the scalar equations
t
1P
V
il
cos
i
t מ t
3N
V
il
cos(
i
t מ 240Њ) ס V
ol
T
s
sin(60Њ מ
o
), (14.39)
t
7N
V
il
cos
i
t מ t
9P
V
il
cos(
i
t מ 240Њ) ס V
ol
T
s
sin
o
, (14.40)
where V
il
is the magnitude of the input linetoline voltage and V
ol
is that of the
output linetoline voltage.
Applying the SVM principle to control the phase angle of the reference
current vector, the following equation results.
T I
t
t
t I t
s iref
i i
i i
P i P N
cos( )
sin( )
ω φ
ω φ
− −
°
− −
°
]
]
]
−
30
30
1 1 7
II
t I t I
i N
N i N P i P
7
3 3 9 9
30
30
30
30
( )
°
−
°
]
]
]
+ −
( )
°
°
cos
sin
cos
sin
]
]
]
→ → →
→ →
(14.41)
Using the magnitudes of the input current vectors given in Table 14.1, the above
equation may be written as
( )
cos( )
sin( )
1
30
30
1 3
+
− −
°
− −
°
]
]
]
+
α
ω φ
ω φ
T I
t
t
I
t t
s iref
i i
i i
A
P NN
P N
t t
1
3
1 3
( ) − +
]
]
]
]
]
→
(14.42)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 440
−
− −
°
− −
°
]
]
]
−
+
α
ω φ
ω φ
T I
t
t
I
t t
s iref
i i
i i
C
N P
cos( )
sin( )
30
30
1
7 9
33
7 9
( ) − +
]
]
]
]
]
t t
N P
,
→
(14.43)
where ␣ is an arbitrary variable that enables Eq. (14.41) to be divided into two
parts. Since it is necessary to set only the phase angle of the reference input
current vector, Eq. (14.42) becomes
sin( )
cos( )
( )
ω φ
ω φ
i i
i i
N P
N P
t
t
t t
t t
− −
°
− −
°
−
+
30
30
3
3 1
3 1
which can be rearranged to give
t
3N
cos(
i
t מ
i
ם 30Њ) מ t
1P
cos(
i
t מ
i
מ 90Њ) ס 0 (14.44)
Repeating this procedure with Eq. (14.43) results in
t
9P
cos(
i
t מ
i
ם 30Њ) מ t
7N
cos(
i
t מ
i
מ 90Њ) ס 0 (14.45)
Solving Eqs. (14.39), (14.40), (14.44), and (14.45) results in expressions for
calculating the four vector time widths
t
QT
P
s
i
o i 1
30
60 60
°
°
−
°
−
cos cos
sin( )sin( )
φ
θ θ
(14.46)
t
QT
N
s
i
o i 3
30
60
°
°
−
cos cos
sin( )sin
φ
θ θ
(14.47)
t
QT
N
s
i
o i 7
30
60
°
°
−
cos cos
sin sin( )
φ
θ θ
(14.48)
t
QT
P
s
i
o i 9
30
°
cos cos
sin sin
φ
θ θ
(14.49)
where Q ס V
ol
/ V
il
is the voltage transfer ratio, and
o
and
i
, are the phase
angles of the output voltage and input current vectors, respectively, whose values
are limited within 0Њ–60Њ range. The above equations are valid for when the
reference outputvoltage vector stays in output sextant 2 while the reference input
current vector is in input sextant 1. For different sets of vectors the same principle
is applied.
In principle, each of the time widths is restricted by two rules, namely
0 1 ≤ ≤
t
T
k
s
(14.50)
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 441
and
k
k
s
t
T
∑
≤
1
4
1
(14.51)
In variable speed ac drive applications, unity input power factor is desired. As
a consequence, the sum of the four vector time widths is normally less than a
switching period T
s
when the maximum outputtoinput voltage ratio is limited
to 0.866. The residual time within T
s
is then taken by a zero vector; thus,
t T t
s k
k
0
1
4
−
∑
(14.52)
14.5 SPECIMEN SIMULATED RESULTS [34]
14.5.1 Venturini Method
A specimen simulated result is given in Fig. 14.11 for a balanced, threephase
supply applied to a symmetrical, threephase, series RL load, without the use of
an input filter, assuming ideal switches. With a carrier frequency of 2 kHz the
output current waveform is substantially sinusoidal at 40 Hz but has a 2000/40,
or 50, times ripple. It can be seen that the phase angle between the input phase
voltage and the fundamental input current is zero, resulting in unity displacement
factor.
14.5.2 Space Vector Modulation Method
A specimen simulated result is given in Fig. 14.12 for the case of balanced 240
V (line), 50Hz supply with symmetrical, threephase, series RL load. The carrier
(switching) frequency is 2 kHz, resulting in a substantially sinusoidal output
current of f
o
ס 40 Hz.
Comparison of Fig. 14.12 with Fig. 14.11 shows that the two methods give
very similar results. The SVM method has the advantage of simpler computation
and lower switching losses. The Venturini method exhibits superior performance
in terms of output voltage level and input current harmonics.
14.6 SUMMARY
The matrix converter holds the promise of being an allsilicon solution for reduc
ing the use of expensive and bulky passive components, presently used in inverter
and cycloconverter systems. Its essentially singlestage conversion may prove to
be a crucial factor for improving the dynamic performance of system.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 442
FIG. 11 Simulated matrix converter waveforms. V
o
/V
i
ס 0.866, f
o
ס 40 Hz, f
s
ס 2
kHz. (a) Output linetoline voltage. (b) Output current. (c) Input current (unfiltered). (d)
Input phase voltage and input average current [34].
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters 443
FIG. 12 Simulated matrix converter waveforms using the SVM algorithm. V
o
/V
i
ס
0.866, f
o
ס 40 Hz. (a) Output linetoline voltage. (b) Output current. (c) Input current
(unfiltered). (d) Input phase voltage and input average current [34].
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 14 444
Matrix converters have not yet (2003) made any impact in the commercial
converter market. The reasons include the difficulties in realizing highpower
bidirectional switches plus the difficulties in controlling these switches to simul
taneously obtain sinusoidal input currents and output voltages in real time. In
addition, the high device cost and device losses make the matrix converter less
attractive in commercial terms.
Recent advances in power electronic device technology and very large scale
integration (VLSI) electronics have led, however, to renewed interest in direct
acac matrix converters. Ongoing research has resulted in a number of laboratory
prototypes of new bidirectional switches. As device technology continues to im
prove, it is possible that the matrix converter will become a commercial competi
tor to the PWM DC link converter.
Copyright ᭧ 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
416
Chapter 14
FIG. 1 General arrangement of an ideal switching matrix.
(energy storage). Many loads, especially electric motors, are essentially inductive in nature and may also contain internal emfs or/and currents. The basic premises of electric circuit theory apply also to matrix converters—it is not possible to instantaneously change the current in an inductor nor the voltage drop across a capacitor. To achieve the operation of an ideal matrix converter, it is necessary to use ideal bidirectional switches, having controllable bidirectional current flow and also voltage blocking capability for both polarities of voltage. The detailed attributes of an ideal switch are listed in Sec. 1.2.
14.2 MATRIX CONVERTER SWITCHES
There is no such thing as an ideal switch in engineering reality. Even the fastest of semiconductor switches requires finite and different switching times for the switchon and switchoff operations. All switching actions involve power dissipation because the switches contain onstate resistance during continuous conduction. Various options of singlephase bidirectional switches are given in Fig. 14.2.
Copyright
2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Converters
417
FIG. 2 Singlephase bidirectional switches: (a) two SCRs in inverseparallel, (b) triac bidirectional switch, (c) two IGBTs in inverse parallel (probably nonviable due to limited reverse blocking), and (d) IGBT diode switch.
A fast switching pair such as Fig. 14.2c can be employed if the devices have reverse blocking capability, such as the MCT or the nonpunchthrough IGBT. A fastacting switch that has been reportedly used in matrix converter experiments is given in Fig. 14.3 [34]. Two IGBTs are connected using a common collector configuration. Since an IGBT does not have reverse blocking capability, two fast recovery diodes are connected in antiseries, each in inverse parallel across an IGBT, to sustain a voltage of either polarity when both IGBTs are switched off. Independent control of the positive and negative currents can be obtained that permits a safe commutation technique to be implemented. The common collector configuration has the practical advantage that the four switching devices, two diodes and two IGBTs, can be mounted, without isolation, onto the same heat sink. Natural aircooled heat sinks are used in each phase to dissipate the estimated losses without exceeding the maximum allowable junction temperatures. In the reported investigation the devices used included
Copyright
2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Inc.4.3 MATRIX CONVERTER CIRCUIT The basic circuit of a threephasetothreephase matrix converter. All Rights Reserved. shown in Fig. 14. 600 V. JGBTInternational Rectifier (IRGBC 30 F. 3 Practical switch for matrix converter operation: (a) heat sink mounting and (b) equivalent circuit. Electrical isolation between the control and the power circuits can be achieved using a highspeed opto coupler to transmit the control signal and a highfrequency transformer to deliver the power required by a driver integrated circuit.418 Chapter 14 FIG. 14. 18 A) A separate gate drive circuit transmits the control signal to each IGBT. Each of the nine switches can either block or conduct the current in both directions thus allowing any of the output phases Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Thomson (STTA3006. . consists of threephase groups. 600 V. 17 A) Fast recovery diodeSSG.
4 could each be of the common configuration of Fig. The input side of the converter is a voltage source. Each power circuit is protected by a voltage clamp circuit. . and the output is a current source.3 [34]. 14. All Rights Reserved. 4 Basic circuit of a threephase matrix converter. lowpass filters are needed at both the input and output terminals to filter out the highfrequency ripple due to the PWM carrier. 14. For threephase motor loads the output filter may not be necessary. In the switch sequencers the PWM signals are logically combined with current direction signals to produce 18 gating signals. In a practical circuit the nine switches seen in Fig. Isolated gate driver circuits then convert the gating signals to appropriate drive signals capable of turning the power switches on or off.4 SWITCHING CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR PWM MATRIX CONVERTERS IN THREEPHASE MOTOR APPLICATIONS [34. A zero crossing (ZC) detector is used to synchronize to the input voltage controller signals. Inc. 14. An overall block diagram of an experimental matrix converter system is given in Fig. generated within a programmable controller.5. are fed to switch sequencer circuits via pairs of differential line driver receivers. to be connected to any of the input phases.35] When a PWM matrix converter is used to control the speed of a threephase ac motor the control system should possess the following properties: Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. In general. Only one of the three switches connected to the same output phase can be on at any instant of time. Nine PWM signals. 14.Matrix Converters 419 FIG.
. Be computationally efficient. which allows any control algorithm to be implemented by means of the software Microprocessorbased implementation of a PWM algorithm involves the use of digital signal processors (DSPs). Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.e. the motor terminal voltages). Achieve the maximum possible range of outputtoinput voltage ratio. Because of the complexity of the necessary switching the associated control logic is also complex and involves large and complicated algorithms. All Rights Reserved. Satisfy the conflicting requirements of minimum loworder output voltage harmonics and minimum switching losses. 5 Basic building blocks of the matrix converter. General requirements for generating PWM control signals for a matrix converter online in real time are Computation of the switch duty cycles within one switching period Accurate timing of the control pulses according to some predetermined pattern Synchronization of the computational process with the input duty cycle Versatile hardwave configuration of the PWM control system. Provide independent control of the magnitude and frequency of the generated output voltages (i. Inc.. Result in sinusoidal input currents with adjustable phase shift.420 Chapter 14 FIG. Many different methods have been considered as the basis of analyzing and designing a workable matrix converter.
6a within one sampling period. 2. 3 are the switching on times.1 Principle In the Venturini method a desired set of threephase output voltages may be synthesized from a given set of threephase input sinusoidal voltages by sequential piecewise sampling.1 Venturini Control Method [34] A generalized highfrequency switching strategy for matrix converters was proposed by Venturini in 1980 [36. The method was further modified to increase the outputtoinput voltage transfer ratio from 0.1. 14. and the analytical expressions for all three waveforms have the same characteristics. The lengths of each segments are determined mathematically to ensure that the average value of the actual output waveform within each sampling period tracks the required output waveform. All Rights Reserved. The output voltage waveforms are therefore composed of segments of the input voltage waves. which is a voltage source. t1(k) t2(k) t3(k) equals the sampling period Ts and Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. the output voltage Vo1 is composed of segments of three input phase voltages and may be mathematically expressed as Vi1 t ( k ) t2 ( k ) t3 ( k ) Vo1 = 1 Vi 2 Ts Ts Ts Vi 3 (14.37]. 14. Consider a single output phase using a threephase input voltage as depicted in Fig.6b. A threephase output is generated by three independent circuits. is not shortcircuited while a continuous current is supplied to the load.6.1) Symbol k represents the number of sampling intervals. hence the resulting synthesized waveform displays the same lowfrequency spectrum of the desired waveform. 14.2 Switching Duty Cycles The Venturini principle can be explained initially using a singlephase output.1. The sampling rate is set much higher than both input and output frequencies. In addition. 14.4. Switching elements S1 –S3 are bidirectional switches connecting the output phase to one of the three input phases and are operated according to a switching pattern shown in Fig.5 to 0. . 14. Only one of the three switches is turned on at any given time.4. hence.4. the output phase is connected to three input phases in sequence. Inc. and this ensures that the input of a matrix converter.866. it can generate sinusoidal input currents at unity power factor irrespective of the load power factor. in the following subsections. 14. As shown in Fig.Matrix Converters 421 The two principal methods that have been reported for the control of a matrix converter are discussed separately. tn(k) for n 1.
within the kth sample. For a known set of threephase input voltages. 14. m3 shown in Fig.2) m 2 (t ) = ∑ {u [ kTs + t1 (k )] − u [ kTs + t1(k ) + t2 (k)]} ∞ (14. All Rights Reserved.6b can be mathematically represented as functions of time m1 (t ) = k =0 ∞ ∑ {u(kTs ) − u [ kTs + t1 (k )]} k=0 ∞ (14. .422 Chapter 14 FIG. m2. tn(k)/Ts are duty cycles. It should be noted that the switching control signals m1. 6 One output phase of a matrix converter: (a) equivalent circuit and (b) switching pattern.3) m 3 (t ) = k =0 ∑ {u [ kTs + t1(k ) + t2 (k)] − u [(k + 1)Ts ]} (14. the waveshape of Vo1. Inc. is determined by t1(k). t3(k).4) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. t2(k).
the turnon and turnoff of switches S2 and S3 results in the input currents Ii2 and Ii3 containing segments of output current Io1. Inc. function mn(t) defines a sequence of rectangular pulses whose widths are sinusoidally modulated. the Fourier spectrum of the synthesized output voltage contains the desired sinusoidal components plus harmonics of certain frequencies differing from the required output frequency.3 Modulation Functions Applying the above procedure to a threephase matrix converter. For constructing a sinusoidal output wave shape.5) 14. Thus the input current Ii1 consists of segments of output current Io1. The width of each segment equals the turnon period of the switch.Matrix Converters 423 where u(t0) { 1 t 0 t t0 t0 is a unit step function and the switch is on when mn(t) 1 and off when mn(t) 0. its frequency spectrum consists of the required lowfrequency components and also unwanted harmonics of higher frequencies. the three output phase voltages can be expressed in the following matrix form: Vo1 (t ) m11 (t ) m12 (t ) m13 (t ) Vi1 (t ) V (t ) = m (t ) m (t ) m (t ) V (t ) 22 23 i 2 o 2 21 Vo3 (t ) m31 (t ) m32 (t ) m33 (t ) Vi 3 (t ) or [Vo(t)] [M(t)][VI(t)] (14. Since the required output voltage may be considered as the product of these functions and the sinusoidal threephase input voltages.1. The input current Ii1 equals output current Io1 when switch S1 is on and zero when S1 is off.6) and the input currents as Ii1 (t ) m11 (t ) m12 (t ) m13 (t ) Io1 (t ) I ( t ) = m (t ) m ( t ) m (t ) I ( t ) 22 23 o2 i 2 21 . Likewise. Corresponding to the voltage equation (14. .7) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1). the three average input currents are given by Ii 1 = t1 (k ) Io1 Ts I i2 = t2 ( k ) Io1 Ts Ii 3 = t3 ( k ) Io1 Ts (14.4. Ii 3 (t ) m31 (t ) m32 (t ) m33 (t ) Io3 (t ) (14. Consequently. All Rights Reserved.
866 can be achieved. functions mij(t) for the same output phase obey the relation ∑ 3 j =1 mij = 1 1≤ i ≤ 3 (14.7a. represent the duty cycle tij/Ts of a switch connecting output phase i to input phase j within one switching cycle and are called modulation functions. 3. 2.j 1. Note that this procedure is equivalent to adding the third harmonics of the input frequency to the target outputphase voltage. Its elements mij(t). Thus when the input frequency i is not related to the output frequency o. the maximum achievable outputtoinput voltage ratio is restricted to 0.7b. 14. and their numerical range is 0 mij(t) 1 i. All Rights Reserved. (14. as shown in Fig.8) Bearing in mind the restriction imposed on the control of matrix switches stated above. threephase load normally used in practice. remain within an envelope formed by the threephase input voltages.j 1. This figure is the theoretical output voltage limit for this type of con Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. the reference output voltage waveform to be synthesized must. The introduction of the thirdorder harmonics of both the input and output frequencies into the reference outputphase voltages will have no effect on an isolatedneutral. Inc. the ratio of output to input voltage becomes 0.75 as shown in Fig. The area within the input voltage envelope may be enlarged by subtracting the commonmode.9) The design aim is to define mij(t) such that the resultant three output phase voltages expressed in Eq. when a voltage of frequency 3 i and amplitude equal to Vim/4 is subtracted from the input phase voltages. With the magnitude of the outputfrequency third harmonics equivalent to Vom/6.424 Chapter 14 or [II(t)] [MT(t)] [I0(t)] where M(t) is the modulation matrix.4 ThreePhase Reference Voltages The desired referencephase voltages should ensure that the maximum outputtoinput voltage transfer ratio is obtained without adding loworder harmonics into the resultant output voltages. Further improvement on the output voltage capability can be made by subtracting the third harmonics of the output frequency from the target output phase voltage. The value of each modulation function changes from one sample to the next. as illustrated in Fig. 2. i. 3 (14. 14. third harmonic of the input frequency from the input phasetoneutral voltages. For example.7a.1. .4. an outputtoinput voltage ratio of 0. 14. as illustrated in Fig. 14. 14.5.6) match closely the desired threephase reference voltages. To achieve this. as they will be canceled in the linetoline output voltages.7c. at any time. This is to decrease the peaktopeak value of the output phase voltage.
Vo 0. .866Vin. Inc.75Vin.Matrix Converters 425 FIG. Vo 0. 7 Third harmonic addition to increase the maximum achievable outputvoltage magnitude of matrix converter: (a) output voltages. and (c) output voltages.5Vin. All Rights Reserved. Vo 0. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (b) output voltages.
Inc. . The twostep.10) can be expressed as [Vo ]A + [Vo ]B + [Vo ]C 14. All Rights Reserved. are the magnitude and frequency of the input voltage.11) Having defined the threephase output reference voltage. The threephase input voltages with amplitude Vim and frequency i and the threephase output currents with amplitude Iom and frequency o are given by cos ω t i 2π [Vi (t )] = Vim cos ωi t − 3 4π cos ωi t − 3 and (14. [Vo]A.7) simultaneously.12) cos(ω t − φ ) o o 2π [ Io (t )] = Iom cos ωot − φo − 3 4π cos ωo t − φo − 3 (14. (14.4.10) where Vom and o are the magnitude and frequency of the required fundamental output voltage and Vim and i. respectively. (14.10) to consist only of the first term.13) Assume the desired output voltage of Eq.426 Chapter 14 verter.1.39] cos ω t 0 Vo1 (t ) V (t ) = V cos ω t − 2π − Vom om 0 o2 3 6 Vo 3 (t ) 4π cos ω0 t − 3 cos 3ω0 t cos 3ω t + Vim 0 4 cos 3ω0 t cos 3ωi t cos 3ω t i cos 3ωi t (14. The three terms of Eq.5 Derivation of the Modulation Matrix (14. (14. then Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.6) and (14. thirdharmonic modulation described above results in the following output phase voltages expression [38. determination of modulation function M[t] involves solving Eqs.
the achievable ratio Vom/Vim becomes 0.15) or 4π 2π cos (ωo − ωi )t − cos (ωo − ωi )t − cos (ωo − ωi)t 3 3 2π 4π cos (ωo − ωi )t − [m(t)]A− = A2 cos (ωo − ωi )t − cos (ωo − ωi )t 3 3 4π 2π cos (ωo − ωi )t − cos (ωo − ωi )t − cos (ωo − ωi)t 3 3 (14. the modulation matrix derived must be in the form expressed as either 4π 2π cos (ωo + ωi)t − cos (ωo + ωi )t − o cos (ω + ωi)t 3 3 2π 4π [m (t)]A+ = A1 cos (ωo + ωi)t − cos (ωo + ωi)t − cos (ωo + ωi )t 3 3 4π 2π cos (ωo + ωi )t − cos (ωo + ωi)t − cos (ωo + ωi)t 3 3 (14. 34. Inc. (14.12) to synthesize the desired output voltage of Eq.16) where A1 and A2 are constants to be determined. (14. Derivation of the modulation matrix for the output voltages defined in Eq. Using the threephase input voltages of Eq.5.6) gives three output voltages which are sinusoidal and have 120 phase shift between each other.17) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (14. (14. [Vo ]A+ cos ω t o 3 2π = [ m(t )]A+ [Vi (t )] = A1Vim cos ωo t − 2 3 4π cos ωo t − 3 (14.14) By eliminating the other two terms of Eq.15) or Eq. .Matrix Converters 427 cos ω t o Vo1 (t ) V (t ) = V cos ω t − 2π om o o2 3 Vo3 (t ) 4π cos ωo t − 3 (14. (14.10) is given in Ref. (14.14).16) into Eq. All Rights Reserved.10). Substituting either Eq. (14.
Let the required sinusoidal input currents be defined as Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. then [Vo]A [Vo]A [Vo]A .20) or [ Ii ]A− cos (ω t − φ ) i o 3 2π T = [ m(t )]A− [ Io (t )] = A2 Iom cos ωi t − φo − 2 3 4π cos ωi t − φo − 3 (14.428 Chapter 14 or [Vo ]A− cos ω t o 3 2π = [ m(t )]A− [Vi (t )] = A2Vim cos ωo t − . yielding A1 + A2 = 2 Vom 3 Vim (14.19) Applying the same procedure as above to synthesise the input currents.21) This means that modulation matrix [m(t)]A results in an input current having a leading phase angle o. Inc. 2 3 4π cos ωo t − 3 (14.7).18) If both [m(t)]A and [m(t)]A are used to produce the target output voltage. while [m(t)]A produces an input current with a lagging phase angle o. . yields [ Ii ]A+ cos (ω t + φ ) i o 3 2π T = [ m(t )]A+ [ Io (t )] = A1Iom cos ωi t + φo − 2 3 4π cos ωi t + φo − 3 (14. (14. All Rights Reserved. using Eq.
Matrix Converters 429 cos (ω t − φ ) i i 2π [ Ii (t )] = Iim cos ωi t − φi − 3 4π cos ωi t − φi − 3 (14. VimIim cos This yields i VomIom cos o (14.23) into Eq.21).26) 3 3 Vim tan φo 3 Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. 4 3 As cos(A B) equation yields cosA cosB sinA sinB.23a) 2 Iim π π ( A2 − A1 )sin ωi t − γ sin φo = sin ωi t − γ sin φi 3 3 Iom 3 (14. (14. (14.23b) Neglecting the converter power losses.22) where i is an input displacement angle.25) 2 Vom π π ( A1 + A2 ) cos ωi t − γ cos φo = cos ωi t − γ cos φo 3 3 Vim 3 π 2 Vom tan φi π ( A2 − A1 )sin ωi t − γ sin φo = sin ωi t − γ sin φo (14. hence. respectively.20) and (14.24) Iim Vom cos φo = I om Vim cos φi Substituting Iim/Iom from Eq.25) gives (14. All Rights Reserved. 2. the input phase current equation is given as 3 π π Iom A1 cos(ωi t − γ + φo ) + A2 cos(ωi t − γ − φo ) = 2 3 3 π Iim cos ωi t − γ − φi γ = 0. the input power of the circuit equals the output power of the circuit. (14. . Setting [Ii(t)] [Ii]A [Ii]A and substituting [Ii]A and [Ii]A defined by Eqs. applying this to both sides of the 2 Iim π π ( A1 + A2 ) cos ωi t − γ cos φo = cos ωi t − γ cos φi 3 3 Iom 3 and (14.
coefficients A1 and A2 are found to be tan φi 1 A1 = Q 1 − 3 tan φo tan φi 1 A2 = Q 1 + 3 tan φo (14. All Rights Reserved. (14. (14. The overall modulation matrix may be written as the sum of [m(t)]A and [m(t)]A . Inc.430 Chapter 14 Solving Eq. the constant 1/3 must be added to each element to satisfy the constraint specified in Eq. As adding three elements on the same row of the modulation matrix results in zero at any instant.27) where Q Vom/Vim is an outputtoinput voltage ratio. (14. (14. .26) simultaneously. which also satisfies Eq. the formulas for the overall modulation matrix are expressed by 1 3 1 [ m(t)] = 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 cos [(ωo + ωi )t ] cos [(ωo + ωi )t − 2π / 3] Q (1 − tan φi /tan φo ) cos [(ωo + ωi )t − 2π /3] cos [(ωo + ωi)t − 4π / 3] 3 cos [(ωo + ω i )t − 4π /3] cos [(ωo + ωi)t ] π cos [(ωo + ωi )t − 4π / 3] cos [(ωo + ωi )t ] cos [(ωo + ωi )t − 2π / 3] + cos [(ωo − ωi )t ] cos [(ωo − ωi )t − 4π / 3] Q (1 + tan φi /tan φo ) cos [(ωo − ωi )t − 2π /3] cos [(ωo + ωi)t ] 3 cos [(ωo + ω i )t − 4π /3] cos [(ωo + ωi)t − 4π / 3] π cos [(ωo − ωi )t − 2π / 3] cos [(ωo + ωi )t − 4π / 3] cos [(ωo − ωi )t ] (14.9) giving 1 1 1 1 m(t )] = 1 1 1 + [ m(t )]A+ + [ m(t )]A− [ 3 1 1 1 (14.21). Note that the input displacement angle and hence the input power factor of the matrix converter may be adjusted by varying these coefficients appropriately.28) Substituting each component in Eq.29) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.28) with the results derived above.
(14. leads to being zero.32) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. 14. Q Vom/Vim. o. As shown in Eq.30) may be simplified as 1 π mij (t ) = 1 + Q cos (ωo + ωi )t − [2(i + j ) − 4] 3 3 π + cos (ωo − ωi )t − 2(i − j) 3 (14. (14. the phase lag between the load current and voltage.2 Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Control Method The space vector modulation (SMV) technique adopts a different approach to the Venturini method in that it constructs the desired sinusoidal output threephase voltage by selecting the valid switching states of a threephase matrix converter and calculating their corresponding ontime durations. 2.30) gives positive results when Vo /Vi 3/2 14. Assuming that Vi and i are constants.4. (14. while o. Q is a variable of Vo.29).8) and (14. Also Eq.4. This.41]. mij(t) is a function of i.1 Space Vector Representation of ThreePhase Variables For a balanced threephase sinusoidal system the instantaneous voltages maybe expressed as VAB (t ) cos ωo t V (t ) = V cos(ω t − 120° ) ol o BC VCA (t ) cos(ωo t − 240° ) (14. i. Q.9). in turn. and . (14. it is important to note that the calculated values of mij(t) are valid when they satisfy the conditions defined by Eqs. Since unity input power factor operation is always desired.31) For practical implementation.2.j l. is a nonzero value. . and tan i / tan o is an inputtooutput phase transfer ratio. a general and simplified formula for one of the nine elements in matrix [m(t)] above may be written as [39] π 1 mij (t ) = 1 + (1 − Θ)Q cos (ωo + ωi )t − [ 2(i + j ) − 4] 3 3 π + (1 + Θ)Q cos (ωo − ωi )t − 2(i − j ) 3 (14. is zero. Inc. Subsequently Eq. 3.Matrix Converters 431 Alternatively. All Rights Reserved. The method was initially presented by Huber [40.30) where i.
2 Definition and Classification of Matrix Converter Switching Vectors For a threephase matrix converter there are 27 valid onswitch combinations giving thus 27 voltage vectors. Implementation of the SVM method involves two main procedures: switching vector selection and vector ontime calculation. In the SVM method. If a balanced threephase load is connected to the output terminals of the converter. Similarly. a new set of stationary voltage vectors are selected. the average output voltage emulates closely the reference voltage.35) (14. as listed in Table 14.432 Chapter 14 This can be analyzed in terms of complex space vector Vo = → 2 VAB (t ) + VBC (t )e j 2 π / 3 + VBC (t )e j 4 π / 3 = Vol e jωo t 3 (14. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. .34) where Vi is the amplitude and i. is the constant input angular velocity. At the next sample instant.4. 14. Meanwhile. Carrying this process onward by sequentially sampling the complete cycle of the desired voltage vector. the valid switching states of a matrix converter are represented as voltage space vectors.2. the space vector forms of the threephase output and input currents are given by Io = Io e j ( ωot −φo ) → (14. Within a sufficiently small time interval a set of these vectors are chosen to approximate a reference voltage vector with the desired frequency and amplitude.1. All Rights Reserved. where o is the lagging phase angle of the output current to the output voltage and i is that of the input current to the input voltage. when the reference voltage vector rotates to a new angular position.33) cos j sin and represents a phaseshift operator and 2/3 is a where ej scaling factor equal to the ratio between the magnitude of the output linetoline voltage and that of output voltage vector. These can be divided into three groups. The angular velocity of the vector is o and its magnitude is Vol. the space vector representation of the threephase input voltage is given by Vi = Vi e j ( ωit ) → (14. the selected vectors should also give the desired phase shift between the input voltage and current. These are both discussed in the following subsections.36) Ii = Ii e j ( ωi t −φi ) → respectively.
S2. S3. S5. S3. S5. S2. S3. Matrix Converters TABLE 14. S4. S4. S4. S5. Input currents Ib Ic IB IC IA IA IC IB IA IA IA IA 0 0 IB IB IB IB 0 0 IC IC IC IC 0 0 0 0 0 IC IB IC IB IA IA 0 0 IA IA IA IA 0 0 IB IB IB IB 0 0 IC IC IC IC 0 0 0 Voltage vector Magnitude Phase Vil Vil Vil Vil Vil Vil kVab kVab kVbc kVbc kVca kVca kVab kVab kVbc kVbc kVca kVca kVab kVab kVbc kVbc kVca kVca 0 0 0 it IA IA IB IC IB IC IA IA 0 0 IA IA IB IB 0 0 IB IB IC IC 0 0 IC IC 0 0 0 4 /3 it 4 /3 it 2 /3 it 2 /3 it /6 /6 /6 /6 /6 /6 5 /6 5 /6 5 /6 5 /6 5 /6 5 /6 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 0 0 0 it 2 /3 2 /3 4 /3 ot 4 /3 ot /6 /6 /2 /2 7 /6 7 /6 /6 /6 /2 /2 7 /6 7 /6 /6 /6 /2 /2 7 /6 7 /6 0 0 0 Ot ot 433 . S2. S3. S3. S1. S2. S5. S4. S1. S6. S1. S4. S2. S6. S4. S6. S6. S1. S4. S6. S3. S2. S3. S5. All Rights Reserved. S2.1 Valid Switch Combinations of a Matrix Converter and the Stationary Vectors (k Output voltages VAB VBC VCA S9 S8 S9 S7 S8 S7 S8 S7 S9 S8 S7 S9 S8 S7 S9 S8 S7 S9 S7 S8 S8 S9 S9 S7 S7 S8 S9 Vab Vca Vab Vbc Vca Vbc Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vbc Vbc Vca Vca Vab Vab 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca 0 0 0 Vca Vab Vbc Vab Vbc Vca Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vab Vab Vbc Vbc Vca Vca 0 0 0 Ia 2/ 3) Current vector Magnitude Phase IO IO IO IO IO IO kIA kIA kIA kIA kIA kIA kIB kIB kIB kIB kIB kIB kIC kIC kIC kIC kIC kIC 0 0 0 ot ot On switches 1 2 3 4 5 6 1P 1N 2P 2N 3P 3N 4P 4N 5P 5N 6P 6N 7P 7N 8P 8N 9P 9N 0A 0B 0C S1. S6. S6. S2. S5. S2. S1. S3.Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. S5. S1. S6. S5. S4. S5. S1. S2. S4. S6. Inc. S3.
in the first set of the group.3 Voltage and Current Hexagons A complete cycle of a threephase sinusoidal voltage waveform can be divided into six sextants as shown in Fig. all giving zero VBC. 14. thus being named stationary vector. conversely. Each of these has six switch combinations and has a common feature of connecting two output phases to the same input phase. and i. the other three are at the end of sextant 4. At each transition point from one sextant to another the magnitude of one phase voltage is zero while the other two have the same amplitude but opposite polarity. For example. Group II. output phases B and C are switched simultaneously on to input phases b. Applying this rule to the 18 stationary voltage vectors in Table 14.8 the three having positive VAB and negative VCA are at the end of sextant 1. .4.2.1.) but with a phase sequence altered from that of the input voltages. depending upon the polarity of VAB and VCA.1. 3. The second group (1P to 9N) is classified into three sets. Group I. The magnitudes of these vectors. In the final six. These have three output phases switched simultaneously on to the same input phase resulting in zero linetoline voltages and are called zero voltage vectors. VCA is zero. The input currents are equivalent to the instantaneous output currents. and c. 14. The first six. The final three combinations in the table form the last group. all input current vectors corresponding to the 27 output voltage vectors are also listed in Table 14. Zero vectors. thus. a threephase output current is drawn from the power source. This group consists of six combinations (1 to 6) having each of the three output phases connected to a different input phase. the shortcircuited output phases are C and A. For the second set. output phases A and B are connected together and the zero linetoline voltage is VAB. The phase angles of these points are fixed. 2. Group III. From the waveform ( ot diagram given in Fig. 14. Inc. a. This results in six switch combinations all giving a zero output linetoline voltage VBC. Synchronously rotating vectors. When a threephase load is connected to the converter output terminals. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. and VCA. Stationary vectors. the SVM method does not use the above listed vectors to synthesize the reference voltage vector that rotates at a frequency o. hence.434 Chapter 14 1. vary with changes of the instantaneous input linetoline voltages.8. however. may locate either at the transition 30 ) or that between sextants 4 and 5 point between sextants 1 and 2 ( ot 210 ). As the input frequency is not related to the output frequency. All Rights Reserved. their phase angles are determined by the converter output linetoline voltages VABVBC. Each of them generates a threephase output voltage having magnitude and frequency equivalent to those of the input voltages (Vi. The corresponding space vectors of these combinations all have a constant phase angle.
The same principle can be applied to the corresponding 18 input current vectors. The magnitudes of VAB and VCA are determined by the switch positions of the converter and can correspond to any of the input linetoline voltages. The final set is for sextants 2 and 5. the other three are for the latter. 14. The three having positive VBC and negative VAB are for the former sextant. or Vca. It should be noted that this voltage vector diagram can also be obtained by considering the magnitudes and phases of the output voltage vectors associated with the switch combinations given in Table 14. vectors in the second set generating zero VCA and nonzero VAB and VBC are at the end of either sextant 3 or 6. the voltage hexagon obtained is shown in Fig l4. The stationary output voltage vectors being adjacent to the reference voltage vector in order to enable the adequate output voltage synthesis 2.4 Selection of Stationary Vectors Having arranged the available switch combinations for matrix converter control.2. Projecting the stationary voltage and current vectors onto the plane. that at the instant of sampling.4.9a. All Rights Reserved. Similarly.Matrix Converters 435 FIG. The selection process follows three distinct criteria. leading to the current hexagon depicted in Fig. The input current vectors being adjacent to the reference current vector Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1. Inc. namely.9b. VabVbc. Both the output voltage and input current vector diagrams are valid for a certain period of time since the actual magnitudes of these vectors depend on the instantaneous values of the input voltages and output currents. 8 Six sextants of the output linetoline voltage waveforms. the chosen switch combinations must simultaneously result in 1. . the SVM method is designed to choose appropriately four out of 18 switch combinations from the second group at any time instant. 14.
the maximum input voltage value is switched Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The vectors selected to synthesis the reference voltage vector should be those that make the voltage of the peak line nonzeros. the peak line is VOCA. giving zero phase shift angle between the input phase voltage and current. and hence the input power factor. for unity input power factor. One of the linetoline voltages in this corresponding sector is bound to be either most positive or most negative. when the reference voltage vector ref is in sector 2 as shown in Fig 14. For example. Note that the input voltage vector leads the current vector by 30 and transits from the same sector as that of the current to the next adjacent one. which. hence being denoted as the peak line. (14. 9 Outputvoltage and inputcurrent vector hexagons: (a) outputvoltage vectors and (b) inputcurrent vectors. Further selection takes both second and third requirements into account.9a. Following the same principle for the reference voltage vector. i is the phaseangle between input linetoline voltage and phase current. in order that the phase angle between the input linetoline voltage and phase current. and the stationary vectors giving nonzero VCA are the first and third sets in group II of Table 14. being the desired value 3. at a particular time interval the reference current vector locates in one of six sectors and so does the input linetoline voltage vector. All Rights Reserved.1. must be kept at 30 . Consequently. . thus 12 in total. The stationary voltage vectors having the magnitudes corresponding to the maximum available linetoline input voltages To satisfy the first condition above.436 Chapter 14 FIG. Inc.35). consider the reference voltage vector that lies in one of the six sectors at any particular time instant. From Eq.
Based on the SVM theory. the relation for these voltage vectors can be written ∫t0 t0 +Ts Vref dt ≈ TovVov + TouVou ov → → → (14. defines a vector  o9P gives another vector ov. The sum of these. those having VOCA equivalent to either Vab or Vca are the suitable ones and these are vectors 1P. and these are chosen. t0 is the initial time. . FIG.Matrix Converters 437 between two input linetoline voltages of these two sectors.5 Computation of Vector Time Intervals As described above. Inc. while that in sector 2 is Vca. there are four vectors with peakline voltages equivalent to one of these two linetoline voltages.10b when the reference current vector Iref is in sector 1. given by  o1P  o3N due to the 180 phase angle between them.10a both ou and ov are adjacent vectors of the output reference voltage vector ref. 10 Vector diagrams: (a) output sextant 2 and (b) input sextant 1. Ts is a specified sample period. Similarly. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1. Among the 12 stationary vectors. Taking the previously selected 12 vectors and using the maximum available input voltages. and 9P in Table 14. Following the above stated principle. where Tov and Tou represent the time widths for applying vectors respectively. The maximum input linetoline voltage in sector 1 is Vab. the selected voltage vectors are obtained from two subsets of the stationary vector group.4. As shown ou.2. In particular.2 14. This can be illustrated using the input linetoline → voltage waveform in Fig. 7N. 3N. the selected sets of stationary vectors for reference voltage vector and input current vector in sextants 1 to 6 are listed in Table 14. the solution of  o7N in Fig.37) and ou. and 7N and 9P are from the zero VAB subset. vectors 1P and 3N are from the zero VBC subset. 14. the input linetoline voltage vector i may lie in either sector 1 or 2. 14.
7N.5N 5N.8P.6P 9P.5P 8P.7P.2N.1P.7P.3N 3N.2 Selected Sets of Switch Combinations Input sextant 1 Input sextant 2 5N.6P 9P.7N.Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.3P 6P.SP.6N.6N Input sextant 5 3P.5N Input sextant 3 2P.7N.4N Output sextant 1 Output sextant 2 Output sextant 3 Output sextant 4 Output sextant 5 Output sextant 6 1P.9P.9P.5N.3P.4P.2N.3N.4N.9N.1P.8N 8N.6P.3N.7N.3N 3N.8N.6N.9P.8P.8N.9P 3P.8P.1P 4P.2P 5P.6N.5N.2P.7P Chapter 14 .8N.3P.8N.8P 2P.2N 2N.1P.4N.5N.5P.9N 9N.4P.1N 1N.5P.9N 9N.6P.7P.1P.1P 4P.2P.4N 4N.3N.4P.4P.6N 6N.6P.3P.9P.1N.4N.3P 6P.7P.8N 8N.2N.4P 7P.2N.5N.1N.3P.4N.9P Input sextant 6 4N.5P 8P. 438 TABLE 14.1N 1N.3N.7P 1P. All Rights Reserved.9N.7N 7N.2P 5P.6P.8P. Inc.5P.9N.2N 2N.8P Input sextant 4 6N.6N.7N 7N.1N.9N.2P.1N.4P 7P.2P.
t7N. it i remaining angle i.37) can be expressed in twodimensional form as → → → cos(θo + 30° ) cos 30° Ts Vref = t1P Vo1P − t3N Vo3P ° sin 30° sin(θo + 30 ) ( ) → → 0 + t7 N Vo 7 N − t9 P Vo9 P 1 (14.38) can then be decomposed into the scalar equations t1PVil cos t7NVil cos it it t3NVil cos( it t9PVil cos( it 240 ) 240 ) VolTs sin(60 VolTs sin o.41) Using the magnitudes of the input current vectors given in Table 14. t3.10. (14. t2.38) ( ) where t1P. the space vector diagrams of output sextant 2 and input sextant 1 are shown in Fig. 14. be defined by the sextant number (1–6) and the angle within a sextant o (0 60 ). All Rights Reserved. may be defined by the input sextant number and the vector. and t9P are the time widths of the associated voltage vectors. and hence Eq. The subsequent derivation is then based on these vector diagrams.1.39) (14. ot. Equation (14.42) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.40) where Vil is the magnitude of the input linetoline voltage and Vol is that of the output linetoline voltage. Applying the SVM principle to control the phase angle of the reference current vector. . Let the phase angle of the reference voltage vector. the following equation results. and t4. the phase angle of the input current o 30 . (14.1. → → → cos(ωi t − φi − 30° ) cos 30° Ts Iiref = t1P Ii1P − t7 N Ii 7 N − sin 30° sin(ωi t − φi − 30° ) → → cos 30° + t3N Ii 3 N − t9 P Ii 9 P sin 30° ( ) ( ) (14. As the magnitude and frequency of the desired output voltage are specified in advance. the reference voltage vector can be regarded as constant. For a sufficiently small Ts. Similarly. t3N. Inc. Note that in general these time widths are denoted as t1.Matrix Converters 439 For the example given above. the input voltage and phase angle are measurable and relationships for evaluating the magnitudes of the stationary voltage vectors are given in Table 14. the above equation may be written as t1P + t3N → cos(ωi t − φi − 30° ) = IA 1 (1 + α )Ts Iiref (−t1P + t3 N ) sin(ωi t − φi − 30° ) 3 (14. o).
40).48) (14.44). Inc.46) t3N = t7 N = t9 P = QTs sin(60° − θo )sin θi cos φi cos 30° QTs sin θo sin(60° − θi ) cos φi cos 30° QTs sin θo sin θi cos φi cos 30° (14.42) becomes sin(ωi t − φi − 30° ) = cos(ωi t − φi − 30° ) t3 N − t1P 3(t3N + t1P ) which can be rearranged to give t3N cos( it i 30 ) t1P cos( it i 90 ) 0 (14. . (14.43) results in t9P cos( it i 30 ) t7N cos( it i 90 ) 0 (14. namely 0≤ tk ≤1 Ts (14. sin(ωi t − φi − 30° ) 3 (14. and o and i. respectively.49) where Q Vol / Vil is the voltage transfer ratio. (14.44) Repeating this procedure with Eq.45) Solving Eqs. For different sets of vectors the same principle is applied. All Rights Reserved.43) where is an arbitrary variable that enables Eq.39). (14. Since it is necessary to set only the phase angle of the reference input current vector. (14. Eq. and (14.45) results in expressions for calculating the four vector time widths t1P = QTs sin(60° − θo )sin(60° − θi ) cos φi cos 30° (14.440 Chapter 14 t7 N + t9 P → cos(ωi t − φi − 30° ) = − IC 1 − αTs Iiref ( −t 7 N + t 9 P ) . are the phase angles of the output voltage and input current vectors.47) (14. each of the time widths is restricted by two rules. In principle. (14. whose values are limited within 0 –60 range.41) to be divided into two parts. The above equations are valid for when the reference outputvoltage vector stays in output sextant 2 while the reference inputcurrent vector is in input sextant 1.50) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (14.
The carrier (switching) frequency is 2 kHz. With a carrier frequency of 2 kHz the output current waveform is substantially sinusoidal at 40 Hz but has a 2000/40. threephase. It can be seen that the phase angle between the input phase voltage and the fundamental input current is zero. Inc. unity input power factor is desired.2 Space Vector Modulation Method A specimen simulated result is given in Fig. Its essentially singlestage conversion may prove to be a crucial factor for improving the dynamic performance of system. series RL load.11 for a balanced. threephase supply applied to a symmetrical. All Rights Reserved. . times ripple. t0 = Ts − ∑ t k k =1 4 (14.52) 14. threephase. or 50. resulting in a substantially sinusoidal output 40 Hz.6 SUMMARY The matrix converter holds the promise of being an allsilicon solution for reducing the use of expensive and bulky passive components.11 shows that the two methods give very similar results.5.12 with Fig.5 SPECIMEN SIMULATED RESULTS [34] 14. 14. The SVM method has the advantage of simpler computation and lower switching losses. resulting in unity displacement factor. As a consequence. The Venturini method exhibits superior performance in terms of output voltage level and input current harmonics. The residual time within Ts is then taken by a zero vector.Matrix Converters 441 and k =1 ∑ 4 tk ≤1 Ts (14.5. current of fo Comparison of Fig. thus. 14. without the use of an input filter.866. 14. 50Hz supply with symmetrical. the sum of the four vector time widths is normally less than a switching period Ts when the maximum outputtoinput voltage ratio is limited to 0. 14.12 for the case of balanced 240V (line). Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. assuming ideal switches. 14.51) In variable speed ac drive applications.1 Venturini Method A specimen simulated result is given in Fig. 14. presently used in inverter and cycloconverter systems. series RL load.
866. Inc. (a) Output linetoline voltage. 11 Simulated matrix converter waveforms. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. .442 Chapter 14 FIG. fs 2 kHz. fo 40 Hz. All Rights Reserved. (b) Output current. Vo/Vi 0. (c) Input current (unfiltered). (d) Input phase voltage and input average current [34].
(b) Output current. All Rights Reserved. (a) Output linetoline voltage. fo 40 Hz. Vo/Vi 0. (c) Input current (unfiltered). Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.Matrix Converters 443 FIG. .866. Inc. 12 Simulated matrix converter waveforms using the SVM algorithm. (d) Input phase voltage and input average current [34].
Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Ongoing research has resulted in a number of laboratory prototypes of new bidirectional switches. however. Recent advances in power electronic device technology and very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics have led. All Rights Reserved. it is possible that the matrix converter will become a commercial competitor to the PWM DC link converter. the high device cost and device losses make the matrix converter less attractive in commercial terms.444 Chapter 14 Matrix converters have not yet (2003) made any impact in the commercial converter market. . As device technology continues to improve. Inc. to renewed interest in direct acac matrix converters. The reasons include the difficulties in realizing highpower bidirectional switches plus the difficulties in controlling these switches to simultaneously obtain sinusoidal input currents and output voltages in real time. In addition.
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